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C. Smith & Co.  see Smith, James A.

Cabot, John  (1450-c.1499) also Giovanni Caboto; Venetian navigator in the service of King Henry VII of England; on June 24, 1497, reached what may have been northern Maine or Nova Scotia, and took possession of the new land for the crown, establishing England`s claim to the North American continent; returned in 1498 and explored along the coast of Cape Cod, but traveling farther south Cabot and his ship were lost at sea. [317, 732] [205]

Cachand-Ervendberg, Ludwig    immigrated from Germany in 1836 and settled at Dunklee’s Grove; after the death of Friedrich Buchholz (1838), became the first professional minister of the local Lutheran congregation which he named the Teuto Community; left for Texas in 1840 and was killed by Indians in 1863.

Caddy, George    arrived in 1834; married Emily Oalds on Sept. 13, 1834, the ceremony conducted by I.D. Harmon.

Cadien, Edward   also Cadeen; John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by Mr. Cadien on May 29, 1817 and again in June of the same year. [404]

Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, né Laumet  (c.1657-1730) born near Toulouse, France; invented a noble background to disguise a dubious and still uncertain past; served in the French army and in 1683 came to Port Royal; settled in Quebec in 1691 and received an appointment in the colonial troops, becoming commandant at Michilimackinac (Fort de Buade) from 1694 to 1697; in a 1695 report he mentioned the name “Chicagou on the garlic river” as one of a chain of posts on Lake Michigan; within a letter [see below] written the same year, he reveals his unsympathetic and irreverent regard for the Indian race and the role alcohol played in its destruction; while visiting the Great Lakes posts in 1697, he came to Chicagou; founded Detroit on July 24, 1701 by establishing Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit, that consisted of a few buildings within a high palisade; assisted by Alphonse de Tonti as the second officer in command of the fort. Laumet induced many Indians to relocate to Detroit, a policy that lead to eventual disastrous tribal enmities and created an opportunity for British incursions. In 1710 the French crown relieved him of his position as commandant but appointed him governor of Louisiana, but he did not arrive there until 1712; served three years, then returned to France, where he died. [101, 426, 649]
Excerpt from a 1695 letter by Cadillac: What reason can one assign that the savages should not drink brandy bought with their own money ? This prohibition has much discouraged the Frenchmen here from trading in the future. It seemes very strange that they should pretend that the savages would ruin themselves by drinking. The savage himself asks why they do not leave him his beggary, his liberty, and his idleness; he was born in it and wishes to die in it ? It is a life to which he has been accustomed since Adam. Do they wish him to build palaces and ornament them with beautiful furniture ? He would not exchange his wigwam and the mat, on which he squats like a monkey, for the Louvre ! [665]

Cadwallader, Elizabeth  see Stafford, Capt. John F.

Cahokia  an Indian tribe, part of the Illinois confederacy; archaeologists have determined that a prosperous Indian community of nearly 20,000 people existed in pole-and-hatch houses on a broad expanse of Mississippi River bottomland near the present town Cahokia, IL, between A.D. 1000 and 1300. They left behind many large packed-earth pyramids or “mounds” on a 2,200-acre site, now known as the Cahokia Indian Mounds, which served as burial sites and platforms for temples. The largest of the pryamids is named Monks Mound, with a base of 1000 by 700 feet and a height of 100 feet, built in a series of stages over two hundred years. Deforestation is suspected to have led to the demise of the original Indian settlement. Also see Cahokia, IL. [436a, 467, 470, 493, 521a, 544] [9]

Cahokia, IL  first permanent white settlement in Illinois, where the French built the first Illinois courthouse in the typical French-Illinois [see photo] log house style [within St. Clair County, just N of the present town, and two miles S of East St. Louis]; the settlement began as a Jesuit mission to the adjacent village of 2000 Tamaroa and Cahokia Indians in 1699 [see Mission de Sainte Famille de Caoquias]. [436a, 467, 470, 493, 544] [9]

Caldwell reservation    see Caldwell, Billy.

Caldwell, Archibald  (Apr. 30, 1806-) born in Pearisburgh, Giles County, VA, now WV; son of a sister to Jonas Clybourne; married Emily Hall (sister of Benjamin Hall, niece of Benjamin Hall); arrived with his wife on horseback via Fort Wayne on July 1, 1827; cousin to Archibald Clybourne who had earlier come from Virginia, together with Caldwell`s sister, Louisa Caldwell; voted on May 11, 1828 (see Chronology); from 1828 to 1830 ran the Wolf Point Tavern for James Kinzie, for which he was granted – Chicago`s first – tavern license on Dec. 8, 1829, by the commissioners of Peoria County; occasionally did blacksmith work; in the spring of 1829 he abandoned his wife for an Indian woman, Josette; in June 1830, sued by Emily for a divorce that was uncontested [For Mrs. Caldwell`s complaint in the records of the circuit court at Peoria, see the following text as read by her attorney on June 8, 1830; Emily later married the discharged soldier [see] Cole Weeks]; also in June Caldwell was paid $5.50 by Peoria County for ironing a turnpike scraper, – Chicago`s first – official account of road improvements; by 1831 he had moved with Josette to the vicinity of Green Bay where they had five boys and a girl, and “all lived in Indian style”; in 1834 he piloted the schooner Jefferson from Green Bay to Chicago, remaining until the next year; he remarried at Green Bay and became an Indian trader; in 1876 he was a farmer at Kenosha, WI, with 10 children living in the vicinity; was still alive in 1880, living at Black Creek, WI. [706] [12]

aldwell, Capt. Billy  (March 17, 1780-Sept. 27, 1841) the illegitimate son of a Mohawk mother (daughter of Chief Rising Sun) and an Irish father, William Caldwell, Sr., a senior captain in Walter Butler’s British ranger brigade, stationed near Niagara; documents show that Billy was originally given the name Thomas, but that name was later used for a subsequently born legitimate half-brother, and he became Billy; his Indian name, acquired in adult life, was Sauganash, also Sakonosh, moderately corrupted versions of the Algonquin word shaganash [meaning ‘white man,’ especially ‘Englishman’] and the Ojibwa jâganâsh [meaning ‘Englishman,’ ‘Irishman’]. In 1782 Billy and his mother were abandoned by his father who moved to Amherstburg, where he married Suzanne Baby of Detroit in 1783. About 1789 the senior Caldwell took Billy from his mother and included him within the growing family he had formed with Suzanne. As bastard son, he was permanently relegated to second place; here he formed strong British loyalties, received a formal education, and was eventually fluent in English, French and several Indian dialects; he entered the Indian trade as apprentice of Thomas Forsyth in 1797 at the St. Joseph and Wabash rivers; moved to Chicago in 1803 as chief clerk of the Kinzie-Forsyth fur trading partnership, an association that lasted intermittently until 1833. During his Chicago years he occasionally visited John Kinzie on business, as shown in Kinzie’s account books for the dates Apr. 30, 1804 [when Kinzie still lived on the St. Joseph River] and Nov. 16, 1804 [in Chicago], and again in 1812 on Aug. 18 and Sept. 21, when Kinzie was on his way from Chicago to Detroit; he formed an enduring friendship with Alexander Robinson in 1804. Two of Caldwell`s claims can not be documented, and are probably fictional: that he served as secretary to Tecumseh in 1807, and that he intervened to rescue some of the survivors at the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. In the spring of 1812 John Kinzie killed his neighbor Jean Baptiste Lalime and then sent Caldwell to Gov. William Henry Harrison in Vincennes, the territorial capital, to explain the affair. In 1813 Caldwell secured for himself a commission as captain, took part in multiple combat situations, and was severely wounded during the River Raisin fight in January. From 1814 to 1816 he served as Assistant Deputy Superintendent General of the British Indian department, the same agency of which John Kinzie also was a member until his 1813 arrest for treason. In 1818 his father disinherited him. During the war, and until 1820, Caldwell lived at Amherstburg in Canada, then returned to Chicago in 1820 to work with Kinzie, Forsyth and Wolcott in the Indian trade, switching his allegiance to the United States, and also becoming an interpreter for Indian agents; he lived on the N side of the river. In 1826 he served as election judge for Peoria County; was rewarded in 1828 for his services by the U.S. Department of Indian Affairs with – Chicago’s first – frame house [near what is now the SE corner of Chicago Avenue and State Street] and a 1,600 acre land grant (Caldwell Reservation) along both sides of the north branch of the Chicago River [now the North Branch Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District, adjacent to the communities of Edgebrook and Sauganash—part of the division has been designated Caldwell Woods as a permanent memorial]. In preparation for the 1829 Treaty of Prairie du Chien, American authorities sponsored him to serve as a Potawatomi chief, and the Indians concurred; in 1830, he assisted James M. Bucklin, chief engineer, in plotting the Illinois & Michigan Canal route; voted at elections on July 24, Aug. 2, and Nov. 25, 18330; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830. He was a friend of Mark Beaubien who, in 1831, named his [see] Sauganash Tavern after him; served as interpreter under Indian agent Owen at Fort Dearborn from 1831 to 1833; helped survey the Vincennes Road in 1832; actively promoted the establishment of a Catholic church in Chicago; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; helped negotiate the Chicago Treaty in September as one of the principal spokesmen for the Prairie and Lake Indians, received $5000 for claims made at the treaty and $600 for his children, plus a stipend of $400 per year for life; on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat later in November. Contemporaries describe Billy as a tall, good looking man. He was married four times: first to de Nanette, the daughter of Potawatomi chief Nee-scot-nee-mag, a Catholic convert from the village on the St. Joseph River, MI. De Nanette died soon after the birth of their son [twin daughters born earlier, Helene and Susanne, were baptized by Father Badin on Oct. 17 and 18, 1830]; his second wife, who was the métis daughter of his employer Robert Forsyth and an Ojibwa woman, died in childbirth the year after they married; his third wife was a métis woman whose name is not recorded; his fourth and last wife was a French woman named Sauqua LeGrand whom he married on Nov. 18, 1834, with whom he settled at Council Bluffs, IA, then Indian Territory, after selling his house and reservation land to farmers; 1839 City Directory: north branch Chicago River, fifth ward. Caldwell died of cholera in Iowa; he was initially buried on his original land, but later his remains were transferred to the Old Catholic Cemetery in Council Bluffs. Together, his wives had given him eight to ten children. For Caldwell’s efforts to help educate Indian children of school age, see comments by John Watkins under that entry; street names: Caldwell Avenue; also Sauganash Avenue. See Caldwell Woods in Monuments section, named in his honor. Also see Shabbona. [13, 102, 109, 149, 149a, 226, 319, 357, 404, 421a, 456b, 642] [12]

Caldwell, Emily Hall  see Weeks, Cole.

Caldwell, Louisa B.  from Virginia; sister of Archibald Caldwell and cousin to Archibald Clybourne, in whose company she came to Chicago in 1827; in 1830, testified at Chicago before Jean B. Beaubien, J.P. in the divorce case of Archibald and Emily Caldwell; married Willis Scott on Nov. 1, 1830, Reverend William See officiating. [12]

Calhoun, Alvin  brother of John Calhoun; arrived from New York June 12, 1834, on the schooner Hiram with Hibbard Porter; in September 1835, signed on as a fire brigade volunteer with the “Fire Kings”; he and his wife Miranda had an only son, William Frederick, who died in September 1836, aged 17 months; was a candidate for constable in 1837; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and builder, 58 Randolph St.; became mayor in 1849. [12]

Calhoun, John  (1808-1859) born in Watertown, NY; owned printing equipment and published the Watertown Eagle, an unsuccessful venture; married Pamela C. Hathaway in 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; arrived October 16 with his equipment and two apprentices and, after assisting with lathing and plastering, moved into an unfinished building at the SW corner of South Water and Clark streets; became – Chicago`s first – printer and the publisher of the Chicago Democrat, – Chicago`s first – newspaper; in November 1834 he moved to the loft above the hardware store of Jones & King on South Water Street, between Clark and Dearborn. Pamela came to Chicago in the spring of 1834, “after the measurable comforts of a home in a new village had been provided” and then regularly helped with proofreading and printing. The publisher`s wide-ranging editorials reflected the views and concerns of his pioneer neighbors, such as problems with the mails [see the following text that appeared April 16, 1834]. The first issue of the newspaper appeared on Nov. 26, 1833, and the names of 144 subscribers [preserved at the Chicago History Museum; reprinted in Andreas, 1:365] provide valuable information about inhabitants, as well as others who lived as far as Milwaukee. In September 1835, Calhoun joined the voluntary fire brigade, “Fire Kings”; in November 1836, he decided, for personal reasons, to sell the business and found a willing buyer in Horacio Hill of Concord, NH, who signed the contract but failed to activate the deal with a down payment; John Wentworth then took over the management, and published until the paper`s absorption by the Chicago Tribune in 1861. The Chicago American listed on April 22, 1837, the death of Lewis, the Calhouns` 11 month old only child; 1839 City Directory: county collector, Eddy`s store, 105 Lake St. Calhoun continued to live in Chicago, holding an aldermanic chair and other local political appointments, operating a hardware store and acting as land purchaser for the Illinois Central Railroad; died in Chicago. His Chicago Democrat accounts and subscription books (1833-41) are preserved at the Chicago History Museum; street names: Calhoun Avenue (2526 E), Calhoun Place (24 N). [204, 319, 351, 479, 480]
The Mails. – It is with regret that we are again compelled to find fault with the mode and manner in which the affairs of the Post Office in this section of the country are managed. – Last week we had not a single word of intelligence from the East. Owing to careless and inexcusable neglect, (a neglect which might be the means of removing the guilty offender from his office) the mail that had been sent from Chicago eastward the week previous, was returned with the self-same contents it had at its departure. This is a matter of great importance to us, especially at this season. The opening business of the Spring suffers, and we are kept in ignorance of the times at Washington, and the commercial transactions of the atlantic cities. Let some certain personages look to it. – Seven or eight buildings have been raised in this town within the past week. – Owing to the failure of the arrival of the last eastern mail, is our excuse for not giving cur [sicusual variety of news this week.

Among the first items Calhoun printed on a Washington hand press were: (1) Nov. 13, 1833, “one pack of cards” for C. Ingersoll`s Traveler`s Home, $2; (2) Chicago Democrat; (3) Dec. 6, 1833, “2 1/2 quire vouchers” for Col. F.J.V. Owen, $5. [12]

Calhoun, John Caldwell  (1782-1850) United States statesman and controversial political philosopher of Scottish-Irish stock from South Carolina who became secretary of war under President Monroe in 1817 and soon began to promote construction of postal and military roads between the eastern cities and the new states in the Midwest. In 1819, he urged the U.S. Congress to authorize construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal; authorized an expedition under Michigan Territory`s first governor, Lewis Cass, and chose members able to explore the territory`s western reaches; this expedition reached Chicago on Aug. 26, 1820. In 1824, he was elected the nation`s seventh vice president under John Quincy Adams and reelected in 1828 under Andrew Jackson; on Dec. 28, 1832, he resigned due to disagreements with President Jackson, and claimed a Senate seat he had won in South Carolina; Martin Van Buren replaced him. [119, 721] [12]

Call, François  John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by “a Canadian” by this name on Aug. 20, 1805. [404]

Callimink River    corruption of the Indian name for the Calumet River, so called by early settlers.

Callis, Susan  daughter of first Indian agent in Chicago, Charles Jouett and Susan Randolph Allen; Charles Lalime Jouett was Susan Callis`s brother; she lived in Chicago from 1816 to 1818; her recollections in a letter to John Wentworth are reprinted in Andreas; for memoirs published with comments by Franz L. Brown, see Bibliography; in 1885 lived in Hopkinsville, KY. [12, 74]

Calumet beach  a geological term, designating the second in a series of three major concentric dune ridges left behind by the shore of glacial Lake Michigan when its level was higher than today; still visible in the landscape today. During the Calumet phase (11,800 to 11,200 years ago) the lake was 35 to 40 feet higher than it is today. Each of the ridges today, where undisturbed by human activity, reflects its age by having its own characteristic set of animals and plants (the Calumet beach trees are jack pine and white pine); highways U.S. 12 and U.S. 20 now follow part of its course. For the other two ridges, see Tolleston beach and Glenwood beach. [604c]

Calumet Club  a private social club, formed in 1878 by a group of well-established citizens; the Indian word calumet was chosen because it implied goodwill and kindly greeting; many of the club`s programs cultivated the knowledge of Chicago history. In 1885, the club prepared an Old Settlers` List, which gave the names and then-current addresses of all residents who had arrived in Chicago prior to 1840 and were still alive. Another list gave the names and dates of death of early settlers who died between 1879 and 1885. Both lists were later published in the third volume of Andreas` History of Chicago. [58, 121, 684, 707] [12]

Calumet lakes  listed from E to W, the lakes of the Calumet region are: Little Lake, Long Lake, Berry (or Bear) Lake, Lake George, Wolf Lake, Hyde Lake, Lake Calumet and, Hog Lake. Created over the last 4,000 years, these shallow “pan” lakes appear to have formed between spits and offshore ridges of Lake Chicago, crossing older NE flowing river beds.

Calumet phase    see Calumet beach.

Calumet Place  late 1830s name for a small community emerging at “Horseshoe Bend” on the Calumet River [N of Riverdale].

Calumet portage  also Calumet-Sag portage, portage des perches; a portage via the Little Calumet River and Stony Creek/Stony Brook [in part the Calumet Sag Channel] and the Saganashkee Slough to the Des Plaines River; required portaging twice, once between the Little and the Grand Calumet Rivers and again through the Sag valley between Stony Brook and the Des Plaines River. Both portages connected the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River basin across a continental divide of approximately 10.5 feet above the mean lake level; usage varied with the seasons, yet, due to the size of the Calumet River system, the Calumet portage [near Palos Hills] was shorter and useable longer into each season than its northern counterpart; first mentioned by the English explorer Patrick Kennedy in 1779; destroyed during construction of the Sanitary and Ship Canal in 1900; lesser local portages were existent around Lake Calumet and Wolf Lake. [298, 429a, 572a] [604c]

Calumet region  term applied to the land around the southern end of Lake Michigan; its name derives from the two rivers draining the mainly low and swampy region (also see Calumet). Since the retreat of the glaciers, the area has been the crossroads for passage through much of northern America`s heartland; major Indian trails here intersected. To the N is the Chicago River basin; to the W the Saganashkee Slough/Sag Channel and Hickory Creek drain into the Des Plaines, and to the S is the massive Kankakee basin; Trail Creek [Michigan City] and La Porte form its eastern border. The Calumet was a paradise for hunters in the early days of Chicago and Fort Dearborn, with an abundance of deer and wild fowl. [486, 496] [604c]

Calumet River  Pierre-Charles Delliette, who spent the years 1691 to 1705 with the Miami at Chicago and the Illinois at Fort St. Louis II, Peoria, refers to the river as La Rivière de Kinouicomy. As the linguist Michael McCafferty points out (2006), this can be no other than the word kinwikami in Miami-Illinois, meaning `long water`; probably also rendered more complete as kinwikamisiipi, meaning `long water river`; also found in the literature as Kennomekon, Kenomokouk, Calamick River, Calamink, Callimink River; located at the southern edge of metropolitan Chicago, draining the Calumet region into Lake Michigan. Formed by the confluence of the Grand Calumet River and the Little Calumet River, some three to four miles from its mouth, “this was originally one river — beginning in LaPorte County, IN, running into Illinois, turning around at Blue Island, and returning to Indiana, emptying into Lake Michigan at Miller (Gary). A canal was dredged, likely by Indians, where the Calumet River is now (South Chicago). This act split the river into the two sections that exist now” [quoted from Kenneth J. Schoon]. [12, 190, 464c, 604b] [604c]

Calumet Sag  low geographic feature in the Calumet region, formerly the ancient Chicago outlet river [the Calumet-Sag Channel]; also see Saganashkee Swamp. [604c]

calumet  many alternate spellings of the word, generally starting with a K if used for a river, are found in early documentation and originally denote an Indian appellation implying deep water: Callimink, Calumak, Kinnickinck, Kinnikinnick, Kalamick, Kennemick (Hutchins, 1778), Konnomick (Andrews, 1782), Kilomick, Killomick (Hull, 1812); meanings: (1) French word for hollow reed (shepherd`s pipe). (2) Indian tobacco pipe, symbol of peace and friendship, or war, used in ceremonies; highly decorated. Encountering the Illinois, Father Marquette detailed: There is a Calumet for peace, and one for war, which are distinguished soley by the color of the feathers which with they are adorned; red is a sign of war. They also use it to put an end to their disputes, to strengthen their alliances, and to speak to strangers. It is fashioned from a red stone, polished like marble, and bored in such a manner that one end serves as a receptacle for the tobacco, while the other fits into the stem: this is a stick two feet long, as thick as an ordinary cane, and bored through the middle. It is ornamented with the heads and necks of various birds, whose plumage is very beautiful. To these they also add large feathers – red, green, and other colors – wherewith the whole is adorned. [Jesuit Relations LIX]. (3) small settlement at the mouth of the Little Calumet River that grew round the ferry crossing; the ferry was first begun by Reverend See in 1830; active land speculation by agents Lewis Benton, George Dole, and E.K. Hubbard began with an advertisement for “Calumet Lots” in the July 29, 1835, Chicago Democrat, and a post office named Calumet was opened later that year on September 9, with Lewis Benton as postmaster; the settlement was abandoned by the 1850s. (4) also referring to the [see] Calumet region; street names: Calumet Avenue (334 E), Calumet Expressway, Calumet Skyway. [665]

Camp, Samuel G.J.D.  purchased lot 3 in block 35 from Robert A. Kinzie in c.1832 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Campbell, Asa  U.S. Army corporal at Fort Dearborn; reenlisted on Jan. 26, 1810; visited John Kinzie’s trading post between June 1 and Aug. 15, 1812, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; incapacitated by illness during the evacuation; killed at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [404, 708] [226]

Campbell, John  a Canadian voyageur who visited John Kinzie’s trading post at the St. Joseph River on May 27, June 12, and June 24, 1804; was a volunteer private in the British Indian Service in June 1814-15, who joined an expedition against the Americans at Prairie du Chien. [“Pirraie du Chien Documents, 1814-15.” Wisconsin Historical Collections v. ix, 1882] [404]

Campbell, Maj. James Blackstone  (-1873) of Ottawa, IL; treasurer of the Board of Canal Commissioners in 1830, visiting Chicago in this capacity; purchased lot 4 in block 6, and lot 7 in block 8 from Clark Hollenbeck in c.1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; also that month purchased waterfront real estate from Mark Noble, Sr., on the E side of the north branch, jointly with George E. Walker; received $600 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September. Campbell laid off the original town of Joliet and held a public sale of lots in June 1834. In 1835, he lived with his first wife at Flusky`s boarding house, was a member of the Lake House Association and, late that year, filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 1, block 19; 1839 City Directory: real estate agent, North Clark Street; his first wife`s name is not recorded, but he married again by 1840, Sarah P. Elliot; lived at 2634 Calumet Avenue in 1885. [28, 319, 734] [12]

Canada  native word kanata for settlement – along the St. Lawrence River; adapted by Cartier for the land beyond; under Louis XIV in 1683, Canada was made a royal province, Nouvelle France. The appellation Canada is often used synonymously with [see] New France. [217, 704] [129]

Canada goose  Branta canadensis; formerly among the waterfowl hunted widely for food by Indians and pioneers; still a common migrant from Canada, abundant in Illinois in the winter, but also a frequent summer resident. [64]

Canal Addition  one of the early [see] additions to Chicago by which the original town, as laid out in the [see] Thompson plat of 1830, grew beyond its first borders. The 1836 Chicago map by E.B. Talcott [see Maps] shows that the Canal Addition represents the portion of the NE quarter of Section 21 that lies W of the south branch of the Chicago River.

Canal Bill    in 1829 the Illinois state legislature created a three-member canal commission, which began to plan for the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal; for details see Illinois & Michigan Canal.

Canal Commission    see Illinois & Michigan Canal.

Canal Commission Addition  one of the early [see] additions to Chicago by which the original town, as laid out in the [see] Thompson plat of 1830, grew beyond its first borders. The 1836 Chicago map by E.B. Talcott [see Maps] shows that the Canal Commission Addition represents the western half of the NE quarter of Section 17. The entire Section 17 was formerly designated [see] canal land.

Canal Land  on March 2, 1827, by an act of Congress, signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 21, 1830, the federal government granted to the state of Illinois alternative sections, six-miles wide, of public land along both sides of a proposed route for the Illinois & Michigan Canal, to be sold and the proceeds to be used to meet the canal construction costs.

canaller schooner  a version of the lake schooner with a small bowsprit and a snubbed taper of the stern, with an almost flat bottom; adapted to the limitations of the Welland Canal that connected Lake Erie with Lake Ontario. The first sailing ship to enter the Chicago River on July 12, 1834, the Illinois, was a canaller. [389a]

Canis latrans  see coyote.

Canis lupus  see wolf.

cannibalism  early European explorers first encountered cannibalism among Caribbean Indians. Their reports on the subject were often marked by sensationalism and exaggeration, although it was indeed widely practiced. Also in the interior of North America, where living conditions were often marginal, the hunting of members of other tribes for the purpose of devouring them was an ever-present possibility. In other situations, the consumption of particular portions or organs of an enemy killed in battle was believed to convey certain desired qualities from the victim to the conqueror. An example of such practice occurred at the [see] Fort Dearborn massacre, when the victorious Indians ate Captain Wells`s heart.

Canning, George  (April 11, 1770-August 8, 1827) eminent statesman, accomplished scholar, 1st minister of the British Crown, unsurpassed orator; had the admiration of foreign nations; a sculpted full-length figure on a base in the transept near the Great North Door of Westminster Abbey is among the monumental memorials to this former statesmen of Great Britain. Descendants of the Chicago pioneer [see] John Kinzie maintained that he had an extraordinary physical likeness to George Canning, and since they had no picture of John, they kept a portrait of George Canning around to remind them of their forefather.

Cannon, Ephraim and John  children by this name, probably siblings, were enrolled as grade school students in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [728]

Canoku  third wife of [see] Shabbona, named Canoku (Fat Woman), who survived the War of 1812 and the removal period. She drowned in Mazon Creek, near Morris, IL, on Nov. 30, 1864. [229]

capote  French, diminutive of cape; a long cloak, often made from a blanket, usually hooded and belted at the waist, often worn by French Indian traders in the wilderness.

Captain White  lake steamer that arrived in July 1832, with four companies of soldiers under General Scott; lacking a harbor, they were taken ashore on Mackinaw boats; among the troops was [see] Capt. J.B.T. Russell.

caravel  a small sailing ship used by the Spaniards and Portugese in the 16th century. [156]

Cardin, Jean Baptiste  French Canadian who came to Chicago early in 1812 and worked on Leigh`s farm, where he was killed by marauding Winnebago on April 6, together with co-worker Liberty White. [226]

Carew, David  on June 4, 1834, filed a petition with the town council to have a nuisance removed. [28]

Carey Mission  a Baptist Indian school and mission named after William Carey, a Baptist missionary in India, opened in December 1822 by Rev. Isaac McCoy and his wife, supported by a local blacksmith – in lieu of an 1821 Treaty Potawatomi request for a Catholic priest and Indian school; it attracted immigrants and caused a settlement to form near Niles, MI. The mission existed until late 1828, when another treaty named [see] Father Gabriel Richard as head of the St. Joseph Mission. Students were taught geography and ancient history; boys learned agricultural skills through chores on the 100 acres of plowed, planted and fenced farmland (by 1824, with sheep and cattle) and girls learned to weave and sew; a branch opened in 1829 on the Detroit-Chicago Road NE of La Porte, IN. Also see McCoy, Rev. Isaac. [12, 229, 319, 729a]

cariole  French: (1) a Canadian dog sled; (2) a light, covered cart; (3) a small carriage drawn by one horse.

Carleton, Sir Guy    also Lord Dorchester; English governor of Canada, 1774-1778, succeeded by Governor Haldimand.

Carli, Paul J.  (1804-1845) of German origin; in April 1834, began management of the Eagle Hotel on Lake Street and by June advertised “elegant fancy Chairs and Rocking Chairs” in the Chicago Democrat; on September 22 he announced that John Shrigley would replace him as hotel manager; married Lydia Ann Brown of Springfield, OH, on September 28, Isaac Harmon officiating; John Bates advertised an auction of Paul`s “fancy store,” its stock, and the building on the north point of J.S.C. Hogan`s lot, on October 30; resided six miles up the north branch in 1835; 1839 City Directory: candies and notions, South Water Street, near Wells. [243]

Carpenter, Abel E.  (1813-1882) born in Savoy, MA; brother of Philo Carpenter, who came in June 1833, and taught at the Yankee Settlement [Lockport]; in 1834 assisted Granville Sproat and worked in Philo`s drugstore as clerk; a farmer near Warrenville in 1835, later opening a dry goods store; married Sally L. Warren on June 26, 1836, at Aurora; later lived in Aurora, where he died on Dec. 8, 1882; his widow still lived there in 1885. [351] [12]

Carpenter, Gilbert  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; married Mrs. Minerva Hodge on November 17, Reverend Jesse Walker officiating; on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat later in November. [319]

Carpenter, Philo  (Feb. 27, 1805-Aug. 7, 1886) son of Abel and Martha (née Eddy) Carpenter, of Savoy, MA; druggist; in May 1830 he married Sarah Forbes Bridges, who died within the month; arrived on July 18, 1832, from Troy, NY, with a stock of drugs and medicines and opened – Chicago`s 1st – drugstore on August 6 in what was most likely Mark Beaubien`s small log cabin on the SE corner of Lake and Market streets, immediately against which the Sauganash tavern and hotel had been built earlier in the year; on August 19 organized and conducted the first Sunday school class in an unfinished building owned by Mark Beaubien, with 13 children attending; that year he became active in the temperance movement and, no longer able to endure the proximity of the busy tavern, moved his store to the log cabin of George W. Dole in the winter of 1832-33, on the SE corner of South Water and Clark streets; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. By late autumn he had purchased from John Noble two adjacent lots in block 19 on South Water between Wells and LaSalle streets, for which he paid $75 and which gave him a 40-foot frontage on which he built a large two-story frame building with Indiana lumber; moved his store into half the structure and rented the western half to the firm of Russell & Clift; did business until 1840. An ardent enemy of alcohol and member of the Temperance Society, he advertised in the Dec. 17, 1833, Chicago Democrat a “Temperance Almanac for sale.” Carpenter invested wisely in real estate, acquiring among other holdings, lot 8 in block 40 of the original town from James Kinzie, and a 160-acre plot W of Halsted Street between Kinzie and Madison [SE quarter of Section 8, Township 39], which later became known as Carpenter`s Addition, and variously as Carpenter & Curtiss Addition. Likely the attorney [see] James Curtis (also Curtiss) was affiliated with Carpenter in these real estate proceedings. Carpenter was on the voting list for the first town board, Aug. 10, 1833; charter member of the first Presbyterian church, later becoming a deacon. [A split developed within the congregation over the issue of slavery, of which Carpenter was an ardent enemy, and many members seceded with him in 1850 to form the new First Congregational Church.] In April 1833, he married Ann Thompson of New York State; they had seven children, three of which died as infants, their only son Theodore died at age 23 in 1869, and three daughters married locally. In 1834 Philo imported from the East Chicago`s first one-horse shay, and is also credited with having brought to town the first platform scale and the first iron scale. In August 1835, the Chicago Bible Society was founded, and Carpenter became one of its officers; on November 21, submitted a claim for wharfing privileges; 1839 City Directory: druggist and apothecary, South Water Street; 1844 City Directory: residence Randolph st. Carpenter`s addition. Philo Carpenter School, 1250 W Erie St.; street name: Carpenter Street (1032 W); living at 436 Washington Blvd. in 1885; died a well respected, successful business man and philanthropist. An account book of his store`s early business transactions is preserved at the Chicago History Museum. [28, 221, 243, 319, 351, 498] [12]

Carpenter, Philo – Drugstore  N.B. The advertisment from the Chicago American of Aug. 3, 1835.

Carpenter, Sgt. Nathaniel  (1764-1842) native of Massachusetts; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; became a charter member of the Baptist congregation on October 19, and was on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November; married Mrs. Eunice Hunter of Chicago at Fort Dearborn on Jan. 9, 1834, Reverend Freeman officiating; they had eleven children; enlisted as orderly sergeant at Fort Dearborn on Apr. 13, 1835, and served for three years; later moved to Winnebago County, where he died on Oct. 28, 1842, of an inflammatory disease. [319, 708] [326]

Carpenter`s Addition  also Carpenter & Curtiss Addition; see Carpenter, Philo; see Curtiss, James.

Carr, Francis  a visitor to John Kinzie’s trading post on Aug. 14, 1804; June 27, July 3, and Aug. 20, 1805; and on Mar. 17, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Carrier, Lamira and Laura  were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Carrig, Thomas    arrived in 1834 from Ireland; died in 1838.

Carrington, Henry, Jr.    from Connecticut; came with his father in 1835; entered a claim near Holderman’s Grove.

Carrington, Henry, Sr.  (1781-1871) from Connecticut; came with his oldest son Henry in 1835; a widower, he returned the following year with a younger son (Nathan Starr) and in 1837, acquired the Morse claim [1834, Lyons Township] and farmed the acreage; died in Connecticut. [278] [13]

Carroll, Charles  (1737-1832) American Revolutionary War hero and member of the Continental Congress, and the last surviving signer of the Declaration of Independence; street names: Carroll Avenue (328 N, from 44 W to 4758 W) was named after him by James Thompson in 1830; its eastern portion, between Lake Street and Wells Street, still deviates from its otherwise exact EW direction by several degrees, reflecting the original course of the Chicago River`s north bank [note Wright`s map, 1834], though the bank itself has long since been brought into perfect EW alignment. There is also a Carroll Drive in Garfield Park.

Carroll, Patrick    married Mary Hogan on April 24, 1835, Father St. Cyr officiating.

Cartier, Jacques  (1491-1557) French navigator who explored the St. Lawrence River; commissioned by François I to look for the NW passage to Cathay, he discovered the Gulf of St. Lawrence (1534) and on a second trip in 1535, explored the St. Lawrence River as far W as Montreal. On May 3, 1536, in a ceremony near Quebec, Cartier claimed the entire drainage basin of the St. Lawrence River for the French crown. He neither found a passage to China, nor did he return with the precious stones or metals as had been anticipated; consequently, French authorities lost interest in further exploration until the effort to colonize North America and find the western approach to China was revived by Henry IV at the end of the 16th century. [730] [205]

Carver, Capt. Jonathan  (1710-1780) a Massachusetts native who, from 1766 to 1768, traveled extensively throughout the northern parts of the Great Lakes and, in 1779 and again in 1781, published an account of his experiences that became a popular book, Travels through the Interior Parts of North America in the Years 1766, 1767, and 1768 (demonstrating that in 1778 it was still possible to print a detailed map of the Great Lakes, include a number of large imaginary islands in Lake Superior, and completely ignore the Chicago site or river). [682] [605]

Carver, David  bachelor seaman from New York; arrived late summer 1833 with the first cargo of pine on a schooner he owned; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and then voted in the first election on August 10; a licensed auctioneer, but as merchant in 1834, shipped whitewood, pine lumber, produce, and provisions regularly between St. Joseph and Chicago, using also the Post BoyCommodoreDartOregonWhite Pigeon, and Llewellyn; opened – Chicago`s first – lumber yard on South Water Street, between LaSalle and Wells, adding in May an auction and commission store to his storehouse, and held auctions every Saturday; in the Jan. 21, 1835, Chicago Democrat he announced the dissolution of his partnership with Isaac K. Palmer; continued to advertise as lumber dealer & commission merchant; in January he had communicated with the town board in relation to wharfing privileges and on November 24, submitted an affidavit in support of his claim for privileges, bolstered by a statement filed by W.H. Brown; 1839 City Directory: Captain, David Carver. [243, 319] [28]

Casas, Don Bartolomé de las  see Las Casas, Don Bartolomé de.

Casey, Edward W.  New Hampshire lawyer who arrived in 1833 and immediately established practice in town; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; advertised in the May 7, 1834 Chicago Democrat, with an office “adjoining that of Clerk of Circuit Court”; in August 1835, he advertised his joint office in the Chicago American [see ad] with B.S. Morris. Casey was known as a heavy drinker; served as clerk of the town board under President John H. Kinzie in 1834; returned to Concord, NH, by 1841; died on Oct. 3, 1875, at Newburyport, MA. [319] [12]

Casey; John, Peter, Patrick, and Edward  arrived in 1835 from Ireland, probably related; 1839 City Directory: John [c.1794-1881] –bricklayer, corner of Market and Washington; Patrick–waiter, Mansion House; Edward and Peter–clerks, Stanton & Black; by 1879, Edward was living in California; John died in Chicago. [243, 351] [12]

Cass, Lewis  (1782-1866) born at Exeter, NH; served under Gen. William Hull in the War of 1812, and was highly critical of Hull`s surrender of Detroit to the British; governor of the territory of Michigan and regional superintendent of Indian affairs from 1813 to 1831. In 1820, Governor Cass led a four-month expedition, covering 4,000 miles, in an attempt to reach the source of the Mississippi River; accompanied by Henry Schoolcraft as mineralogist, Dr. A. Wolcott as physician, and Capt. David B. Douglass as topographer; James D. Doty joined as official journalist and Charles C. Trowbridge as assistant topographer, but both took a partly separate course that bypassed Chicago. The expedition reached Fort Dearborn on Aug. 26, 1820 (see G. Hubbard`s following account for a lively description of Cass` second visit in 1827). In 1821, Cass negotiated the Indian treaty in Chicago, was in charge of containing the Winnebago scare of 1827, and directed the Black Hawk War of 1832; in late June 1835, while Secretary of War, he returned to Chicago, but the steamer Michigan only docked and circumstance rendered departure within hours; was a member of the U.S. Senate from 1845-1857; ran unsuccessfully in 1845 as Democratic candidate for president against Zachary Taylor; later served as Secretary of State under President Buchanan; [street name: prior to 1930, Wabash Avenue, N of the river, was called Cass Avenue]. [737]
[1827] While at breakfast at Mr. Kinzie`s house, we heard singing, faintly at first, but gradually growing louder as the singers approached. Mr. Kinzie recognized the leading voice as that of Bob Forsyth, and left the table for the piazza of the house, where we all followed. About where Wells Street crosses, in plain sight from where we stood, was a light birchbark canoe, manned with thirteen men, rapidly approaching, the men keeping time with their paddles to one of the Canadian boat songs; it proved to be Governor Cass and his secretary, Robert Forsyth, and they landed and soon joined us. [12]

Cassidy, George W.  co-owner-assignee, together with William Fithian, of 240 acres of land in Section 20, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Castelnau, Francis, comte de  (1812-1880) French traveler to Chicago in 1838; made a drawing of the harbor entrance, looking E to include a portion of Fort Dearborn, that was published in 1848 in Paris. It is one of the few surviving sketches of early Chicago created in situ as opposed to the many that were drawn later from memory. [115]

Castle Inn  a tavern, hostelry, and post office along Brush Hill Trail (at 220 E. Ogden Avenue, E of York Road) in what became known as Fullersburg, now Hinsdale, IL; built by [see] Orente and David Grant in 1835; on Jan. 15, 1862, [see] Benjamin Fuller`s niece Mary Louise [Loie] Fuller ( -Jan. 1, 1928; Paris), born in a back bedroom, was known later as a world-class dancer and designer. The building served as one of the first stops on the stagecoach route to and from Chicago, as a schoolroom, and as an induction center during the Civil War; it is said that both Lincoln and Douglas visited the inn on their way to Chicago for their famous debates. [217a, 280a, 415, 660]

Castor canadensis  see beaver.

Caswell, —  see Hickling, William.

Catfish    see Winnemac.

Cathay    early name for China introduced to Europe by Marco Polo; derived from the name of a pre-Mongol tribe that had conquered parts of northern China in the 10th century A.D. and held them for 200 years; early European explorers were searching for a shorter route to Cathay when they sailed westward across the Atlantic Ocean.

Catholic bishops  ecclesiastically, Chicago has been under the successive jurisdiction of the bishops of Quebec (1674), Baltimore (1791), Bardstown (1808), Vincennes (1834), and Chicago (1843). On Sept. 30, 1843, the Holy See erected the Diocese of Chicago with the entire state of Illinois for territory, and on May 5, 1844, the first resident bishop, Rev. William J. Quarter, settled in Chicago. [207b] [269a]

Catholic congregation  St. Mary Catholic parish, the first organized congregation, was established in May 1833 by Father [see] St. Cyr under the authority of Bishop Joseph Rosati of St. Louis; the first Mass was celebrated in Mark Beaubien`s log cabin on May 5, and – Chicago`s first – Catholic baptism took place on May 22 [George Beaubien, son of the Mark]; a modest unpainted wooden balloon frame church building, St. Mary`s Catholic Church, measuring 25 by 35 feet, initially without steeple or bell, was completed in October 1833 on a canal lot at the SW corner of Lake and State streets, built by Augustine D. Taylor for $400. The price for the lot was more than anticipated, and the church was later moved twice, first to the SW corner of Michigan and Madison streets, then to the SW corner of Wabash and Madison. In 1834, Chicago became part of the newly established diocese of Vincennes under Bishop Simon Bruté, but Father St. Cyr continued to report to Bishop Rosati while remaining in Chicago. In October 1836, Father St. Cyr left, and was replaced by Father Leander Schaeffer, who served until 1840. Not until September 1843 was the first Roman Catholic diocese created at Chicago; Rev. William J. Quarter was appointed the first bishop. See Saint Cyr, John Mary Irenaeus, for a list of petitioners; street name: St. Mary Street (2170 N). [267, 268, 269a, 578, 658] [12]

Catholic pioneers of Chicago  beginning with the first documented appearance of Europeans on Chicagoland’s soil, many catholic missionaries and priests have played important roles in the exploration and development of the Chicago village. Father Marquette, as a member of Jolliet’s 1673 expedition to explore the Mississippi, started the long list when, in 1673, the group traversed the Chicago portage. Much later, Father St. Cyr moved to Chicago in 1833 as the first permanent priest and remained there until 1837. He organized the planning and construction of the first Chicago church, and named it the Church of St. Mary.
In the Cudahy Library Reading Room of Loyola University, Chicago, is a large mural painting of the Great Lakes region honoring several of the early pioneer priests and indicating the years and locations of their activity; John Warner Norton, artist [see adjacent image, photography by Bart Harris/Chicago]. [285]
Listed below are the names and the dates of first arrival of all 21 catholic officials who visited or played important roles in Chicago between 1673 and 1835. For details the reader may wish to turn to the entries under their individual names.
Marquette, Père Jacques, Jesuit, 1673
Largillier, Frère Donné Jacques, 1673
Allouez, Père Claude, Jesuit, 1677
Membré, Père Zenobius (Zénobe), Franciscan, 1680
Ribourde, Père Gabriel de la, Franciscan, 1680
Hennepin, Père Louis, Franciscan, 1680
La Salle, Père Jean Cavelier de, Sulpician, 1687
Douay, Père Anastase, Franciscan, 1687
Gravier, Père Jacques, Jesuit, 1688
Pinet, Père Pierre François, Jesuit, 1696
Bineteau, Père Julien, Jesuit, 1698
Davion, Abbé Jean Antoine, 1698
Montigny, Abbé François Jolliet de, 1698
Mermet, Père Jean, Jesuit, 1699
St. Cosme, Abbé Jean François Buisson de, Sulpician, 1699
Foucault, Abbé François, 1699
Levadaux, Abbé Michael, Sulpician, 1796
Richard, Abbé Gabriel, Sulpician, 1821
Badin, Father Stephen Theodore, 1830
St. Cyr, Father John Mary Ireaneus, 1833
Bruté de Remur, Bishop, 1835.

Catie, Joseph  voted at the election of Aug. 7, 1826 (see Chronology).

Catlin, Seth  (1812-1863) arrived in 1834 from Dearfield, MA, his place of birth; went into commerce and banking; was for a while engaged with other contractors in the construction of the Illinois & Michigan canal; was a founding member of the Chicago Board of Trade (1848) and became its secretary in 1858, a position he held until his death; his grave is at Rosehill Cemetery. [498]

Caton, John Dean  (1812-1894/5) from Monroe, NY; at his arrival on June 19, 1833, with his 18-year-old brother William, Chicago had fewer than 200 inhabitants; six weeks later, was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. This made incorporation possible under the laws of the state and Caton participated in the effort. As lawyer, prosecuted – Chicago`s first – case of larceny in July; his office was in Dr. Temple`s building on Lake Street; later, on December 4, was appointed town attorney. In 1834, he formed a law partnership with James H. Collins, opening an office on South Water Street, one door E of the corner with Lake Street, removing in June to an upstairs office two doors E of the Baptist church on South Water Street, and was also elected justice of the peace; in 1835 the partnership was dissolved and Caton traveled to New Hartford, NY to marry Laura A. Sherrill (died in 1891– note portrait) on July 28, returning with his bride; there were three chidren: Laura (died in 1891), Arthur (a Chicago businessman) and Caroline, who married the lawyer Norman Williams; 1839 City Directory: attorney at law, Clark Street; in 1842 John Dean joined the Supreme Court of Illinois, becoming chief justice in 1855; lived at 1900 Calumet Ave. in 1885; street named: Caton Street (1652 N). See the following excerpt of Caton`s reminiscences to the members of the Calumet Club and assembled old settlers on May 27, 1879. [242, 243, 319, 351, 498, 707]

… Let me ask John Bates over there if he remembers when we scated together up to Hard Scrabble, – where Bridgeport is now, – and he explained to me, by pantomime alone, how the Indians cought musk-rats under the ice. And let me ask Silas B. Cobbs if he remembers the trick Mark Beaubien played on Robert A. Kinzie to win the race on the ice that winter? See, now, how Mark`s eye flashes fire and he trembles in every fibre at the bare remembrance of that wild excitement. This was the way he did it. He and Kinzie had each a very fast pony, one a pacer and the other one a trotter. Mark had trained his not to brake when he uttered the most unearthly screams and yells which he could pour forth, and that is saying much, for he could beat any Pottawatomie I ever heard, except Gurdon S. Hubbard and John S.C. Hogan. The day was bright and cold. The glittering ice was smooth as glass, the atmosphere pure and bracing. The start was about a mile up the South Branch. Down came the trotter and the pacer like a whirlwind, neck and neck, till they approached Wolf Point, or the junction, when Kinzie`s pony began to pull ahead of the little pacer, and bets were two to one on the trotting-nag as he settled a little nearer to the ice and stretched his hear and neck further out, as if determined to win it but by a throat-latch. It was at this supreme moment that Mark`s tactics won the day. He sprang to his feet in his plank-built pung, his tall form towering above all surroundings, threw high in the air his wolf-skin cap, frantically swung round his head his buffalo robe, and screamed forth such unearthly yells as no human voice ever excelled, broken up into a thousand accents by a rapid clapping of the mouth with the hand. To this the pony was well trained, and it but served to bring out the last inch of speed that was in him, while the trotter was frightened out of his wits, no doubt thinking a whole tribe of Indians were after him, and he broke into a furious run, which carried him far beyond the goal before he could be brought down. Hard words were uttered then, which it would not do to repeat in a well-conducted Sunday-school, but the winner laughed and pocketed the stakes with a heartiness and zest which Mark alone could manifest. For an account of Caton representing Chicago Negroes in court to help them secure their “free paper,” see the item following the entry on slavery. [12]

Caton, John Dean  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Caton, Laura A. Sherrill  see Caton, John Dean.

Caton, William P.  born 1815, arrived on June 19, 1833, with his older brother, John Dean Caton; lived at Joliet in 1885. [351] [12]

Cauchois, Jacques  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Cavarly, Alfred W.  member of the surveying party for the Illinois & Michigan Canal that visited Chicago in 1830 under James M. Bucklin, chief engineer. [704]

Cavelier de La Salle, Abbé Jean  brother of La Salle, born at Rouen; Sulpician priest; survivor of the ill-fated Texas expedition; after his brother`s death, was member of the group with Henri Joutel that reached Chicago on Sept. 25, 1687, on their way from Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) to Canada, and then to France; died in Rouen after 1717. [519]

Cavelier, Jean Baptiste  no relation to La Salle; survivor of the ill-fated Texas expedition; after La Salle`s death, was a member of the group of six with Henri Joutel that reached Chicago on Sept. 25, 1687, on their way from Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) to Canada, and then to France. [519]

Cavelier, René-Robert, Sieur de La Salle  see La Salle, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de.

Cecott, J.  one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

cecropia moth  see Hyalophora cecropia.

cemeteries  prior to 1835, when the first cemetery was laid out, the bodies were usually buried on or near the homestead, or near that of a friend who would look after the grave. Captain Whistler`s 1808 draft of the fort shows an “Indian grave yard” SE of the stockade as part of “a soldiers`s garden,” near the old mouth of the river. Another “old burying ground,” referred to by John Calhoun, was on the lakeshore between the Hardy house and the Wright house; Judge Caton places it between Washington and some distance N of Randolph Street, and describes graves washing away in July 1832: “… half a dozen coffins sticking out of the bank and the bones hauled out and scattered on the beach.” The dead from the fort were usually buried on the N side of the main river, E of Kinzie`s house, near the lakeshore; John Kinzie was also buried there in 1828, but his body was later moved twice. The soldiers who died of cholera during the Black Hawk War in 1832 were buried near the Forks at a site that later became the NW corner of Lake Street and Wabash Avenue; at least 20 of those who died on board ship while anchored at Chicago were committed to a sea burial [see cholera for Capt. A. Walker`s letter]. The people living near the Forks had a common acre on the W side of the north branch in which to bury their dead. On Oct. 18, 1834, a Chicago Cemetery Association was organized; on Aug. 15, 1835, the town surveyor was directed to lay out two tracts of land suitable for burials: 10 acres of land on the N side (for Protestants; E of Clark Street near Chicago Avenue) and 16 acres on the S side (for Catholics; at the foot of 23rd Street); these, Chicago`s first official cemeteries, were fenced in September 1835, and burial was forbidden elsewhere thereafter. Henry Gherkin, a German immigrant, was the first recorded gravedigger in 1836. In 1842, the city fathers established a new municipal burial ground on a tract of land now roughly bounded by North Avenue, LaSalle, Wisconsin, and State streets; in 1866 just after the Civil War ended, a lawsuit closed this cemetery, necessitating the removal of bodies and monuments, and the acreage became the southern portion of Lake Park, later renamed Lincoln Park. Oak Woods Cemetery, on the S side, was chartered in 1853; Rosehill Cemetery was chartered in 1859, and Graceland Cemetery`s charter was approved on Feb. 22, 1861—both are on the N side. Forest Home Cemetery in Forest Park was originally acreage owned by [see] Leon Bourassa on which were the remnants of an Indian village and many burial mounds, extant on an early glacier ridge along the Des Plaines River; the land was acquired by Ferdinand Haase in 1851 and in 1876 the cemetery was established. Also see Indian surface burial.

Cerne, Bis  a visitor to John Kinzie’s trading post on Feb. 14, 1817 as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Cerré, Jean Gabriel  (Aug. 12, 1734-Apr. 4, 1805) born in Montreal; principal French trader at Kaskaskia from 1755 to 1780, thereafter at St. Louis. He outfitted many traders and hunters for the Missouri region, owned and employed 43 slaves in his St. Louis household and business, also traded in slaves, and maintained close relations with the Native Americans. On periodic visits to Canada he usually passed through the Chicago portage. In 1764 Cerré married Catherine Girard, whose family had lived in the Illinois country since 1729; during 1776-77 he traded among the Peoria, Kickapoo and Mascouten Indians along the Illinois River and at Mauvais Terre; the following year he employed the then 19 year old [see] Antoine DesChamps and in July left with a large quantity of furs for Quebec just days before George Rogers Clark overtook Kaskaskia. The British made efforts to gain his support in the American Revolution, but he allied himself with the patriots and gave George Rogers Clark provisions and financial aid. His daughter Marie Thérèse (1769-1842) married [see] Auguste Chouteau on Sept. 21, 1786. A “Mr. Cerre” visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Apr. 23, 1805, as shown in Kinzie’s account books — this might have been his son Pascal Leon Cerré. [139a, 209a, 233a, 404, 733]

Cervus elaphus  see elk.

Chabert, Isadore  also Chabare, Chobar, Chobare, Chober, Shobar; a trader on the Iroquois River in 1821, competing with Gurdon S. Hubbard; was issued trading licenses by Alexander Wolcott, Indian agent at Fort Dearborn, in 1823 and 1824, and by Gov. Lewis Cass in 1825; received $600 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833, and another payment of $400 was awarded to Isadore`s child, G.S. Hubbard as trustee. In 1834 he built a log cabin near the junction of the Iroquois and Kankakee rivers, where he lived to the end of his life with his wife Susan, a son Reorg, and a daughter Zoe. [12] [692g]

Chachagwessiou  meaning `little speckled snake`; Illinois chief, well known as a trader, whose Indian name was pronounced shaahshaakweehsiwa; Marquette met him in Chicago during the winter stay of 1674-75. [456b]

Chacksfield, George  (c.1808-1885) born in England; arrived in November 1835; 1839 City Directory: grocery and provision store, South Water Street near Clark; still living in Chicago in 1878. [243, 351] [12]

Chamberlin, Horace  participant in an outing on horseback from Chicago to the Calumet River, with Rose Hathaway as partner, in the spring of 1835, as described by John D. Caton; not long after Chamberlin lost his life in the Texas revolution. [121]

Chambers, Asa W.  acquired 120 acres of land at Western Springs in June 1835; partnered Sheldon Benedict as Messrs. Chambers & Benedict late November that year, buying J.M. Faulkner`s entire stock of goods and continuing at the old stand two doors W of the land office on Lake Street; an ad in the November 25 Chicago Democrat assured a “stock of Groceries probably as extensive as any west of the city of New York.”

Champlain, Samuel de  (1567-1635) French explorer whose achievements helped secure Canada and its Indian trade for France, opening the way for later discoverers to reach Chicago; first came to the banks of the St. Lawrence River in 1603 and, during his next visit in 1608, founded Quebec and discovered Lake Champlain. From 1608 to 1635, he served as the first governor of New France; Nicollet was his protégé; at the time of his death it was clear that the settlement of Quebec would endure. In his travels, Champlain had gone around Lake Ontario and as far W as Georgian Bay of Lake Huron (1613-15); in 1612 he prepared a map, Carte Geographique de la Nouvelle Franse, and another in c.1616, which was eventually published in 1653 by Pierre Du Val [see map in 1612 Chronology]; visualized are the Great Lakes W of Georgian Bay, presumably copied by Champlain from Indian sketch maps; street name: Champlain Avenue (634 E). [12, 94, 127, 205, 281, 322, 605]

Chance  – lake schooner under Captain Wade; coming originally from Buffalo, NY, and then sailing between St. Joseph and Chicago, the vessel called at Chicago seven times in 1835, on November 11 from [see] Shipwagen; was run ashore by storm later that month on Lake Michigan, as per notice in the November 28 Chicago American.

Chandinell, William  a visitor to John Kinzie’s trading post on Jan. 11, 1817 as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Chandler, Joseph  arrived from New York on June 27, 1833; beginning in July, held an executive position in harbor construction under Maj. George Bender, together with Morgan Shapley; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; 1839 City Directory: harbor government works; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: residence Fort Dearborn. [319] [12]

Chandonnai, Jean Baptiste  (1789-September 1837) also Chandonnet; born at Bertrand, Berrien County, MI; métis son of Marguerite Magdelaine “Chippewaqua” [meaning `Ojibwa-woman`] Marcot and Charles Agacouchin (part Potawatomi, dead by 1799); at ten years old was baptized on Aug. 18, 1799, by Abbé Gabriel Richard at Mackinac; adopted by his aunt Charlotte (née Marcot) and Charles François (known as John) Chandonnet of Mackinac, whose name appears several times in John Kinzie’s account books (Oct. 23, 1803; June 8, 1804; May 13 and Aug. 20, 1805; Aug. 18, 1812); said to be a maternal nephew of Potawatomi Chief Topenebe of St. Joseph (?); employed from 1792 to 1799 by William Burnett at St. Joseph; lived at Milwaukee after 1800, and then was employed as chief clerk in Kinzie`s Chicago store, where he lived in a house N of the river near the lake shore, between the houses of Buisson and Kinzie; was in the boat with the Kinzies at the time of the massacre of 1812 and several days later, conveyed them, Margaret Helm, and Sergeant Griffith by boat to St. Joseph; assisted in the release of Captain and Mrs. Heald from captivity after the massacre by offering a mule and a bottle of whiskey. In 1813, living at Detroit, he was charged with treason against George III and, with Kinzie, was jailed in irons at Fort Malden, accused of trying to win the Indians over to the U.S. side; was also wanted for the murder of his adoptive uncle John, a British army offficer who had gone to Burnett`s post to arrest him [see Winslow’s account below]; he escaped, and by July 22, 1814, was an official U.S. interpreter at an Indian treaty at Greenville, Ohio, convened by Governor Harrison and Governor Cass of Michigan Territory, by which various Indian groups, including the Potawatomi of his said uncle Topenebe, allied themselves to the United States and agreed to supply warriors to fight the British; on Sept. 8, 1815, acted as an interpreter with Kinzie at the Treaty of Spring Wells near Detroit, at which the various tribes officially “repented” their pro-British activities—Chandonnai was then a valuable asset of U.S. Indian policy, a friend of the Americans; married on Aug. 8, 1815 at the parish church of Ste. Anne at Mackinac to Marie Louisa (Detroit, Jan. 7, 1795-c.1889, Rossville, KS), daughter of Benedict Joseph and Therese (née Meloche) Chapoton, who, with their newborn son Charles Benedict (July 24, 1816-Feb. 19, 1863, South Bend, IN), joined him at Chicago in 1817; visited Kinzie at his trading post on Feb. 14, 1817, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. Within two years, Chandonnai acted as an independent fur trader in Chicago, but was then hired by the American Fur Co. to remove him from competition; at the Chicago Treaty of 1821 he was granted two sections of land on the St. Joseph River; was present as interpreter at the 1833 Treaty of Chicago, where he also received $2500 for a claim, $1000 of which was to be forwarded by him to Robert Stuart, representing the American Fur Company; died in September 1837 at South Bend. [29, 109, 226, 235, 404, 456a, 729a]
Reported by Damon A. Winslow:
“During the war of 1812, and in that year, John B. Chandonai [also John Chandonnet, eds.] was in the service of the United States, and was engaged in carrying dispatches from Detroit to Chicago. On one of his trips from Chicago, in company with the elder Robert Forsythe [sic], he stopped near the mouth of the St. Joseph river, and camped in the upper end of the Burnett orchard. His [adoptive, eds.] uncle of the same name, then stationed at Mackinaw, that place being in the possession of the British, was sent by the commandant of that post, with a force of some thirty Indians in canoes, to intercept John B. with the dispatches, and to take him prisoner to Mackinaw. This force arrived in the night, and early in the morning his uncle called on John B. and made known his business. John B. had a double-barrel gun in his hands, and told his uncle he should not go with him or be taken prisoner. He then drew a line on the ground, and told his uncle he must not cross it; but the uncle, determined on his victim, drew his sword and advanced. As he stepped over the line he was shot dead by his nephew.
The report of the gun aroused the Indians, who went to John’s camp. He met them as he did his uncle, and speaking their language pointed to his uncle’s dead body and to the dead line; said he had shot his uncle to save his own life; that he was sorry that he had to do it, but if taken prisoner he himself would be killed; that he would not be taken alive, and the first one that attempted to cross the line was a dead Indian. The Indians held a council, and terms were agreed upon. The Indians were to have ten gallons of whiskey the next morning,— were to help John B. to bury his uncle immediately,— he and his traveling companion were to be allowed to depart in peace. Arrangements were made with Mr. Burnett, by which the Indians were to have the whiskey as agreed upon. John B. buried his uncle on the hill back of his camp, and after raising a cross over the grave he and Mr. Forsythe [sic] immediately departed for Detroit. The next morning Mr. Burnett gave the Indians the ten gallons of whiskey, and they started for Mackinaw.” [12]

Chandonnet, Charles François [John]  (July 12, 1763-July 14, 1814) also Chandonett, Chandonnai; born in Quebec, son of André and Charlotte (née Freschet) Chandonnet; known as John in Detroit; married Charlotte (c.1784-Jan. 2, 1806), daughter of Jean Baptiste and Marie Marcot, on July 16, 1804, at the Eglise Catholique Paroisse de Saint Ignace on Mackinac. John and Charlotte adopted her young nephew, Jean Baptiste, son of [see] Marguerite Magdelaine Marcot and Charles Agacouchin after Charles’ early death of 1799. A trader, John’s name appears several times in John Kinzie’s account books (Oct. 23, 1803; June 8, 1804; May 13 and Aug. 20, 1805; Aug. 18, 1812); after 1800 Chandonnet was frequently at Milwaukee, and was employed by Robert Dickson as a lieutenant in the British Indian Service during the War of 1812. [735c; Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 19: 156-60, 305-06; 1910]

Chandonnet, Jean Baptiste  see Chandonnai, Jean Baptiste.

Chapeau, Jacques  purchased a hat at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on Dec. 14, 1827; his children received $600 at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833, Thomas J.V. Owen as trustee. Probably he is identical with [see] Jacques Chaput. [12]

Chapin, John Putman  (Apr. 21, 1810-June 27, 1864) born in Bradford, VT; arrived in 1832 from New Hampshire and became a member of the firm [Elisha] Wadsworth, Dyer & Chapin, general wholesale and retail merchants; 1839 City Directory: commission merchant, South Water Street; married Harriet L. White (NH c.1828-) in 1843; 1844 City Directory: Chapin, J.P. & Co. forwarding and commission merchants South Water st (the largest meatpacking house on the south branch) and of [see Thomas] Dyer & C[hapin]. res Lake st. b State and Wabash sts; alderman of the 1st ward in 1844 and 1846. On March 3, 1846 he was elected as the 10th mayor of Chicago, serving through 1847. The couple had five children: Henry (c.1845-), John P. (c.1847-1861), Louisa W. (c.1849-), Ella (c.1851-) and Fanny (c.1853-). [435a, 728] [243]

Chapman, Caroline  see Kennicott, Dr. William.

Chapman, Charles H.  arrived in 1833 from New York with his wife Emily; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; was appointed second ferryman for the Dearborn Free Ferry on September 3; received $30 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty later that month; is on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November; owned a house on the SW corner of Randolph and Wells streets; [in his book, E.O. Gale accuses Chapman of financial double-dealings] in February 1834, Chapman settled his accounts and was said to have returned to New York, though in the Chicago Democrat on July 30 he advertised the rental of three buildings and on August 14 William Payne announced in the Chicago Democrat a lawsuit against him; in the June 8, 1835, Chicago American he advertised several structures for sale or rent; in the same paper, on August 12, he placed the following notice: “All persons indepted to C. H. Chapman must call and make payment immediately, or their accounts will be left in the hands of an officer for collection, and those having accounts against him will please present the same immediately. Chicago, August 10, 1835”; 1839 City Directory: real estate dealer, Randolph Street. [243, 266, 319] [12]

Chapman, George  arrived in 1833 from New York; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and voted in the first town election on August 10; 1839 City Directory: a George H. Chapman is listed as real estate dealer. [319] [12]

Chapman, James  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Dec. 1, 1805, but visited John Kinzie’s trading post already on Sept. 25, 1804 and on Aug. 20, 1805, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; left Chicago when his enlistment expired on Dec. 1, 1810. [404, 708] [226]

Chapoton, Marie  see Chandonnai, Jean Baptiste.

Chappel, Eliza Emily  (1807-1888) New York born of mixed Huguenot and Pilgrim descent; had organized a school at Mackinac; arrived in Chicago in June 1833 in the company of Capt. Seth Johnson and his wife; initially lived with the family of Major Wilcox at Fort Dearborn; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; in September, funded by the Ladies Aid Society of the Presbyterian church, she opened the earliest public school in Chicago, a one room school, often referred to as the “Infant School”, in a log cabin that had been the initial store of John S. Wright at the SE corner of Lake and Market streets [see Monuments section, schools]; here she accommodated 25 students, her living quarters being separated from the classroom by a curtain; by January 1834 the number of her students had grown, and she moved her class to the first Presbyterian church building and hired two additional teachers, [see] Elizabeth Beach and Mary Barrows. Eliza married Rev. Jeremiah Porter on June 15, 1835, and moved with him to Green Bay, WI; they had nine children, three of whom died in infancy; her grave is located at Rosehill Cemetery. Elizabeth [Eliza] Chappell School, 5145 N Leavitt St.; street name: Chappel Avenue (2032 E). [“Educational Chicago”, Chicago Genealogical Society Vol. 37 No.3:99-104, Spring 2005; 237a, 319] [12]

Chapronne, François  also Chapron, Francis; with wife, Rosalia, an immigrant from France to New York in 1833; arrived by lake boat in Chicago in 1835 and within a week moved to [see] Grosse Pointe intending to farm, becoming friends of the Ouilmette family; returned to Chicago in 1836, living at Van Buren and Canal streets; their children were Eugénie, Celestine, Zoé, and Vincent; 1839 City Directory: gardener, West Water Street, N end; in 1841 bought land and moved to Elston Avenue and Division Street, where François died several years later. Rosalia continued their horticulture enterprise. [243] [293]

Chaput, Jacques  also [see] Chapeau, Jacques; early member of the Catholic congregation; signed for a family of five on the 1833 petition to Bishop Rosati, asking that a priest be assigned to Chicago. [12]

Charbonneau  voyageur and member of the de Montigny-St. Cosme party that came through Chicago in 1699.

Chardon, Father Jean-Baptiste    (c.1651-1743) joined Father Aveneau as missionary at the St. Joseph Mission in 1705 and remained until 1712, when the Fox War forced his withdrawal; was fluent in several Indian languages, and continued his labor among the Indians elsewhere on various assignments; his last years were spent in Quebec, where he died at the age of 92.

Chardonnais, Jean Baptiste    misnomer for [see] Chandonnais, Jean Baptiste.

Charlevoix, Père Pierre François-Xavier de  (1682-1761) born in St. Quentin, France; Jesuit scholar and traveler in America in the 1720s; traced some of Father Marquette`s travels and recorded his own experiences in detail; in 1721 visited the Mission de la Conception in Kaskaskia; in September was at Fort St. Joseph, heading for Chicago, but stormy weather deterred him and he eventually took the St. Joseph-Kankakee River route, bypassing Chicago; in 1744 published his Journal d`un Voyage Fait par Ordre du Roi dans l`Amerique Septentrionale, which included a map of the Great Lakes by cartographer [see] Jacques Bellin [also see Maps, 1744, Bellin] that shows Checagou and the Portage des Chênes. Charlevoix believed that Nicholas Perrot was at the Chicago site several years (1671) before Jolliet and Marquette, but few historians agree. [12, 226, 235]

Charlotte  armed British sloop patrolling Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built at Navy Island in 1764. [48]

Chase, Dr. Enoch  Vermont born, brother of Horace; of Milwaukee, but early resident of Chicago in the early 1830s, working as a clerk in James Kinzie and David Hall`s store at Wolf Point; in an 1883 letter [reprinted in Andreas] describes a visit to Chicago in 1834, when he traveled from Michigan City around the lower end of Lake Michigan; in addition to sighting Chicago, his description of road travel and enumeration of isolated houses and taverns on the roads between Michigan City and Milwaukee are of historic interest. [12] [13]

Chase, Horace    Vermont born, brother of Enoch; arrived in Chicago in 1834 and became a clerk in P.F.W. Peck’s store, then worked for Chester Ingersoll at the Wolf Tavern, then as clerk in the firm of Kinzie & Hall; in the winter of 1834-35 moved to Milwaukee and remained there permanently.

Chassut, Jacques  early member of the Catholic congregation; signed for a family of five on the 1833 petition to Bishop Rosati, requesting that a priest be assigned to Chicago; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

Chaubenee    see Shabbona.

Chaunier, Joseph  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness and received $550 in payment for a claim. [12]

Chauvin, Baptiste  also Chevain; an engagé who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Sept. 30, 1810, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Chavelie, Peter    see Chevalier, Peter.

Cheagoumeman  word for the mouth of the Chicago river as used by Franquelin on his map of New France, 1684; probably a corruption of Chicagoumeman.

Checagou  misspelling of [see] Chicagou.

Chechepinqua  transliteration of the Potawatomi name of [see] Alexander Robinson; also Chi-Chi-Bingway, Chee-Chee-Bing-Way that mean “squinting eyes,” “blinking eyes.” [226]

Chee, B.  an officer by this name from the brig Adams visited John Kinzie’s trading post on May 25, 1808, on account of the shipment of packs, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Chene, Jacques  also Cheve; the visit by a customer of this name to John Kinzie’s trading post was recorded for May 21, 1804, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [393b] [404]

Chequamegon Bay  also Chegoimegon; from Ojibwe zhaagawaamikaang, `place where the bottom of the water is oval`, from the verb zhaagawaamikaa, where the initial zhaagaw- means “oval, extended shape,” -aamik is “bottom of a body of water,” and -aa is the stative aspect marker. Near the western extent of Lake Superior, close to present Ashland, WI, the site is where the Jesuit [see] Mission de Saint-Esprit was founded by Father Allouez in 1665. [464c]

Chevalier, Angelique  (c.1801-1834) daughter of François Pierre and Marianne Chevalier; married Claude LaFramboise; daughter Marguerite was born c.1822 and baptized at Council Bluffs, IA, in 1838; Angelique received $200 at the Chicago Treaty on Sept. 26, 1833; an obituary in theChicago Democrat on Feb. 4, 1834, “Miss Angelique Chevalier, 33, died on Jan 27 at Chicago, of pulmonary disease.” [12] [275a]

Chevalier, Angelique  born July 11, 1733 in Michilimackinac, daughter of Jean Baptiste and Marie Françoise [née Alavoine] Chevalier; sister of [see] Louis Paschal [Louison] and Luc Ira; married Antoine Nicolas Lauzon. Two grandchildren of the couple were [see] Clement and Maurice Lauzon who were engagés from Detroit and worked for William H. Wallace at Hardscrabble beginning in the summer of 1826 and continuing until his death in April 1827. [275a]

Chevalier, Archange Marie  see Ouilmette, Archange Marie Chevalier.

Chevalier, Catherine  also de Catiche; daughter of François Pierre and Marianne Chevalier, sister of Archange Ouilmette and Sheshi Buisson; married [see] Alexandre Robinson on Sept. 28, 1826, before John Kinzie, J.P. Robinson`s first wife [Indian name unknown] nevertheless retained a position within the household. [275a]

Chevalier, Cuis  also Chevallier; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

Chevalier, François  second son of François Pierre and Marianne Chevalier; first married Charlotte Durocher (?); his second wife was Monique LaFramboise, daughter of Jean Baptiste Beaubien and Josette LaFramboise. [275a]

Chevalier, François Pierre  [also Louison; Shobonnier] born c.1755-60; métis son of Luc Ira [Louis] Chevalier and an Objibwa woman; married Marianne or Chopo, daughter of Potawatomi chief [see] Naunongee of the Calumet River area, and thereby became the
French-Potawatomi chief of the village on the NW shore of Lake Calumet, where a group of the United Band of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi resided; their children were Pierre, Archange Marie (married [see] Antoine Ouilmette), Suzanne Françoise (Sheshi, married [see] Pierre Louis Morin, then married [see] Louis Pierre Buisson), François, Catherine (married [see] Alexandre Robinson), Marianne (married [see] François LaFramboise, Jr.), Josette (married Mark Bourassa), Louis, and Angelique (married Claude LaFramboise); signed the Chicago Treaty of Sept. 26, 1833, as Sho-bon-nier, and received $800 in payment for his children at the Chicago Treaty; died c.1834, at which time Alexandre Robinson became chief. [12] [275a]

Chevalier, Jean Baptiste  (1803-1834) son of Louis Paschal Chevalier, Jr. and his Ojibwa wife Josephte; métisPotawatomi chieftain who attended the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on Apr. 27, 1827, and bought a “bai horse paid by John Kinzie, Senr.”; was on the voter list of Aug. 2, 1830; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833; an announcement of his death on Jan. 21, 1834, in the Chicago Democrat, as per Louis P. Chevalier, estate administrator. [12, 319] [275a]

Chevalier, Jean Baptiste  also Chevallier; born in 1677 in Montreal to French parents; married Marie Françoise Alavoine (born 1690, Quebec, to French parents); by 1719 they and their children (16) were one of the prominent French fur trading families at Michilimackinac, originally from Montreal, and later an important family at St. Joseph. [275a]

Chevalier, Josette  also Josephte; born on Sept. 8, 1807 at Mackinac; baptized on Aug. 10, 1821, at Detroit by Father Richard Gabriel; daughter of Louis Paschal Chevalier, Jr. and his Ojibwa wife Josephte, godchild of Leon and Archange Bourassa; received $200 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; her marriage to Mark Bourassa by Father St. Cyr is listed in Catholic church records, March 1835. [12] [275a]

Chevalier, Louis Paschal  (1730-1780) [Louison] born in Michilimackinac, son of Jean Baptiste and Marie Françoise [née Alavoine]; married Marie Magdeleine Réaume [Augustin, c.1702-1748] Larcheveque; with Marie`s son Austin Larcheveque (born 1748), the couple enlarged the family with sons Louis Paschal, Jr. and François; located at St. Joseph by 1758, he became very important engaging in trade and agriculture. See Luc Ira Chevalier. [275a]

Chevalier, Louis Paschal, Jr.  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; early member of the Catholic congregation; signed for a family of three on the 1833 petition to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to Chicago; with Josephte, his Ojibwa wife, had a son [see] Jean Baptiste (born in 1803) and a daughter [see] Josette (born in 1807); was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833, and received $112 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty later in September; was administrator for his deceased son Jean Baptiste Chevalier`s estate, as recorded in the January 1834Chicago Democrat. [12, 319] [275a]

Chevalier, Luc Ira  born May 22, 1735 in Michilimackinac, son of Jean Baptiste and Marie Françoise [née Alavoine]; worked with his brother [see] Louis Paschal in the fur trade at St. Joseph, assuming the name Louis in 1780 after his brother`s death; between 1755 and 1760 had a child with an Ojibwa woman, son [see] François Pierre. [275a]

Chevalier, Peter  [Pierre] also Chavalié, Chevilire; born 1778, first son of [see] François Pierre and Marianne Chevalier; voted at the election of Aug. 7, 1826 [see Chronology]; married Quiwatenokwa; was at Council Bluffs, IA, following 1835. [275a]

Chevalier, Sheshi  see Buisson, Suzanne Françoise Chevalier Morin; see Buisson, Louis.

Chi-Chi-Bingway  see Chechepinqua.

Chicago  a side-wheel steamer owned by John Griffith & Co. and Capt. John F. Wight, built on the St. Joseph River near the mouth of Hickory Creek in 1834-35; routed between St. Joseph and Chicago in 1835. [235]

Chicago  (1) also Chicagou or Checagou; Michigamea chief who lived in Missouri during the first half of the 18th century and visited Paris, where he became an instant sensation at the royal court; nothing points to a connection between this chief and the name of the Illinois settlement Chicago, contrary to statements by Mrs. Juliette Kinzie and Joseph J. Thompson.
(2) local Miami name for the wild garlic plant Allium tricoccum that gave the river and the settlement of Chicago its name; see essay by John Swenson; also see statement by Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac as quoted by Jacob Piat Dunn in vol. xviii of the Wisconsin Historical Collections. [219a, 303, 406] [659]

Chicago & Vincennes Railroad  a notice in the July 18, 1835, Chicago American announced a meeting in Danville of commissioners G.S. Hubbard, J.H. Kinzie, G.W. Dole, P. Pruyne, and William B. Archer of Vincennes; by late September its board consisted of eight men from the three towns, and subscriptions for capital stock became available for sale on December 14 at the Chicago branch of the State Bank of Illinois [see adjacent announcement in the Chicago American].

Chicago Academy    see English and Classical School for Boys.

Chicago additions  see Additions to Chicago.

Chicago American  second Chicago weekly newspaper, representing Whig views; the first issue appeared June 8, [reading May 8, due to a printer`s error] 1835, under editor and owner T.O. Davis; the office was on Water Street [later called South Water Street], near the drawbridge. On April 9, 1836, the Chicago American became a daily paper and was sold to [see] William Stuart in 1837; Alexander Stuart acquired the paper in July 1842, and published until Oct. 18, 1842. One week later, under new ownership, the paper was reintroduced as the Chicago Express; in 1844 the paper became the Chicago Daily Journal. [12]

Chicago and New York Land Company  real estate firm prominent during the 1835-36 land boom; its agent was K. Richards, with an office above the drugstore of W.H. & A.F. Clarke, at the corner Lake and Clark streets.

Chicago Bible Society  organized as a branch of the American Bible Society on Aug. 18, 1835, at a meeting of interested members of various denominations at the Methodist chapel; their mission was to make Bibles available to all who could read; Reverend Isaac T. Hinton was the first president; on November 25, the society held its first annual meeting at which Reverend J.T. Mitchell was elected president; W.H. Brown and Lt. Jamieson became vice presidents, Thomas Wright and Reverend Hinton, recording and correspondence secretaries; Dr. J.T. Temple became treasurer, and F. Thomas, G. Goodrich and James Rockwell composed the executive committee. [12]

Chicago Board of Health    see Board of Health.

Chicago Board of Town Trustees  first board elected on Aug. 10, 1833, with five trustees: T.J.V. Owen (president), George W. Dole, Madore B. Beaubien, John Miller, and E.S. Kimberly; the second election took place on Aug. 11, 1834; elected were J.H. Kinzie (president), G.S. Hubbard, E. Goodrich, J.K. Boyer, and John S.C. Hogan. At the third election in June 1835, eight trustees were elected: H. Hugunin (president), W. Kimball, B. King, S. Jackson, E.B. Williams, F.C. Sherman, E. Loyd, and George Dole. Also see: Chicago, Town, incorporation. [12]

Chicago Democrat  – Chicago`s 1st – newspaper, published by John Calhoun, a Jacksonian Democrat, the first issue appearing on Tuesday, Nov. 20, 1833; used the eagle reproduced here as a declaration on every issue beginning Nov. 26, 1833, with “–`Where Liberty dwells, there is my Country`– Franklin” below its headline. Initially, the newspaper was published every Tuesday, but in 1834 there were interruptions from late December to May because printing paper did not arrive. Calhoun states in the March 25, 1835, issue: “… the publisher deems it proper to state the causes which have led to its temporary suspension. … Early in the fall we have made arrangements for our [paper] supply but winter set in before it was received. We have since endeavored to obtain paper from various places, but have been unsuccessful. A supply of paper will be received by the first vessels from Cleveland, and also from Buffalo, ….” Offices were located at the SW corner of South Water and Clark until late October 1833, when moved to the loft above the hardware store of Jones & King on South Water Street between Clark and Dearborn. The paper was printed on an imperial sheet; a Washington press was used, operated by manual power; the second owner and publisher, John Wentworth, took over in November 1836. Publication ceased in 1861 when the paper was absorbed by the Chicago Tribune. In 1834, subscription per year was $2.50, payable in advance; advertisements were $1 for 17 lines or less, and 25 cents for every extra line. [13] [12]

Chicago Book and Stationary Store  Chicago Book and Stationary [sic] Store – Chicago`s 1st – opened in August 1834 by Aaron Russell and Benjamin H. Clift on South Water Street between Wells and LaSalle; other merchandise, such as patent medicines, were also sold; though the partnership dissolved in October 1835, Clift carried on.

Chicago Brewery  J. and W. Crawford first advertised to make contracts for 4,000 bushels “of good sound Barley to be delivered at the Chicago Brewery” in the June 13, 1835, Chicago American; for a reproduction of the ad, see entry on breweries.

Chicago Cemetery Association  organized on Oct. 18, 1834.

Chicago Commercial Advertiser  a weekly “liberty” [anti-slavery] paper first issued on Oct. 11, 1836, by Hooper Warren, with Edward H. Rudd as printer; the office was on Dearborn Street near South Water; it survived approximately one year.

Chicago Democrat  – Chicago`s 1st – newspaper, published by John Calhoun, a Jacksonian Democrat, the first issue appearing on Tuesday, Nov. 20, 1833; used the eagle reproduced here as a declaration on every issue beginning Nov. 26, 1833, with “–`Where Liberty dwells, there is my Country`– Franklin” below its headline. Initially, the newspaper was published every Tuesday, but in 1834 there were interruptions from late December to May because printing paper did not arrive. Calhoun states in the March 25, 1835, issue: “… the publisher deems it proper to state the causes which have led to its temporary suspension. … Early in the fall we have made arrangements for our [paper] supply but winter set in before it was received. We have since endeavored to obtain paper from various places, but have been unsuccessful. A supply of paper will be received by the first vessels from Cleveland, and also from Buffalo, ….” Offices were located at the SW corner of South Water and Clark until late October 1833, when moved to the loft above the hardware store of Jones & King on South Water Street between Clark and Dearborn. The paper was printed on an imperial sheet; a Washington press was used, operated by manual power; the second owner and publisher, John Wentworth, took over in November 1836. Publication ceased in 1861 when the paper was absorbed by the Chicago Tribune. In 1834, subscription per year was $2.50, payable in advance; advertisements were $1 for 17 lines or less, and 25 cents for every extra line. [13] [12]

Chicago Directory  Hurlbut, in his Chicago Antiquities, writes of a metallic box placed into the NE cornerstone of the court building at its construction in the fall of 1835, containing several unique documents, among them a list of “every dweller in Chicago outside of Fort Dearborn”; the box has never been found. A Chicago Business Directory – Chicago`s 1st – containing 277 entries, almost half of them on Lake Street, was printed as part of a 1839 publication by Edward H. Rudd under the title The Laws and Ordinances of the City of Chicago, passed in Common Council; in 1843, attorney James Wellington Norris canvassed for a general directory, and Robert Fergus and William Ellis printed the listing in 1844; many subsequent directories appeared. Before 1843, there have survived only lists of voters, such as those who cast votes for the first mayoral election on Tuesday, May 2, 1837. This particular list is reprinted in the second issue of the Fergus Historical Series, published in 1876. The same issue also contains a “1839 Directory of the City,” which Robert Fergus retrospectively assembled with the assistance of several elderly residents. Most of the citizens listed for 1839 (males only) had been living in town in preceding years, and population growth was minimal in Chicago between 1836 and 1839. [Every settler included in the encyclopedia, who was still living and working in the city in 1839 and listed in the directory is noted with City Directory and followed by the original listing; eds.] Another retrospective attempt, this one to assemble a comprehensive list of residents for 1833, may be found in J.R. Hayden`s book. [99, 132, 243, 506] [319]

Chicago elections    see elections.

Chicago Fire Department    see firefighting.

Chicago harbor  “The total absence of harbors around this southern extremity of the lake has caused the wreck of many a vessel, as the action of the storm from the northward upon such a wide expanse of fresh water is tremendous; and from the great height and violence of the surf, which then thunders in upon the base of the sand hills, and the utter solitude of this coast, lives are seldom if ever saved.” So wrote the English author Charles Latrobe who traveled to Chicago in September 1833. The mouth of the Chicago River did not naturally allow for a harbor; a sand bar diverted the river`s final course southward, and just where the waters met – from Wacker Dr. to as far S as 12th Street – was dependent on the wind, lake levels, and storm activity. G.S. Hubbard considered Madison Street the “permanent mouth,” but saw it move 1 1/2 miles S from the fort. [For further testimony by Hubbard, see entry on fox.] The sand bar stretched from N to S and was at times quite substantial, with juniper bushes and small willows growing on its northern portion that connected to the shore; it narrowed toward its free southern end, where the river met the lake; the mouth was usually too shallow to admit ships drawing 18 inches or more. According to Alexander Robinson, who witnessed the effort, soldiers of the second Fort Dearborn first cut a channel through the sand bar in 1816, wide enough for a yawl that carried supplies to the fort; the channel clogged with sand, so the soldiers were observed to have repeated the digging in 1818, 1823, and 1829, with no lasting success. Not until March 1833 did Congress appropriate an initial sum of $25,000 for a harbor; work began on July 1, 1833, under the direction of [see] Maj. George Bender, commandant at Fort Dearborn, and Asst. Superintendent Henry S. Handy. Harbor construction, a precondition for the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal which would follow, were federal projects under authority of the U.S. Department of Engineers [but from 1838, under the authority of the Topographical Bureau], which closely monitored and guided Major Bender`s efforts, as well as those of Second Lt. James Allen, who succeeded Bender as superintendent early in 1834. Prior to its completion, Charles F. Hoffman observed the effort and published the account that follows in the New York American [no. 18]. By July 12, the sand bar that had previously blocked the entrance to the Chicago River was breached by a man-made channel large enough to admit merchant vessels, and flanked by a 700-foot-long pier on the N and one of 200 feet on the S of the river mouth (both to be extended thereafter), creating a protective harbor 200 feet wide and from three to seven feet deep, and on that day the sailing ship Illinois entered; soon after, the sand bar, on which unfortunate speculators had built houses, was totally washed away. In 1835, a $6,000 dredging machine [drawing existent in the National Archives, Washington, D.C.] was purchased to deepen the channel; in August Allen advertised in the Chicago Democrat for 20 carpenters and 40 common laborers, promising immediate employment and good wages upon application. In 1833, only two brigs and two schooners had arrived from the lower lakes; in 1834, 176 vessels came; in 1835, about 250; and in 1836, by December 1, 456 ships had come, 39 of which were steamboats. Also see Chicago River; Forks; Illinois & Michigan Canal. The accompanying drawing of the second Fort Dearborn was made in situ by Count Francis Castelnau in 1838. [115, 233″, 389a, 425]

The town lies upon a dead level, along the banks of a narrow forked river, and is spread over a wide extent of surface to the shores of the lake, while vessels of considerable draught of water can, by means of the river, unload in the center of the place. – The Government have appropriated thirty thousand dollars for the purpose of making a safe and convenient harbour. The work is going on briskly & will probably be finished the next season. At present the vessels are obliged to anchor outside of the bar and unload by means of small boats or lighters, so called, and these have to be rowed more than a mile around the bar. When the river comes onto the beach of the lake it turn almost directly south and follows the beach, making a channel of about fifty yards between the beach and the sand bar, and it cannot be crossed even by small boats until proceeding about half a mile from the turn and then with difficulty sometimes. When the harbour is finished all this expense, time, and trouble will be saved. The work has been commenced on the south side of the river at the turn, and they are extending a wharf directly into the lake, cutting through the sand bar, and when finished the river will have a straight and direct channel into the lake, so that any vessel can come into the river and unload anywhere in town, saving all this distance round the bar with their freight`s expense & the danger of anchoring in the lake. It will be a safe harbour and the only one in this part of the lake, and the only one that can be except the mouth of the Calemic River. Vessels will be able to run up the south branch a mile or two, and up the north branch some farther. [53]

Chicago Harmonic Society  an ephemeral amateur group that gave the second public concert in Chicago on Dec. 11, 1835, one of several at the Presbyterian church. A piece called “Away with Melancholy” was repeated as a favorite. [237a] [12]

Chicago Historical Society  now known as the Chicago History Museum [text in preparation].

Chicago Hotel    see Green Tree Tavern.

Chicago Hydraulic Company    see water works.

Chicago land boom    see land boom.

Chicago Lyceum  the Chicago Lyceum for Social and Intellectual Pursuits, spearheaded by Dr. Egan, Dr. Temple, and Thomas Hoyne, with Royal Stewart as secretary; met first at the Presbyterian meeting house on Dec. 9, 1834; its members were a group of book-oriented intellectuals who advertised for donations to a library in the Chicago Democrat on December 17 and soon accumulated about 300 volumes; they held weekly meetings in Cook`s Coffee House or at the courthouse for discussion of cultural subjects and to practice debating; sessions were suspended throughout the summer and early autumn of 1835, but were revived late November and held at the Presbyterian church; on December 12, Lt. L.T. Jamieson was elected president, and Dr. Temple became vice-president; its reading room was located above John Johnson`s barber shop in September 1836, and later moved to the second floor of the Saloon Building; by 1841, interest in the Lyceum had faded [its library made available that year to the newly formed Young Men`s Association], but the endeavor may be noted as a forerunner of the Chicago Library System. [544] [12]

Chicago massacre    see Fort Dearborn massacre.

Chicago massacre tree  a large cottonwood tree on 18th Street, between Prairie Avenue and the lakeshore, said by eyewitnesses to have marked the site of the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and in particular, the location of the baggage wagon containing the twelve children of garrison personnel who were all tomahawked by one of the Indians; the tree was still standing in 1893, when an adjoining bronze memorial group (sculpted by Carl Rohl-Smith) was dedicated to mark the site`s importance. The tree was cut down the next year and the sculpture now is within the Prairie Avenue Historic District park.

Chicago Medical Society – The Medical Society of Cook County  the earliest meeting to form a Cook County Medical Society was held on Oct. 3, 1836, at the office of the Chicago Insurance Co.; the secretary was Dr. Levi D. Boone. On April 19, 1850, the Chicago Medical Society was formed and Dr. Boone became its first president. Today`s conjoined “Chicago Medical Society–The Medical Society of Cook County” therefore had its beginning in 1836, although records are lacking to show that the society met regularly between 1836 and 1850. [12]

Chicago militia    see Fort Dearborn militia.

Chicago outlet    geographic term for twin channels through the Valparaiso moraine that drained the waters of glacial Lake Chicago; through it flowed the large Chicago outlet river during the terminal period of the last ice age; the old river bed is now occupied by the Sanitary and Ship Canal, the remnants of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, the Calumet-Sag Channel and the lower Des Plaines River.

Chicago Plain    also Chicago Lake Plain; the virtually flat expanse of land uncovered by the retreat of Lake Chicago to the level of Lake Michigan that extended from the present lakefront W to Oak Park and LaGrange and S to Blue Island.

Chicago population growth    see population figures.

Chicago Portage  originally named by the French Le Portage des Chênes [oaks], the name most commonly refers to the 1 1/2 mile stretch of wet prairie straddling the continental divide and separating the E end of Mud Lake (now Kedzie Avenue and 31st Street) from the W arm of the south branch of the Chicago River (at Western Avenue and 27th Street), and thereby separating the Mississippi River system from the Great Lakes. The distance to be portaged varied with the season: at high water, during approximately 48 days of the year, boats of two to three tons could pass without unloading, but during dry times portaging of up to 100 miles by way of the Long Portage Road became necessary, because the Des Plaines River became a bed of rocks. The portage was known and had been used by the Indians for centuries; the first confirmed use of the portage by Europeans was in 1673 by Jolliet and Father Marquette. The Federal Plat of Township 39 of 1822, prepared by William Rector, shows a “Portage House” located at the eastern end of the Chicago portage road. There was at least one other portage in what is now the city of Chicago, which used the north branch of the river, and that the term Portage de Chicagou may have referred to more than one location. For additional detail, see entries for portage and for Mud Lake. [Editorial note: The portage historical marker shown here was prepared by the Illinois Historical Society and was unveiled on May 25, 2010, at the Chicago Portage National Historic Site; see Monuments section.] [12, 413] [692]

Chicago postmark  long before Chicago opened its first post office, practices for managing the mail were well-regulated through postmarks. Invented by Henry Bishop, head of the London General Post Office during England`s Restoration in 1660, the postmark had been provided to the General Post Office, NY, by 1770 and soon after to Boston. Type-set town names were first used with circular dates, then adapted to the large circular postmarks by 1800 and were accompanied by manuscript or a stamped “PAID.” Postal fees were established by Congress in the Act of April 9, 1816 – the basis of a single sheet of paper letter delivered on a mileage zone basis; letters weighing one ounce were charged a quadruple weight. The mileage was estimated by mail route distances between post offices rather than by direct line.
Not over 30 miles, 6 cts.
Over 30 to 80 miles, 10 cts.
Over 80 to 150 miles, 12 1/2 cts.
Over 150 to 400 miles, 18 1/2 cts.
Over 400 miles, 25 cts.
Effective May 1, 1825, the 150 to 400 miles zone rate was increased to 18 3/4 cts. (1 1/2 shillings or bits).
The envelope nearby was addressed by [see] Elijah Kent Hubbard and contained his letter to [see] Elizabeth Sebor De Koven whom he would marry in September 1834. [634a] [389b]

Chicago Precinct  when Chicago was part of Putnam County but administered by Peoria County from Jan. 13, 1825, to Jan. 15, 1831, a precinct was designated for voting purposes that included land E of the mouth of the Du Page River (emptying into the Des Plaines River) to Lake Michigan and N to the Michigan Territory [Wisconsin State] line. Following the organization of Cook County, in March 1831, three county voting precincts were established: one for Chicago, one at Hickory Creek, and one at the Du Page settlement.

Chicago Reading Room Association  directors Lt. J. Allen, C. Petit, and secretary Henry Moore met at the Tremont House on July 6, 1835, with the intention of obtaining a building with a room for reading and a hall for public lectures; on Aug. 22 a second notice appeared in the Chicago American indicating that papers for the present were deposited at Cook`s Coffee House, “where they can be seen at all convenient times.”

Chicago River  called Portage Rivière by Father Marquette, and later Rivière de Chicagou by other Frenchmen, although early travelers used the native name Chicago and its variants for the Des Plaines River; still later the term Chicago Creek was common. The name refers to the main stem and the north and south branches, joining at Wolf Point; early names for the north branch were Guillory (Post & Paul 1824 map), Gary River (Keating), Guarie River (Hubbard), and Guilleroi (Lieutenant Furman); headwaters for the south branch were at Mud Lake (31st Street and Kedzie Avenue), and for the north branch, near Skokie. The river once drained the Chicago plain into Lake Michigan and successively formed several mouths, the location depending on lake level, rainfall, and storm activity. An eyewitness description of the river mouth area was given by [see] Lt. James Strode Swearingen on Aug. 17, 1803, after he arrived in Chicago as a member of the advance party assigned to build Fort Dearborn, and a more detailed description with exact measurements was given by [see] U.S. assistant engineer Henry Belin in 1831. In 1830, the river averaged 40 feet in width and had multiple small tributaries (sloughs) in the [downtown] region; sloughs at LaSalle Street and State Street were crossed atop logs by pedestrians on South Water Street; the sloughs were built over and eventually disappeared. At that time, the river reached the lake at a point that is now covered by the Chicago Art Institute on Michigan Avenue. The completion of the Illinois & Michigan Canal in 1848 began the process of flow reversal of the river, though not realized until completion of the Drainage and Shipping Canal in January 1900. Both canals connect the south branch of the Chicago River with the Des Plaines River, as did the Chicago portage, using the Des Plaines valley, which marks the former prehistoric outflow of the lake. For information on the river mouth with its variable location in earlier years, see next entry; on the associated sand bank see report by John Dean Caton below; for an account of early efforts to straighten the final stretch of the river and to create a harbor, see also Chicago harbor, Chicago Portage, Mud Lake, Chicago outlet. For additional information on the current status of the river, see “river facts” at www.chicagoriver.org., the web site of “Friends of the Chicago River.” The illustration above shows the river as it appeared in c.1805. [119a, 310, 553, 702]
From John Dean Caton’s ReminiscencesIn February, 1834, a thaw came and the river broke with a great rush of waters. In the morning the ice was going out with a great exhibition of force. I hastened to the pier which had been extended across the bed of the river at the Fort and found the waters were beginning to cut a way across the sandpit straight out into the lake. The loose sand wore away and the channel increased rapidly and in a few hours was large enough to pass a schooner. It was quite an attraction through the day. I think that channel was again closed up in a short time after the waters subsided, but was again opened in the spring by another rise in the water and it has never since been closed. [Also see the entry on freshet.] [337a]

Chicago River mouth  for a description of its location and displacement over time, see entries on Chicago River, Lt. James Strode Swearingen [1804], and Henry Belin [1831].

Chicago Road  (1) local term used for the trail that connected Bailly`s trading post on the Calumet Beach Trail with the Sauk Trail at Westville, IN; (2) also meaning the Chicago-Detroit Road (or Turnpike), construction of which began in 1825 along the old Sauk Trail (or Mohawk Trail), after the Treaty of Chicago of 1821 secured the right of way from the Potawatomi. Starting at Detroit, the road crossed the St. Joseph River in three places, passed through [Michigan City, IN] and skirted the shore of Lake Michigan until just S of Chicago where the road [later Cottage Grove Avenue] united with the Vincennes Road near 18th and Michigan. Inland variations became alternate stage routes during the mid 1830s and passed through either Hammond, Riverdale, Thornton, or Blue Island.

Chicago Temperance Society  an organized temperance society existed as early as 1832; a notice placed in the Chicago Democrat, Dec. 24, 1833, by the secretary of the society, J. Watkins, alerts members and inhabitants to meet at the Baptist Meeting House; a Jan. 28, 1834, notice redirects them to the Presbyterian Meeting House; also see Philo Carpenter, one of the most active members.

Chicago Treaties with the Indians    see Treaties.

Chicago Turnpike    see Chicago Road.

Chicago wards  on Sept. 25, 1834, the town was divided into four wards and a firewarden was appointed for each: first ward – W. Worthington; second ward – E.E. Hunter; third ward – Samuel Resique; fourth ward – James Kinzie.

Chicago, boundaries  the area of the Chicago settlement (0.417 square miles) was initially defined by the plat published on Aug. 4, 1830, by James Thompson, surveyor for the canal commissioners; it was enclosed by Madison, DesPlaines, Kinzie, and State streets, of which only Kinzie Street was named. On Aug. 10, 1833, the same day the first village board was elected, the town limits were defined as follows: “Beginning at the intersection of Jackson and Jefferson streets; thence north to [see] Cook street, and through that street to its eastern extremity in Wah-bon-seh; thence on a direct line to Ohio street in Kinzie`s addition; thence eastwardly to the lake shore; thence south with the line of beach to the northern United States pier; thence northwardly along said pier to its termination; thence to the channel of the Chicago River; thence along said channel until it intersects the eastern boundary line of the town of Chicago, as laid out by the canal commissioners; thence southwardly with said line until it meets Jackson Street; thence westwardly along Jackson street until it reaches the place of beginning.” The first increase in size of the settlement was declared by the village board on Nov. 6, 1833, adding to the existing official town area the tract bounded by State Street on the W, Ohio Street on the N, the lakeshore on the E, and Jackson Street on the S. On Feb. 11, 1834, the village board again revised the boundaries, including all land E of State Street, from Chicago Avenue on the N to 12th Street [Roosevelt] on the S, excepting the military reservation of Fort Dearborn.

Chicago, European visitors, earliest  Marquette and Jolliet 1673; Marquette 1674-75; Allouez 1677; La Salle 1679; La Salle and Tonti 1681; Joutel and Cavelier 1687-88; Lahontan 1689; Tonti 1691-92; Pinet and Bineteau 1696; Montigny, St. Cosme, Davion, Tonti, and Thaumur de la Source 1699. These travelers left written records of passage through the Chicago area prior to 1700 when portaging between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River system; while near the portage, some were detained either by bad weather conditions or by choice (mission work). Numerous others would have come through the portage during the same time period, but were illiterate or chose to leave no record. For details, see individual entries.

Chicago, Illinois  located in the state of Illinois at a latitude of 41 degrees, 53 minutes, and 06.2 seconds N; longitude W of the meridian of Greenwich, 87 degrees, 38 minutes, 01.2 seconds, as determined by Lt. Col. J.D. Graham, U.S.A., in 1858 at the dome of Chicago`s courthouse. Chicago was incorporated as a town on Aug. 10, 1833, but incorporation was not approved by the Illinois General Assembly until Feb. 11, 1835, and not certified by the secretary of state until July 6, 1835. The municipality received a city charter on March 4, 1837. Also see Additions to Chicago; Chicago boundaries; Chicago Directory; Chicago land boom; Chicago, name, origin; Chicago, name, variants; Chicago population growth; Chicago precinct; Chicago schools; Chicago streets; Chicago Town Ordinances; Chicago Town Trustees. [58, 72, 73, 99, 215, 258, 266, 269, 273, 294, 303, 325, 375, 463, 465, 491, 498, 544] [553]

Chicago, incorporation    see Chicago, Town, incorporation.

Chicago, name, early variants  the French spelling of Checagou was due to an erroneous transcription of the ambiguous handwriting of La Salle, whose letter to the governor of New France began “Du Portage de Checagou 5 juin 1683.” In a 1697 letter to Laval, Father Gravier mentions “[o]ur mission of Chikagoua.” The United States government in the 1795 Treaty of Greenville wrote Chikago. Early variations (and misspellings) have been, in alphabetical order: Cheagoumeman (Franquelin 1686), Checago (Minet 1685), Checagou (La Salle 1683; Senex, De L`Isle 1703; Tonti, Nicolas de Fer 1718; Bellin 1744), Chegakou (Lahontan 1703), Chekagou (Tillman 1688), Chekakou (Moll), Chicago (William Burnett 1798), Chicagou (Joutel 1687; St. Cosme 1699; De L`Isle 1703; Charlevoix 1744), Chicagoue (Armstrong 1789), Chicagoux (de Ligney 1726), Chigagou (Popple 1733), Chicag8 (St. Cosme 1699), Chicagoua or Chicagoüa or Chicag8a (Gravier 1696), Chicagou (De L`Isle 1718; Mitchell 1755), Chicagoux (early French manuscript, according to Hurlbut), Chicagu (St. Cosme 1699), Chicagvv (St. Cosme 1699), Chicajo (Gen. A. Wayne 1795), Chicaqua (Sanson 1696), Chicauga (W. Jordan, Armstrong 1790), Chigagou (St. Cosme 1699), Chigaquea (Kellogg, 1711), Chikago (Hutchins 1778, see map detail), Chikagoe (G. La Mothe), Chikagou (St. Cosme 1699), Chikagoüa (Gravier 1700), Chikagu (St. Cosme 1699), Chiquagoux (Jean Orillat), Eschecagou and [see] Eschikagou (De Peyster 1813).

Chicago, name, origin  Chicago`s name derives from a Miami-Illinois word meaning striped skunk [see Mephitis mephitis], but also ramp or wild leek [see Allium tricoccum, a member of the garlic group; also see, attached to this entry, color photos of the three stages of this springtime plant]. For this native word various phonetic spellings have been advanced, such as chicagou by La Salle in 1680, then chicagoua or chicag8a by Father Gravier in the 1690s, a Jesuit missionary and talented linguist, who, following the linguistic convention begun by the Jesuit St. Jean de Brebeuf in the 1630s, used the open-topped symbol `8` (not available in any font) to signify an Illinois sound similar to the English w; another version closely reflecting the original pronounciation by the Indians comes from [see] Joseph Kellogg who rendered it into English in 1711 as chigaquea. The closest phonetic representation was most recently advanced by Michael McCafferty as shikaakwa. With the above mentioned plant in mind, and until c.1750, local Indians and early French pioneers also used the word as a name for what is now the Des Plaines River; later in the 18th century the name shifted to the Chicago River and to the settlement that grew upon its banks. Wild leek grew abundantly along both rivers. Although La Salle`s attempt of phonetically rendering the name was inadequate, severely distorting the Indian pronounciation of the last syllable, it nevertheless became the prototype for the eventual word “Chicago” as adopted by the English speaking community. John F. Swenson established the connection between Allium tricoccum and Chicago`s name in 1991, and Michael McCafferty confirmed such by detailed etymological analysis in 2003; for additional detail, see Swenson`s essay “Chicago: Meaning of the Name and Location of Pre-1800 European Settlements.” Franquelin`s 1686 map, representing the first time that the word Chicagou appeared on a printed map, may be viewed in the Chronology section. [735aa] [464b

Chicago, seal  the familiar corporate seal was created in 1838, its impetus being the incorporation of the city of Chicago on March 4, 1837; the seal was designed by Dr. James C. Goodhue and was often affectionately referred to as “Dr. Goodhue`s Little Baby.” Earlier, the first village president, Thomas J.V. Owen, used the obverse of a U.S. half dollar to create a seal. For the inscription Urbs in Horto, see Birkbeck, Morris. The original design by Dr. Goodhue, as shown here, has undergone several modifications in subsequent years. [435] [56]

Chicago, town limits    see Chicago, boundaries.

Chicago, Town Trustees    see Chicago Board of Town Trustees.

Chicago, Town, boundaries    see Chicago, boundaries.

Chicago, Town, incorporation  in the summer of 1833, the population level had reached 350 and Chicago`s citizens prepared to incorporate the settlement as a town under the Illinois legislative act that had been passed on Feb. 12, 1831; a population of 150 was the minimum requirement. Late in June [the exact date is unknown], at a meeting of the “Qualified Electors” of the Chicago Precinct of Peoria/Putnam County, in the drugstore of Peter Pruyne & Co., a 12-to-1 vote was cast for incorporation. Thomas J.V. Owen, presiding; Dr. Edmund S. Kimberly, secretary; voting for incorporation: Owen, Kimberley, John S.C. Hogan, C.A. Ballard, George W. Snow, Richard J. Hamilton, Dr. J.T. Temple, John W. Wright, George W. Dole, Hiram Pearsons, Alanson Sweet, and Mark Beaubien; against, Russell Heacock. On Aug. 5, a notice was posted for an election to be held on Aug. 10 for the purpose of choosing five trustees. Meeting in the Sauganash Hotel, 28 voters elected the trustees who proceeded to organize the town government; they were: Indian Agent Thomas J.V. Owen, George W. Dole, Madore B. Beaubien, John Miller, and Dr. Edmund S. Kimberley. On Aug. 12, the town board met for the first time, was sworn in by Col. R.J. Hamilton, and elected Mr. Owen president and Mr. Harmon clerk. Chicago`s Articles of Incorporation as a town were not approved by the Illinois General Assembly until Feb. 11, 1835, and were not certified by the secretary of state until July 6, 1835. The 28 names on the voting list of Aug. 10, 1833, are: Dr. E.S. Kimberly, Hiram Pearson, Philo Carpenter, Dr. J.T. Temple, David Carver, James Kinzie, Charles Taylor, John S.C. Hogan, George W. Snow, Madore Beaubien, G. Kercheval, G.W. Dole, G.V. Owen, R.J. Hamilton, Enoch Darling, W.H. Adams, C.A. Ballard, John Watkins, James Gilbert, Mathias Smith, Dexter J. Hapgood, Stephen F. Gale, J.B. Beaubien, Mark Beaubien, William Ninson, George Chapman, John W. Wright, and Eli A. Rider. [28]

Chicago, Town, Ordinances    see Chronology for Nov. 7 and Dec. 4, 1833, to note the first 16 ordinances written and adopted by the first town board; also see Ordinances of the Town of Chicago.

Chicago-Detroit Road  see Chicago Road.

chicagoua  also chicag8a – Illinois word for the locally growing wild garlic plant Allium tricoccum, which gave the town of Chicago its name. The first spelling of the word chicagoua or chicag8a was by Father Gravier in the 1690s, a Jesuit missionary and talented linguist, who, following the linguistic convention begun by the Jesuit St. Jean de Brebeuf in the 1630s, used the symbol `8` to signify an Illinois sound similar to the French ou or the English u; the a at the end of chicagoua was almost silent. For additional etymologic information see John F. Swenson`s essay.

Chicagoumeman  see essay by John F. Swenson.

Chilaga  a corruption of the native name Hochelaga [`beaver dam-at`] for Montreal; according to Helen H. Tanner, “… a legendary, mythical place that kept cropping up on early maps.” The name is found on maps as early as 1570, before the Great Lakes were known to western explorers, and is usually placed into what is now Canada, past the headwaters of the St. Lawrence River, far N of present-day Chicago, but on later maps is farther S; the similarity to the word Chicagou has prompted some historians to speculate that Chilaga may be an early spelling of Chicago, but there yet is no convincing evidence, and such speculation ignores the ancient name Hochelaga. [324, 649] [456a]

children  Indian women have given birth in the Chicago area for thousands of years, and many métis children, sired by early French trappers and traders, have crowded the dwellings they shared with their Indian mothers since the second half of the 18th century. Few vital statistics regarding these children were then noted. The first known Chicago-born métis child was Louis Amiot, his birth documented within the Catholic church records.
A listing of the first children known to have been born to settlers at Chicago — recorded births, arrivals between 1745 and 1812:

•••1745 October – Louis Amiot, son of Jean Baptiste Amiot, French Canadian blacksmith and his Ottawa wife Marianne, who baptized their son at Michilimackinac on June 14, 1746; the church record reads: “the said child having been born at the Rivière aux plains [Des Plaines River] near chikago at the beginning of the month of October last”; died in 1757.
•••1796 Oct. 6 – Eulalia Pelletier, first child of trader Jean Baptiste Pelletier and Suzanne Point de Sable, granddaughter of Jean Baptiste Point de Sable; lived to adulthood.
•••1804 Dec. 27 – Ellen Marion Kinzie, second child of trader John and Eleanor Lytle McKillip Kinzie; lived to adulthood.
•••1805 autumn – Meriwether Lewis Whistler, son of Lt. William and Mrs. Mary Julia Fearson Whistler at Fort Dearborn; drowned at the age of seven.
•••1807 September – Maria Indiana Kinzie, fourth child of John and Eleanor Lytle McKillip Kinzie; lived to adulthood.
•••1807 Oct. 7 – John Harrison Whistler, son of Lt. William and Mrs. Mary Julia Fearson Whistler at Fort Dearborn; died in 1873.
•••1809 Oct. 26 – Charles Lalime Jouett, son of Charles and Susan Randolph Allen Jouett; died on Sept. 8, 1810.
•••1810 Feb. 8 – Robert Allen Kinzie, fifth child of John and Eleanor Lytle McKillip Kinzie; died in 1873.
•••1811 – Benjamin (?), son of Cicely, Negro slave of Capt. Nathan and Mrs. Rebekah Wells Heald at Fort Dearborn; killed and beheaded as an infant at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812.
•••1811 – Sally Leigh, daughter of Sgt. James and Martha Leigh; survived the massacre of 1812.
•••1812 Feb. 12 – Susan Simmons, second child of Pvt. John and Mrs. Susan Millhouse Simmons at Fort Dearborn; died in 1900, becoming the oldest survivor of the massacre.
•••1812 April – Catherine Burns, only child of Thomas and Mary Burns; survived the massacre and lived to old age.
•••1812 May – Heald, —, unnamed stillborn child of Capt. Nathan and Mrs. Rebekah Wells Heald, “born dead for want of a skillful midwife.” The Healds had adamantly rejected the professional services of Dr. Van Voorhis (age 21), feeling that he was too young.
•••1812 Aug. 15 – Corbin, —, unnamed eight month old fetus of Pvt. Phelim and Mrs. Victoria Corbin; after the mother had been killed at the massacre, the fetus was cut from her abdomen, and both were scalped and beheaded.
[Editors` note: Sgt. James and Martha Leigh had two young sons killed at the Fort Dearborn massacre who must have been born in Chicago during the years between 1804 and 1811, but neither their names nor their birth dates are recorded.]

Childs, Col. Ebenezer C.  born in Massachusetts, 1797; living at Green Bay in 1821 and within that year, visited Chicago; published his experiences [see Bibliography] in 1858. He approached by way of the Chicago portage after several days of heavy rain and “found not less than two feet of water all the way across the portage”; returning in 1827: “The place had not improved any since 1821. Only two families still resided there, those of Kinzie and Col. Beaubien.” [For the complete comment by Childs on his Chicago visit, see 1821 in the Chronology.] Childs married one of the métis daughters of [see] Augustin Grignon of Wisconsin. [12] [139]

Childs, Luther  involved in the first organization of a Sunday school on Aug. 19, 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833; later moved to Milwaukee; in 1840 married Susan Curtis of Chicago. [319]

Chinguagon  Chinguagon – Ojibwa word for “the Pinery”; see entry on Fort St. Clair.

Chipman, Ansel  owner of Chicago land, the eastern half of the NE quarter of Section 4 of Township 39 N, prior to 1836, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Chippewa  see Ojibwa.

Chippewa  armed British sloop patrolling Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built at Pine River in 1769. [48]

Chipwagen    see Sheboygan.

Chittenden Road  stagecoach road of the mid 1830s [paralleling Torrence Avenue], passing the Chittenden cabin, crossing the Little Calumet River by Chittenden bridge near 130th Street, and the Grand Calumet near the state line.

Chival, Mary  see Montgomery, John H.

Chivel, Matthew  settled in February 1835 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL. During this year, at least 18 log houses were raised in this community. [13]

cholera  having been introduced from Europe to Canada in April 1832, the Asiatic cholera reached Fort Dearborn on July 10, 1832, with Gen. Winfield Scott and 199 soldiers, including the captain Augustus Walker, on board the steamer Sheldon Thompson for the Black Hawk War arriving from various eastern military posts, and with additional soldiers arriving on the William Penn arriving eight days later; the disease had manifested itself onboard ship only the day before arrival. The permanent garrison of two companies under Maj. William Whistler was evacuated and camped two miles from the fort. The fort was converted into a hospital for the 1,000 soldiers present, and the sick were treated by Drs. DeCamp, Macomb, and Dr. Harmon; 200 became ill and 58 died. General Scott left Fort Dearborn on July 29, the cholera having about died out. Fear of cholera lingered in the population, as shown by multiple newspaper ads for cholera “elixir” [see ad by druggist Frederick Thomas here] and for cholera vaccination [see ad in entry on Dr. James A. Dunn]. The civilian population largely withdrew into the countryside. A second cholera epidemic occurred in 1849, and a third one in 1866. The following letter written in 1860 by Capt. A. Walker of the Sheldon Thompson describes some of the events.
Four steamers, the Henry Clay, Superior, Sheldon Thompson, and William Penn were chartered by the United States Government for the purpose of transporting troops, equipment and provisions to Chicago, during the Black Hawk War, but, owing to the fearful ravages, made by the breaking out of the Asiatic cholera among the troops and crew on board, the Henry Clay and the Superior, were compelled to abandon their voyage, proceeding no further than Fort Gratiot. The disease became so violent on board of the Henry Clay that nothing like discipline could be observed, everything in the way of subordination ceased. As soon as the steamer came to the dock, each man sprang on shore, hoping to escape from a scene so terrific and appalling. Some fled to the fields, some to the woods, while others lay down on the streets, and under the cover of the river bank, where most of them died unwept and alone. – We arrived at Chicago on the evening of the 10th of July, 1832. I sent the yawl-boat on shore soon after with General Scott and a number of the volunteer officers. – Before landing the troops next morning, we were under the painfull necessity of committing three more to the deep, who died during the night, making, in all, sixteen who were thus consigned to a watery grave. These three were anchored to the bottom in two and a-half fathoms, the water being so clear that their forms could be plainly seen from our decks. This unwelcome sight created such excitement, working upon the superstitious fears of some of the crew, that prudence dictated that we weigh anchor and move a distance, sufficient to shut from sight a scene which seemed to haunt the imagination, and influence the mind with thought of some portentious evil. – In the course of the day and night following, eighteen others died and were interred not far from the spot where the American Temperance House has since been erected [NW corner of Lake Street and Wabash Avenue; eds.]. The earth that was removed to cover one made a grave to receive the next that died. All were buried without coffins or shrouds, except their blankets, which served for a winding sheet, there left, as it were, without remembrance or a stone to mark their resting-place. During the four days we remained at Chicago, fifty-four more died, making an aggregate of eighty-eight who paid the debt of nature.
The following is an excerpt from a letter written by Captain Monroe of the Sheldon Thompson, dated Bloomingdale, July 31, 1832, and published in the Niles Register of Aug. 11, 1832:
Gen. Scott is in perfect health, though he had exposed himself on board the steam boat by attending every officer and soldier taken sick. On our arrival at Chicago, every member of the general’s staff was sick, and continued to get worse.
On the 14th, he ordered col. Worth, myself, and lieut. De Hart to return home on account of ill health, considering Black Hawk’s laurels rather questionable. Captain Gath
 [Galt], the other member of the staff, was too ill to travel, but would in all probability leave Chicago in a few days. [126a, 714] [12]

Cholera Vigilance Committee  appointed by the town trustees in 1834, consisting of Dr. W.B. Egan, Dr. J.C. Goodhue, A. Steele, Mark Beaubien, and J.K. PalmerÑall from the S district; G. Kercheval, J. Miller, N.R. Norton, John Davis, and Hiram Hugunin from the N district; J. Kinzie, C. Taylor, and J. Bates, from the W district. The committee saw little activity because the cholera did not return until 1849, but became the forerunner of the first [see] Chicago Board of Health of 1835. [12]

Chouteau brothers  also Choteau; Réne Auguste (1750-1829) and Jean Pierre, Sr. (1758-1849) were the leading traders at St. Louis during the fourth quarter of the 18th century and beyond. Pierre Laclède Liguest (1729-1778), an educated immigrant from Bedous, France, was Auguste`s stepfather and Pierre`s father by their mother Marie Thèrése Bourgeois of New Orleans. In July 1763 Laclède received a license for exclusive trade with the Missouri nation and all Indian tribes residing west of the Mississippi for an eight year term; on the west bank at the mouth of the Missouri River in February 1764, father and stepson Auguste began the survey and platting of a settlement soon named St. Louis. Once the trade businesses developed by the brothers were prospering in the 1780s, Chouteau trading parties, with or without members of the family, regularly travelled in various directions, including from St. Louis to Montreal by way of the Mississippi, the Illinois River, the Chicago portage, Lake Michigan, Michilimackinac and the Ottawa River. As shown in John Kinzie’s account books, he was visited by Auguste on July 25, 1805, and again on July 22 and 25, 1807, and by Pierre in June 1818. During July 1807 John Kinzie twice transported packs for Auguste to incur charges of nearly 40 pounds, and in July 1808 Kinzie charged him $256 for carrying 128 packs from Mount Joliet to Chicago. The same route through the Chicago portage was taken repeatedly by August Aristide Chouteau (1792-1833), son of Auguste Chouteau, during the first decade of the 19th century when he was sent to a boarding school in Montreal. Also see Paul, René and Gratiot, Charles. [559, 404, 714] [139a]

Church, Henry  listed in 1833 as owner of lot 10 in block 28 of the original town, a lot that in 1830 had belonged to A. Clybourne [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

Church, Jeremiah  (Jerry) early visitor from Cleveland who kept a journal and left accounts of three separate visits to Chicago during the years 1830 to 1833; traveled around the lake, stopping at Joseph Bailly`s and John Mann`s inns; for excerpts from his journal, see Bailly, Joseph; Mann, John; malaria. [141]

Church, Thomas  (1801-1871) was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833; returned by schooner with his wife, Rachel (née Warriner), and two small daughters from Buffalo, NY on June 2, 1834; purchased two Lake Street lots on the S side of the street in block 28 from Archibald Clybourne for $250 each and erected – Chicago`s 1st – building on Lake Street, between Clark and Dearborn, a two-story 20-by-40 foot frame structure where they lived and kept a grocery store (with M.L. Satterlee, clerk); upstairs in this building, the U.S. Land Office opened on June 1, 1835; in the Sept. 2 Chicago Democrat, as agent for Buffalo [NY] Nursery, advertised “Fruit and Ornamental trees, Grape vines, Rose bushes, &c.; … Trees and Plants ordered from this Nursery will be securely packed in boxes or mats, and delivered on board of any steam boat or vessel in Buffalo, and will arrive in Chicago in perfect order,” catalogues gratis; Church therefore qualifies as – Chicago`s 1st nurseryman; 1839 City Directory: grocery and provision store, 111 Lake St. In April 1839 Rachel died; she had borne five children, two of whom survived; on Nov. 5, 1839, Thomas married Rebecca Pruyne (widow of Peter Pruyne, daughter of Silas Sherman) who brought her own child to the marriage; became a successful real estate investor, then later the first president of the Chicago Fireman`s Insurance Company; worked for the city as South Division general tax assessor for new projects. Church died in Chicago; his widow still lived at 331 Michigan Ave. in 1885; street name: Church Street, a diagonal street on the SW side. [97, 233”, 319, 351, 653] [12]

Church, W.E.    a person by this name claimed wharfing privileges from the Chicago town board in November 1835.

churches and congregations    see entries under: Methodist church (1831), Catholic church (1833), Presbyterian church (1833), and Episcopal church (1834).

Churchill, Deacon Winslow  (Dec. 30, 1770-Sept. 18, 1847) born in Plympton, Plymouth, MA; married Mercy (Rutland, VT June 15, 1774-Feb. 21, 1863), daughter of Isaac and Meletiah Lydia [née Bradford] Dodge, in 1796 at Camillus, Onondaga, NY, where he farmed 30 years; arrived in June 1834 on the schooner LaGrange with his wife and 11 children (three sons brought families); moved to a 160 acre claim along the Du Page River to settle at Lombard. A photograph of a bronze plaque honoring Churchill can be viewed in the Monuments section under his name. Also note the portrait of his wife, Mercy Dodge Churchill, below. [657a]

Churchill, Mercy Dodge  wife of [see] Deacon Winslow Churchill.

Cicely  a Negro slave girl belonging to Captain and Mrs. Heald, came with them to Fort Dearborn in 1810; John Kinzie offered $600 for her, but was refused; perished with her infant child in the Fort Dearborn massacre. In 1855, long after her husband`s death in 1832, Mrs. Heald petitioned the U.S. government for monetary compensation for loss of personal property suffered at the massacre of 1812; the major item in the inventory she submitted was “One negro woman, Cicely, and her child, valued at $1,000.00”; the claim was denied. [226]

Circuit Court of Cook County    regular sessions of this court began in May 1834, under the Honorable Richard M. Young at Chicago; Judges Sidney Breese and Stephen T. Logan held the first and second sessions in the 1835-1836 term.

City charter    granted to Chicago by the state legislature on March 1, 1837.

City Hotel  a brick three-story structure built in 1836-37 by Francis C. Sherman on the NW corner of Clark and Randolph streets; in mid 1837 [see] Jacob Russell became the landlord, continuing through 1844, when it was remodeled and renamed Sherman House. [357]

City West    lumber boom town on Silver Creek (Indiana dunes) founded by 1834, but abandoned following a fire several years later; the remaining buildings were moved to Michigan City and Tremont.

claim to land  early settlers were able to stake a claim by building a cabin on unsurveyed land; “… timber claims were made by marking trees [carved initials on `witness trees` at the four corners], and the prairie claims by plowing a furrow entirely around each.” Homesteaders were able to purchase at a minimum price, $1.25 per acre, the portion of land settled and improved. “The usual quantity claimed was 160 acres; some, however, claimed more, and some less than that amount. There were some conflicting claims; but these difficulties were generally settled when the land was sold, by the one having the largest portion of the disputed claim buying the whole, and then re-deeding to each holder his proportion.”

Clairmore, Jerry    see Clermont, Jeremy (Jerry).

Clamorgan, Jacques  the assumed name of a mysterious swindler of unknown origins; Clamorgan is not a genuine surname found anywhere in the world. In legend, Jean Baptiste Point de Sable`s friend and benefactor; a wealthy landowner and crooked land speculator who conspired with corrupt officials of Spanish Louisiana to obtain fraudulent land “grants” for himself and others. Point de Sable, the free Negro, is unlikely to have lived within Clamorgan`s space, as the “friend” was an abusive slave owner. [649]

Clapp, Julia Butler  see Newberry, Walter L.

Clarissa  – Chicago`s 1st ship, built in the town for lake trade; construction began in 1835; was launched on May 12, 1836; the builder was Nelson R. Norton, a ship carpenter, and the carpenter brothers, Polemus D. and Thomas E. Hamilton.

Clark County, Illinois  from Mar. 22, 1819, to Jan. 31, 1821, Chicago was part of the newly created Clark County, then became part of Pike County. For detail, see jurisdiction. [335a] [544]

Clark Street  formerly called Old Sand Road, running N atop an ancient sand ridge [beach of Lake Chicago]; part of the [see] Green Bay Indian Trail; also see Clark, Gen. George Rogers. The leading street in the settlement at the time of Chicago`s incorporation as a town on Aug. 10, 1833, the first board of trustees quickly responded to public improvement demands and borrowed $60 for the digging of ditches on either side of Clark Street, making the thoroughfare passable. [249]

Clark, Andrew  (1796-Oct. 6, 1813) second son of [see] John Clark and [see] Elizabeth McKenzie; younger brother of [see] John Kinzie Clark; an infant in c.1797, was left behind with his father, at Malden, when his mother and siblings returned to Giles County, VA; in 1812 was hired by Tecumtha or [see] Tecumseh to be his interpreter and served in this capacity until the fatal Battle of the Thames, when he fell beside the badly wounded Tecumtha on Oct. 5, 1813 [the day Tecumtha died], dying the next day; he survived long enough to be debriefed by Gen. William Harrison. His story is told in unpublished manuscripts in the Draper Collection at the State Historical Society of Wisconsin in Madison, within the Tecumseh documents. Young Clark could well have been the person who told John Kinzie of Tecumtha`s ruse, the so-called “sham battle,” staged earlier on July 26 that year by Tecumtha to lure the garrison out of Fort Meigs; Kinzie was likely the “British deserter” who told Gen. Green Clay, the Kentuckian in command of Fort Meigs, who kept the soldiers in the fort. The Indians saw that their ruse did not work and abandoned the siege, which saved Fort Meigs from defeat and the Ohio country from being conquered by the British and their Indian allies. The sham battle is briefly mentioned in Benson J. Lossing`s Pictorial Field-Book of the War of 1812. [407, 437a] [649]

Clark, David  also Clock; early resident who in 1833 leased and managed James Kinzie`s Green Tree Tavern once built; was followed by Edward Parsons; a David K. Clark had enlisted in Captain Walker`s militia late June 1832, during the Black Hawk scare. [12]

Clark, Elijah  charter member of the first Presbyterian congregation in June 1833; was then listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August and on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Clark, Eliza  see Garrett, Augustus.

Clark, Elizabeth McKenzie  see Clybourne, Elizabeth McKenzie Clark; also see Clybourne, Jonas.

Clark, Gen. George Rogers  (1752-1818) Revolutionary War hero from Virginia. As a colonel of the Virginia militia, drove the British from Illinois (occupation of Kaskaskia in July 1778) and Vincennes (in February 1779). His personal credit was destroyed by the insolvent Virginia government, and he died in abject poverty, having been given hollow honors but inadequate compensation for his financial sacrifices; older brother of [see] Lt. William Clark. George Rogers Clark School, 1045 S Monitor Ave.; street name: Clark Street [nearly paralleling the lakeshore N of the river, following the Green Bay Trail, defying the later grid pattern]. [524, 649] [142]

Clark, Gen. William  (1770-1838) younger brother of the Revolutionary War hero Gen. George Rogers Clark; together with Capt. Meriwether Lewis, led the renowned [see] Lewis and Clark expedition through the unknown NW of the continent in 1804-1806; earlier had participated in the victorious battle of Fallen Timbers under Gen. “Mad Anthony” Wayne in 1794; later became governor of Upper Louisiana, later Missouri; in 1834 he was Superintendent of Indian Affairs at St. Louis. [326] [12]

Clark, Henry A.  attorney and novelist; arrived in 1835 from New York; died in 1862. [12]

Clark, Henry B., M.D.  little is known about this physician who arrived in 1833, but he was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; advertised in 1837 in the Chicago American with an office on Dearborn Street; 1839 City Directory: 159 Lake St.; died at Walworth, WI before 1854. [12]

Clark, James  U.S. Army private; enlisted at Fort Dearborn on Dec. 4, 1805; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Apr. 12, 1806, as shown in the Kinzie account books; is listed on a muster roll from Nov. 30 to Dec. 10, 1810; his enlistment expired on December 4 that year and he then left Chicago. [404, 708] [226]

Clark, James  a notice in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American listed his name as among 15 deserters from the Garrison at Fort Dearborn from January 1 to July 28, prior to the withdrawal of all troops on December 29 that year. Clark, a farmer, was born at Ft. Covington, NY, and was 22 when he enlisted for five years on July 12, 1833, at South Harbor, NY. He deserted on July 25 and a reward of $450 was offered for his apprehension. (Chicago Genealogy Club, v. 2, no. 1, September 1969)

Clark, John  Scottish friend and early Detroit business partner of John Kinzie who married his sister-in-law Elizabeth McKenzie c.1786; a daughter Elizabeth was born in 1791, and John Kinzie was born the next year [for siblings, see Clark, John Kinzie]; twins [see] Andrew and Mary were born in 1796. Clark sold out his share of the business to Kinzie in 1797 when Kinzie established himself at St. Joseph; moved to Chicago with his son in the 1820s; for family relationships, see Kinzie family tree.

Clark, John A.  secretary of the Polemic Society of Chicago in January 1834; 1839 City Directory: John Clark, Hobbie (Albert G.) & Clark, dry goods, &c.;, 142 Lake St.

Clark, John Kinzie  (1792-December 1865) also Indian Clark; born near Fort Wayne, son of the Scottish trader John Clark and Elizabeth McKenzie (sister of Margaret McKenzie, John Kinzie`s first wife); had twin siblings [see] Andrew and Mary (born in 1796), and an older sister Elizabeth (born in 1791); became half brother to Archibald Clybourne when his mother separated from Clark and married Archibald`s father, Jonas Clybourne (see Kinzie family tree); raised among the Indians who called him [see] Nonimoa, while others referred to him as Indian Wolf; first came to Chicago from Kentucky in 1816-17, where he visited John Kinzie’s trading post in December 1817 and again in August 1823, as shown in the Kinzie account books; engaged at times to carry mail by horseback between Chicago and Milwaukee; in 1822 was living in Wisconsin with an Indian mate and working for James Kinzie, “purchasing the Indian Horses” for “from 5 to ten Quarts of Whiskey that was very much adulterated” as observed by [see] Lt. James W. Webb; helped move the Jonas Clybourne family to Chicago in 1824 and initially lived with them at their north branch home; married Madelaine Mirandeau (sister of Victoire) in 1825, and had at least one child with her; voted at the election of Aug. 7, 1826 [see Chronology]; appointed constable for the June term, 1827; in 1829, built a log cabin NW [Northfield/Deerfield] near Elijah Wentworth, Sr.`s inn; after Madelaine`s death, married Permelia Scott of [see] Grosse Pointe on July 21, 1829, Rev. Isaac Scarritt officiating in a double ceremony that also wedded Willard Scott to Caroline Hawley; had three daughters: Hadassah (1830), Elizabeth (1831) and Lucinda (died at age two); owner of 80 acres of land in the SE quarter of Section 6, Township 39, prior to 1836, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; voted at the elections of July 24 and Nov. 25, 1830 [see Chronology]; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; lived with Archibald that year on the north branch, eight miles N of Wolf Point; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; employed as a dispatch bearer during the Black Hawk War, and later as a mail carrier. Clark was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833, and in September received $400 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty when his métis children also received $400, Richard J. Hamilton as trustee. In January 1834 he was secretary for the [see] Polemic Society of Chicago; returned to Northfield Township in 1836; known as a hunter and breeder of Indian ponies; died at Northfield in 1865; Permelia died in 1877. [262a, 319, 404, 407, 421a, 456b, 544] [12]

Clark, Mary A.  see Flood, Capt. Peter F.

Clark, Mrs.  in 1857 testimony in the Sand Bar case, Gurdon Hubbard refers to “Mrs. Clark`s house near the mouth of the river,” actually the house of Caroline Clarke, Henry B. Clarke`s widow; see Clarke House.

Clark, Norman    see Clarke, Norman.

Clark, Samuel  early settler and cattle dealer, married to Emmaline, built his house in 1812 near the Forks on the land between the main river and the south branch; was occasionally employed about the fort; joined the Chicago militia and was killed in the Fort Dearborn massacre; wounded in the attack, Emmaline was taken captive and soon died in captivity. [722] [226]

Clark, Sarah Ann  see Vincent, Aiken.

Clark, Silas  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted on Aug. 13, 1806; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Nov. 11, 1806, as shown in the Kinzie account books, and probably again on Aug. 27, 1809, under the spelling [sic] Setas Clarke; was reassigned to Fort Wayne in December 1810. [404, 708] [226]

Clark, W., M.D.    see Clarke, William, M.D.

Clark, William  came in 1833 with his wife to Dutchman’s Grove [now within the limits of Niles Township] from Chicago and settled on the NE quarter of Section 30, where he built a log house on the N branch of the Chicago River. Mr Clark married again in 1879. [13]

Clark, William H.  arrived from Massachusetts in 1835; died in 1878. [12]

Clarke House Museum  also called the Henry Brown Clarke House, or the Widow Clarke House; the oldest building in Chicago, built for [see] Henry Brown Clarke at (now) 16th Street and Michigan Avenue, later moved to 45th Street and Wabash Avenue, and again placed near its original site at 1855 S. Indiana Avenue (now number 1827), in the Prairie Avenue Historic District bordered by Indiana Avenue, 18th Street, Prairie Avenue and Cullerton Street. Clarke arrived in Chicago in 1833 from Utica, NY, and soon prospered as a merchant and land speculator; his home is now a historical monument. Built in c.1836 by a local contractor, the Greek revival style house retains its wooden interiors crafted by [see] John Campbell Rue. Built at the eastern edge of a seemingly limitless prairie, the nearest house was then about 1 1/2 miles north. At the entrance to the historic district, on 18th Street, is mounted a panel that gives further information about Clarke and his house. The house now belongs to the city of Chicago and can be toured at certain hours; call (312) 326-1480 or go to www.clarkehousemuseum.org. The illustration shown here presents the house before it was first moved and reconstructed.

Clarke Point    sand hill formed around bedrock outcroppings at 79th Street and the lakeshore; reached by a stone reinforcement on the W side; possibly used by Indians for ceremonial purposes.

Clarke, Abram Fuller  (1814-1886) druggist, partner and brother of [see] Clarke, William Hull; together advertised “Paints, Oils &c.;” in the Nov. 18, 1835, Chicago Democrat, at the corner of Lake and Clark; another ad appeared on Dec. 9, the first of its kind: Perfumery A SPLENDID assortment of Paris Perfumery, comprising French and Geneva cologne water, lavender water, milk of roses, cold cream, Antique oil for the hair, essences, pommades, pearl powder, and soaps of all kinds for washing, shaving and the toilett; 1839 City Directory: druggist, W.H. & A.F. Clarke; lived at Marietta, GA in 1885. [221, 351] [12]

Clarke, Hannah  see Freeman, Rev. Allen B.

Clarke, Henry Brown  (1801-1849) arrived in October 1835 from Utica, NY, with his wife Caroline (née Palmer) and their five children, spending several weeks at the Tremont House until family household goods arrived. He soon prospered as a hardware merchant with William Jones and Byram King [King, Jones & Company] and as land speculator, acquiring from [see] Elijah D. Harmon 20 acres along the shore; was member of fire engine company No. 1 in December 1835; served on the first board of directors of the branch of the State Bank of Illinois which opened in December 1835; 1839 City Directory: Michigan ave, cor. 16th street; 1844 City Directory: farmer, lake shore, below Michigan avenue. Henry died of cholera in the 1849 epidemic, widow Caroline lived until 1860 in their home (see Clarke House Museum) which survived the great fire of 1871. Also see the Graceland Cemetery family monument in the Monuments section, where 15 family members are buried. A brother-in-law, [see] Charles Walker, came to Chicago in 1835. [97, 171] [12]

Clarke, John. K.  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Clarke, Mary  see Walker, Charles.

Clarke, Norman  (1805-1885) also Clark; from Vermont, arrived in 1835; 1839 City Directory: dealer in land claims, &c.; later removed to Racine, WI, where he was living in 1878; died Feb. 28, 1885. [351] [12]

Clarke, Samuel C.  brother and silent partner of [see] Abram F. and William H.; opened a large drugstore in 1835 and stocked the first ice cream; 1839 City Directory: druggist. [221] [544]

Clarke, Timothy B.  carpenter and builder from Trumbull County, OH; a soldier in the War of 1812, he came to Illinois in 1820 to claim land in the [see] Military Tract; at Walker`s Grove in 1830 and is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; moved to Chicago in 1831 and was appointed county road viewer; said to have built one of Chicago`s first [see] frame houses; in 1832, his oxen team supplied provisions for Reverend Beggs` first quarterly prayer meeting; on July 23, volunteered with his son Barrett (B.B.) as privates in Captain Seission`s Company during the Black Hawk War; mustered out August 15; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319, 421a, 428, 714] [12]

Clarke, William Hull  (1812-1878) druggist, arrived in 1835 and, together with his brother Abram F., opened Chicago`s third drugstore in May 1835, on South Water Street near Franklin; in November 1835 announced that the firm had moved to the SE corner of South Water and Clark and advertised paints and oils; in September 1835 joined the Fire Kings, an early volunteer fire brigade; 1839 City Directory: Clarke, Wm. H. & Abram F., wholesale druggists and apothecaries, 128 Lake St. [George P. Clarke is also listed as druggist]; became assistant engineer of the Chicago Board of Public Works in 1855; died in Chicago. His listing of Cook County residents between 1833 and 1838 is preserved at the Chicago History Museum. [221]

Clarke, William, M.D.  physician; arrived in 1833, as indicated by Hibbard Porter`s account books, in which Clarke is debited for purchases made between June and December; was listed as Dr. W. Clark among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833, and so listed again on the list of subscribers for the Chicago Democrat, first appearing November 26; an uncollected letter addressed to him is listed in Chicago Democrat, January 1834. In 1834, he participated with Dr. Kimberly in an effort to establish a hospital for cholera patients outside the town limits. [319]

Claude    French-Canadian in the employ of John Kinzie in 1812, unknown surname; lived in a shed on the N side of the river, near to and NW of the Kinzie house; at the time of the massacre he was in the boat with the Kinzies and survived.

Clay, William  advertised as a hat manufacturer and dealer in the Chicago Democrat on May 28, 1834, at the “corner of Lake and Franklin streets, opposite Dr. Temple`s.” Also in 1834 a William B. Clay, together with his sons, John B. and D.H. Clay, settled on Section 12 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL. [13]

Clear Day    see Wasacheck.

Cleaveland, Ellen P.  see Bascom, Rev. Flavel.

Cleaveland, Henry W. and Horatio J.  owners of the NE quarter of Section 32 in Township 40 N before 1836; in addition, Horatio was listed as sole owner of 80 acres of Chicago land in Section 28, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113. H.J. is listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took early in August 1833, and Henry received $800 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September that year. Most likely H.J. is identical with the H.I. Cleveland listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democratlater in November; two sisters, perhaps daughters, Miriam and Fidelia, attended school under Eliza Chappel in 1834. [319]

Cleaver, Charles, Jr.  (July 21, 1814-Oct. 27, 1893) born in Kennington Common, London, England, son of Charles and Jane [née Barker] Cleaver, older brother of William; attended a semi-military academy at Bexley for seven years; left London early in 1833 and arrived in Chicago on October 23; in 1835 he acquired [see] Alson and James Woodruff`s interest in Elston & Woodruff, obvious in the November 4 Chicago Democrat advertisement of the Chicago Soap and Candle Manufactory of Messrs. Elston & Chaver [{sic}, also Chever in the Nov. 14 Chicago American], “on the Point between North Branch and Main River”; in late November both John T. Temple and Bernard Ward submitted depositions in support of his and [see] Daniel Elston`s claim for wharfing privileges; on Nov. 27 Elston & Cleaver applied and later claimed privileges at the junction of the north branch and main stream [lots 3, 4, block 7]; acquiring Elston`s portion of the business in 1836, he would later build a successful soap factory on the S side [38th Street]. In 1838 Cleaver married Mary (England Jan. 15, 1820-July 8, 1912), daughter of [see] Samuel L. and Mary [née Shepherd] Brookes, the town florists; the couple had nine children: Mary Jane (1838-1868), Charles Samuel (1848-1927; married Ida Adelaide Eddy), Myra D., Frederick Walter (1851-1920), twins Elizabeth Mary (1856-1891; married Henry G. Chase and had one son Roy Henry [1889-1893]) and William Loomis (1856-1868), Emily Mary (1858-1908), George Shepherd (1865-1866), and Francis S. The 1839 City Directory listed: candle and soap factory on south branch; the 1844 City Directory listing read: grocery store, soap and candle maker, 177 Lake st. In 1851 Cleaver bought 22 acres of land from [see] Samuel Ellis between 37th and 39th streets, then acquired more; a company town, Cleaverville, gradually developed S of the factory [later becoming the Oakland community, annexed by the city in 1889]. In the 1880 U.S. Census Cleaver is listed as a real estate dealer, son Walter is in real estate, and Myra, Mary, and Francis are still at home. Cleaver`s reminiscences of early Chicago, published in 1882, provide valuable historical information; street name: Cleaver Street (1432 W); in 1885 lived at the corner of Ellis Avenue and 43rd Street; in October 1893, died in Conway, Faulkner County, AR. Mary died in Canton, OH, at the home of daughter Mrs. J.G. Code. Both parents and many of the children are buried at Oak Woods Cemetery. See Charles Cleaver`s signature below.
[For a lively description of winter activity in early Chicago see Charles Cleaver`s report in the Chronology section: 1833-1834] [13, 145, 146, 351, 508a] [12]

Cleaver, Charles, Jr.  his signature, as shown in History of Chicago County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Cleaver, Charles, Sr.  (May 7, 1781-July 1, 1860) born in England; son of Samuel and Ann Cleaver; married Jane (July 6, 1788-Jan. 14, 1871), daughter of William and Mary (née Wraith) Barker; the couple had [see] Charles, William, and 12 other children; the family followed Charles to Chicago in 1838 and within two years acquired land near Waukegan and farmed; died in Cleaverville and is buried at Oak Woods Cemetery; Jane died in Waukegan and is buried with her husband. [508a]

Cleaver, William  (Nov. 27, 1815-Nov. 13, 1896) born in England; son of Charles and Jane [née Barker] Cleaver, younger brother of [see] Charles; married Mary Whitely and the couple had three children; after Mary`s death he married Sophia Charlotte (née Zimmermann [Coblenz, Germany June 11, 1827-Jan. 1, 1896]), and they had three children; died in Chicago and is buried at Oak Woods Cemetery. [508a]

Clement, Almira  see Palmer, Isaac K.

clergy    see preachers and missionaries.

Clermont, Alexis  French-Canadian, born on Mackinac Island in 1808, lived later at Green Bay; before the Black Hawk War, served as crew member on a Durham boat for local traders, and from 1832 to 1836, served as mail carrier between Green Bay and Chicago; for excerpts from his 1888 narrative, see entries under Durham boat and mail carriers. [147]

Clermont, Jeremy  (Jerry) also Clairmore; in 1821, employed by the American Fur Co. for the Iroquois River trade; Indian trader and resident in Chicago in 1825; was then assessed for tax purposes: owned $100 of personal property and paid $1; voted at the election of Aug. 7, 1826 (see elections). [12]

Cleveland, H.I.    see Cleaveland, Henry W. and Horatio J.

Cleveland, OH    founded 1797 and named after Gen. Moses Cleaveland, but the spelling later changed; small settlement on Lake Erie’s southern shore, similar to pre-1830 Chicago, until the opening of the Erie Canal in 1825; thereafter the municipality grew rapidly as multitudes of immigrants from the eastern seaboard paused or pushed westward through Cleveland.

Clift, Benjamin H.  from Philadelphia; opened the [see] Chicago Book and Stationary [sic] Store next to Philo Carpenter`s drugstore on Water Street on August 26, 1834, jointly with Aaron Russell; on Oct. 22, 1835, the partnership was dissolved and Clift carried on alone; was one of three directors for the Young Men`s Temperance Society, organized on Dec. 19 of that year; in 1836, married Mary H. Bishop of New York. [12]

Clifton, Josiah  owner of 80 acres of land in the NW quarter of Section 8, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Clinton, DeWitt  (1769-1828) mayor of New York City; governor of New York State and sponsor of the Erie Canal; James Thompson, surveyor in 1830, named one of the first Chicago streets after him. DeWitt Clinton School, 6110 N Fairfield Ave.; street name: Clinton Street (540 W).

Clock, David    see Clark, David.

Clybourne, Archibald  (Aug. 28, 1802-Aug. 23, 1872) also Clybourn; born in Giles County, VA; butcher; arrived on August 5, 1823; visited John Kinzie’s trading post during the same month, as shown in the Kinzie account books; his parents (Jonas and Elizabeth McKenzie Clark Clybourne) and other family members followed him in 1824; was appointed – Chicago`s 1st – constable for the Chicago district of Peoria County on Sept. 6, 1825, by the Peoria court; became a successful stockyard owner by buying cattle in central Illinois and building – Chicago`s 1st – slaughterhouse in 1827; business skyrocketed the following year with his acquisition of the government contract to supply fresh meat to Fort Dearborn, Fort Mackinac, Fort Howard, and Fort Winnebago [thus credited with launching Chicago as a major cattle trade center and meat market]; married Mary Galloway [see Clybourne, Mary] on June 9, 1829, Rev. Isaac Scarritt officiating (the couple would live in Jonas Clybourne`s house until 1835); in the same month, was authorized to keep a ferry in conjunction with Samuel Miller [for the text of the license see entry for bridges and ferries]; on Dec. 8, 1829, appointed trustee of the School Section; served as justice of the peace (1831); early owner of Chicago real estate, the SW quarter of Section 32 in Township 40 N, including his slaughterhouse, and became active as real estate dealer during the speculative fever that gripped the town in the early 1830s; in 1830, was listed as owning lot 10 in block 28 and lots 4 and 5 in block 5 of the original town, but by 1833 the lot in block 28 belonged to Henry Church, and lot 5 in block 5 belonged to Dr. Kimberly; member of the Universalist church; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; in 1831 he served as a justice of the peace and as the first treasurer of Cook County and on October 5, signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago, and signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; occasionally advised people on legal matters but was not a trained lawyer; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; received $200 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; advertised two butcher shops, one on the north branch, the other on market square in the Chicago Democrat on December 3. In December 1834, he and [see] Bowman C. Dobson advertised a new store in “Clybournsville” one mile S of Batavia at their mill, where Mill Creek enters the Fox River. Late in November 1835, he submitted a claim for wharfing privileges along the Chicago River; sometime earlier that year the Clybournes had moved to a small frame house on Elston Road [Elston Avenue] and in 1836, moved into a 20-room brick residence on the same lot; 1839 City Directory: farmer and cattle-dealer, 512 Elston Ave.; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: of C. & [Sam`l S.] Hovey, res North Branch, city and county beef and pork inspector, and Clyboune & Hovey, butchers, Clark st and Western Markets; died at his home in 1872, was survived by his widow and 10 living children, four of them born before 1836: Sarah Ann in 1830, Margaret E. in 1831, Martha Ann in 1833, and James A. in 1835, who took over his father`s business, and was living at 7643 Greenview Avene in 1916; buried at Rosehill Cemetery; Mary died in Chicago in 1904. Clybourne was a cousin of Archibald Caldwell and also related to John Kinzie [see Kinzie family tree]; street name: Clybourn Avenue, a diagonal NW street. [28, 249, 319, 404, 421a] [12]

Clybourne, Archibald  his signature.

Clybourne, Elizabeth McKenzie Clark  born 1768, daughter of Scottish Murdock Otis and Erina Jemima (née Chapman) McKenzie; sister of Margaret (born 1766), first wife of John Kinzie. Both girls were captured in 1774 by Shawnee Indians and raised among them; in c.1786 they were ransomed by [see] John Kinzie and [see] John Clark, with Kinzie marrying Margaret and Clark marrying Elizabeth; both marriages ended in separation. In c.1795 Elizabeth married [see] Jonas Clybourne.

Clybourne, Henley Henry  (Aug. 5, 1804-Dec. 8, 1876) second son of Jonas and Elizabeth McKenzie Clark Clybourne; arrived with his parents from Giles County, VA in 1824; present at the estate sale following the death of William Wallace. Henley married Sarah (NY Jan. 7, 1812-), daughter of Stephen S. and Mariam (née Waldron) Benedict of Durham, NY, on May 12, 1828, the Rev. Jesse Walker officiating in Ottawa, La Salle County; was elected constable on May 11, 1828, and again on Aug. 20, 1828; on Dec. 7, 1830 was paid $16 for one day`s service as Clerk of Election, and brought the returns to Peoria from Chicago. The couple had four surviving children: Arminta (IN Mar. 22, 1832 -May 20, 1921), Joseph H. (IN Dec. 15, 1836-Aug. 17, 1918), Sarah Ellen (IN June 4, 1842-Jan. 5, 1905), and William Riley (IN Aug. 28, 1843-Jan. 17, 1908 KS). With the loss of Sarah, on Nov. 6, 1845, he married Eliza Concannon Sherry (OH Jan. 7, 1818-Oct. 15, 1879), and the couple had two daughters: Martha A. (c.1853-) and Virginia (c.1856-). Henley died in Westville, IN. For family relation with the Kinzies, see Kinzie family tree. [706] [12]

Clybourne, Jonas  butcher; married (c.1795) Elizabeth Clark (née McKenzie, sister of Margaret McKenzie, John Kinzie`s first wife) and had sons [see] Archibald and Henley Henry. The couple came from Virginia on Apr. 3, 1824, with his adopted son and daughter, [see] John Kinzie Clark and Elizabeth Kinzie, following Archibald Clybourne; assessed in Chicago on $625 in personal property in 1825; voted on July 24 and Nov. 25, 1830. The Clybournes established themselves at “Clybourn Place,” also called “New Virginia,” on the W side of the north branch of the Chicago River, just short of two miles from the Forks; died in 1842 in Westville, IN. For family relation with the Kinzies, see Kinzie family tree. [12]

Clybourne, Mary  (1812-1904) née Galloway; arrived in 1826 with her parents, James and Jane Galloway, and younger siblings Jane, Susan, and John from Sandusky, OH. The experience of the Galloway family`s move to Chicago and temporary residence, written later by Mary and published by Andreas, gives a rare glimpse of the early settlement in the 1820s; in the spring of 1827 the Galloways moved to the Illinois River valley, where James had staked a claim [near Marseilles]; here met and married Archibald Clybourne on June 9, 1829, Rev. Isaac Scarritt officiating [Tazewell County marriage register]; until 1835, the young couple lived with Archibald`s parents at “Clybourn Place” on the north branch; their large brick home of 20 rooms on Elston Road [now Elston Avenue] was not built until 1836; died in Chicago at age 92; survived by five children, among whom were James, William, and Henry. [13, 728] [12]

Clybourne, Thomas  from Virginia; married a daughter of William Kinzie; arrived with Benjamin Hall and Jacob Miller; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; left when the Black Hawk War began, though was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [706]

Clybournsville  a small community that settled near the Clybourn & Dobson Mill, where Mill Creek enters the Fox River one mile S of Batavia; in the Dec. 17, 1834, Chicago Democrat Archibald Clybourne and Bowman C. Dobson advertised a new store.

Clyburn, James  one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

Coal Burner  see Shabbona.

Cobb, Ester  see Lincoln, Solomon.

Cobb, Silas Bowman  (1812-1900) born in Montpelier, VT; harness maker, arrived penniless on the schooner Atlanta on May 29, 1833; initially worked for James Kinzie as a carpenter in the construction of the Green Tree Tavern and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. He soon formed a partnership with Oliver Goss (the latter living in Plainfield and silent partner), Goss & Cobb, building a two-story house and harness shop at Canal and Lake, opposite the Green Tree Tavern; they dissolved the partnership on Feb. 18, 1835, and Cobb soon moved to larger quarters at 171 Lake St., where he remained many years; his shingle read: Saddle Harness & Trunk Making – Cash Paid for Hides – S. B. Cobb; among items crafted were leathern buckets [see Stose, Clemens], two required in every building, according to an 1835 fire ordinance; in October joined the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, a voluntary fire brigade; 1839 City Directory: saddle, harness, & trunk maker (same address). In 1840, he married Maria Warren in Warrenville, who had befriended him in the company of her parents and twin sister Mary in 1833, and who then headed for the Illinois prairies, Warrenville; see the following recollection. The couple had six children: two died in infancy, and the others were Walter, Maria Louise, Berta (married William Armour) and Lenora (married Joseph G. Coleman). A skilled real estate investor, Cobb became independently wealthy during the boom period, and managed to remain so when the boom ended; considered the richest man in Chicago in 1867; his widow`s address in 1885 was 3334 Michigan Avenue; she died in 1888. [319, 351, 498]
I arrived in Chicago in the spring of 1833. In October of the same year I was occupying my new shop opposite the hotel, in the building of which my first dollar was earned in Chicago. Standing at my shop one afternoon talking with a neighbor, our attention was attracted by the arrival at the hotel of a settler`s wagon from the east. With my apron on and my sleeves rolled up, I went with my neighbor to greet the weary travelers and to wellcom them to the hospitality of Fort Dearborn, in accordance with the free and easy customs of “high society” in those days. We learned that the travelers were the Warren family, from Westfield, New York, bound for the settlement of Warrenville, Illinois, where a relative had preceded them about six months previously. There were several young women in the party, two of them twin sisters whom I thought particularly attractive, so much so that I remarked to my friend, after they had departed, that when I was prosperous enough so that my pantaloons and brogans could be made to meet I was goin to look up those twin sisters and marry one of them or die in trying. Edwin Gale remembers: As soon as he was able to support a wife he married one of the twin daughters of Colonel Daniel Warren. – Jerome Beecher married the other sister. Cobb thought that he married Maria and Beecher always believed that he himself married Mary, but they only knew what the girls told them, for the sisters so closely resembled each other and dressed so exactly alike that it required intimate acquaintance to distinguish them. They purchased their millinery of[ my] mother, and she never could tell whether she was waiting on Mrs. Cobb or Mrs. Beecher. [12]

Coburn, Sally Merriam  see Folansbee, Charles.

Cobweb Castle  also Cobweb Hall; nickname for the second government agency house on the north bank of the river, vacated when Dr. Wolcott died in the fall of 1830. The house had acquired its name during the time Wolcott lived there as bachelor, before his marriage to Ellen Marion Kinzie in 1823. [12]

Cochois, Jacques  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Cochron, William    bought 168 gallons of “high wines” for $67.20 at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on April 27, 1827.

Coffee Creek  tributary of the Calumet River in Porter County, IN, known by its French name, Rivière du bois Franc, as late as 1837.

Cohen, Peter  Alsatian immigrant, came in 1830; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; established a variety store (clothing and dry goods) on South Water Street, two doors E of Dearborn, next to Newberry & Dole; advertised in the first issue of the Chicago Democrat , Nov. 26, 1833; on April 29, 1834, the store was taken over by H. Doty & Co.; after June 11, 1835, again advertised in the Chicago Democrat, announcing “New and Cheap Goods” — dry goods and groceries at his old stand; on Nov. 23 submitted a claim [lot 2 block 16] for wharfing privileges; voted in the first mayoral election; 1839 City Directory: merchant, South Water Street. [319] [28]

Colbert Rivière  the Mississippi River was initially named after [see] Colbert, Jean Baptiste.

Colbert, Jean Baptiste  (1619-1683) the “Great Colbert, powerful Minister of the Marine and Colonies” to Louis XIV, king of France, after whom Father Hennepin, La Salle, and Frontenac honorarily named the Mississippi, Rivière de Colbert in the 1690s; was succeeded in the office by his son (1651-1690) of the same name; French policy in New France was determined to a large degree by the Colberts.

Colby, Myra  see Bradwell, James B.

Cole, Parker M.  on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833; 1839 City Directory: dry goods and groceries, Lake Street.

Cole, Sgt. William C.  listed with his wife, Julia, as charter members of the Presbyterian church on June 26, 1833; was part of the Fort Dearborn garrison; were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [237a, 319] [12]

Coles, Edward  (1786-1868) born in Virginia; was related to President James Madison [Mrs. Dolley Payne Madison was the granddaughter of William Coles of Hanover Co., Virginia]; was sent by Madison on a diplomatic mission to Russia, returning via England, where in London in 1817 he met and befriended [see] Morris Birkbeck; visited Chicago in 1819 from Edwardsville, IL. Following Governor Bond, Coles was elected second Illinois governor on an antislavery platform in 1822 and inaugurated on Dec. 5, 1822; served until 1826; in January 1825 became president of the newly established “Illinois and Michigan Canal Company”; in 1831, he moved to Philadelphia. Edward Coles School, 8441 S Yates Blvd.; street name: Coles Avenue. [12]

Colhoun, J. Edward    topographer and astronomer, came to Fort Dearborn on June 5, 1823, as a member of Maj. Stephen Long’s expedition to explore the Red River; a report of this visit and the entire expedition was written by William Keating [see Bibliography].

Collett, J.A.  placed advertisements in the June 1834 Chicago Democrat to sell and remove a small building; on July 9, John Bates announced an auction sale involving the unexpired lease of Collett`s Restoratory, two small adjoining buildings, and all furniture, cooking apparatus, and groceries.

Collins, Henry  also Collings, Collens; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Jan. 10 and 12, 1817, and on October 21 later that year, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

Collins, James H.  lawyer from New York who arrived in 1834; initially formed a law partnership with John D. Caton (Collins & Caton) and opened an office on South Water Street, one door E of the corner with Lake Street, removing in June to an upstairs office two doors E of the Baptist church on South Water Street; the partnership dissolved the following year and Collins joined Justin Butterfield in July; defended successfully – Chicago`s 1st – murder case in the fall of 1834 [for details, see murder]; became a prominent member of the legal community and a confirmed abolitionist; his contemporary Isaac Arnold observed: “He was a good lawyer, a man of perseverance, pluck and resolution, and as combative as an English bull-dog”; represented the government in the celebrated case of the Beaubien land claim; 1839 City Directory: attorney & counselor at law, 46 Dearborn st.; 1844 City Directory: of Butterfield & C. res Lake st. near Wabash st; died at Chicago of the cholera in 1854. [13] [12]

Collinsworth, Lt. John T.    Fifth Infantry; from Tennessee, stationed at Fort Dearborn as brevet second lieutenant from May 14 to June 20, 1833; resigned in 1836, went to Texas, became inspector general and died in 1837.

Collot, Gen. George Victor  (1751-1805) French general who, as a young man, had served on Rochambeau`s staff in the American Revolution. In the summer of 1796, he came to Chicago on a journey through the “western countries” for which task he had been commissioned by the French minister Adet for the purpose of observing the temper of the inhabitants and the military situation. His journal describes the natural history of the region, as well as political, commercial, and military conditions, and was published in Paris in 1826 in both French and English editions under the title, Voyage dans L`Amerique Septentrionale, together with a map of the American Bottom [see image]. [152, 155a] [155b]

Colombo, Cristoforo  (1451-1506) Christopher Columbus, acknowledged by nearly everyone as the discoverer of America though he explored only the Caribbean Islands, believing himself to be off the eastern coast of Cathay (China); the first landfall may have been Samana Cay, a small island among the eastern Bahamas; the date was Oct. 12, 1492. Columbus believed himself near Cathay because he had calculated the circumference of the earth to be 25% smaller than its actual size. He never set foot on the New World continent, though once, seeing the distant land, supposed it another island. Four voyages were made during the years 1492 to 1504. A native of Genoa, he was in the service of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain; his discoveries established Spain`s claim to the North American continent. [156, 157, 176, 209, 314, 386, 447, 504, 554] [620]

Colson, Erastus    college professor at the Illinois College, visited Chicago with [see] Jonathan Baldwin Turner in the summer of 1833.

Colton & M`Whorter  an advertisement in the Dec. 16, 1835, Chicago Democrat announced a new wholesale & retail grocery on Lake Street, a few doors E of Cook`s Coffee House; neither the business nor the grocers are listed in 1839.

Columbus  391-ton steamer built in 1835 at Huron, OH; visited Chicago later that year.

Commerce  lake schooner, built in 1825; from Buffalo, NY, called at Chicago three times in 1834, twice in 1835, transporting merchandise and passengers under Captain Smith; during the summer of 1834, [see] Seth Paine arrived aboard the vessel, which also brought merchandise for Harmon, Loomis & Co.; involved in the lumber trade by 1837, when she was rebuilt and her name changed to Hiram Pearson.

commis  in New France or Canada, commis were clerks, most always gentlemen`s sons in training for positions of a future [see] bourgeois; the second stratum of three in the Northwest`s essential fur trade hierarchy, the third being [see] voyageur. [664a]

Commissioners` Court  see Cook County Court of Commissioners.

Commodore  schooner; from Buffalo, NY, called at Chicago three times in 1834, twice in 1835, transporting merchandise under Captain Culver; was wrecked at Cleveland Harbor in 1845. [48]

Compagnie d`Orient  see Louisiana Province.

Conally, Sarah  see Taylor, Francis.

Conant & Mack  Detroit firm which established a trading house on the south branch of the Chicago River in 1816, headed by John Crafts; the American Fur Co. pitted against Crafts their agent John Kinzie, and in 1819, J.B. Beaubien; Kinzie’s account books show that on May 17, 1818 Kinzie was visited by a representative from Conant & Mack, probably Crafts; competition became too great and the firm sold its branch in 1822. The firm also built roads, and under Sec. of War John C. Calhoun was awarded a government contract to cut a road [northward extension of Woodward Avenue] through the forest at Detroit and lay it with corduroy; the firm was paid $1,000 per mile. Also see Mack, Steven, Jr. [12, 404] [119]

Conant, Eban  settled in [see] Maine Township in 1834; within a few years sold his farm to [see] Harry Phillips. [13]

Conant, Shubael  partner of Col. Stephen Andrew Mack, Sr., in the Detroit firm of [see] Conant & Mack. [119]

concert  – Chicago`s 1st – public concert was given by Mr. C. Blisse on June 19, 1834; another followed on Dec. 11, 1835, given by the Chicago Harmonic Society, which T.O. Davis described in his Dec. 19 Chicago American as “… a fine treat to a crowded audience of intelligence, beauty and fashion … an agreeable entertainment.” [482]

Conestoga wagon  in Conestoga, Lancaster County, PA, broad-wheeled covered wagons were built for use by pioneers in crossing the prairie; the Iroquoian word kanastoge means `immersed pole-at`; many of the [see] “prairie schooners” round about the early town were Conestogas. [456b]

Conger, Thomas  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Conner, James  trader; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on the St. Joseph River on Oct. 6, 1803, as shown in the Kinzie account books; also an interpreter for the Indian negotiations at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833, together with [see] Luther Rice, and he signed the treaty document as a witness; he received $2250 for a claim and an additional $700 jointly with Richard J. Conner, whose relationship to James remains unknown. [12, 404] [559]

Constitutional Convention  the first convention for the state of Illinois assembled with 33 delegates at Kaskaskia and completed its task on Aug. 26, 1818. The constitution was adopted in convention without being submitted to a vote of the people; approved by Congress on Dec. 3, 1818.

Contractor  a 60-ton sloop built by Porter, Barton and Co. of Black Rock (on the Niagara River) in 1803; purchased by the U.S. Navy and furnished with a single long swivel gun; visited Chicago under Captain Lee late in 1808 and delivered four or five barrels of whiskey to the firm of Kinzie & Forsyth, probably as supply for the Fort Dearborn garrison. The ship was later renamed Trippe. [441b]

Contraman, Maj. Frederick H.  see Countryman, Maj. Frederick H.

Converse, J.P.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Cook County Court of Commissioners  the County of Cook was created by an act of the General Assembly of the State of Illinois on Jan. 15, 1831, and the Commissioners` Court of the county was opened on March 8, 1831. Samuel Miller, Gholson Kercheval [of Chicago], and James Walker [on the Du Page River] were sworn into office by J.S.C. Hogan, J.P. William See was appointed clerk of the court. The Circuit Court of the vast Fifth Judicial District under [see] Judge Richard M. Young now included Cook County and began to convene regularly on April 23, 1832. [12]

Cook County Medical Society  see Chicago Medical Society

Cook County roads    see Chicago roads.

Cook County, Illinois  the County of Cook, named after Daniel H.P. Cook and created by an act of the general assembly of the State of Illinois on Jan. 15, 1831, which states: “The county seat thereof is hereby declared to be permanently established at the Town of Chicago, as the same has been laid out and defined by the Land Commissioners.” The original boundaries included what is now Cook, McHenry, DuPage, Lake, and Will counties; for Chicago`s earlier jurisdictional chronology, see jurisdiction. In late October 1835, the offices of the Clerk and Recorder of Cook County were removed to the office newly erected by the county on Chicago`s public square, as per notice in the Chicago American. The results of a census recently taken were reported in the Nov. 28, 1835 Chicago American and listed the county`s population as 9,773, up 300 percent in two years — with 18 sawmills, 5 gristmills, 2 breweries, 1 iron foundry, and 1 glove manufactury. [278, 335a, 377, 544] [13]

Cook Street  a short-lived diagonal street in the Wabansia Section of early Chicago; used in the official description of the boundaries of Chicago by the newly elected town board on Aug. 10, 1833. The street is evident on Joshua Hathaway`s map of Chicago printed in 1834; that same year John S. Wright drew the town from surveys, identifying the street as Naler Street. See Chicago, boundaries.

Cook’s Coffee House    see Cook, Isaac.

Cook’s Saloon    see Cook, Isaac.

Cook, Charles W.  tanner; arrived with wife Amy in 1835 and engaged in small merchandising; became proprietor of the Mansion House and the American Temperance Hotel [no bar]; 1844 Chicago City Directory: of C. & Surdam (Duane), res American Temperance House; later entered the lumber business. In 1885, his widow lived at 3241 Indiana Avenue. [12]

Cook, Daniel H. Pope  (1795-1827) native of KY; newspaper man, politician, first Illinois attorney general, and later member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Illinois, winning five successive elections and serving from 1819 to 1827; credited with securing passage of the Illinois & Michigan Canal bill and land grant of 1827; in 1821 married Julia C. Edwards, daughter of Gov. Ninian Edwards; Cook County was named after him; died in Kentucky. See his signature below. See Monuments section for a bust of Daniel H. Cook. [13] [12]

Cook, Isaac  born c.1812; arrived from New Jersey in February 1834; in October 1835 joined the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, a voluntary fire brigade that organized in a meeting reportedly held at Cook`s saloon on South Water Street; at the same time, may also have managed the Mansion House on Lake Street under the name Cook`s Coffee House; married Caroline Gibson on July 4, 1836, per notice in the Chicago Democrat; 1839 City Directory: Eagle Saloon, 10 Dearborn St.; became sheriff in 1846 and postmaster in 1854; lived at St. Louis, MO in 1885. [12]

Cook, Josiah P.  initially ran a bakery on the corner of Lake and LaSalle streets with Samuel C. George; on Oct. 29, 1834, they reported partnership dissolution in the Chicago Democrat, as Bates announced an auction of “the Bakeshop with all Baking utensils” on Nov. 3; 1839 City Directory: [John] baker, LaSalle Street.

Cook, Thomas  (1800-1885) from Yorkshire, England; came in June 1832; in 1833, he purchased a cart from Newberry & Dole and with cart and horse, began a lumber business on South Water Street between Randolph and Washington, buying his supplies from George Smith; by 1836, his business in teaming extended to Galena, Springfield, Detroit, and Mineral Point, WI; married by Reverend Freeman in Chicago to Alsey Scott of Western Springs on June 28, 1834, per notice in the Chicago Democrat; 1839 City Directory: teamster, Desplaines Street, near Monroe; after Alsey`s death married Mary Queen in 1848. [12, 13] [711a]

Cooley & Holsman    see next entry.

Cooley, R.S.  partnered [see] George Halsman in a tailoring business, Cooley & Holsman [sic], opposite the Eagle Coffee House on Dearborn Street; advertised “Fashions received in their season, from New York” in the July 22, 1835, Chicago Democrat; dissolution occurred Aug. 1; Halsman continued at the same location.

Cooley, William  settled N in Cook [Lake] County; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November that year; married Rebecca Warner of Newton, CT, on December 25, “at the Du Page,” as noted in the Chicago Democrat of Feb. 4, 1834. [319]

Coombs, Rebecca  see Harris, William.

Cooper, Ezekiel  settler who built a house on the N side of the river close to the Forks in 1809 [later known as the Burns House, near Merchandise Mart]; with wife, Mary, had four children: James (1797), Isabella (1800), Anne (1806?), and Frances (1809?); died early in 1811, of (probably) malaria; later that year, Mary remarried discharged Fort Dearborn soldier Thomas Burns, and gave birth to Catherine on April 5, 1812, the day before the Winnebago attack at Leigh`s farm; only Mary, Isabella, and Catherine would survive the 1812 massacre and remain captive among the Indians for two years. [226]

Cooper, Isabella  born in 1800; daughter of Ezekiel and Mary Cooper, stepdaughter to Thomas Burns, sister of James; survivor of the Fort Dearborn massacre, although she was scalped (the scar remaining throughout her life, the size of a silver dollar); later married George Fearson of Detroit, younger brother of Mary Julia Fearson, wife of William Whistler; for additional details, see Burns, Thomas; Cooper, Ezekiel. [226]

Cooper, James  born in 1797; son of Ezekiel and Mary Cooper, stepson of Thomas Burns, brother of Isabella; joined the Chicago militia and was killed at the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812. [226]

Cooper, John  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted in May 1808; killed defending the wagons in the massacre of 1812. [226]

Cooper, John, M.D.  (June 6, 1786-Mar. 3, 1863) born at Fishkill, NY; graduate of the College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York City; enlisted as surgeon`s mate on June 13, 1808, and was assigned to Fort Dearborn by his friend Henry Dearborn, the then Secretary of War in Thomas Jefferson’s second administration, and thus became the second surgeon at the fort, succeeding Dr. William C. Smith; he arrived from Buffalo on the brig Adams to replace Dr. Smith, and he soon became a close friend of the commandant, Capt. John Whistler, who was acquainted with his grandfather, and who allowed him to act as sutler for the fort (in partnership with Whistler`s son, John Whistler, Jr.). To suttle meant to supply the soldiers with articles not furnished by the government; this included whisky and was a lucrative job, but a move that put both Whistler and Cooper in conflict with government regulations and, on a personal basis, with the U.S. Factor Matthew Irwin, and with John Kinzie. Cooper resigned his commission on Apr. 1, 1811, in resentment over Whistler`s reassignment, instigated by Irwin and Kinzie; as a parting gift, Whistler gave him his copy of William Shenstone`s Poems [this volume was later returned to the Chicago History Museum and can be seen among the few surviving items from the first Fort Dearborn; see Shenstone, William, for a sample of his poetry]. Dr. Cooper had maintained two good saddle horses, two cows and a hunting dog at the fort; the wife of a soldier milked his cows, and made butter for him, and her husband had charge of his horses. Leaving the fort and the Army, Dr. Cooper rode back to New York State by way of Detroit, Fort Wayne, Pittsburgh and Philadelphia; at Poughkeepsie, NY, he estasblished himself in a medical practice and served for more than 50 years. [109, 326, 564, 722] [13]

Cooper, John, M.D.  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Cooper, Mary  the “widow Cooper” who married [see] Thomas Burns. [The editors could not identify her previous husband, nor her maiden name.]

Cooper, Thomas  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 13 and Aug. 14, 1804, on Aug. 12 and 20, 1805, and on Sept. 5 and Nov. 1, 1809, as shown in the Kinzie account books; was killed at the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [404]

copper  a metal known to, and used and traded by, the Indians of the Great Lakes region since prehistoric times. Rich deposits of native copper (nearly pure metal) occurred along the southern margin of Lake Superior, on Isle Royale, and elsewhere in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Some of the more superficial deposits were displaced southward by glacial activity (“float” copper). In 1666, Father Allouez reported: “One often finds at the bottom of the water [of Lake Superior] pieces of pure copper, of ten or twenty livres` weight. I have several times seen such pieces in the Savages` hands; ….” The local Indians did not smelt copper, as was done by tribes in the Southwest and in Central America, but used cold hammering techniques to create tools and ornaments. Tens of thousands of copper artifacts found in burial mounds and former campsites and villages in many North American locations testify to the Indians` great appreciation and resourceful adaptation of copper. See entry for Anker Site.

Corbin, Fielding  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; younger brother of James; husband of Victoria; enlisted on Dec. 7, 1805, and reenlisted on Dec. 7, 1810; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on July 16, Aug. 20, and Oct. 31, 1805, on Apr. 10, 1812, and one more time at an unspecified date shortly before the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, as shown in the Kinzie account books; survived the massacre and was seen by [see] Thomas Forsyth the day after “on foot carrying a drum,” among several prisoners of Indians who were returning to their village at Aux SableCreek; later ransomed from captivity; was imprisoned by the British at Quebec but released to New York in the spring of 1814; both his eight months pregnant wife and the fetus were scalped and then beheaded during the attack. [226, 404, 559, 561] [708]

Corbin, James  blacksmith; enlisted Mar. 6, 1801 at Romney, VA; at Pittsburgh (Fort Pitt) the following May became attached to the 1st Regt. U.S. Infantry; a private at Detroit over a year before arriving at Chicago in July 1803 under Capt. John Whistler’s command to begin construction of Fort Dearborn; older brother of Fielding Corbin; husband of Susannah (nicknamed Sukey) and father of a young son and daughter; reenlisted Oct. 2, 1810; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 26 and 28, and Aug. 20, 1805, on Apr. 10, 1812, and one more time at an unspecified date shortly before the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, as shown in the Kinzie account books; survived the massacre, wounded in the heel, hip, thigh, and shoulder; seen by [see] Thomas Forsyth the day after “on horseback,” among several prisoners of Indians who were returning to their village at Aux Sable Creek; later ransomed from the Indians by the trader Buisson and conveyed to Mackinac by canoe; was imprisoned by the British in Quebec but released to New York in the spring of 1814. Sukey and the children were killed by an Indian when discovered hiding in the Burns house. Corbin is one of the few survivors of the massacre who left a recorded eyewitness account. He reenlisted in February 1820 for “the want of bread”; on July 8, 1826, he reappeared requesting a government pension in Culpeper County, VA, concluding: “… I am now forty-two years old, thirteen of which has been devoted to the service of my country. Married since I left the army, a wife and four Small children to support, by my own exertion. I humbly ask a reexamination of my claim to a pension by the Secretary of War, and of back pay as a pensioner from the time of receiving my wounds; as in the benevolence of my country provision has been made for the wounded and disabled soldier; that I may receive that allowance which the degree of my disability justly entitles me to, from scars thus honorably received.” Thomas Forsyth submitted a letter corroborating the details of Corbin’s statement and in December a pension of four dollars was granted, doubled 20 years later. In January 1855, he submitted an affidavit concerning the loss of his pension certificate, then living in Harrison County, VA. [226, 404, 559, 708] [561]

Corbin, Phelim  only in the Baltimore Niles Weekly Register, June 14, 1814 (reprinted from the May 21 Plattsburg, NY, paper), was Phelim listed with James as survivors of the massacre at Fort Dearborn; Captain Heald, commandant at the fort, and Lieutenant Helm both list in post-massacre reports only two privates by the name Corbin, namely [see] Fielding and James; Eckert lists Phelim in addition, and insists he is distinct from and unrelated to Fielding; only James and Fielding were on the muster list of Nov. 30, 1810, and May 31, 1812. [559, 561, 708] [226]

Corbin, Susannah  nicknamed “Sukey”; wife of [see] James Corbin; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Dec. 5, 1811, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

Corbin, Victoria  wife of [see] Fielding Corbin; died at the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812.

Corbin, William  visited John Kinzie’s trading post during the period between June 1, 1812, to the time of the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

Corcoran, Elizabeth  see Welch, Patrick.

Corncrackers  nickname for residents from Kentucky, common in early Illinois. [734] [55a]

Cornelius  young lad brought from the East in 1834 by Philo Carpenter to work in his drugstore; his full name is not recorded. [221]

Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria  (1650-1718) Venetian Franciscan priest, globe- and mapmaker for Louis XIV, 1680; cosmographer to the Republic of Venice, 1685; among his important work are early maps of the North American Great Lakes region. His 1688 map of the western part of New France, Partie Occidentale du Canada ou de la Nouvelle France ou sont les Nations des Ilinois, de Tracy [see de Prouville, Alexandre, marquis de Tracy], les Iroquois, et plusieurs autres Peuples … [Service historique de la Marine, Vincennes], published in Paris by J.B. Nolin, incorporated the reports of Marquette, Jolliet, and La Salle [see detail of 1688 map]. [681-82] [605]

corporate finances  in 1823, when Chicago was in Fulton County, the first tax was collected, a total of $11.24 property tax based on 0.1% of assessed value. Public funds available to the town trustees in the initial years after the 1833 incorporation were frugally spent; the budget was small and even the repair of streets and bridges was not authorized unless the treasurer had sufficient funds on hand. On Oct. 2, 1834, the board voted to authorize a loan of $60, – Chicago`s 1st – loan on the faith of the community.

corporate seal    see Chicago, Town, seal of.

Corps of Engineers  of the U.S. Army; early name: Topographical Engineers; established on March 16, 1802; beginning with [see] Major Steven H. Long`s 1816 first scientific survey of the Chicago portage, the officers of the corps played important roles in building the second Fort Dearborn, in mapping the proposed Illinois & Michigan Canal in the 1820s, and subsequently in directing the development of the Chicago harbor. In this context, also see separate entries on Army Engineers Dr. W. H. Howard, Frederick Harrison, William B. Guyon, Henry Belin, and William Sanford Evileth. [423]

Corron, Joseph P.  married Hannah Ann Tuckerman on Oct. 27, 1835, per notice in the Chicago Democrat, Oct. 28, 1835, E.W. Casey officiating, “all of Cook County.”

Cortright, Sarah  see Harris, Benjamin.

Cottage Grove Trail  early name for branch of the Chicago-Detroit Road [originally an ancient Indian trail] that left the Vincennes Road and passed through a wooded area near 31st Street. Cottage Grove was described by Dr. Boyer in 1833 as “a timber point running toward Chicago and about three miles distant therefrom,” although the name was coined later by Charles Cleaver, who had his cottage there; survives as a two-block street; street name: Cottage Grove Avenue (200 E), between 22nd and 24th streets.

Couch, Ira  (Nov. 6, 1806-Feb. 28, 1857) from Saratoga County, NY; arrived in late 1835 or 1836 with his wife Caroline E. (née Gregory) and his brother James; the brothers opened a tailor shop and haberdashery on Lake Street between Dearborn and Clark in 1836; within a year, purchased the first Tremont House and created the first grand hotel; 1839 City Directory: hotel-keeper, Tremont House, n.-w. cor. Dearborn and Lake sts; 1844 Chicago Directory: proprietor of the Tremont Hotel. The hotel was rebuilt twice after disastrous fires in 1839 and 1849, remaining in the family until 1853; the brothers are believed to have become – Chicago`s 1st – millionaires. James married Elizabeth C. Wells in 1847; Ira died in Havana, Cuba, in 1857. His bones are thought by some to rest in a mausoleum [see entries “Couch – Hidden Truths”, “Couch Monument”, and “Couch Tomb” in the Monuments section] near the Chicago History Museum in Lincoln Park, a former city cemetery; more likely the remains are those of his nephew with the same name Ira, son of James; the mausoleum lost its inscribed plaques long ago. The elder Ira`s grave is at Rosehill Cemetery, clearly marked; in 1885, James` address was the Tremont House, and Ira`s widow lived at 3156 Indiana Avenue; street name: Couch Place (170 N). [288a, 351] [12]

Couch, Ira  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Couch, James  (1800-1892) brother of [see] Couch, Ira; 1839 City Directory: Superintendent Tremont House; 1844 Chicago Directory: res Tremont Hotel. Here is his signature as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Couillart, Marg  see Nicolet, Jean.

Coulter, Elizabeth  see Hammer, George.

Council Bluffs, IA    location to which 5,000 Indians were moved from Chicago in 1835, in accordance with the Treaty of Chicago of 1833.

Countryman, Maj. Frederick H.  (c.1795- ) also Contraman, Countraman; born in Minden, NY, son of Heinrich and Sarah Countryman; listed on a Michilimackinac County voter list in 1823; able to speak her language fluenty, he married a Potawatomi woman named En-do-ga and lived north of Pierce Hawley`s Grove in Title Grove [Kellogg`s, after sale of claim]; on June 8, 1825 was appointed a constable by Peoria County Commissioner`s Court; in June 1829 he employed Pierre Lamset to haul three barrels of whiskey from the Chicago settlement to his home in the Fox River Precinct; listed on the 1830 Peoria Federal Census as a single male; in 1831 he moved his family to Paw Paw Grove [Lee County] near a Potawatomi encampment and there enabled the Indians to plow with oxen to break sod and plant corn; En-do-ga left him c.1832, later dying of small pox at Milwaukee. As Contraman he received $200 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of 1833; at the treaty his three métisdaughters—Betsey, Nancy, and Sally [Sarah]—also received $200 each in payment, J.B. Campbell as trustee; on Sept. 3, 1834 he was elected major of the Cook County militia, chosen to command one of two battalions, and announced as candidate for town mayor on September 10; noted two months later per Chicago Democrat, he married “Miss Susanna, the beautiful accomplished daughter of Captain William Lawrence, late a private of the U.S. Army, aged 12 years” in Chicago on November 19; later in the Chicago American, in November 1835, Frederick was cited for assault and battery, with intent to kill a “Mr. Robinson of this place”; 1839 City Directory: farmer, West Randolph Street. He is enumerated in the Kansas Territorial Census of 1855 as a 60-year-old male who had emigrated from IL and on the Census of 1857 he was listed as the head of a family with two males and three females; the family was then living on the Potawatomi Indian Reservation S of the Military Road leading from Fort Leavenworth, near R.C. Miller`s Trading Post. [398a, 421a] [12]

county roads  see streets and roads.

coureurs des bois  unlicensed independent traders operating in New France and Louisiana since 1660 or earlier; required by law to be licensed by the authorities, but they were largely disregarded, and it was openly charged that governors and other officials were in collusion with the traders. Toward the end of the 17th century, an estimated one third of the able-bodied men of the colony played an active historical part exploring the wilderness while evading the law and living among the Indians; with a thorough knowledge of waterways, they were experts on local transportation, portages, and trails; also see voyageurengagé; also see the entry “Michigan peninsular traffic.” [398a]

Coursoll, Michel  also Coursolle, Courselle; likely the “Mr. Cursall” whose cabin is indicated N of the river on Captain Whistler`s 1808 draft of the first Fort Dearborn; a French trader from Montreal who worked among the Indians along the Illinois River and the lower Wabash River, occasionally acquiring supplies from John Kinzie, beginning on May 12, 1804. Kinzie’s account books identify four members of the Coursoll family who all visited Kinzie together on June 16, 1804: Mr. Michel, Mechial, John Marie, and Francis Marie. There were additional documented visits by Michel in 1804 on June 13 and Sept. 8, in 1805 on July 20 and Aug. 20, and a final visit on Apr. 12, 1806. Drolette, “Coursoll`s man,” is noted on Sept. 14, 1805, likely a French engagé. According to the Wisconsin Historical Collections, Michel Coursolle traded on the Michigan peninsula prior to 1812, and as a British trader in 1816, was granted a lot on Drummond Island. [394a] [404]

Courte, Charles  a Canadian voyageur; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on July 9, 1806, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

courthouse  – Chicago`s 1st – courthouse, a brick structure with basement and first story, was built in the fall of 1835 on the NE corner of the public square framed by Randolph, Washington, Clark and LaSalle streets, where City Hall and the Cook County building now stand; street name: Court Place, at 125 N, is a reminder. [12]

Courtney, Thomas    arrived with wife and child in 1834; built a one room cabin at Blue Island [now the corner of Grove and Ann streets], becoming the first settler.

Coutra, Louis  resident in 1825; assessed for tax purposes on $50 worth of personal property. [12]

Covell, Thomas Reed  (Oct. 7, 1798-Oct. 6, 1846) also Covill; first son of Amos Henry and Mary “Polly” (née Reed) Covell; born in West Stockbridge, MA; at age 19 he left home on horseback and traveled west, eventually arriving in Peoria, IL, where he met Elizabeth Brown, daughter of Ezra and Elizabeth (née Wiley) Brown; they were married on Mar. 23, 1827, and lived in Peoria for a short time; moved to Ottawa, IL, where Thomas built a small log cabin and met [see] James Walker whom he assisted in the building of a saw- and gristmill; listed on the 1830 Census, Peoria County; during the Blackhawk War in 1831 the couple lived at Plainfield where son Marion Francis (Jan. 10, 1831-Jan. 20, 1917) was born. Covell dealt in furs, trading easily and fairly with the local Indians, winning their respect and becoming a cherished friend of [see] Shabonna. In 1833 he settled along Salt Creek in Section 28 [Proviso Township]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; at the Chicago Treaty of September that year he received $1300 in payment for a claim; the Covells` other children included Morris, Marcelus, Monery, Frances, Maria, and Melissa. Thomas was injured by a falling tree late summer 1846, lingered a few months and at death in October he was buried on his land, now Parkholm Cemetery, in La Grange Park. Elizabeth died in 1867. Marion was a farmer, then opened quarries in Hillside, and held public offices in Proviso Township; shown here is a portion of the Covell cemetery plot with the gravestones of Marion Francis and his wife Barbara. [Photographs by Alan Gornik, 2010; 259a, 280a, 288a, 421a] [13]

Cox, A. Jackson  tailor from New York, arrived 1835; partner of the clothing store of Cox & Duncan [Thomas Duncan?] on the W side of Dearborn Street, near South Water Street, mentioned in [see] J.D. Bonnel`s letter; 1839 City Directory: tailor, 9 Clark St.

Cox, David  arrived from New York in 1835; lawyer, elected judge in 1837; 1839 City Directory: hotel-keeper, corner of West Lake and North Canal streets. [12]

Cox, William L.  discharged soldier, settled at the south branch of the Chicago River around 1810; on June 2, 1811, Indians murdered his son and abducted his daughter; a posse overtook the Indians near Springfield and freed the girl; in the fall of 1816 he taught school to the children of John Kinzie and others from the fort in an old bakery building on the Kinzie property and, as company clerk of the fort, taught soldiers to improve reading and writing skills in a garrison school throughout the winter. [544] [12]

coyote  Canis latrans; has been present in Illinois before the arrival of Europeans, and is still abundant. [“A New Day for Old Predators,” Chicago Wilderness Fall 2008] [341]

Crafts House    see Dean House.

Crafts, John  (1789-1826) born in Walpole, New Hampshire; in 1816, the firm Conant & Mack of Detroit sent Crafts to establish a trading post at Hardscrabble on the south branch near the Leigh farm, selling the establishment to the American Fur Co. in 1822. [Some have maintained that Abram Edwards, of Detroit, was the proprietor of the agency at Hardscrabble, rather than Conant and Mack, and that Crafts worked for Edwards; eds.] Crafts is first listed in John Kinzie`s account book on Nov. 18, 1818; in September 1820 J.B. Beaubien & Crafts are listed jointly, and Crafts is listed again on Apr. 27, 1824. A highly successful American Fur Co. agent, he moved the post to the old Dean house at the mouth of the river, then owned by Jean B. Beaubien, who had already become his partner (subagent) in the flourishing enterprise; together they built a warehouse just E of the Dean house by the edge of the river; from 1823-1825, continued to hold the area trade concession of the American Fur Co., in which Beaubien would succeed him (John Kinzie became subagent). Crafts was a frequent visitor to the Kinzie house throughout 1824 as he courted Maria Indiana Kinzie; he was well liked, known for dressing well, with a large wardrobe; in 1825, Crafts was assessed on $5,000 of personal property, though likely company stock. Crafts died that year on May 15 at the Kinzie house of bilious fever [malaria], and the Peoria probate court under Judge Norman Hyde appointed Dr. Alexander Wolcott as administrator of Crafts`s estate, with John Kinzie and Billy Caldwell as appraisers. The auction (June 1, 1826) of his large estate attracted many purchasers from the locale and beyond, whose names, acquisitions, and payments have been recorded and preserved in Peoria court records. [12, 170, 404, 585a] [220]

Crandall, Amanda  see Prescott, Eli Sherbourne.

Crandall, David  from Franklin County, NY; in 1831 came with wife Harriet (née Thurston) and son John to [Calumet Township], residing on the E side of the river; with hundreds of other families sought refuge in Fort Dearborn during the 1832 Black Hawk scare and joined [with Alva Crandall] Captain Seission`s militia company late July; a daughter Sarah was born in September 1835; later moved to Will County, then to Missouri. [278] [714]

crane  see whooping crane (Grus americana ); sandhill crane (Grus canadensis ).

Crane, Ebenezer  listed with Betsy Crane, as charter members of the Baptist church on Oct. 19, 1833; were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [12]

Crane, Elan  settled in 1834 on the S half of Section 18 in Dutchman’s Grove [now within the limits of Niles Township], where he built a sawmill on the N branch of the Chicago River, together with his son-in law [see] John Miller; it was afterwards widely known as “Miller’s Mill.” He obtained $70 per 1000 feet of timber. [13]

Cratee, Madore    French trader with the American Fur Co. on the Illinois and Fox rivers; mediator with the Potawatomi; later a mail walker between Ottawa and Chicago, and Chicago and Portage [IN]; by Indian trot he could cover 90 miles a day, earning $18.

Crawford County, Illinois Territory  created by act of legislature Dec. 31, 1816; included Chicago until Mar. 22, 1819, when the settlement became part of Clark County; by Dec. 3, 1818, Illinois Territory had become the State of Illinois; for details, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. [335a] [544]

Crawford, James and William  on April 1, 1834, there were unclaimed letters for a James Crawford at the post office; presumably brothers and – Chicago`s 1st – brewmasters, who in the summer of 1835, advertised in the June 13 Chicago American for 4,000 bushels of barley that were to be delivered to the Chicago Brewery; inquiries were taken at Mr. Fay`s Boarding House on Lake Street. A later article in the Chicago American on Aug. 15 listed one brewery among nearly 95 business enterprises in town, suggesting that the venture was succeeding. The location of this first brewery remains undetermined. William Crawford married Elizabeth Ann Hubbard on April 17, 1836; in the 1839 City Directory he was listed as a drayman, in the alley between North Clark and LaSalle. Also see breweries.

Crevecoeur  see Fort de Crevecoeur.

Crevel, Colin  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Crews, Elizabeth  see Filer, Alanson.

Crissy, William  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Crittenden, John J.    first U.S. district attorney of the territory of Illinois, took office in 1809 under Governor Edwards.

Crocker, Hans  (1816-1889) arrived from New York in 1834; was secretary of the town`s anti-gambling committee constituted on Oct. 25, 1834; was secretary for the Chicago Lyceum in 1835 and on Nov. 10 he debated the query “Would it be expedient for the United States to extend her Territory by the acquisition of Texas?” with Thomas R. Hubbard at the Presbyterian church for the Lyceum—his position was negative, as per notice in the Chicago American; was also vice president of the Young Men`s Temperance Society, organized on Dec. 19 that year; a lawyer, removed to Milwaukee in the autumn of 1836 though still listed at Chicago in the 1839 City Directory without an address; was still living there in 1885. [351] [12]

Crocker, Oliver A.    cousin of Oliver C. Crocker; member of a team that went from Chicago to Sheboygan in 1834 to build a sawmill on the Sheboygan River.

Crocker, Oliver C.  (1811-1879) also known as Colonel Crocker; born in Union, NY, on May 2, 1811; arrived in Chicago in June 1834, where he became acquainted with [see] William Payne, whom he joined in financing and undertaking an expedition to [see] Sheboygan where the party constructed and operated a sawmill until 1836. The enterprise having failed, he returned to the East. In 1878, he lived in Binghampton, NY, but died on Aug. 1, 1879, during a visit to Chicago, hours after registering as an old settler at the Calumet Club. His reminiscences were printed in the Sheboygan Times on March 9, 1878. [12]

Croghan, George  British Indian agent; left many reports of his exploits during the 1760s, in which he also mentioned Chicago – writing the name Chicag8. [649] [173]

Crooks, Ramsey  (Jan. 2, 1787-June 6, 1857) also Ramsay; born in Greenock, Scotland; fur trader in Wisconsin c.1806; manager and later part owner (with John Jacob Astor) of the [see] American Fur Co.`s entire Northwest operations; maintained close contact by correspondence with the Chicago fur traders, including John Kinzie, whom he also visited in person on July 9, 1806, on June 18, 1809, and again in June 1818, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; in 1809 Crooks paid a visit to Fort Dearborn, traveling on the sailing vessel Salina; died in New York City. [288a, 404] [12]

Cross, Jefferson T.  owner of 80 acres of land along both sides of the south branch of the river in Section 32, Township 39, prior to 1836, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Cross, Solomon, Jr.  owner of 80 acres of land in Section 32, Township 39, prior to 1836, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Crouch, Lydia  see Lovett, Joseph.

Crozat, Antoine    (1655-1738) see Louisiana Province.

Crozier, John  U.S. Army sergeant at Fort Dearborn; reenlisted on July 2, 1808, promoted to sergeant in December 1810; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 11, 1808 and on Apr. 18, 1812, as shown in the Kinzie account books; survived the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and escaped the Indians, reaching Fort Wayne; reported to have deserted before the massacre, but not known to have been charged officially. [404, 708] [226]

Crumlick, Isabella  see Moss, Thomas William.

Cull, Blanche Maria  see Elston, Daniel.

Cullerton, Edward  came to Chicago from Ireland in 1835 with his wife Catherine. A son, Edward F., was born in 1842 in Chicago, where he grew up and served as a member of the City Council from 1871 to 1892; in 1893 he married Winifred Dyer; they had no children. A Chicago street is named after the son, Edward F. Cullerton: Cullerton Street (2000 S). [244a]

Culver, Daniel  farmer who came to Walker`s Grove, now Plainfield, in 1834; his great-great-grandson James Culver continues to farm a portion of the acreage with draft horses [Chicago Tribune, June 27, 2006, page one].

Cummings, Maj. Alexander  born in Ireland; emigrated to Pennsylvania and joined the army`s Third Infantry in 1808; was commandant at Fort Dearborn from January to October 1821; was lieutenant colonel of the Second Infantry from 1828-1839. As commandant of Fort Niagara during the Black Hawk War he and two companies embarked on the William Penn for Chicago on July 9, 1832; en route the detachment encountered the cholera and survivors were hospitalized near Detroit, allowing the steamer to continue with replacement Third Artillery and Fifth Infantry companies and to arrive on the 18th. Cummings became a colonel of the Fourth Infantry in 1839, remaining so until his death in 1842. [326, 714] [12]

Cunningham, Hezekiah    member of the [see] Vermillion Rangers who came to Chicago for its protection during the Winnebago war of 1827; left an account of the event that may be found in Andreas.

Curry, John  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

Cursull, Mr.    see Coursoll, Michel.

Curtis, Abba Ann  see Harmon, Charles L.

Curtis, Joseph  English; came in the spring of 1831 and was the first immigrant to erect a log cabin along the N branch of the Chicago River in what is now Niles Township; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833; received $50 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty later in September. Joseph returned to England in 1850. [12, 319] [13]

Curtis, Mary  see Beers, Cyrenus.

Curtis, Mary  see Miller, Charles.

Curtis, Mary B.  see Rogers, Edward K.

Curtis, Susan  see Childs, Luther.

Curtiss, James  (-Nov. 2, 1859) also Curtis; solicitor, arrived from New York in 1835; opened an office on South Water Street between Clark and Dearborn, one door W of Jones, King & Co. (upstairs), as per Chicago Democrat ad on May 20; his wife`s name was Mary; as Town Clerk in late 1835 or early 1836, he executed an addition to the original town with the town trustees, variously referred to as the [see] Carpenter (or Carpenter & Curtiss) Addition, implying that he was either a partner of or did the necessary legal work for Philo Carpenter in the proceedings. He was alderman of the 2nd ward in 1838; 1839 City Directory: attorney & counsellor at law, 175 Lake st; became City Clerk in 1842; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: state`s attorney, office 136 Lake st. res W. Randolph, bet May and Ann 3rd ward; in 1845-46 he was the Clerk of Cook County; elected the 11th mayor on Mar. 2, 1847, then defeating the Liberty candidate Philo Carpenter. James was again elected as the 14th mayor, 1850-1851; he died in Joliet at age 56; in 1885 his widow lived in Champaign, IL. [233”, 278, 351, 435a] [12]

Curtiss, L.G.  as deputy surveyor of Cook County, placed a notice in the July 15, 1835, Chicago Democrat stating that “Orders left at the Mansion House will be punctually attended to.”

Cutting, Anne Maria  see Gooding, Col. William E.

Cutting, Eunice  see Gooding, Joseph A.

Cutwright, Peter  owner of 80 acres of land in Section 30, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Cutwright, Samuel  prior to 1836 owner of 80 acres of land in Section 28, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Cygnus buccinator  see swan.