Encyclopedia letter W

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Wabano  word of Indian origin, wâbano meaning “dawn” or “pass the night till dawn”; colloquial term used in early Chicago for an all night dancing opportunity held at the Lake House or Mansion House or Sauganash Hotel, preceded by dinner at six p.m. and followed by breakfast at seven a.m., in which the dancers usually participated. For the text of a printed invitation by the sponsor, followed by Charles Fenno Hoffman`s eyewitness report on such an event itself, see below.
Grand WA-BA-NO.
Mssrs. H. and L. Harmon are respectfully solicited at Mr Graves Assembly Rooms on Wednesday, February Five, at 6 P.M.
managers[:] R.A. Kinzie, J.D. Harmon, J. Spring, E.K. Smith, M.D. Culver, M.B. Beaubien.
Chicago, Feb. 1, 1834.
We had not been here [Chicago] an hour before an invitation to a public ball was courteously sent to us by the managers; and though my soiled and travel-worn ridingdress was not exactly the thing to present one`s self in before the ladies of an evening, yet, in my earnestness to see life on the frontier, I easily allowed all objections to be overruled by my companions, and we accordingly drove to the house in which the ball was given. It was a frame building, one of the few as yet to be found in Chicago; … we were ushered into a tolerably-sized dancing room, occupying the second story of the house, and having its unfinished walls so ingeniously covered with pine-branches and flags borrowed from the garrison, that, with the whitewashed ceiling above, it presented a very complete and quite pretty appearance. It was not so warm, however, that the fires of cheerful hickory, which roared at either end, could have been readily dispensed with. — An orchestra [platform] of unplaned boards was raised against the wall in the center of the room; the band consisted of a dandy negro with his violin [Nelson P. Perry], a fine military-looking bass drummer from the fort, and a volunteer citizen, who alternately played an accompaniment upon the flute and triangle. Blackee, who flourished about with a great many airs and graces, was decidedly the king of the company; … As for the company [of guests], it was such a complete medley of all ranks, ages, professions, trades and occupations, brought together from all parts of the world, … that it was amazing to witness the decorum with which they comingled on this festive occasion. … The gayest that was ever called by quadrille-playing Benoit never afforded me half the amusement that did these Chicago cotillions. Here you might see a veteran officer in full uniform balancing to a trademan`s daughter still in her short frock and trousers, while there the golden aiguillette of a handsome surgeon [Dr. Maxwell, no doubt; eds.] flapped in unison with the glass beads upon a scrawney neck of fifty. … Those raven locks, dressed a la Madonne, over eyes of jet, and touching a cheek where blood of a deeper hue mingles with the less glowing current from European veins, tell of a lineage drawn from the original owners of the soil; while these golden tresses, floating away from eyes of heaven`s own color over a neck of alabaster, recall the Gothic ancestry of some of `England`s born.` How piquantly do these trim and beaded leggins peep from under that simple dress of black, as its tall nut-brown wearer moves, as if unconsciously, through the graceful mazes of the dance — `This is a scene of enchantment to me, Sir,` observed an officer to me, recently exchanged to this post, and formerly stationed here. `There were but a few traders around the fort when I last visited Chicago; and now I can`t contrive where the devil all these well-dressed people have come from!` — I made several new acquaintances at this new-year`s ball, and particularly with the officers of the garrison, from whose society I promised myself much pleasure during my stay.
[Mr. Hoffman was not to be disappointed. His book tells of exciting wolfhunts &c.; which he enjoyed during the next few days in the company of his new-found friends; eds.] [339] [456b]

Wabansa stone  see Waubansee stone.

Wabansia Addition  also listed as Wahponseh Addition; the plat for the Wabansia Addition to Chicago was filed for record on June 10, 1834; first shown on Hathaway`s map of 1834 (see Maps), it is a triangular piece of land, bordered by Kinzie Street, Jefferson Street, and the north branch; named after the Potawatomi chief [see] Waubansee. James Kinzie held a dominant proprietary interest in this addition, as shown by the following action taken by the Illinois General Assembly early in 1835: “An Act to authorize James Kenzie to alter the Town Plat of the town of Wabansie. Section 1. Be it enacted by the people of the State of Illinois, represented in the General Assembly, That James Kenzie, proprietor of the town of Wabansie, be, and he is hereby authorized to so alter and amend the plat of said town as to make it conform to the survey thereof: Provided, said alteration shall not interfere with the wishes, rights or interests of individual claimants. Section 2. That this act shall take effect from and after its passage.” [Approved, Jan. 26, 1835.]

Wabansie  see Waubansee.

Wabash and Erie Canal   452 miles from Toledo, OH, to Evansville, IN; begun in 1832, completed 1856; partially closed in 1860 and abandoned in 1875; the longest United States canal, but ill-fated and short-lived because of the growing importance of the railroads.

Wabash River  Miami-Illinois words, waapaahshiki siipiiwi, meaning `it is a white-shining river,` because it refers to the dolomitic limestone that composes the bed of the upper river between Huntington and Carroll Counties, IN. Trading posts, some which later became larger settlements, were established along the Wabash River many decades earlier than at Chicago; Vincennes was a French post in 1702, personally established by Sieur Juchereau, Lieutenant General of Montreal, and at least by 1721 there were traders living near the Miami village of Ke-ki-ong-a, where Fort Wayne would be. Once Chicago became a boom town in 1833, it served as an attractive outlet for the agricultural products of the Wabash River valley, and a steady stream of wagons lumbered to the market on South Water Street, up and down what is now Wabash Avenue. See the following impression by Colbee C. Benton in 1833. [456b, 464a]
… The trade of Chicago seems to be with the inhabitants in the vicinity of the Wabash River, at least a considerable share of it. They come with large covered waggons drawn by three or four yoke of oxen, generally loaded with wheat which they exchange for salt. They travel very cheap indeed. Their way is across an extensive prairie nearly the whole distance, which is about one hundred and twenty miles to the Wabash River. They carry their victuals with them, and when night comes they turn their oxen onto the prairie and sleep in their waggons. At Chicago they do the same, and I saw them cooking by their fires, making coffee, kneading bread, and baking it on the coals. A large space is occupied by their teams and there is a number present all the time. They seem to live as comfortable as many of the inhabitants. There are a number of settlements in the vicinity of Chicago which do part of their trading here, but not all. … [697]

Wabinsheway  White Elk, a Potawatomi chief of unusually tall stature, known to have killed Sukey Corbin and her two small children in the Burns`s house during the Fort Dearborn massacre; suspected to have killed many children in the children`s wagon. [226]

Wabonsia  see Waubansia.

Wabush Slip  a rivulet on Russell E. Heacock`s property, beginning at [see] Heacock`s Point and entering the E side of the south branch. [12]

Wade, Captain  master of the lake schooner [see] Chance which visited Chicago on September 25 and Nov. 11, 1835.

Wade, David  born c.1812, came in 1832; served under Capt. G. Kercheval as a member of the Chicago militia company in the Black Hawk War of 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319, 714] [12]

Wadhams, Seth  born c.1818 in Goshen, CT; arrived on July 4, 1835; 1839 City Directory: clerk, boarded at Illinois Exchange; living at Elmhurst in 1885. [12, 243] [351]

Wadsworth, Elisha Strong  (1822-Nov. 25, 1890) born at the Fort Dearborn settlement; son of Elisha and Martha (née Butler) Wadsworth, Sr.; again in Chicago by 1835, he became a member of the firm Wadsworth, [Thomas] Dyer & [John] Chapin, general wholesale and retail merchants; 1839 Chicago Directory: dry goods, Lake street; 1843 and 1844 Chicago Directories: E.S. & J. dry goods and groceries, 113 Lake st (See card) · Dealers In DRY GOODS & GROCERIES At Wholesale And Retail ·, and E.S. & J.W. h c [36] Wash. and Randolph sts. Elisha married Charlotte (MA Mar. 6, 1824-), daughter of Rev. John and Mary Ann (née Seymour) Woodbridge, on Aug. 4, 1842 in South Hadley, MA; he died in Clifton Springs, NY.

Wadsworth, Julius W.  (c.1813-May 28, 1887) born in Hartford, CT; 1839 Chicago Directory: agent, Hartford Insurance Co., 105 Lake st; 1843 and 1844 Chicago Directories: E.S. & J.W. [dry gods and groceries] res City Hotel; he died in Middleton, CT.

Waggoner, Anthony L.  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted on Jan. 9, 1806, and reenlisted in 1811; badly wounded at the 1812 massacre and killed by the Indians later that night. [708] [226]

Wahponseh Addition  see Wabansia Addition.

Waldseemüller, Martin (Hylacomylus, or Ilacomilus)  (1470-1521) his middle name is a Latinized Greek approximate translation of Waldseemüller, meaning `forest-lake-miller`; German cartographer working at St. Dié, France, whose world map, contained in Cosmographie Introductio, 1507, was the first to use the word America, placing it across the space of what is now Brazil. Thus credit was given to Amerigo Vespucci for recognizing that the New World was a separate continent and not part of China, as Columbus had believed all his life. Waldseemüller`s map incorporates the knowledge gained from the explorations of [see] Columbus, Vespucci, and John Cabot. The map still left unanswered whether North and South America were connected; the main map shows the subcontinents separated by a strait, whereas a map insert shows the land bridge now known as Panama. Only one original print of this large woodcut map is known to exist (see Maps). It measures 12 x 4.5 feet, printed in 12 segments, and is in good condition. Long owned by a German aristocratic family at the time of this writing [2000], but efforts are underway by the U.S. Library of Congress to acquire this “baptismal certificate of the New World” for $1,000,000. Also in 1507, Waldseemüller prepared the first globe showing the entire earth, including America. Four of the original globe gore prints are still known to exist, one at the University of Minnesota, two in German libraries, and one [as of June 2005] with the British art dealer Charles Frodham & Co. Ltd., who recently acquired the single sheet of paper (7.2″ x 13.8″) at a Christie auction for $1,000,000, the highest price ever paid for a single sheet map. [18a, 247, 314, 456b, 470aa]

Walk-in-the-Water  built at Black Rock, NY; first steamboat on the Great Lakes W of Niagara, with a maiden voyage in August 1818; a 338-ton, 135-foot schooner-rigged paddle-wheeler with wood-burning boilers, it was actually a sailing vessel with an auxiliary engine; carried the members of the 1820 Lewis Cass expedition on the first leg of their voyage from Buffalo to Detroit. The Walk-in-the-Water was never in Chicago, though it had navigated the northern parts of Lake Michigan. On Oct. 31, 1821, the ship was caught on Lake Erie by a violent gale, was stranded at Point Abino near Buffalo Creek and broke apart on Nov. 1 with no loss of life. George Washington Whistler, who spent his childhood years from age three to 10 at Fort Dearborn, made a painting of the ship in 1820, showing Detroit in the background. [556]

Walker & Co.  [see Charles and Almond Walker] located on South Water Street between Dearborn and State, first advertising in the 1839 Chicago Directory as “grocers and provision merchants, South Water st, near State”; the range of merchandise offered is later itemized in the Chicago Morning Democrat, Feb. 27, 1840: “leather, groceries, calicoes, flannels, socks, mittens, &c.;&c.; Fools cap and letter paper, threshing machines, fanning mills, double waggons, shiffle trees, neck yokes, &c.;&c.; Pork, flour and salt, 500,000 ft. pine lumber, different kinds.” [736]

Walker, Almond  native of Plainfield, NY; brother of [see] Charles Walker; visited Chicago on business from New York in 1834 and 1835; 1839 City Directory: (Charles Walker & Co.); 1844 City Directory: of C. Walker & Co. S. Water st. b State and Dear. [243]

Walker, Augustus  captain of the Shelden Thompson, the first steamship on Lake Michigan, built in 1830; on July 10, 1832 arrived for the Black Hawk War with General Scott and soldiers infected with the cholera, and afterward came regularly to Chicago; for his impression of the prairie, as viewed from his ship, see entry for prairie; of the ravages of the cholera on board ship, see entry for cholera. [12] [708]

Walker, Capt. James  (1793-1850) native of Tennessee; lived in Ottawa, IL, during the late 1820s where he constructed a saw- and gristmill with the assistance of [see] Thomas Reed Covell; met and married his cousin Jane G. Walker (c.1798-1859) in LaSalle County; accompanied his father-in-law Rev. Jesse Walker among the Potawatomi villages along the Fox River as early as 1826; made a claim in 1828 at what became Walker`s Grove, now Plainfield; set up a horse-powered gristmill, then by 1832 constructed a saw- and gristmill on the E side of Du Page River with the assistance of [see] Reuben Flagg and Lorin Burdick; purchased lot 4 in block 10 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] at the initial Canal Commissioners` land sale in Chicago on Sept. 4, 1830, and was still listed as owner in 1833; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; one of the first three Cook County commissioners elected on March 7, 1831, (with Samuel Miller and Gholson Kercheval); during the commissioners` second session on June 6, the first county road was ordered to be laid out “from the town of Chicago to the house of B. Lawton, from thence to the house of James Walker, on the Du Page River, and so on to the west line of the county.” During the Black Hawk War he commanded one of five Cook County militia companies with the rank of captain; ran a gristmill and also a sawmill that is said to have provided lumber in the autumn of 1832 for Chicago`s first frame structure, belonging to P.F.W. Peck; claimed and received $200 at the 1833 Chicago Treaty; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat later that year in November; became postmaster at Walker`s Grove in February 1834, until early July; later served as commissioner of Will County; died at Plainfield on Aug. 27, 1850. [12, 37, 259a, 280a, 421a, 692b, 706] [734]

Walker, Caroline  see Clarke, William Brown.

Walker, Caroline I.  see Peck, Ebenezer.

Walker, Charles  (1802-1869) native of Plainfield, NY; brother of Almond; visited in 1834, came permanently in 1835, and became a successful merchant and land speculator; on November 23 he submitted a petition for a delay in deciding the question of the right to wharfing privileges; the brothers formed [see] Walker & Co. in 1836 when brother-in-law [see] Eri Baker Hulbert joined them from New York; the firm shipped the first wheat from Chicago to the East in 1838, to Walker`s mills in Burlington Flats, NY; 1839 and 1844 City Directories: Walker & Co., grocers and provision merchants, South Water st., near State. From 1851-52 he was president of the board of trade and within a few years was involved in railroad development; through his first wife Mary [née Clarke; married 1826, died 1838] he was a brother-in-law to [see] Henry Brown Clarke; married Nancy Bentley in 1841, who lived until 1881. [Portrait from Chicago Magazine, 1857] [12, 28, 97, 136a, 243, 351, 736]

Walker, Charles H.  son of [see] Charles Walker and Mary (née Clarke); came as a child with his parents from New York in 1835; followed his father in business, renaming the company C. Walker & Sons, and served as president of the board of trade in 1856 and 1857; later moved to LA. [12]

Walker, George E.  Ottawa [IL] resident who accompanied the 1830 board of canal commissioners on their visit to Chicago that summer; purchased waterfront real estate from Mark Noble, Sr., on the E side of the north branch in August 1833, together with James B. Campbell, and in November subscribed to the Chicago Democrat ; received $1000 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; built a cabin on the river sand bar that was washed away in 1834; moved from Ottawa in 1835, and in that year lived with his wife at Flusky`s boarding house. Also see Hickling, William. [12] [704]

Walker, George H.  (c.1811-1866) arrived in 1832; served under Capt. G. Kercheval as a member of the Chicago company in the Black Hawk War; about that time purchased from George Miller lot 8 in block 18 and lots 5 and 6 in block 36 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; died at Milwaukee, aged 55. [12, 319] [714]

Walker, Hugh  purchased the downtown lot 5 in Section 31 on April 5, 1832, for $61; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Walker, Lucy  see Wentworth, Elijah, Sr.

Walker, Martin Otis  (c.1809-May 28, 1874) partner of John Frink in [see] Frink & Walker by 1839; involved in the takeover from Winters, Mills & Co. the Chicago-Ottawa stagecoach line late in 1834 that had been pioneered by Dr. Temple; 1839 City Directory: mail contractor, (Frink & Walker) 123 Lake; 1843 City Directory: (Frink, W. & Co.), res 97 State, n.-e. cor Dearborn. [243]

Walker, Mary Louisa  see Hulbert, Eri Baker.

Walker, Nancy  see Irwin, Maj. Matthew.

Walker, Rev. Jesse  (June 7, 1766-Oct. 5, 1835) born in Buckingham County, VA, son of Elmore and Mary (née LaSalle) Walker; by trade a fur dresser and also Methodist preacher, usually known as “Father Walker”; his wife was Susanna Webley, married c.1788; beginning in 1789 his early missionary work was in TN, KY, and NC, where daughter Jane G. was born; assigned to the IL circuit in 1806, to MO in 1807, then again IL in 1811; in Peoria in 1824 when he was selected as minister and superintendent of the Fox River Methodist mission; initially came to Chicago in the spring of 1826, at which time he delivered – Chicago`s 1st – Methodist sermon. applied for and received on June 6, 1826, a license to run a ferry across the Illinois River at the mouth of the Fox River. In the fall of 1830, he was placed in charge of the Chicago Mission District, and voted in elections on August 2 (also serving as clerk) and November 25. In 1832, he moved to the settlement to succeed Reverend Beggs, residing, as had Reverend Beggs, in the double-room log house formerly used by Reverend See, located near the Forks on the W side of the north branch; that winter of 1832-33, jointly occupied the space with John Watkins, who conducted school in one room during the week, where Walker preached on Sundays. He was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $1500 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September. Susanna had died in 1832; he remarried in 1834 (Rebecca Brown Fawcett Walker, who submitted a petition for wharfing privileges on Nov. 23, 1835). Late that year he, becoming superannuated, was succeeded by Rev. J.T. Mitchell and in 1835 removed to Walker`s Grove, dying on October 5; the remains of his first wife were disinterred and buried with him in a single large coffin. [12, 13, 28, 37, 50, 319] [734]

Walker`s Grove  a notice in the Feb. 18, 1834, issue of the Chicago Democrat announced the opening of a new post office at Walker`s Grove, now Plainfield; in June residents organized the Fountaindale Congregational Church of Du Page; [see] Chester Ingersoll surveyed land and in the Aug. 27, 1834, Chicago Democrat he advertised the sale of town lots at the newly platted town [Plainfield] NE of Walker’s Grove to where he had removed, 40 miles from Chicago; Rev. Jesse Walker lived and died there in retirement, but the name derives from his nephew and son-in-law, the earlier resident [see] James Walker. [237a] [13]

Walkins, Samuel  arrived from Virginia in 1830; possibly a misprint, [see] Watkins, Samuel. [351]

Wallace & Davis  see Wallace, William Henry.

Wallace, Lydia  see Whistler, John Harrison.

Wallace, William Henry  (Feb. 9, 1790-Mar. 2, 1827) born in Montreal, son of Scottish New Yorkers William and Sarah (née Kennedy, 1785) Wallace; first experienced fur trade on the expedition which John Jacob Astor sent to the Columbia River; in mid May 1818 was working for the American Fur Co. in Montreal, where he dispatched Gurdon S. Hubbard to the Illinois River; thereafter was a trader for the company on the lower Wabash River until 1823; in September 1825 purchased supplies and merchandise from William Brewster of Detroit, also from New York merchants, and by late December began a trading post at Chicago, renting for this purpose a cabin at Hardscrabble from Antoine Ouilmette; his enterprise was sometimes referred to as “Wallace & Davis,” suggesting a partnership with John H. Davis, another former employee of the American Fur Co.; employed several engagés at Chicago, most of whom came from Detroit (Glode [Claude] LaFramboise and Jean Baptiste dit La Fortune, interpreters, and Martin Vansickle, John B. Bersier, Augustin Bordenois, and Clement and Maurice Lauzon). He died a bachelor on or soon after March 2, 1827, when he was last attended by Dr. Wolcott for an infectious disease; the sale of his large estate on April 27 attracted many purchasers from the area and beyond, whose names, acquisitions, and payments have been recorded and fortuitously preserved in Peoria court archives. [10aa, 12, 220a] [220]

Wallece, Ann  a young girl living in Cook County, where she prepared this [see] sampler in 1835. Ann is known only through this finely crafted work; no additional information has yet surfaced. The sampler is now part of the collection of the [see] Chicago History Museum. [394″]

Walls, John  deputy surveyor for the office of the U.S. Surveyor General; in Township 39 he surveyed the future site for the town of Chicago during 1821 with particular emphasis on the geographic features of the Chicago portage region. In August of the same year the Indian Treaty at Chicago secured the necessary land for the construction of the Illinois and Michigan Canal. [413]

Walsh, Edward  a native of County Cork, Ireland; came to Chicago in 1835 with his wife Ellen (née Henneberry, from Tipperary; died of cholera in 1894). A son, John Francis, was born in Chicago in 1844, who, in 1870, married Mary E. Kennitt; they had 11 children. [244a]

Walsh, Michael    see Welch, Michael P.

Walsh, Patrick  arrived early in 1833 from Ireland; in April he signed for a family of two the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to them. [Possibly identical with {see} Patrick Welch; the preserved list of petitioners does not show the original signatures but was written by one hand, and several of the names are clearly misspelled.] [12]

Walters, J.C.  was a member of the fire engine company No.1 (Fire Kings) in December 1835; possibly Joel C. Walter listed in the 1839 City Directory as an employee of H. Norton & Co. [grocers and provisions, South Water Street].

Walton, Thomas  settled in [see] Maine Township in 1834; sold his claim in 1836 to Samuel Johnson, and took up a new claim W of his first one. [13]

medium in lieu of money. During the War of 1812, Main Poc and other pro-British chiefs provided belts of wampum, “all painted with vermillion” and “about two fathoms long & nine inches wide,” that accompanied British letters to the councils of various tribes in the midwest, inviting the warriors to come to Detroit for provisions and merchandise that included kegs of gunpowder. [109, 697]

wapiti  Shawnee: waapiti; see elk.

war dance    for eyewitness accounts of the Great Indian War Dance at Chicago in 1835, see Chronology, 1835; also see entry on Hoyne, Lenora Maria Temple.

War of 1812  provoked by England`s maritime policy and its undermining of United States relations with the Indians of the Northwest; the war was also facilitated by an American desire to take Canada from the British and Florida from Britain`s ally, Spain. Though poorly prepared, and with incompetent military leadership in command, Congress approved war with England on June 18, 1812, by a close vote. Initially British troops moved against Gen. William Hull in the Northwest, dislodging United States forces in quick succession from Mackinac (July 17, 1812) and Detroit (August 16) and forcing the disastrous evacuation of Fort Dearborn on August 15. After many months the United States employed better prepared troops and leadership superior to what had been provided by [see] General Hull, and the British suffered serious setbacks, particularly in naval confrontations. On Dec. 24, 1814, the war-tired enemies signed the Treaty of Ghent, which left the various contested borders as they were before the war, but ended British interference in United States Indian affairs and left the Indians powerless to check further United States advance on its western frontier. Fort Dearborn was soon rebuilt (1816) and an organized settlement slowly evolved, by 1830 necessitating the James Thompson`s platting of a potential town (see Maps, 1830, James Thompson).

War, French and Indian    see French and Indian War.

War, Revolutionary    see Revolutionary War

ward structure of Chicago    see Chicago wards.

Ward, Bernard  called “Barney,” came to Chicago in May 1833 with troops from Fort Brady [also see Adams, Joseph, who was his sergeant at that time, later becoming his in-law when his son Ralph married a daughter of Ward]. When his term expired, he retired from the military and became a teamster; filed a deposition in favor of D. Elston’s claim for wharfing privileges on Nov. 25, 1835, and submitted his own claim [lot 5 block 7] later that year; was married to Ruth Marshall, who was listed as a charter member of the first Presbyterian church; daughter Claricy and son Henry A. were baptized on July 24, 1836; in 1837 he became the first alderman from the fifth ward; 1839 City Directory: teamster, fifth ward. John Wentworth relates [1881] that Barney lived on an island in the Chicago River near the Forks, approachable from the N side by a footbridge, “since cut away,” and that Henry was born on the island on March 28, 1834. [28, 237a, 351, 708] [12]

Ward, Henry A.    see Ward, Bernard.

Ward, Mrs. Ruth  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; Ruth (née Marshall) was the wife of [see] Bernard Ward. [319]

Ward, Sophia Caroline  see Andrews, David.

Warden, Peter  listed as one of the founding members of the first Baptist church on Oct. 19, 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319] [12]

Ware, Charley    member of a team that went from Chicago to Sheboygan in 1834 to build a sawmill on the Sheboygan River.

Warford, Elizabeth  see Legg, Isaac.

Warner, Rebecca  see Cooley, William.

Warner, Seth P.  from NY; blacksmith for Ashbel Steele observed by E.O. Gale late May 1835, in the smithy on the S side of Randolph, E of Clark Street; 1839 City Directory: clerk, Charles Walker & Co., South Water Street; retired to Austin, IL. [243]

Warren, Daniel  (c.1780-1866) born near Concord, MA; a successful business man in Chautauqua County, NY, arrived from Westfield, NY, in
April 1833 and soon acquired land 30 miles W on the W branch of the Du Page River; his son-in-law Fredrick Bird followed in May, and his son Julius Morton (June 13, 1811-May 1, 1893; nicknamed “Colonel,” a member of the NY militia) arrived in July with sisters Philinda (Mrs. P.H. Fowler), Sally (Mrs. Abel E. Carpenter), Louisa (Mrs. Frederick Bird), and her three children. While Daniel began to build a house on his claim (was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August), Julius returned to New York in the autumn and accompanied the remainder of the family: mother Nancy [née Morton, Feb. 9, 1785-Feb. 4, 1873], sisters Harriet, Mary (Mrs. Jerome Beecher) and Maria (twins), and Jane (Mrs. N.B. Curtiss, Peoria); they boarded at the Green Tree Tavern, then continued to the homestead. During the short stay in Chicago, Maria befriended Silas B. Cobb, and they later married; for Cobb`s humorous story of the initial encounter, see Cobb, Silas Bowman. After a few years Warren sold his claim and acquired nearly a section of land at [now] Warrenville where he and Julius farmed; they built a sawmill on the W side of the Du Page River, platted a town, and eventually owned a large hotel. According to [see] Emily Beaubien “Col. Warren was a great dancer.” In 1888 Harriet N. Warren Dodson of Geneva wrote the family history from which the following is an excerpt, relating the family`s overnight stay at [see] John Mann`s tavern on the Calumet River. [3, 319, 351, 415, 692b]
[late October 1833, on the road from New York to Chicago] … Only our mother was in the wagon during the day. When we were within a few miles of the Calumet it commenced raining, the walking was very heavy in the deep sand, the horses were driven as near the lake as possible on account of the depth of the sand any distance from the shore, and we began to fear we must stay another night on the dismal shore, when there came up behind us a man with a cart and a pair of oxen attached to it, who seeing us came to the wagon and asked if some of us would accept a place in his rough vehicle, at the same time saying we were but a mile or two from the Calumet, where he himself was to remain overnight. Mother hesitated a moment before accepting the kind offer. In the meantime my twin sisters had entered the cart and were quickly gone from sight. It was beginning to rain quite heavily and with our anxiety about the two sisters it seemed the next hour was the longest one we ever experienced. We at last reached the shaggy settlement at the mouth of the Calumet river. Just before we drove up in front of the only house to be seen in the dusk of the evening, a man drove past us with a pair of horses having as we afterwards learned just come from Michigan City, and seemed to be very angry because someone had disturbed his hay just on the road back of us. Said he would like to know who had pulled his hay down. The little man, driver of the cart in which the sisters had been riding, stepped up to him and told him he had taken a handful or two of hay on the roadside to make a more comfortable place for two young ladies to ride in the cart he was driving. We found out the large angry man was the owner and proprietor of the place. His name was Mann, but he seemed in his anger to be a savage. My mother hearing the loud talk went at once to the big man and said whatever there was to pay for the hay she was the one to settle it as it was taken for her daughters` benefit. He seemed to be ashamed of himself at once, and said no more, but the little man with the cart was very indignant at his conduct and would not cross the “ferry” the next morning. Said he would risk drowning himself and oxen rather than pay such a mean man to bring him across. We watched him safely across the next morning before we went on the “ferry” ourselves, because we were told the quicksand made it dangerous crossing, and this is the last we saw of the little man with the little cart and small yoke of oxen almost as speedy as horses and well matched and well broken. We wished to have come across him again to thank him for his kindness once more, but from this simple experience we learned a rough exterior often covers a gentle heart, and that “appearences are deceitful sometimes.” Mr. Mann had an Indian wife. The Mann house seemed full of people. We were marched to a small house of one room with one bed resting upon what was called a prairie bedstead, made fast to the house by two posts with cross pieces for slats. Our mother`s bed was brought from the wagon, the excuse for a bed being taken from the rude bedstead, placed on the floor and three of the sisters with our traveling wraps on, camped on it and slept quite sweetly; mother and the younger sister occupying the bedstead whereon her bed had been placed. I think mother slept some toward morning, after the exitement of that wearisome day. The following day we arrived in Chicago. [207]

Warren, Harriet Newell  see Dodson, Christian B.

Warren, Louisa  see Bird, Frederick.

Warren, Maria  see Cobb, Silas Bowman.

Warren, Sally L.  [identified as Sarah by Andreas and by Album of Genealogy and Biography, Cook County, Illinois. Chicago, 1895]; daughter of Nancy and Daniel Warren arrived from New York in July 1833; served as assistant school teacher to [see] Henry Van der Bogart at the English and Classical School for Boys on South Water Street; she started her job on March 21, 1834, at a salary of $300 per year; they became engaged but Henry succumbed to typhoid in 1835; in 1836 she married [see] Abel E. Carpenter and moved to Aurora. See the following description of her daily commuting problems to school:
[1858] I boarded at Eld. Freeman`s; his house must have been situated some 4 or 5 blocks S.-E. of the meeting-house, with scarce a house between. What few buildings were there then, were mostly on Water Street. I used to go across without regard to streets. It was not uncommon, in going to and from school, to see prairie-wolves, and we could hear them howl any time in the day. We were also frequently annoy`d by Indians, but the great difficulty we had to encounter was mud. No person, now, can have a just idea of what Chicago mud used to be [in 1834]; rubbers were of no account. I got me a pair of gent`s Brogands, and fastened them tight about the ankle, but would go over them in mud and water, and was obliged to get a pair of men`s boots made.

Warren  65-ton schooner from Ashtabula under Captain Heacock, first called at Chicago on July 18, 1834, and again on Aug.16 when it came from Buffalo.

Warriner, Rachel  see Church, Thomas.

Wasachek  also known as Clear Day; Potawatomi warrior, brother of Nescotnemeg and Waubinema; wounded at the Fort Dearborn massacre, but survived. [226]

Washington Volunteers    a fire brigade existing prior to the incorporation of the town in 1833; see firefighting.

Washington, George  (1732-1799) a native of Virginia, who became the first president of the United States, serving from 1789 to 1797. The residency at Chicago of Point de Sable, best known of the village`s 18th century traders, roughly coincides with Washington`s term as president. George Washington School, 3535 E 114th St.; street names: Washington Street and Washington Boulevard, (100 N).

Water Street    see South Water Street.

water supply  the early settlers of Chicago, prior to 1820, all selected locations for their cabins close to the banks of the Chicago River, its tributaries, or near the shore of Lake Michigan. One reason was the need for ready access to water travel, another the availability of an unlimited supply of water for personal consumption. During the winter clean snow and ice could be melted. Later settlers, who chose lots away from the waterline, dug wells 6 to 10 feet deep on their properties [see illustration], which initially supplied them with clean water, well filtered by the sandy soil. However, gradually the water quality deteriorated as a result of seepage from nearby outdoor toilets, pigsties and the habit of dumping kitchen refuse and dirty wash water on the ground near the houses. With the wells becoming unusable, a new enterprise came into existence, that of hauling water from the lake and selling it. This is how G.P. Brown describes it: “A hogshead mounted on an axle between two wheels and drawn by a horse was first used. The only opening was a hole at the top sufficiently large to admit a pail. The vehicle was backed into the lake until the water came conveniently near the top, when the hogshead was filled by the use of pails. The driver then proceeded up the street, mounted on a cross-piece in front of the hogshead, and served those who hailed him with water at a shilling [or five to 10 cents] per barrel. The use of the pail in emptying was finally succeeded by a hose, tacked around a hole about four inches in diameter near the bottom. At length contracts were made, and many families were supplied on certain days of each week, or every other week.”
On Nov. 10, 1834, by which time the community had been granted village status, the digging of a public well was authorized in the Kinzie Addition on the north side of the river (corner of Cass [Wabash] and Michigan [Hubbard] streets) at a cost of $95.50; this was the first community effort to provide villagers with pure water. Not until Jan. 18, 1836, did the Illinois State Legislature pass a law incorporating the Chicago Hydraulic Company, of which George W. Dole was the president. In years to follow, lake water also became grossly polluted because garbage was routinely thrown into the river and thus carried into the lake, a problem with which subsequent administrations had to cope. [12, 76, 303] [138]

Watkins, Betsy  see Woolley, Jedediah, Jr.

Watkins, Deborah Scott  arrived from New York in 1826 with her parents [see Scott, Steven J.] and husband Morrison Watkins; married in 1821, they had two children, but were divorced in 1828; in the Peoria court records Deborah claimed “repeated and brutal cruelty and drunkenness”; her attorney was Jonathan H. Pugh, and this appears to have been – Chicago`s 1st – official divorce. On Nov. 5, 1828, Deborah Watkins married Joseph Bauskey of Chicago, who died of cholera in 1832.

Watkins, Henry  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Watkins, John  (1802-1897) born at Scipio, NY; came in May 1832; was secretary of the Chicago Temperance Society in 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and voted in the election of the first town board on August 10; in September he signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness, and later in November subscribed to the Chicago Democrat; employed by Colonel Hamilton and Colonel Owen, he had begun to teach school that autumn in Hamilton`s old horse stable on North Clark Street; when the school was moved to Father Walker`s house at Wolf Point, Walker and Watkins cohabited, the former preaching on Sundays, the latter teaching during the week; in the July 2, 1834 Chicago Democrat he included a list of schoolbooks he had just received, available for sale in the “subscribers School room opposite the Printing Office.” His name was on a school-related petition signed on Sept. 19, 1835; his teacher`s salary then was $500 per year; left the town in 1836 to live and to teach in West Joliet; still living in New Lennox Township in 1878, listed as a farmer, to where his sister Betsy and father Henry Watkins had emigrated in the autumn of 1831.

Winslow [428] published the following list of 24 children who were enrolled in the class taught by John Watkins in December 1835. For ten of these children [*] the editors found no corresponding family names of possible parents in Chicago at that time. Clearly, records of many early Chicago residents have not survived to this day or have not yet been found.
Gryon, Rolland* – Gryon, Orville* – Gryon, Abigale* –
Gryon, Charles* – Jackson, Ezra – Harmon, Isaac –
Harmon, Martin – Owen, William – Owen, George –
Kimberly, John – Kimberly, Lewis – Dicken, Lewis* –
Brown, Samuel – Brown, Charles B. – Hale, James –
Thomas, Robert – Cannon, Ephraim* – Cannon, John* –
Lewis, John* – Knight, James* – Thomas, William –
Legg, Benjamin – Sullivan, Mary Ann – Mullarky, Thomas*
For excerpts from a 1879 letter by Watkins, describing his Chicago experience, see below; also see schools. [12, 319, 351, 728, 734]
I arrived in Chicago in May, 1832, and have always had the reputation of being its first school teacher. I have never heard my claim disputed. I commenced teaching in the fall after the Black Hawk War, 1832. My first school was situated on the North Side, about half way between the lake and the forks of the river, then known as Wolf Point. The building belonged to Colonel Hamilton, was erected for a horse stable and had been used as such. It was 12 feet square. My benches and desks were made of old store-boxes. The school was started by private subscription. Thirty scholars were subscribed for, but many subscribed who had no children. So it was a sort of free school, there not being 30 children in town. During my first quarter I had but 12 scholars, only four of them were white; the others were quarter, half, and three-quarters Indian. After the first quarter I moved my school into a double log-house on the West Side. It was owned by Reverend Jesse Walker, a Methodist minister, and was located near the bank of the river, where the North and South branches meet. He resided in one end of the building, and I taught in the other. On Sundays, Father Walker preached in the room where I taught. In the winter of 1832-3, Billy Caldwell, a half-breed chief of the Pottawatomie Indians, better known as Sauganash, offered to pay the tuition and buy books for all Indian children who would attend school, if they would dress like the Americans, and he would also pay for their clothes. But not a single one would accept the proposition conditioned upon the change of apparel. [The reluctance of Indians to dress their children in European fashion and send them to white-run schools is readily understood if one reads the words of the Winnebago chief Day-Kau-Ray, see entry under that name; eds.] [12]

Watkins, Morrison    also Munson; arrived in 1826; for details, see Watkins, Deborah Scott.

Watkins, Samuel  arrived from Virginia early in 1830, marrying Mary Ann Smith on April 15, 1830, Justice J.B. Beaubien officiating; a legal notice appeared in the Chicago American on March 6, 1841, referring to a case “Samuel Watkins vs. Nathaniel Blood.” [351]

Watkins, Therese LaFramboise  see Beaubien, Madore.

Watkins, Thomas  arrived in 1834; popular postal clerk under Postmaster Hogan at the post office on the SW corner of Franklin and South Water streets (1834), and later under Postmaster Abell; listed as agent for the Philadelphia Saturday Courier and Catholic Herald in the Sept. 30, 1835 Chicago Democrat; married Therese LaFramboise in 1836, but the marriage did not last [she later married Madore Beaubien]; 1839 City Directory: clerk, post-office; for “Long” John Wentworth`s description of the wedding, see below. [12, 351]
I remember attending the wedding of one of the LaFramboise daughters. She was married to a clerk in the Post-office. The clerk was the one who delivered the letters, and of course was well known to all our citizens, and was remarkably popular. … He went to the printing office and had fifty cards of invitation struck off. But when people went for their letters they politely hinted that they expected a card of invitation to the wedding. So he was compelled to go to the printing office and have fifty more struck off. These did not last long, and he had one hundred more. … Then he said that tickets were of no use, and everybody might come; and about everybody did come. The ceremony was performed by Reverend Isaac W. Hallam, pastor of the St. James` Episcopal Church. … The house was of no particular use, as it was full and surrounded with people. … This wedding made a strong impression on my mind, as it was the first time I ever saw the Indian war-dance. Some of the guests not only had their tomahawks and scalping knifes, bows and arrows, but a few of them had real scalps which they pretended they had taken in the various Indian wars. Their faces were decorated with all the favorite pictures of the Indians. And some of our young white men and ladies played the part of the Indian so well that it was difficult to distinguish them from the real ones. … It has been a wonder to me that, while our professors of musik have been inventing so many different kind of dances, none of them have reproduced the Indian war-dance, which to me is much more sensible than nine-tenth of those which are now practiced at so many of our fashionable parties. … [706]

Watlon, Nelson C.  born c.1815, in Essex Co., NY; came in January 1834; in 1879 he lived in San Francisco. [12]

Watseka  (1810-) also Watchekee; Gurdon S. Hubbard`s first wife, niece of Tamin, chief of the Kankakee Potawatomi; compare Algonquin wajekân `hem` or less likely washkâ `crooked`; married in 1824 at age 15, two children were born but died early; after Hubbard divorced her and left the area, she married Hubbard`s friend and fellow trader Noel Le Vasseur, bearing him three children; a town S of Chicago on Hubbard`s Trace bears her name. See below an excerpt of a letter written by Hubbard to a Mr. McNeill about his Indian common-law wife. [456b, 692g]
I have no wish to dany the fact of her being my wife, given me by her uncle (the chief) when she was about ten, in the place of his own grown daughter whom he presented to me, and whom I declined. This little girl was to take her place, and was, under my pledge to make her my wife, brought to me by her mother at the age of fourteen or fifteen. She bore me a daughter who died at about eight month old. I lived with this Indian woman about two years in harmony. Our separation was by mutual agreement, in perfect friendship, and because I was about to abandon the Indian trade, and of course, my connection with the Indian tribe. Both thought each other’s happiness would be promoted by separation, as it doughtless was. [705] [705]

Wattles’ Hotel    see Wolf Point Tavern.

Wattles, Susan  see Rexford, Stephen.

Wattles, William Wallace  arrived in 1832; landlord of the Wolf Point Tavern, succeeding Charles Taylor in 1833; John D. Caton reports staying there under Mr. Wattles` care during his first night in town on June 19, 1833; in the fall of the same year Chester Ingersoll took over the lease; removed to Plainfield. [263] [357]

Watts, Eleanor  see Lewis, Samuel.

Wau-Bun  (1) title of the book by Juliette Kinzie, Wau-Bun. The “Early Days” in the North-West, published 1856; (2) Algonquin word meaning `dawn` or `east`, also `light, white`. [406]

Waubansee  also Wabansa, Wabansie, Wabansee, Wapunsy, Waubonsa, Wabonsia, Wahponseh—the name meaning `a little eastern light`; chief of prairie Potawatomi with a summer village on the Fox River near Aurora, wintering on the Kankakee and Illinois Rivers; younger brother of Black Partridge; British ally in the War of 1812, when he was of middle age; took part in the Fort Dearborn massacre and survived; was a friend of the Kinzie family and protected its members. Participated in the Treaty of Chicago of 1833 and signed the document, but in the fall of 1834 and in the company of Pokagan and Topenebe went to Washington and protested against ratification of the treaty, claiming that Billy Caldwell, Alexander Robinson, and Joseph LaFramboise had not represented them well in the negotiations; died in 1846; street name: Wabansia Avenue (1700 N). See also Wabansia Addition; Waubansee stone. [12, 226, 642] [697]

Waubansee stone  a glacial boulder that appears to be red granite, about eight feet in height, with a face carved into one of its upper surfaces, reported to be that of the Potawatomi chief Waubansee. The stone was hollowed out on top and is believed to have been used earlier by the Indians to mill corn; later the unordinary stone was hauled within the stockade of the second fort, and a talented soldier chiseled the face. Much later the sculpted form was purchased by the Hon. I.N. Arnold and stood for years on the lawn of his residence on Pine [Michigan] Street; following the great fire of 1871, the stone was placed atop a pile of collected fragments; existent within the Chicago History Museum. For a more detailed history of the stone, as well as various speculations about its origin, see the following literature references. [354a, 357] [728]

Waubinema  also Waubeeneemah, the name meaning White Sturgeon; Potawatomi chief from the Illinois River, and brother of Nescotnemeg and Wasachek; participated in the Fort Dearborn massacre and helped to save Margaret Helm; survived. [226]

Waukesha  Potawatomi word meaning `fox`; street name: Waukesha Avenue (5700 W).

Wayman, Samuel  born in Ely, England, in c.1809; arrived from Quebec in August 1833 and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town; in November he subscribed to the Chicago Democrat; 1839 City Directory: painter, (Wayman & Dimmick); became a farmer in Arlington Heights; married Emma Kinder in 1846; lived at 142 Aberdeen St. in 1885. [12, 319] [243]

Wayman, William  (1817-Apr. 23, 1892) arrived from England in 1834; became apprentice to John C. Outhet; 1839 City Directory: wagonmaker, Randolph Street near Franklin; 1843 Chicago Directory: wagon maker, 253 Randolph. William married Jane, daughter of [see] Daniel Outhet, in 1844; served as alderman in 1854; lived at 251 Fulton St. in 1885. [12, 243] [351]

Wayne County, Northwest Territory  Chicago was part of Wayne County of the Northwest Territory from Aug. 15, 1796, to July 4, 1800, and was part of Wayne County of the Territory of Indiana from Mar. 1, 1803, to June 30, 1805 [see 1803 map showing Chicago outside and east of St.Clair County]; both times the county seat was Detroit. The county was named after Major General Anthony Wayne. Early jurisdiction determines that some of Chicago`s early court records remain at Detroit, such as those documenting Point de Sable`s sale of his estate to Lalime. For details, see jurisdiction. [335a, 436a] [544]

Wayne, Gen. Anthony  (1745-1796) born in Waynesboro, PA; “Mad Anthony” Wayne, who had acquired a brilliant reputation in the Revolutionary War, was given by President Washington the task of breaking Indian resistance to continued colonization of the Midwest, after Gen. Josiah Harmar and Gov. Arthur St. Clair had failed. Wayne routed the Indians on Aug. 20, 1794, at Fallen Timbers; this victory led to the Treaty of Greenville in the following year, the terms of which provided, among other conditions, a stipulation of vital significance for the future of Chicago, namely the cession by the Indian tribes to the United States government of “one piece of land, six miles square at or near the mouth of the Chicago River, emptying into the southwest end of Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood.” The name “Mad Anthony” arose from a deserter`s complaint. Wayne died on Dec. 15, 1796; street name: Wayne Avenue (1332 W). Chicago was located twice in [see] Wayne County, which was named after him; General Wayne`s portrait, by British pastelist James Sharples, Sr., was probably made in June 1796 before the commander left Philadelphia for his post in Detroit; acquired by the City of Philadelphia in 1875. [12, 335a]

wbajawdon  Potawatomi word for [see] portage. It is a transitive word, also meaning `he portages something.` The illustration shows the present-day remnant of the Portage Creek that connected Mud Lake with the Des Plaines River, photographed by the author [UD]. It can be found in the Chicago Portage National Historic Site at Harlem Avenue and 48th Street. Beavers have returned to the now stagnent waters and have left their mark on the tree in the foreground. [97a]

Wea  also called Ouiatanon by the French in the 17th century [8iatanon, Algonquin word meaning `round, bend in channel`]; the name Ouiatanon is on Louvigny`s map of 1697 (see Maps section). The subtribe of the larger Miami nation was encountered at Chicagou by early French visitors. [393c] [456b]

weather  see entries for tornado and 1774 in the Chronology.

Weatherford, William  arrived in 1833; became assistant Indian agent and served as one of three United States commissioners when the Chicago land session treaty of September 1833 was negotiated with the assembled Potawatomi. [319] [12]

Weaver, D.  advertised a building for sale or to rent in the Nov. 12, 1834 Chicago Democrat.

Weaver, Phoebe  see Ingersoll, Chester.

Webb, Gen. James Watson  (Feb. 2, 1802-June 7, 1884) from Claverack, NY; son of Revolutionary War officer Samuel Blachley and Catherine Hogaboom Webb; at age 17 he secured an appointment as lieutenant in the Third Infantry by personal solicitation of Secretary of War Calhoun; transferred to Fort Dearborn in June 1821, and appointed adjunct to the post; early January 1822, John Kinzie was alerted by a Potawatomi chief of the imminent Sioux and Winnebago raid on the garrison posted at the Falls of St. Anthony, and Webb was sent to Fort Armstrong by Commandant McNeil to notify and render military aid to the outpost. Webb and an Indian guide reached the cabin of [see] Pierre Le Sellier on the Rock River, who discouraged the journey while the Winnebago were on the warpath; they continued to Fort Armstrong and the outpost was spared. Passing through Milwaukee during July of that year, Webb encountered “continually intoxicated & extremely troublesome” Indians and reported the sale of whiskey by unlicensed trader James Kinsey [Kinzie]. Webb resigned from the army as a rear adjutant in 1827; he returned to New York and became an editor, later chosen as minister to Brazil during the Civil War. [262a, 326] [635]

Webb, Loiza  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Weed, Edmund  [text in preparation]

Weed, Eliza Jane  see Wentworth, Elijah, Jr.

Weeks, Cole  also Weicks; was licensed to trade on Oct. 23, 1824, for one year at Rocky River, MI; voted in the election of Aug. 7, 1826; a discharged soldier working for Kinzie [according to Wentworth], and Mrs. Kinzie writes [Wau-Bun] that he was employed by the Laughtons in 1831 as “major-domo” to run the tavern during temporary absences of Mr. Laughton; at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on Apr. 27, 1827 he bought “1 black silk vest, old” for 25 cents; married the divorced Emily Hall Caldwell (sister of Benjamin Hall), who is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830. [220a, 262, 357, 406, 421a] [706]

Weicks, Cole  see Weeks, Cole.

WeKau  Winnebago chief who, together with [see] Red Bird, was accused of precipitating the Winnebago War of 1827. [559]

Welch, Elizabeth Ouilmette  see Darling, Lucius R.

Welch, John  listed prior to 1836 as owner with his brother [see] Patrick of 160 acres of land in the SE quarter of Section 20, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; 1839 City Directory: farmer, S Branch, N of 22nd Street; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: res south of Jackson, 1st ward. [12, 243] [509a]

Welch, Michael P.  also Walsh; arrived from Ireland in 1829; a discharged soldier and bugle player; was said to have been – Chicago`s 1st – native Irishman in residence; married Elizabeth Ouilmette (daughter of [see] Antoine Ouilmette) on March 11, 1830, J.B. Beaubien officiating as justice of the peace of Peoria County, in John Doyle`s cabin at Winnetka or Kenilworth; voted in the elections of July 24 and August 2 that year; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. The couple had a daughter, Mary Ann Welch; on June 16, 1834, a son Joseph was baptized, and by late October Elizabeth sued for divorce, later marrying [see] Lucius Darling of KS; left Chicago after reenlisting, joining Capt. Jesse Brown`s Rangers. [12, 96a, 319, 351, 421a, 706] [509a]

Welch, Patrick  arrived in 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; prior to 1836 he owned with his brother John 160 acres of land in Section 30, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; married Elizabeth Corcoran in 1837; a son John was baptized in 1838; 1839 City Directory: farmer, S Branch, N of 22nd Street; died prior to 1880. [12, 243, 319, 351, 509a]

Welcome  armed British sloop of 55 feet hull length; patrolling Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built in Michilimackinac in 1773-74 as a merchant craft, sister ship to the [see] Felicity, both belonging to the Michilimackinac farmer and trader John Askin until taken over by the British Navy near the end of 1778. In the summer of 1780, mastered by Capt. Alexander Harrow with a crew of eight, she carried [see] Jean Baptiste Point de Sable from there to Lieutenant Governor Sinclair`s Pinery, near present St. Clair, MI. [317a, 323a, 649] [48]

Weldon, Elizabeth A.  see Bickerdyke, Joseph.

well   see public well.

Wellmacher, Johann  (John Wellmaker) German immigrant baker who soon Anglicized his name; came in 1830 and probably became – Chicago`s 1st – settler of German origin, although the same distinction was claimed by John Van Horne; born at Frankfurt/Main, came to Pennsylvania at age 17, later worked in the lead mines of Galena, where he is said to have made $2,500. Upon his arrival, he first worked at the Fort Dearborn bakery and, according to John Wentworth`s reminiscences, “made a nice profit selling bread to the Indian settlers”; voted in the elections of July 24 and Nov. 25, 1830; that year purchased from the government lots 1, 2, 7, and 8 of block 14, but later sold them to John Miller [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831, and signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; during the Black Hawk War he served in the Chicago militia under Captain Kercheval, being listed in the muster roll of May 3, 1832; later opened his own shop, Wellmaker & Co., also dubbed “Man Trap,” advertising in the Chicago Democrat on Dec. 10, 1833 [see notice below]; was also listed that year among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town; an association with William H. Adams was dissolved on Mar. 21, 1834. The Chicago American of July 1, 1837, carried a legal notice, “John Wellmaker vs. Antoine Ouilmet”; died at Hickory Creek, Will County. [12, 319, 421a]

Hoosiers, Woolverines and Suckers, Behold !!!!!! The subscribers respectfully tender to their above named friends, and to his liberal patrons, the Pottawatamies, their sincere thanks for past favors, and informs them that they have on hand at their Man Trap, one door north of Mr. R.A. Kinzie`s Store, a constant supply of fresh Bread Cakes, Pastry, &c.; also, LIQUORS, of every description, which they will sell at reduced prices, and his friends can come and get tired for nothing. John Wellmaker & Co. [See also Hoosiers, Wolverines, and Suckers.] [351]

Wells, Absolem  earliest settler on Thorn Creek in southern Cook County; in 1833 he built his cabin and trading post on the west side of Chicago Road within what is now the Wilson Woods Forest Preserve; a boulder with an inscribed plaque marks the site. Wells came to the Chicago Heights area by way of Ohio, perhaps explaining the large grove of Ohio buckeye trees near the site of his cabin. Also see monument section for the marker at the site of “Absolem Wells’ Cabin.” [419a] [692f]

Wells, Capt. William  (1770-August 15, 1812) also called Apekonit by his Indian name; born at Jacob`s Creek, PA; son of Elizabeth (née Hayden) and Capt. Samuel Wells, Sr., kidnapped at the age of 12 by Miami after the family had moved to Kentucky, and was raised by Chief Little Turtle (Michikiniqua); fought with the Indians against American troops until 1791, when he transferred his allegiance; was with General Wayne at the battle of Fallen Timbers; served as chief interpreter at the Treaty of Greenville and later as Indian agent at Fort Wayne, issuing in August 1803 a government license to [see] J.B. La Geuness authorizing trade with the Indians at “Chicagou”; was sent to that location by Secretary of War Dearborn to remove the “complaints or uneasiness of the Indians relative to the post at Chicago …”; he was also ordered by General Dearborn to mark out a road from Fort Wayne to Chicago and to inquire into sources of food for the new fort in addition to the farm of William Burnett, which had been operated by the original owner, Point de Sable, from c.1782 to 1800. On Nov. 22, 1803, he visited John Kinzie at his trading post on the St. Joseph River, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; on June 4, 1805, as justice of the peace, Captain Wells conducted the marriage of the post surgeon [see] Dr. Abraham Edwards to Ruth Fessenden Hunt, daughter of Col. Thomas Hunt. In 1790 Wells had married An-ah-quah, Little Turtle`s sister; the couple had four children: Ah-pez-zah-quah or Anna (c.1791- July 26, 1834; c.1812, wife of Dr. William Turner), Pe-me-sah-quah or Rebekah (c.1793-June 14, 1835; c.1813, wife of Capt. James Hackley, children Ann and John), Wa-pe-mong-gah or William Wayne (c.1794- ; graduated from West Point in 1821), Ah-mah-quau-zah-quah or Mary (Mar. 10, 1800-Feb. 17, 1828 at Maumee, OH; Mar. 8, 1821, wife of Hon. James Wolcott). At his wife`s death, Wells married Wa-nan-ga-peth or Sweet Breeze, Little Turtle`s daughter; the couple had two children: Juliana (died in infancy) and Jane Turner (1807- ; Allen, IN, Mar. 15, 1830, wife of John H. Griggs). Wa-nan-ga-peth died in the summer of 1808; on Mar. 7, 1809, Wells married Mary (c.1789- ), daughter of Col. Frederick Geiger of Jefferson [now Oldham] County, KY, and the couple had two sons: Samuel Geiger (1810-Feb. 4, 1833) and Yelberton P. (graduated from West Point). William Wells was an uncle of Rebekah Wells, who married [see] Capt. Nathan Heald. On Aug. 13, 1812, Wells arrived at Fort Dearborn with [see] Cpl. Walter Jordan and an escort of friendly Miami, with orders to assist the beleaguered occupants; on August 15, following brave resistance, he was killed by Peesotum and his heart was removed and eaten. [For the gruesome details, see excerpt of letter by eyewitness Jordan.] Wells`s rank of captain, often attached to him, was not official at the time of his death; street name: Wells Street (200 W). Note the portrait silhouette of [see] Sweet Breeze (dated 1810; of Wells`s daughter, according to one source), in the Chicago History Museum Collections, under her name. [12, 36, 37, 226, 288, 358, 404, 708] [649]

Wells, Elizabeth C.  see Couch, James.

Wells, Rebekah  see Heald, Capt. Nathan.

Welsh, Elizabeth Ouilmette  see Ouilmette, Elizabeth ‘Lizette’.

Welsh, Mary  see Smith, Lawrence.

Welsh, Michael  also Walsh or [see] Welch, Michael P.

Welsh, Patrick  also Walsh or [see] Welch, Patrick.

Wentworth, Elijah, Jr.  (Mar. 30, 1803-Nov. 18, 1875) born in Lincolnville, ME; son of Elijah Wentworth, Sr.; came in 1827 with his parents from southern Illinois; in 1830 carried mail between Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn; sometime that year he built and kept the Buckhorn Tavern on Plainfield Road at the Des Plaines River [Lyons]; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on October 5, 1831, and signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; married Eliza Jane Weed [of Plainfield, IL] on Jan. 15, 1832 (died June 14, 1836); joined Captain Hogan`s Cook County volunteer company as corporal on May 24, 1832, during the Black Hawk scare; later served as second coroner; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November, and on December 17 he advertised his newly opened tavern “at Flag Creek, 18 miles south [actually SW, Lyons Township] of Chicago,” called the Black Horn, on the later stage road to Joliet. He later married Angelina Colton of Middletown, CT, and then widow Elmira L. Myers in 1864; died in Galesburg. [12, 13, 51, 51a, 117a, 319] [351]

Wentworth, Elijah, Sr.  (Sept. 26, 1775-1863) son of Elijah and Rebecca (née Capen) Wentworth; born at Stoughton, MA, where he became a shoemaker and farmer; married Lucy Walker (Hampden, ME Oct. 20, 1773-July 22, 1849 IL) in 1799; first lived at Vandalia, IL, then in Fulton County after 1823; traveled to Chicago in 1827, and the following January rented the Wolf Tavern at the Forks from James Kinzie for $300 per year, becoming its landlord and immediately effecting a popular milieu, being visited “daily” by the officers of Fort Dearborn (he was familiarly known as “Old Geese”). In the same year he purchased from the government the entire block 28 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], but sold part or all of it within two years to Lemuel Brown; by the autumn he gave up his lease and established a log inn, called Wentworth`s, eight miles N on Sand Ridge [Jefferson Township]; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831, and signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. Lucy and Elijah had four daughters: Lucy (Maine Oct. 25, 1806-Apr. 24,1864, Eliza (Apr. 11, 1804-), [see] Zebiah, and Susan (Maine July 12, 1811-Mar. 25, 1882), and three sons – Elijah, Jr., Hiram, and George H. (Eliza and Hiram married early and settled elsewhere); the family was very active organizing the Methodist church. Elijah died in November 1863, at St. Joseph, MI. Some of Elijah, Sr.`s, reminiscences of their journey to Chicago have been represented and are given in excerpt form below; a description of this industrious family by a contemporary follows. See his signature below. [12, 13, 51, 51a, 319, 351]
[In 1827] … the Wentworths started from Lewistown with two two- horse wagons. … [Mr. Wentworth] said that on his trip north, after he left Canton they did not see any white people until they reached Peoria; and not one from Peoria to Ottawa; and not one from Ottawa to Chicago. They camped out at night and slept in their wagons. With their flint-lock guns they killed all the game they needed, and with the provisions they carried with them they fared well on their journey. When they arrived at Chicago they found some fifty soldiers at Fort Dearborn and some forty or fifty wigwams scattered down the Chicago river and some on the lakeshore. There were five or six stores or trading posts, and their trade was chiefly with the Indians. There were not more than ten or twelve white families in Chicago. Some of the traders had married squaws and were raising big families of half-breeds. Mr. Wentworth said a great deal of the land in Chicago, along the river and lake, was low and marshy with numerous muskrat houses scattered about. Mr. Wentworth went back about four miles from the lake and located on a fair eighty-acre tract and improved. His daughters here bought buckskin from the Indians and resumed the manufacture of gloves and mittens.

Mr. Wentworth was a shoemaker, and his sons engaged in farming. The mother and her daughters carried on an extensive business in manufacturing buckskin gloves and mittens and buckeye and straw hats. The buckskins were bought of the Indians, who killed the deer and dressed the hides beautifully. The buckeye timber came from the river bottoms. The men prepared that very tough and elastic timber by working it into splits that were braided into very useful and handsome hats. They very much resembled the Panama hats afterwards so generally worn by gentlemen on hot weather. The straw used in making the straw hats was cut with a sickle or reap-hook about the time the grain began to form, because it would toughen better than at any other time. The straw was bound into sheafs and laid away for future use.[590]

Wentworth, George H.  (Sept. 9, 1815-) born in Lexington, KY; son of Elijah and Lucy (née Walker) Wentworth, Sr.; arrived from southern Illinois in 1827 with his family; voted in the election of July 24, 1830. [12]

Wentworth, Hon. “Long” John  (Mar. 5, 1815-Oct. 16, 1888) born at Sandwich, NH; graduated from Dartmouth College in 1836, and came to Chicago on October 25 of that year; in November he became editor of the Chicago Democrat, taking over for John Calhoun, and three years later owned the paper; 1839 City Directory: editor and publisher, 107 Lake St.; elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in March 1843, serving until 1851; 1844 City Directory: ed. pro. and pub. Chicago Dem. 107 Lake st. res City Hotel; married Roxanna Marie Loomis in 1844; between 1853 and 1855 was again an IL Representative to Congress; served as Chicago`s 21st mayor from 1857 to 1858, and again as the 24th from 1860 to 1861. Wentworth acquired extensive farmland acreage in Summit and by 1862 had established a farmhouse near the corner of Archer and Harlem avenues; again was an IL Representative between 1865 and 1867; in 1868 he moved to his farm. In 1885, widowed, he lived at the Sherman House hotel, and died at his Summit estate. His monument at Rosehill Cemetery is a 72-foot-tall obelisk, carved from a single piece of granite, tallest of all monuments in private cemeteries in Chicago, uninscribed and designed by himself (see Monuments section); he was 6 feet 6 inches tall and weighed 300 pounds. Though Wentworth`s life in Chicago falls beyond the time frame set for this book, he took an active interest in the people and events that preceded him, seeking and publishing a great deal of invaluable historical information [see Bibliography]; street name: Wentworth Avenue (200 W). [Portrait from Chicago Magazine, 1857] [136a, 280c, 417a, 435a, 706-9] [12]

Wentworth, Uriah  settled in Lockport Township [Will County] in 1831; filed for divorce from his wife Betsey in the October term of the Cook Circuit Court, as noted in the Aug. 12, 1835 Chicago Democrat. [734]

Wentworth, Zebiah Walker  (Apr. 19, 1810-July 2, 1887) born in Lincolnville, ME; daughter of Elijah and Lucy (née Walker) Wentworth, Sr.; married Elijah Estes and moved to Bay View near Milwaukee; prior to 1836 she owned 80 acres of land in Section 30, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113. [12]

Werner, Barbara  see Stein, Charles.

Wesencraft, Charles  also Wiesenkraft, Wisencraft, Wesincraft; German immigrant arriving with his wife in 1833; subscribed to the Chicago
 in November 1833; was one of the first Methodists gathering for Rev. Jesse Walker`s services; their daughter Charlotte married Mark Noble, Jr. on Nov. 29, 1933, the Hon. R.J. Hamilton officiating at a joint ceremony with the wedding of George Bickerdyke and Mary Noble; on Aug. 13, 1834, “Wesencraft & Noble” advertised in the Chicago Democrat for a “first rate sawyer” for their steam sawmill; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and wagonmaker, corner of Clinton and Monroe streets. [A William Wesencraft, painter, is listed at the same corner.] Charles and his wife later moved to Niles, where “Wiesenkraft`s Point” is still known. In 1842 a Mr. Wesencraft married Jane Churchill in Cook County and had daughter Lotta A. in the following year. [12, 243] [342]

Wesencraft, Charlotte  see Noble, Mark, Jr.

West Fork  small tributary to the south branch, entering from the NW, near the E end of the Chicago Portage; today there remains only a block-long canal, ending blindly at the W end of the harbor section of the south branch, near the corner of Leavitt and 27th streets.

West, Emanuel J.  member of the initial canal commission created by Illinois Governor Cole in 1823, to have the canal lands surveyed and a cost estimate prepared. [12]

West, H.C.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; owner of 80 feet of land on Lake Street, NW corner of Lake and Clark, for which he paid $300 earlier in 1833; sold it for $1,000 in the fall of that year [in 1856 the land was appraised at $100,000]. [319]

Western Hotel  a small hotel built and operated in 1835 by W.H. Stow on the SE corner of Canal and Randolph streets.

Western Territory  created by ordinance of the U.S. Congress in 1784 under leadership of Thomas Jefferson, but never realized; was superseded by the Ordinance for the North West Territory of July 13, 1787. If the Ordinance of 1784 had passed, Chicago would now be located in a state named Assenisipia, meaning in Illinois Indian: `rock-river`, Latinized with a terminal `(i)a`. [456b]

Westward Ho  sloop, arrived in 1833 with the [see] Hugunin brothers; the only vessel listed on the first marine listing in the Chicago
 on April 4, 1834, its arrival from Michigan City with cargo, corn, and oats. From May through October the vessel actively connected the few towns along the northern and southern coast of Lake Michigan—Milwaukee, [see] Ship-wi-wia-gan, and St. Joseph, carrying merchandise and up to 10 passengers; Charles Cleaver, Jr. remembered: “The first trip [taken in May 1834] was to the East … I crossed Lake Michigan to St. Joseph in a small sail-boat called the `Westward Ho`, about eighteen feet in length, that had wintered here, and had made weekly trips across the Lake bringing over about ten barrels of flour as her full cargo. The forward part was decked over for about eight feet, in which there were four berths ….” The Chicago American lists a departure from Chicago for Root River on Sept. 26, 1835, a return from Milwaukee on Sept. 29, and again a departure for Milwaukee on Sept. 30 most always under the command of Captain Banks; Captains Freeman, Abel, or Harrison also piloted on occasion. [145]

wharfing privileges  on Nov. 6, 1833, both G.S. Hubbard and P.F.W. Peck petitioned the town board for wharfing privileges; on Dec. 4 the town trustees determined such privileges as to which owners of lots bordering on river banks could build wharves up to 80 feet long for an annual fee of $15; however, the town corporation retained the right to revoke such privileges and to purchase any privately constructed wharves; in January 1834 Daniel Elston agreed to buy wharfing improvements on block 7 and David Carver communicated with the board on related matters; by Nov. 1, 1835 only a W.E. Church [Thomas?] had also filed a claim for privileges. On Nov. 15, the town board redetermined the sale of leases, then to be sold to qualifying applicants willing to construct within two years a dock, 5 feet wide, along the entire river front lot owned or occupied by them. The trustees` intention was to achieve in due time a continuous dock along the Chicago River and its branches within the original town, a dock to be “left open at all times for public uses as tow and foot path, the top of the said docks to be of an uniform height along the whole length of the river three feet above ordinary high water mark.” [12]
From the Nov. 18 Chicago Democrat:
Leases of the Wharfing Privileges on Lots in the Town of Chicago, for the term of 999 Years.
Will be sold upon the following conditions, viz: One-fourth part of the purchase money to be paid at the time of sale, and the remaining three-fourths in three equal annual payments, bearing an interest at the rate of six per centum per annum; the owner or owners, occupant or occupants of the lots fronting the river, will have the preference of purchase at a minimum price fixed by the Board, which can be known by applying to the Clerk of the Board, where a map or profile of the lots can be seen. Sale to take place at the store of Messrs. Jones, King & Co., on Monday the 23d Nov. inst., at 10 o`clock in the forenoon. The Board of Trustees will hold a special meeting, on Saturday afternoon, at 2 o`clock, at “Trowbridge`s Coffee House,” to grant preferences to such owner or owners, occupant or occupants of lots, as desire to obtain the same at the minimum price. By order. E. PECK, Clerk. Nov. 15, 1835.
But on Saturday morning at Trowbridge`s Coffee House the “largest group of citizens ever witnessed” organized under S.B. Morris, with Henry Moore as secretary, and Giles Spring presented a set of resolutions that condemned the measures adopted by the Board of Trustees and advocated their substitution; after much debate citizens agreed only to remeet at 1:30, their inaction lending approval of the ordained measures. During the day S.P. Brady filed a petition for suspension of the sale of privileges while many others begin to flood the Clerk`s office with claims, applications and petitions for privileges. In another meeting that evening of those opposed, the condemnation resolutions were passed and a remonstrance was circulated for signatures, which by the following Tuesday evening included over 200, more than half of legal town voters. The remonstrance cited the Board`s measures as “illegal” because in the act of incorporation, there existed no clause granting the corporation the land or any other property (to lease); the measures were “unjust” because lots had only been sold to a few for one third their value, thereby depriving the town treasury in which all were equally interested; and the measures were “detrimental to the future welfare of the town” because few would have possession of the river (except where streets existed), depriving the many of free access to it unless at great delay and expense. On Nov. 23, Charles Walker petitioned for a delay in deciding the question of the right to privileges, but claims, applications, petitions, affidavits, and depositions for privileges would continue to be submitted through the end of the year, including several for the Baptist [lot 4, block 20] and Methodist Episcopal [E half of lot 4, block 19] churches. The Chicago American republished the town board`s ordinance of Nov. 15 on the Dec. 5, and on the 12th published the following letter from a reader:

The law of this State requires, every person or persons laying off a town or an addition thereto, before they offer any of the lots for sale, or lease the same for a longer term than five years, to have the map or plot of said town or addition, certified, acknowledged and recorded in the Recorder`s Office. For a violation thereof, the forfeiture is only $25, for each and every lot so leased, &c.; to be sued for and recovered in the name of the Treasurer of the county, one half thereof to the use of the county and the other to the town, &c.; … The records of the Recorder`s Office of Cook county, will show the fact, that “the lots or wharfing privileges” of Chicago, were leased on the 23d day of November last, by the Trustees of Chicago, and that on the 27th was the acknowledgment before Justice Harmon, Esq. and the certificate of the Surveyor the 28th, and filed in the office for record the 28th, five days after the execution of the leases for the short term of 999 years, a little way beyond the five years named in the statute. The law makes it the imperative duty of the county Treasurer to prosecute all such violations and forfeitures, and from the known vigilance of the Treasurer in the discharge of his duties, the Trustees, therefore, had as well be looking up the [see] Shu-ne-ah [the Kaskaskia Illinois word ch8ria means `money, cash`]. …Then comes another and far more important question to be settled. That is, the payment of forfeiture. Is it to be done out of the corporate funds of the funds of the individual Trustees, who so pertinaciously and presumptuously persisted in a wrongful act, and against the wishes of a majority of the citizens of the town.
A CITIZEN. [456a:102]
The records of the early town board meetings are preserved at the Illinois Regional Archives Depository, Ronald Williams Library, Northeastern Illinois University and contain the names of applicants, petitioners or claimants for wharfing privileges, usually giving the date of the application and often the location; this information is summarized as follows:
G.S. Hubbard [11/6/33, block 19, lots 1+2]
P.F.W. Peck [11/6/33]
Daniel Elston [1/1/34, block 7, O.T.]
John Hale [3/5/34]
W.E. Church [November 35]
A. Clybourne [11/20/33]
William Jones & Byron King [11/20/35]
Palmer & George [11/21/35]
Kimberly & Knickerbacker (Knickerbocker?) [11/21/35]
William Saltonstile [11/21/35]
P. Pruyne [11/21/35]
Harmon & Loomis [11/21/35, block 18, lot 1]
Phili Carpenter [11/21/35]
Enoch Thompson [11/21/35]
John S.C. Hogan [11/21/35]
George W. Dole, Newberry & Dole [11/21/35]
Peter Bolles [11/21/35]
Piter D. Hugunin [11/21/35]
D. McKee [11/21/35]
James Kinzie [11/21/35]
Anson H. Taylor [11/21/35]
George W. Snow [11/21/35]
John H. Foster [11/21/35]
O.H. Thompson [11/21/35]
Henry Moore [11/22/35]
Alex Anderson [11/23/35]
Peter Cohen [11/23/35]
Rebecca Walker [11/23/35]
E.B. Williams [11/24/35]
John Ludby [11/24/35]
William V. Smith [11/24/35]
Daniel Carver [11/24/35]
P. Cohen [1835, block 16, lot 2]
Methodist Episc. Church [11/24/35; block 19, lot 4, E 1/2]
D. Elston & Charles Cleaver [11/27/35, block 7, lot 3+4]
Daniel Sullivan [11/27/35]
Paul Kingston [12/5/35]
John T. Temple [12/9/35]
T.G. Wright [1835, 1/4 block 1, O.T.
P.F.W. Peck [1835, block 18, lot 4]
John T. Smith [1835, block 16, lot 3]
R.A. Kinzie [1835]
C. McDonnell [1835]
Bernhard Ward [1835, block 7, lot 5]
J.B. Campbell [1835, block 19, lot 1]
Daniel Elston [1835, block 7, lot 4]
Thomas Reed [1835, block 6, lot 1]
J.H. Kinzie [1835, block 2, lot 1+2]
Baptist Church [1835, block 20, lot 4]
George Palmer [1835, block 16, lot 2]
Moseley & McCord [1835, block 19, lot 4]
R.J. Hamilton & W.E. Owen [1835, block 19, lot 4]
N.R. Norton [1835, block 2, lot 3]
E.B. Williams [1835, block 16, lot 3]
Lathrop Johnson [1835, block 19, lot 4] [28]

Wheeler, Russell E.  arrived in 1834; 1839 City Directory: Wheeler & [Burr] Peck, wholesale liquor dealers, Dearborn Street; later removed to Milwaukee where he died. [243] [351]

Wheeler, Talman  arrived from Vermont in 1831; active within Grace Church (Protestant Episcopal) in 1851. [12]

Wheeling, IL  in the northern part of Cook County, bounded on the N by Lake County, on the E by Northfield, on the S by Maine and Elk Grove, and on the W by Palatine. The soil was a rich prairie loam, with timber along the Des Plaines River; recorded settlement by European immigrants began in 1833.

Whelan, Rosa  an obituary in the Chicago Tribune on Mar. 19, 1881, page seven, lists Mrs. Rosanna Whelan, who died on March 18, as having moved to Chicago with her parents in the year 1834 as a 17-year-old; she later married a Mr. Whelan. She died of heart disease in her home at 167 Adams Street, near LaSalle Street – the house then a landmark, having been erected in 1834. [168a]

Whig  97-ton schooner from Oswego, NY, under Captain Davis, called at Chicago on June 29, 1835.

Whipple, Maria E.  see Wilson, John Lush.

Whistler, Anne  (1794-1829) daughter of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler who lived with her parents at Fort Dearborn between 1803 and 1810; born at Fort Washington (Cincinnati, OH); married Ormond Marsh at Detroit in 1812, a lieutenant in her father’s regiment. Marsh was honorably discharged from the army in 1815 and the family moved to his home in Litchfield, CT. Anne and their seventh child died just weeks after the birth, in March 1829. Marsh died in 1854. [270a] [326]

Whistler, Anne Bishop  (c.1758-1814) wife of Capt. John Whistler; her maiden name Bishop was important to her daugher, Ann Whistler Marsh, who named a son William Bishop Marsh [the legend that Anne was a daughter of Sir Edward Bishop and eloped {c.1778} with John remains unconfirmed, and efforts to locate an Edward Bishop in the peerage records have been unsuccessful; eds.]. She and her family lived at Fort Dearborn from 1803 to 1810; died Apr. 5, 1814, near Newport, KY.
The accompanying map is an enlarged detail of Captain Whistler`s 1808 draft of Fort Dearborn. Anne, her husband and their many children occupied the log building (10) on the east side. Other numbers, as labeled by the captain, indicate the following:
1, 2) Block-houses, with port holes for the cannon & loop-holes for small arms
4) Magazine
5) Inward row of pickets
6) Outward row of pickets
11) Officers` barracks
12) Soldiers` barracks
13) Contractor`s store
25) River Cheykago
26) Bank of said river
. [270a] [326]

Whistler, Capt. John  (1756-Sept. 3, 1829) born in Ulster, Ireland of English parents; came to America during the Revolution with British troops under General Burgoyne; became a prisoner-of-war as a member of Burgoyne’s “Convention Army” and was stationed at various camps in Virginia and Maryland between 1777 and 1784; during this period he met and married Anne Bishop [see Whistler, Anne Bishop]; many of their children were born in Hagerstown, Washington County, MD, the last place the Convention Army was stationed [the legend, that John returned to England after the war, met and eloped with Anne, a member of a noble family, to the United States, could not be confirmed; eds.]; he may have deserted from the British Army at Hagerstown, as he supported his growing family as a shoemaker until 1791, when he joined the American Army under General St. Clair; during the disastrous November campaign against the Indians he was a sergeant and was severely wounded; later served under General Wayne at Fallen Timbers (1794); was directed by Colonel Hamtramck of the First Infantry at Detroit under General Dearborn’s order to travel to “Chikago” via St. Joseph with six men and guides to reconnoiter the route and site, and thereafter take command and lead a company in the transport of materials necessary to erect barracks and a strong stockade, 12 feet high and surmounted by crows` feet of iron, in the summer of 1803; the fort was ready for occupancy by Dec. 1, 1803; on May 13, 1804, Captain Whistler began to visit the local trader John Kinzie numerous times, with additional visits on May 14 and 15, July 4, Sept. 10, Oct. 18, all in 1804; in 1808 he submitted an invaluable draft of the fort and its environs to the secretary of war [now at the National Archives, Washington, DC; see copy of said draft with this entry, as well as enlarged details with entries Whistler, Anne Bishop; Kinzie House chronology, and ferry, Indian; also see Captain Whistler’s explanatory notes to the draft below]; remained commandant of the fort, which he named Fort Dearborn, until Sept. 30, 1809, when he was succeeded by Capt. Nathan Heald and transferred to Fort Detroit; serving with Captain Whistler at Fort Dearborn were his son Lt. William Whistler and his son-in-law Lt. Thomas Hamilton; by appointing his younger son John, Jr. to the position of sutler to the fort (initially in partnership with John Kinzie, who was later replaced by Surgeon’s Mate Dr. Cooper, whom Captain Whistler had befriended) and by giving orders forbidding military personnel to make purchases at the competing store in the village, owned by John Kinzie, Whistler caused strong animosity to develop between two opposing factions involving the fort, the village, and the U.S. Factor Matthew Irwin (who reported regularly and in detail about conditions at the fort to then Secretary of War William Eustis in Washington City), which may have been a factor in the killing of the fort’s Indian Interpreter Jean Baptiste Lalime by Kinzie, and which led to Captain Whistler’s reassignment. During the War of 1812 he surrendered with General Hull in Detroit. At the rank of bvt. major (1812), he served as commandant of Fort Wayne from 1814 to June 1815, when honorably discharged. Whistler had 15 children with Anne (who died in 1814), not all of whom survived [three children died young: Samuel and “Samuel’s twin,” c.1792; Charles, c.1796], and he was chronically in debt on his $40 per month captain’s salary; in 1816 or 1817 he married his second wife, Elizabeth Howard Ijams, who with her first husband, William Ijams, had 10 children; some of the younger children lived with Elizabeth and their stepfather, but the couple had no children together. In March 1817, he was appointed military storekeeper ordnance at Fort Belle Fontaine [MO]; both would die there, Elizabeth in 1826 and John in 1829. John Whistler School, 11533 S Ada St. For details on several of his descendants and relatives who were born, lived at, or visited Fort Dearborn, see Whistler, William; Whistler, Catherine; Whistler, Sarah; Whistler, Rebecca; Whistler, Anne; Whistler, Caroline Frances; Whistler, Harriet; Whistler, George Washington; Whistler, James; Whistler, John Harrison; Whistler, Edward; Whistler, John, Jr; Whistler, Meriwether Lewis; Whistler, Gwenthlean; and Hamilton, Thomas, Jr.
Explanatory notes by Captain Whistler to his January 25, 1808 draft (reproduction) of Fort Dearborn:
The barracks are two stories high, with shingled roofs and gallaries fronting the parade ground.
The measurements of the garrison including the block houses and barracks are laid down at twenty feet to the inch.
The cupolas are not yet built on the block-houses as laid down. The dwelling-houses mentioned in the Indian Department are laid down at forty feet to the inch; the other houses without any regular rule. The river is not regularly surveyed, but still gives a strong idea of its courses. It is about six miles in length except in high water, at which time there is no portage to the Illinois River. The distance from the different places to the garrison are mentioned with red ink and red lines, are accurately measured, but not laid down by scale.
The woodland on the reserve lies on the north and west sides of the garrison, except a small strip of woods about one mile in length and 200 yards in breadth, lying on the bank of the river southwest of the garrison.
Along the margin of said woods, is good meadow and supplies the garrison with hay. On the north and west sides of the garrison, there has been a quantity of underwood and shruby bushes, such as prickly ash, &c.;, they are now cut down and cleared off all within one fourth of a mile of the garrison.
On the south and southwest sides of the garrison is a large parrairie, on which stands the aforesaid strip of woods as laid down in the draught, and the distance from the garrison three-fourths of a mile. On the east side is the lake. There has been a picket fence on the opposite of the river, north-west of the garrison as laid down. This fence might serve as a barrier against the garrison, as the pickets were five feet in length and sufficient in thickness to prevent musket ball from doing execution to an enemy lying behind them. I thought it proper for the safety of the garrison to have them taken up and replaced with a common rail fence. At this time the garrison (except the houses on the opposite side of the river being somewhat in the way) is perfectly secure from an ambuscade or barrier.
The branch that empties into the Cheykago is considerably the longest and has the greatest current. The parrairie on the south and southwest, as already mentioned, is of great extent.
J. Whistler, Captain.
Fort Dearborn, February 20, 1808.

[109, 164, 206b, 270a, 288, 326, 407, 681, 682, 722] [12]

Whistler, Caroline Frances  (1802-1842) born in Detroit on December 25; daughter of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler who lived with her parents at Fort Dearborn between 1803 and 1810; after her mother’s death in 1814 she may have lived with her oldest sister, Sarah (Whistler) Abbott; was married in her sister’s home at Detroit in 1836 to an English-Canadian, William R. Wood. [Their son, William Whistler Wood, compiled “Genealogy of the Whistler Family” in 1903 as part of the celebration of the 100th anniversary of the founding of Fort Dearborn. The manuscript, as well as the signatures of the family members who attended are now part of the Chicago History Museum Collections; eds.] [270a] [326]

Whistler, Catherine  (1788-1874) likely born in Hagerstown, Washington County, MD; daughter of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler; married [see] Lt. Thomas Hamilton, Jr. at Fort Dearborn on Aug. 24, 1806, who had served in his father’s regiment at Detroit under Captain Whistler at the fort, and came with Whistler to Fort Dearborn in 1803, remaining until 1810, when he was transferred to Fort Belle Fontaine. Catherine died in 1874 at Detroit. [270a] [326]

Whistler, Edward  (c.1780-1834) fourth son of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler, born in Hagerstown, Washington County, MD; he was about 23 years old when his father was stationed at Fort Dearborn; probably never lived there but only visited Fort Dearborn; was involved in the military supply business for Fort Wayne; lived in Warren County, IN, there marrying twice and fathering six children. He died in Warren County, OH, in 1834 as the result of an accident. [270a] [326]

Whistler, Eliza  born c.1791; daughter of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler who likely lived with her parents at Fort Dearborn between 1803 and 1810; married Daniel Curtis, an ensign in the First Infantry since 1812. Curtis advanced to the rank of captain in 1820 and retired from service in 1823; that June Eliza Curtis, mother of a young daughter, was fatally struck by lightning near their home in Green Bay, WI. [326] [270a]

Whistler, George Washington  (1800-1849) born at Fort Wayne; son of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler, three years old when he arrived with his parents and 68 officers and soldiers at the building site of Fort Dearborn on July 4, 1803; played within and near the stockade until age 10 when his father was transferred back to Detroit; entered military service as a cadet at age 14 and served until 1833. George married Mary Roberdeau Swift (1804-1827) on Jan. 23, 1821, with whom he had three children: George William and Deborah Delano eventually lived in England, a second son died young. On Nov. 3, 1831, he married second wife Anna Mathilda McNeill (1804-1881), with whom he had five sons: James Abbott McNeill Whistler (who became the well-known American painter) and William McNeill; the other children died young. George became internationally successful as a military railroad builder, engineering the 400 mile railway link between Moscow and St. Petersburg, where he died on Apr. 7, 1849. [12, 270a, 326] [697a]

Whistler, Gwenthlean  (July 20, 1818-1894) daughter of Maj. William and Mary Julia (née Fearson) Whistler, born at Fort Howard on July 20, 1818, where she spent her first 11 years, followed by three years at Fort Niagara; lived with her parents at Fort Dearborn in 1832 and 1833; a notice in the Chicago Democrat of Nov. 12, 1834, announced her marriage to [see] Robert Allen Kinzie, youngest child of John and Eleanor Kinzie, Rev. Hallam officiating. They had 12 children: Robert Allen, Jr. (1834, died in infancy), Margaret (1835, died in infancy), Gwenthlean (1838), Maria (1839), David Hunter (1841), Julia (1843), John Harris, IV (1845), Robert Allen, III (1846), Marian (1848), Frank Xavier (1854), Walter Henry (1857), and Nellie (1853). Gwenthlean died Sept. 9, 1894, at Fort Omaha in Nebraska. [270a, 407] [410]

Whistler, Harriet  (1797-1872) daughter of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler; married an Army captain named Phelan who was killed at Detroit; she never remarried and died at Detroit. [270a] [326]

Whistler, James  (July 14, 1808-1842) youngest son of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler; born at Fort Dearborn prior to his father’s transfer. Little is known about him. [326]

Whistler, James Abbott McNeill  (1834-1903) painter and printmaker who lived and worked in London; born on July 10 at Lowell, MA, son of George Washington Whistler and grandson of Capt. John Whistler, who built the first Fort Dearborn.

Whistler, John Harrison  (Oct. 7, 1807-Oct. 23, 1873) grandson of Capt. John Whistler, born at Fort Dearborn to Lt. William and Mary Julia (née Fearson) Whistler; on Jan. 23, 1834, he married Mary Ester [also Esther] Bailly, the daughter of [see] Joseph Bailly (Anglicized from Baillé de Messein), trader at the Calumet River; Col. R.J. Hamilton officiated in J.B. Beaubien`s residence, and the notice appeared in the Chicago Democrat of Jan. 29, 1834; Mary Ester died in 1842 leaving five children; in 1846 John Harrison married the widow Mrs. Lydia Wallace and they had three children: George G., Henry M., and Lydia; John Harrison and his brother-in-law Robert Allen Kinzie were Indian traders in Iowa, Missouri and Kansas; John Harrison was the postmaster at the Sac and Fox Agency between 1855 and 1861 at Quenemo, KS. The two families were pioneer settlers of the town of Burlington, Coffey County, KS, where Whistler died. [270a, 708] [709a]

Whistler, John, Jr.  born in Hagerstown, Washington County, MD, c.1787; son of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler; was in his late teens when living with his parents at Fort Dearborn from 1803-1810; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Oct. 4, 1804 and on Sept. 15, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; in 1807 he entered into the partnership “Kinzie & Whistler” with [see] John Kinzie as sutlers to the fort, indicated by an entry in Kinzie’s account book on November 26. The partnership was dissolved on Aug. 21, 1809 by Capt. John Whistler replacing John Kinzie with Surgeon’s Mate Dr. Cooper as co-sutler to work with his son John, Jr.; this dissolution was a major factor in the enmity that was to develop between Kinzie and John Jr.’s father, the commandant. In 1812, then an ensign in the United States military, John was severely wounded at the battle of Maguago [Maguaga, a Huron village SW of Detroit], and in December 1813, died as a first lieutenant of what may have been cholera. [109, 270a, 326, 404, 456b] [12]

Whistler, Maj. William  (1784-Dec. 4, 1863) born in Hagerstown, Washington County, MD, as the second son of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler, first commandant of Fort Dearborn; entered the army as a 2nd lieutenant in June 1801. With his wife Mary Julia (née Fearson, married May 15, 1802), he arrived from Detroit at the mouth of the Chicago River on Aug. 17, 1803, to help build the fort; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on May 12 and 14, Sept. 10 and Oct. 4, 1804, on Nov. 17, 1806, on Feb. 11, 1807, and on Aug. 23, 1809, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; made first lieutenant in 1807; while at Fort Dearborn, he became an intimate friend of Dr. John Cooper; in 1810 he was transferred to Fort Wayne, and within two years was then transferred to Detroit; distinguished himself in the battle of Maguago [Maguaga, a Huron village SW of Detroit], Aug. 9, 1812; promoted to captain in December 1812; a major during the Winnebago War (1827), he was commandant of Fort Howard; was in command at Fort Niagara when he received orders on Feb. 23, 1832, to proceed to Fort Dearborn, which he regarrisoned during the Black Hawk War, serving as commandant of the post from June 17, 1832, to May 14, 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and received $1000 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; as lieutenant colonel in 1836, he headed an occupation force at Nacogdoges, TX; in 1845 he reached the rank of colonel. William and Julia had eight children: Meriwether Lewis, John Harrison, Caroline, Eliza, Mary Ann, Gwenthlean, Joseph Nelson Garland, and Louise Ann; in January 1834, John Harrison married Mary Ester Bailly, and later in November Gwenthlean married [see] Robert Allen Kinzie. William Whistler had entered the Army as a 2nd lieutenant in 1801 and retired in 1861 with the rank of colonel. He and his wife both died at Newport, KY. Note portrait of Mary Julia Fearson Whistler with her entry. [206b, 270a, 288, 319, 326, 357, 404, 722] [12]

Whistler, Mary Julia Fearson  (July 3, 1787-Feb. 13, 1878) born at Salem, MA, daughter of Capt. John Fearson and Mary Amable (Lajimodiere; née La Dake) Fearson; wife of [see] William Whistler, Capt. John Whistler’s second oldest son, whom she married on May 15, 1802 in Detroit at age 14; both lived at Fort Dearborn during Captain Whistler’s turn as commandant. Mary Julia visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Aug. 23, 1809, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. She became the last surviving witness of the building of Fort Dearborn I. The following excerpt is from a letter written by Mary Julia F. Whistler. [270a, 404, 559, 708]
The United States Schooner ‘Tracy,’ … on arriving at Chicago, anchored half a mile from the shore, discharging her freight from boats. Some 2,000 Indians visited the locality while the vessel was here, being attracted by so unusual an occurrence as the appearance in these waters of ‘a big canoe with wings.’ There were then here but four rude huts, or traders’ cabins, occupied by white men, Canadian French with Indian wives. … There was not at that time, within hundreds of miles, a team of horses, or oxen; and as a consequence, the soldiers had to don the harness, and with the aid of ropes, drag home the needed timber.

Whistler, Meriwether Lewis  (1805-1812) son of Lt. William and Mary Julia Whistler, born at Fort Dearborn in the autumn of 1805, the second male birth of a child of European descent; remained in Chicago until 1810, when his father was transferred; drowned at the age of seven at Newport, KY.

Whistler, Rebecca  born c.1789-90; daughter of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler who likely lived with her parents at Fort Dearborn between 1803 and 1810; married Lt. Aaron Merick Wright on June 15, 1823 at Green Bay, the first marriage recorded in the Wisconsin Territory. Aaron had entered the Army as a cadet in 1818 and served until 1826, the year Rebecca died. [270a] [326]

Whistler, Sarah  eldest daughter of Capt. John and Anne (née Bishop) Whistler, born in Hagerstown, Washington County, MD, on Sept. 26, 1786, who came with her family to Chicago in 1803 to live at Fort Dearborn; on Nov. 1, 1804 she married [see] James Abbott, Jr., a Detroit merchant – Chicago’s second marriage, officiated by John Kinzie, who at that time held a commission as justice of the peace of the Indiana Territory; the couple returned to Detroit. [Interesting hearsay involving Sarah came to the attention of the editors and is here reported unconfirmed, as follows; eds.] In 1804 Capt. John Whistler placed the Fort Dearborn surgeon, Dr. William C. Smith, under arrest. Details of the event are unknown as Whistler found the affair “too disagreeable” to report. In 1810, Whistler and Mathew Irwin, the government factor at the fort, were still feuding and both sent letters to the editor of the Scioto Gazette (Ohio), impugning each others’ character. Irwin refers to Dr. Smith as “the physician who seduced his (John Whistler’s) daughter.” He must have been referring to Sarah, who was 16 in 1804. Sarah died in Detroit on Nov. 4, 1874. [270a]

White Dog  an Indian chief living in or near Chicago during the years 1816-1818 as witnessed and described by [see] Mrs. Susan Callis. [74]

White Elk  see Wabinsheway.

White Pigeon, MI  town 30 miles E of Niles, MI, where a post office was opened in 1830 (one year before Niles, MI), to which Major Fowle of Fort Dearborn dispatched couriers once a month. [357]

White Pigeon  schooner built at Black River, OH, in 1832; in 1834 it connected Buffalo, NY, with Chicago, carrying passengers, lumber, and merchandise, beginning with its first call in that year on April 20 under Captain Disbrow; five more calls were made later that year, and two calls in 1835 under Captain Noel; lost on Lake Michigan in 1859. [48]

White Raccoon  Potawatomi chief from the Iroquois River area, Illinois; took part in the Fort Dearborn massacre and survived. [226]

White, C.  (-c.1845) came from Watertown, NY, with his wife and infant son, settling in Joliet Township [Will County] in late autumn of 1835; listed as Will County coroner in 1844. [734]

White, George  nicknamed “Darkey George”; a black man who served as Chicago town crier from 1833 on, and was remembered for summoning the town people to chase “the last black bear” that was sighted late in 1833 in the timber along the south branch of the Chicago River [Sightings of bears near Chicago have been recorded as late as 1837.]; sold water to the residents (charging more for lake than for river water); worked as an auctioneer. In the Fourth of July parade of 1836 he rode behind the cannon; 1839 City Directory: City Crier, at Market Street, or at Stanton & Black’s. [12, 243, 249, 351]
J.J. Flinn, in History of the Chicago Police, tells the following episode: [In 1833 George White] called the inhabitants together to attend the sale of a man named Harper under the vagrant law. Harper had once been a man of some respectability and education, but border life and border whiskey had so demoralized him that the community determined upon taking this extreme measure. There was a large attendance at the sale, Constable Reed acting as auctioneer. Negroes had been sold in this way, but the sentiment of the people revolted against the sale of a white man. Finally the negro town-crier bought Harper for a quarter, but some of the villagers helped the unfortunate vagrant to escape to the woods that night. He never was seen in these parts again. [Not so; he was listed again as living in Chicago in the 1839 City Directoryeds. See Harper, Richard.] [466]

White, Harriet L.  see Chapin, John Putman.

White, J.S.  (Sept. 1, 1835-) born in Watertown, N.Y.; arrived as an infant with his parents in Joliet Township [Will County] late that autumn; at the death of his father c.1845, he became the stepson of [see] Harry Boardman by his mother`s second marriage, with whom he began to farm. [734]

White, Liberty  from New England; visited John Kinzie’s trading post in July of 1806 and again on Nov. 13, 1811, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; in the spring of 1812 he was in charge of the Leigh farm at Hardscrabble, where he was killed and frightfully mutilated by marauding Winnebago on April 6th. [226, 404] [12]

White, Stephen  (Apr. 10, 1807-) born at Hanover, NH; early resident of Lyons who made periodic visits from the East beginning in 1830, settling permanently in 1840; with Stephen Scott operated the Laughtons’ tavern at Riverside following their deaths in April 1834; in 1837 married Elizabeth Gregg of Cleveland, OH; they had two children, John Clarence and Harriet Frances. On 300 acres located between Joliet and Ogden avenues, extending W beyond a stone quarry, he farmed and excavated the quarry. In 1856 White purchased the original Stephen Forbes mill on the Des Plaines River, which Dr. George M. Fox, his son-in-law, began to run and who replaced the original structure with a two-story stone building that stood until the end of the century, known as the “Dr. Fox’ Mill.” [51, 51a, 262, 278] [13]

White, Thomas  born in Ireland; arrived in 1835; had died by 1878. [12]

whitefish  Lake Michigan whitefish, when in season, was spear-fished from canoes by the Indians in large numbers at [see] Grosse Pointe and further north. See reports under entries for Abram Edwards and for William Johnson. Also see entry under fish.

Whitehead, Rev. Henry  (1810-1885) circuit-riding Methodist preacher and carpenter, born in 1810 at Chatham, England; arrived on Sept. 14, 1833 from the Sault Ste. Marie mission (was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town that year); when not assigned to any circuit, he would ply his carpentry and construction trade; together with John Stewart, he constructed the first permanent Methodist church building in the early autumn of 1834 at the corner of North Water and Clark streets, but two years later it was moved across the river to the corner of Clark and Washington. Earlier he had advertised, as Whitehead & Co., for rental property in the July 30 Chicago Democrat, and on July 31 married Elizabeth Jenkins, Reverend Allen Freeman officiating (notice in Chicago Democrat, Aug. 6, 1834); there would be five children. Whitehead served temporarily as preacher in early 1835, between the tenures of Reverend J. Walker and Reverend J.T. Mitchell, and to make ends meet, he opened a small store on the corner of State and Madison streets, run by his wife when he was on circuit. In 1884 he made his last appearance at the Calumet Club, of which he had become a member; died on April 10, 1885, and buried at Rosehill Cemetery. [12, 319] [140]

whitewood  much of the lumber brought to Chicago during the construction boom of the early 1830s was referred to then as whitewood; this might have come from linden or basswood trees, from several species of poplar, or from all of the above. John D. Caton recalled that the whitewood David Carver brought from St. Joseph in 1833 was a species of poplar.

Whiting, Capt. Henry  retired army officer of New York; purchased the merchandise of Fort Dearborn’s unsuccessful factory once it closed in 1820 and became a sutler to the fort, together with [see] James E. Heron, during the years 1821-22; in 1824 he organized an independent trading post but was quickly bought out by Crafts, acting on behalf of the American Fur Co. [12]

Whitlock, Charles  arrived in 1835; had died by 1879. [351]

Whitlock, Cornelia  see Hatch, James C.

Whitlock, James  appointed registrar of the U.S. Land Office on March 4, 1835, his upstairs office in Thomas Cook’s building after its completion June 1 on Lake Street; was still working in Chicago the following year when, as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Feb. 24, he acted as administrator for the estate of David L.W. Jones, his son-in-law from Henderson, KY, who had died in his home on Aug. 18, 1835. [135] [12]

Whitlock, Thomas  (1800-1853) arrived in 1835 to explore, then settled in Chicago in 1836; married to Antoinette Haight (1826); 1839 City Directory: boot and shoemaker at 104 Lake St.; two daughters: Cornelia and Antoinette; active in the founding of Trinity Church (Episcopal) in 1842. [243, 351] [12]

whooping crane  Grus americana; formerly among the waterfowl hunted widely for food by Indians and pioneers, and occasionally seen flying with sandhill cranes in the Chicago area; now a very rare migrant in Illinois. [64]

whortleberries  blueberries; collected by Indians; received as a gift by Father Marquette from the visiting “surgeon”; see appropriate entries for more detail.

Wicker, Fanny  see Rand, Socrates.

Wickham, John C.  legal notices involving him appeared in the Chicago Democrat on Sept. 3, 1834; two suits were brought against him in the circuit court on Aug. 11, 1834, for repayment of monies: $186.50 by John S. Dill and $82.50 by Thomas Reed.

Wicks, Joel  arrived in 1834 and served on the first engine company as a volunteer fireman [see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, with entry on firefighting].

Widow Barry  also Widow Berry. Owner of a farm and tavern in 1834, still present in 1840, on what is now Barry Point Road in the suburb of Riverside, IL. The SW wagon road to and from Chicago passed by her property, following what was originally one of the major Indian trails [see Barry Point Trail]. The nine mile stretch from Chicago to the widow’s tavern went through mostly swampy territory, challenging and exhausting the travelers, and making the widow’s tavern a welcome rest stop. [220b – see quotation from Z. Eastman’s “Ancient Chicago” below]
… The traveler out of Chicago, if he moved upon one of Frink`s old stages, as they mostly departed at night, could hear during many weeks in the fall and spring the tramp of the horses` hoofs in water,—splash, splash,— for a distance of 8 or 10 miles, until they made the Sand-Ridge at Widow Berry`s Point (now Riverside), or the Oak Ridge, west, or Sutherland`s, at the point of the Sand-Ridge, northwest. So the emigrants, unused to such quaking foundations for a road, departed on their western course, seeking a home beyond the sea of mud, and toiled on hardly (14 miles in fifteen days, never daring to look behind them), till they struck land, far beyond the O`Plain [Des Plaines], as everybody called the sluggish river that now divides Maywood from Chicago. In the summer-season, or after the water had subsided in the spring, so that vegetation could start up, the whole boundless contiguity became a sea of green,—coarse, rank slough-grass growing up, except where trodden down by travel; roots, knitting strong on the surface, made a tough but elastic sod, that would tremble under the tread of the wild buffalo, if any ever came along; but, as they [no longer did; eds.], the trembling was mostly under the wheels of the Hoosier wagon or [see] Frink`s crazy stages which he imported from the Connecticut River Valley, forgetting to rub out the labels on their yellow sides, `Springfield and Hartford,` or `Northampton and Greenfield`. …. [280a]

Widow Brown  her name became well known when in April 1831 the Cook County commissioners mapped out the first two county roads, one by way of the old Brush Hill Trail (now Madison Street to Ogden Avenue) to Laughtons` ford on the Des Plaines River at Lyons-Riverside, “thence to the house of James Walker, on the Du Page River, and so on to the west line of the county”; the other along State Street to Archer Avenue “to the house of widow Brown on Hickory Creek.” Flowing westerly, Hickory Creek is a tributary of the Des Plaines River in NW Will County, where a settlement was begun in 1829 by Aaron Friend and [see] Joseph Brown, who died in late 1830. The “Road to Widow Brown’s House” can be found on several early Chicago maps, a “mile or two” up Hickory Creek. [377, 734] [417a]

Widow Clarke House  see Clarke House.

Wies, R.  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Wiesenkraft, Charles  see Wesencraft, Charles.

Wight, Erastus G., M.D.  (July 20, 1795-1865) born in Richmond, MA; married Maria Betts there on Oct. 13, 1819; came to Chicago in 1831, and moved to Napierville; built the first frame house on the road between Chicago and Ottawa, IL, in 1835 as a tavern and dwelling and called it [see] “Half Way House”; moved to Plainfield in 1847, but Dr. Wight continued to see patients as far as Chicago and Bourbonnais; when blind in later life, he continued practicing with the help of his son, Roderick B. Wight, M.D. (born in Kinderhook, NY, Mar. 27, 1825; later graduated from Rush Medical School). [734] [738]

Wight, John A.  captain of the William Penn, the second steamship on Lake Michigan; on July 18, 1832, the ship arrived at Chicago with Lt. Col. Alexander Cummings. [714]

Wight’s Addition  on the 1836 map of Chicago prepared by E.B. Talcott [see Maps] is an 80 acre addition to the town under this name, the identity of its bearer remaining uncertain. It may refer to Reverend J. Ambrose Wight who, according to Andreas, first came to Chicago in September 1836 and spent three weeks of November with a surveying party on the Illinois & Michigan Canal led by E.D. Talcott, likely the same man who prepared the map referred to above. Wight then associated himself with John Wright, the land speculator. The name given to the addition may also be a misprint for the name Wright; the [see] John Wright family was active and very successful in speculations during the land boom preceding 1837. The addition consists of the eastern half of the SE quarter of Section Five. [12]

Wilbourn, John S.  on Sept. 4, 1830, purchased lot 1 in block 2 and lot 4 in block 35 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; by 1835 other owners were on record for these lots; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [12]

Wilcox, Capt. & Bvt. Maj. De Lafayette  born in Connecticut; married Sarah Grey Hunt in 1803; served with distinction in the War of 1812; arrived with his company (Fifth Infantry) on May 12, 1833, from Fort Brady, where he had been previously stationed; was listed together with his wife among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; signed the Chicago Treaty document as a witness; served as commandant of Fort Dearborn from October 31 to Dec. 18, 1833, and again from Sept. 16, 1835, to Aug. 1, 1836. He and his wife were listed as charter members and he was chosen as an elder of Chicago’s first Presbyterian church. As the last commandant of the fort, Captain Wilcox became defendant in the lawsuit Murray McConnell vs. De Lafayette Wilcox, occasioned by J.B. Beaubien’s purchase of the Fort Dearborn reservation in May 1835 [see Fort Dearborn II]; died in Florida in 1842. [237a, 319] [12]

wild rice  also Indian rice, water oats; Indian staple food, grew from the Atlantic coast west to the Mississippi Valley and in marshes around Chicago; not a member of the genus rice (oryza), but a type of grass (Zizania aquatica). Gurdon S. Hubbard, in his autobiography, talks of wild rice growing on [see] Mud Lake: Mud Lake drained partly into the Aux Plaines and partly through a narrow, crooked channel into the South Branch [of the Chicago River], and only in very wet seasons was there sufficient water to float an empty boat. The mud was very deep, and along the edge of the lake grew tall grass and wild rice, often reaching above a man`s head, and so strong and dense it was almost impossible to walk through them. John Calhoun recalled that after harbor construction in 1834, the terminal portion of the Chicago River which had run parallel to the lakeshore and had then become isolated and shallow, “… filled up with wild rice.” Joseph Kellogg in the report of his 1711 trip to the Illinois River remarks of large numbers of wild fowl: … that feed upon wild oats [wild rice], [which] are called by the Indians Mauahomine [a garbled or miscopied Algonquian term for wild rice. In Old Miami-Illinois the term is /maroomina/. In Fox (Meskwaki) it is /manoomini/, in Ojibwe it is /minoomin/; in modern Miami-Illinois it became /maloomina/.], by the French Falavoine, and are very good Grain, and may be boyled and Eat as rice, and will Swell from one quart to ten or twelve, they grow in Such abundance by the Banks of the River as it runs thro’ Savannahs that a man may fill a Cannoo with the grain in a few hours; …. The 1853 painting “Gathering Wild Rice” is by Seth Eastman. [464c, 735aa] [354]

Wild Sturgeon  see Nescotnemeg

Wilkenson, Philip  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Jan. 10, 1817, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Wilkinson, Elias R.  likely [see] Haines H. Magie’s partner in Magie & Wilkinson, advertising a new grocery in the June 11, 1835, Chicago Democrat; was recording secretary of the Young Men’s Temperance Society, organized on Dec. 19 that year; 1839 City Directory: listed with Thomas B. Carter & Co., fancy dry goods, &c.;, 118 Lake St. [243]

Willard, Etta  see Manierre, Edward.

Willcox, Gen. Orlando Bolivar  (1823-1907) see Taylor, Charles A.

Willcox, Julia Ann Trumbull  (MI Oct. 27, 1825-Aug. 15, 1878) half sister of [see] Charles A. Taylor’s wife Mary, and a visitor to the Taylor family home at Wolf Point Tavern in 1832.

Willcox, Mira Della  half sister of [see] Charles A. Taylor’s wife Mary, and a visitor to the Taylor family home at Wolf Point Tavern by 1834; see Davis, George.

Willey, Caroline  see Strong, Robert.

William Penn  300 tons, built at Erie; one of the two first steamboats to visit Chicago, arriving on July 18, 1832, under Captain John F. Wight, with troops under Lt. Colonel Cummings, one half of the command of General Scott, ordered to Chicago by the lakes; the Sheldon Thompsonarrived earlier on July 10 with Gen. Winfield Scott and soldiers for the Black Hawk War, and introduced the cholera to Chicago. In July 1833, the vessel brought supplies for harbor construction. [714] [199a]

William Stuart & Co.  see Stuart, William.

William, Nancy  see Hallam, Rev. Isaac W.

Williams, Eli B.  (1798-1881) born in Tolland, CT; arrived with his family and Joseph A. Barnes on April 14, 1833, and opened a small grocery in a frame building on South Water Street; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; in February 1834 became trustee of the English and Classical School for Boys, and beginning May 21 in the Chicago Democrat, advertised 200 bushels of potatoes for sale; was elected to the town board in July of 1835 and again in 1836, serving as president during the latter year; his name was on a school-related petition signed on Sept. 19, 1835; applied for and claimed [lot 3 block 16] wharfing privileges in late November 1835, for which E.H. Haddock and Edward Talcott submitted supportive affidavits on the 24th; in 1837 Williams was instructed by the board to take steps to incorporate the town as a city; 1839 City Directory: recorder, corner of Clark and Randolph streets, and groceries, &c.;, South Water Street, between Dearborn and State streets; in 1853 he became register of the U.S. Land Office in Chicago; died on Mar. 24, 1881, and in 1885 his widow resided in the Palmer House hotel. Williams’s grave site in Graceland Cemetery is marked by a tall beautiful column; see Monuments section. [13, 28, 319, 421b, 351] [12]

Williams, H.  a member of the “Washington Volunteers,” a fire brigade existing prior to the incorporation of the town in 1833. [12]

Williams, John R.  (1782-1854) born in Detroit; took part in the War of 1812 as a member of the territorial militia; became an influential merchant in Detroit, president of the Bank of Michigan in 1821, and was first elected mayor in 1824; was major general of the Michigan Territory Militia in 1832, and in response to the Black Hawk threat and under [see] Brig. Gen. Joseph Brown`s direction, he led a total of 120 troops, assembled at Niles, to Chicago, arriving on June 11, 1832, leaving again on June 22. [714]

Williams, Maj. Oliver  (May 6, 1774–?) born in Roxbury, MA; established a mercantile business in Detroit in 1808; in 1810-11 he built [see] Friends’ Good-Will to transport his goods to new markets; in July 1812 the sloop was chartered at Mackinaw by the U.S. government to take military supplies to Fort Dearborn and to deliver wares to John Kinzie’s store; at Mackinaw Major Williams and crew were granted armed guards for the voyage. Upon return, the vessel, its cargo and all occupants (including [see] U.S. Factor Matthew Irwin) were captured by the British at Mackinaw harbor; in 1815 Williams returned to Detroit with his family and reestablished his business. [719a]

Williamsburg, VA  capital of the state of Virginia during the years 1778 to 1781, when Illinois was claimed by Virginia as Illinois County, and the Chicago site was governed from Williamsburg.

Willis, Betty  see Kettlestrings, Joseph.

Williston, Robert  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Willoughby, George  first advertised a “Boot Shoe & Leather Store” in the Chicago Democrat on June 24, 1835, located on LaSalle Street, two doors N of Lake Street; stocked a variety of leathers, including sole leather, either oak tanned from Baltimore or hemlock tanned from New York or “the best in market” calf skin, tanned in Philadelphia; tendered was “Cash paid for HIDES and SKINS.” He and his wife Sarah A. lost an 18 month old son, Bardette Curtis, on September 12, his death announced on the 16th in the Chicago Democrat. [135]

Wilmette, IL  northern suburb of Chicago, created by the merger in 1924 of two older villages, Wilmette and Gross Point. Gross Point was the center of a German immigrant farming community that spread across the open fields west of what is now Ridge Road. Early Wilmette, a wooded tract adjacent to Lake Michigan and bounded by what is presently 15th Street, Elmwood Avenue, and Central Street in Evanston, was named after [see] Antoine Ouilmette. It started as a grant by the Prairie du Chien Treaty of 1829 of two sections of land [1,280 acres] of the eastern portion of Grosse Pointe to Ouilmette’s métis wife Archange and their children. The Ouilmette family then abandoned their earlier home on the main portion of the Chicago River and moved north to their newly granted property into a log cabin near the present site of the Michigan Shores Club of Wilmette. Here they lived from 1829 until 1838, when Antoine and Archange moved west to Iowa with the Potawatomi. The reservation was sold in the 1840s by the Ouilmette children to speculators from New York. The cabin stood on the bluff until it was lost to erosion in 1865. In 1836 another Chicagoland pioneer by the name [see] Alexander McDaniel visited and later described the home of the Antoine Ouilmette family, and in the spring of 1837 McDaniel built his own two-story house on his newly acquired lot in adjacent Winnetka. The structure has survived to this day and is now referred to as the [see] Schmidt-Burnham Log House after subsequent owners. (Photograph by Ulrich Danckers) [259aa, 649a] [735b]

Wilson, Caroline Lush  see Bishop, James Edward.

Wilson, Charles Lush  (Oct. 10, 1818–March 9, 1878) born in Fairfield County, CT; arrived in September 1834; brother of Richard and John Wilson; became a partner of the Chicago Daily Journal, its editor in 1851 and sole owner in 1856 following Richard’s death; lived in England between 1861 and 1864; on July 27, 1868, married Caroline F. Farrar of Bangor, ME; they had one daughter Louisa F.; died in San Antonio, TX. [37, 152a, 273] [12]

Wilson, Harriet  see Albee, Cyrus P.

Wilson, Harry T.  arrived from Vermont in 1831 on the Telegraph with Capt. Joseph Napier, then staked a claim and settled in Wheaton. [12]

Wilson, John Lush  (Oct. 30, 1812–Mar. 3, 1888) arrived from New York in May 1834 with brother Richard Lush; brother of Charles Lush; became assistant to postmaster Hogan that summer, together with John Bates; had a general store on Dearborn Street, which he advertised in the Chicago Democrat later during September and October of that year; on June 4, 1835, J.L. Wilson & Co. advertised “New Goods … extensive stock of Dry Goods, Groceries, Hardware, Crockery, &c.;” [see the “Fresh Butter” ad from the Chicago American of Sept. 12, 1835]; in October he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; in 1836 was a member of the vigilance committee, organized to prevent fraudulent voting; 1839 City Directory: on the canal [with brother Richard L.]; married Maria E. Whipple at Naperville on January 18, 1844; they had seven children; served as sheriff in 1856; from 1861 through 1864 was publisher and editor of the Chicago Daily Journal for his brother Charles, afterwards serving as business manager; was among the Old Settlers who attend the May 1879 Calumet Club reunion; lived at the Revere House at Chicago in 1885. Among his papers (in the Chicago History Museum) are several sheets that note Chicago’s weather between 1830 and 1835, details that are included within the Chronology. [105a, 152a, 243, 498, 506] [12]

Wilson, Richard Lush  (1814-1856) born in Albany, NY; arrived in 1834 with brother John Lush; brother of Charles Lush; 1839 City Directory: canal contractor, on the canal; traveled the Santa Fe Trail in 1841, returning the next year to publish “A Trip to Sante Fe”; with James W. Norris in April 1844, first published the Chicago Evening Journal, a Whig paper; in 1845 they became an editors for the Chicago Daily Journal, replacing the Chicago Express; on April 3, 1847, he lost his left arm and right thumb when a ceremonial Fort Dearborn cannon, retrieved from the river and used on the public square, misfired; appointed Postmaster on April 23, 1849, by President Taylor, serving one year; lived at the Tremont Hotel until his death. [37, 97, 152a, 243, 273] [12]

Windy City  this nickname for Chicago was not coined until the 1850s, when local boosters, among them John Stephen Wright and William (Deacon) Bross, plied the eastern states to promote Chicago with dazzling visions of its potential; they were often ridiculed for what many thought were wild flights of fancy but the future showed that these “windbags” had understated their case. As far as actual average wind velocity, Chicago is not in the lead among United States cities.

Winnebago  North American Indian tribe; for an explanation of their early name, puants, see that entry; the name Winnebago has multiple translations, of which ‘big-fish’ is favored by the Indians themselves; others are ‘people of the parent speech’ [Ho-teañ-ga-ra], ‘trout nation,’ ‘fish-eaters,’ and ‘great voice.’ When first met by the French (Nicollet) in 1634, they occupied all of southern Wisconsin and, at times, the Chicago region; they were called Puans à la Baie or Puans by the French. Later, as allies of Tecumseh, they opposed the advent of the Americans, but in 1828, 1832, and 1840 were forced to cede all their Wisconsin lands and move to Minnesota, later to upper Missouri; about half the tribe later returned to Wisconsin and lives on land they have purchased; street name: Winnebago Avenue (2200 W). [456b]

Winnebago War  also Winnebago Scare, Red Bird War; ending a decade of quiet frontier life and lasting from June to August of 1827, it was brought about by aggressive disregard by white settlers of boundaries agreed upon at the treaty of Prairie du Chien in 1825 and began with the killing of a white farmer (Gagnier) and a discharged soldier (Lipcap) three miles from Prairie du Chien by members of Big Foot’s band of Winnebago. While there was little further bloodshed, the events precipitated a near panic in pioneer settlements, including Chicago, which had been without a garrison at Fort Dearborn since 1823. Quick action by Governor Cass, who visited Chicago early in July of 1827, resulted in a strong military response, a force under General Atkinson, some of which was quartered at Fort Dearborn; most members of this temporary garrison were 100 militia volunteers of the Vermillion County Battalion from Danville, the “Vermillion Rangers,” hastily recruited by Gurdon S. Hubbard. Confronted with a large assembled military force, the Indians decided to settle their grievances in another treaty, conducted in August of the same year; the events prompted authorities to regarrison Fort Dearborn and Fort Crawford, and also establish the new Fort Winnebago at the Wisconsin Portage. Also see Cass, Lewis.

Winnebago  schooner built at Green Bay in 1829; coming from Oswego, NY, under Captain Greene, the vessel called at Chicago on Aug. 16, 1834.

Winnemac  also Winamac, Catfish; Potawatomi chief from the Mississinewa River, IN, who was a participant and signer of the Treaty of Greenville (1795); later lived on the St. Joseph River; on Aug. 9, 1812, he was the messenger who brought General Hull’s orders to Captain Heald that Fort Dearborn was to be evacuated; sided with the British in 1812; participated in the Fort Dearborn massacre and was killed later during that war by a Shawnee chief who fought on the side of the United States; street name: Winnemac Avenue (5032 N). [226] [12]

Winnemeg  Potawatomi warrior from the Illinois River near Peoria Lake; often confused with Winnemac; participant in the Fort Dearborn massacre; survived. [226]

Winslow, Erastus, M.D.  surgeon’s mate for the seventh Regiment of the Michigan Territory Militia under Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, in Chicago during the Black Hawk War from June 11 to June 22, 1832; received $150 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12] [714]

Winston, William  a former British officer who, at age 50, arrived in the company of John Bates in 1833 and stayed three years at Chicago, speculating in land during the boom period. [12]

Winters, John D.  advertised with Winters, Mills & Co. in the Feb. 18, 1834, Chicago Democrat: “The New Line of splendid four horse Post Coaches in Illinois – From Ottawa by way of Holderman’s Grove, Walker’s Grove and Laughton’s to Chicago, once a week, 80 miles, through one and one half days, fare $5.00”; a postscript noted that one coach from Chicago to Dixon’s ferry and Galena left every Thursday, “thus making a perfect connection with the Detroit mail. J.D. Winters & Co.” In the Chicago Morning Democrat on Sept. 11, 1841, Winters advertised a new “Stage Line · Chicago to Galena · Via Dixon`s Ferry · Fare Through to Galena $5” and added that it left Chicago on “Sunday, Tuesday and Thursday at 4 O`clock A.M. via Brush Hill, Downers Grove, Naperville and Aurora.” [217a]

Winters, Mills & Co.  took over the first stagecoach line Chicago-Ottawa from Dr. John T. Temple in February 1834 and ran it until later the same year, when it was purchased by [see] Frink & Walker; see Winters, John D. [217a]

Wisconsin glacier  feature of the last ice age; the southern portion of the Wisconsin glacier covered what is now Lake Michigan; when the glacier began to retreat, approximately 14,000 years ago, Lake Chicago was formed. Lake Chicago decreased in size in successive phases, its current remnant being Lake Michigan.

Wode, John  German Catholic immigrant in 1833; married to Katharina (née Kannenkoth); on July 13, 1833, Father John St. Cyr baptized their twins at St. Mary’s Church. [342]

Wolcott, Alexander  son of [see] Dr. Alexander Wolcott’s older brother Henry; came from Connecticut in 1834; 1839 City Directory: clerk, Steamer Geo. W. Dole, for St. Joseph; became Cook County surveyor; died on Aug. 11, 1884. [421a] [12]

Wolcott, Alexander, Jr., M.D.  (1790-1830) physician and Indian Agent at Chicago; born in East Windsor, CT, on Feb. 14, 1790, as a member of a large and influential New England family; graduated from Yale College in 1809, but must have received his medical degree elsewhere, as the Yale medical department was not established until 1814. From 1812-1817 he was a surgeon’s mate and surgeon in the U.S. Army; for the next year he practiced private medicine at Vincennes, IN, then accepted President Monroe’s appointment as Indian Agent in Chicago (confirmed by the Senate on April 18, 1818), immediately left for Chicago, and succeeded Agent Charles Jouett. In 1820, Dr. Wolcott accompanied Gov. Lewis Cass of the Territory of Michigan on his expedition to the source of the Mississippi River, together with Henry Schoolcraft as mineralogist. Writing on Nov. 6, 1820, to his brother-in-law, Arthur W. Magill in Connecticut, Indian Agent Wolcott listed his possessions and improvements made to “Uncle Sam’s” farm on which he had harvested more than 60 bushels of corn to an acre, and expressed the hardships of his life – unprosperous, bad food, dangers, corrupt competitors. On Apr. 28, 1821, he visited John Kinzie at his trading post, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. In June 1821, writing his sister Frances Magill, he described his crops anew and advised that pride was the more appropriate response to life than humility; in August he and Governor Cass played leading parts at the Chicago Treaty with the Indians. Wolcott was an uncle of [see] Juliette Augusta and William Magill; William spent some time with him at Fort Dearborn’s agency house as a teenager in 1822-23. Later on July 20, 1823, Wolcott married [see] Ellen Marion Kinzie (age 16), John Hamlin, J.P. officiating, with many local Indian chiefs attending the simple but impressive ceremony; the couple had a son [name unknown to the editors] and a daughter, Mary Ann, who shared jointly with her mother in the father’s will. Wolcott farmed extensively on Fort Dearborn land [see Chronology entry of Nov. 6, 1820], and also conducted a limited medical practice in addition to his government job, making him – Chicago’s 1st – private physician; William H. Wallace was among his patients. When the garrison was evacuated that autumn, Wolcott moved with his wife from the agency house on the N side of the river – the former [see] Burns house (which had acquired the nickname “cobweb castle” while Wolcott was still a bachelor) that Jouett had begun to remodel and which he enlarged with “a kitchen, root-house, ice-house, store-house, dairy, and one hundred feet long of stables” – into Fort Dearborn, reversing his move in 1827, when the Winnebago War required reoccupation of the fort by military personnel. In 1825, he was assessed on $572 of personal property; became justice of the peace for Peoria County on Dec. 26, 1827. Wolcott served as Peoria court appointed administrator of the estates of John Crafts in 1826 and of John Kinzie in 1828. Wolcott was held in high esteem by Indians and whites alike; Schoolcraft said of him: “… as a gentleman [he was] commanding respect by his manners, judgment and intelligence.” He is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; he died on October 26, and on Dec. 17, 1830, the Peoria probate court appointed Lt. David Hunter administrator of the Wolcott estate, together with Jean B. Beaubien and John Hamlin as appraisers. Earlier that year Wolcott had purchased from the government the entire block 1 of the original town [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] that was later transferred to his widow (still listed in her name in 1833), had lost his son in July, and his niece Juliette had married his brother-in-law John H. Kinzie in August. His remains were first buried near the fort, later transferred to the City Cemetery [Lincoln Park], and still later to the Kinzie family plot at Graceland Cemetery. Street name: Wolcott Avenue (1900 W); earlier, State Street, N of the river, was called Wolcott Street. [37, 310, 404, 585a] [12]

Wolcott, Caroline  see Balestier, Joseph Neree.

Wolcott, Ellen Kinzie  see Bates, George C.; see Wolcott, Alexander; see Kinzie, Ellen Marion. Ellen M. Wolcott received $5000 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12]

Wolcott, Frances  see Magill, Arthur W.

Wolcott, Henry H.  a brother of Dr. Alexander Wolcott; Henry joined Alexander in 1830 or earlier; 1839 City Directory: clerk, W.L. Whiting [produce and commission merchant]; remained in town until 1846; his son, named Alexander after his uncle, became a well known city surveyor. [12]

Wolcott’s Addition  consisted of the eastern half of the NE quarter of Section 9 (80 acres, immediately W of the Kinzie Addition) and the claim to it was part of Dr. Wolcott’s estate when he died in 1830; David Hunter administered the estate, and sold the land to the speculator Arthur Bronson of New York in the late summer of 1834; the land became the Wolcott Addition to Chicago in 1835. In 1830 the parcel had been purchased for $130; in 1864 it was estimated at $1.5 million.

wolf  Canis lupus, the grey wolf or timber wolf, abundant in Illinois until the early 19th century. Early Chicagoans complained that wolves “stole pigs and robbed hen houses and in deep winter were a threat to human life”; Dr. Cooper of Fort Dearborn [1808-1811] complained that the howling of the wolves was a common occurrence at the fort. Note also the reference to wolves in [see] George David’s travel account of Oct. 11, 1833. In 1834, wolves still left the dense shrubbery along the E side of both branches of the Chicago River to search for food in the village; a wolf pack loved to congregate near Charlie Cleaver’s soap factory, on the North Branch, to devour the scraps thrown out from there and the quarrels disturbed everyone within a radius of half a mile; wrote Judge James Grant: “We hunted that winter [1834-35], twice a week when the weather was favorable, and killed many wolves in the present city limits.” The wolf disappeared from Illinois sometime before 1860, in part because destruction of wolves was encouraged by law and bounties were paid. Early reports from Illinois that mention a “black” wolf, probably also referring to Canis lupus; there occur several variations in size and color. Distinct from this is Canis latrans, the coyote, also sometimes called prairie wolf or small wolf, which the Potawatomi called [see] ‘Nonimoa’, a name also given by them to [see] John Kinzie Clark. They are larger than coyotes, the latter having survived in Illinois until today. The Chicago Democrat of Jan. 14, 1834, reported that a man had been frozen on the prairie between Chicago and Blue Island and reduced to a “few mangled remains,” and there was a rumor afoot about a missing woman. [119a, 187, 408, 553, 722]
From John Dean Caton’s ReminiscencesAt the time of which I am now speaking, the winter of ‘33-’34, the prairie wolves were very abundant. I have often met them in the streets of Chicago evidently hunting for food. I recollect one night when coming to my office late I observed several right in front of it. They did not scamper away as if they cared much for me, but dropped their tails, if possible to a still lower position than usual and slowly trailed, some taking to the ice on the river and others following up the street towards the Point but all looked back at me over their shoulders as is their way when moving away from any object which they do not care to become intimate with.
Chicago Democrat, Jan. 28, 1834:
Two weeks since we mentioned it was rumored that a woman had been frozen to death, on the Prairie, near Blue Island, which has since proven to be the melancholy fact that her name was Mrs. Smith, wife of Mr. Smith residing at Blue Island, who left this place 2nd of January (which was the coldest day we have experienced this winter) for her home, and when within a mile and a half of her dwelling, she sank benumbed and exhausted to rise no more. When found, she was dreadfully mangled and torn to pieces by the wolves. She has left a husband and five children to mourn her untimely death. … We are requested by Mr. Smith to return thanks to the citizens of Chicago, for their kind assistance in supplying his family with necessities, while absent from home, during the inclement season, which has deprived him of the partner of his bosom. [341]

Wolf Lake  largest of the Calumet chain-of-lakes, bisected by the Illinois-Indiana state line; filled with low hanging vegetation and the home of many snakes, the land presented a formidable obstacle to the first government surveyors; it is now the only one of the lakes devoted to wildlife preservation. In earlier days during rainy periods, the lake would absorb neighboring Hyde Lake [to the W] and George Lake [to the E] and would drain directly into Lake Michigan through one or two outlets; Gurdon Hubbard dubbed one of these “Pine creek” in 1822. In drier times, Wolf Lake drained westward into the Little Calumet River. Several major Indian villages were located near Wolf Lake, especially on the ridge between it and the Grand Calumet River to the S; street name: Wolf Lake Boulevard (3500 E). Also see Calumet Lakes.

Wolf Point  also the Point; an obtusely angular prominence of the W bank of the Chicago River “forks” at the point where the North and South Branches met (it has since been dredged to create a turning space for ships); was the site of Wolf Point Tavern, the first public house in Chicago. Historically incorrect is the term “Wolf’s Point,” as well as the reference to the projection of land between the North branch and the main channel as Wolf Point, although now frequently so used. Virgil Vogel, citing a passage in Wau-Bun, wrote that Mo-ah-way, a Potawatomi Indian whose name translates to ‘wolf,’ once lived on the land. The larger Wolf Point area, including the land adjacent to the opposite banks of the river with its Green Tree and Miller’s Taverns, became the initial social and economic core of Chicago and remained so into the early 1830s. In 1904 the shape of the forks gave rise to the Chicago emblem Y. See entries on Forks and on floods for additional information. Hurlbut wrote that [see] George Davis made a drawing of Wolf Point with a view to the north in late October 1833, or in 1834 as purported elsewhere. When stylized reproductions of the Davis drawing were eventually published in 1857 and in 1867, Wolf Point was ever after artistically reinterpreted by many hands and made into drawings and paintings, all showing a a view from the south of the Wolf Point Tavern, Miller’s Tavern, Rev. Jesse Walker’s cabin, the bridge built across the North Branch in 1832, and beyond. [As of 2006, the editors have been able to collect 25 different artistic renderings of early Wolf Point; eds.] [310, 357, 406, 697] [12]

Wolf Point Tavern  also called Wolf Tavern or, familiarly, Rat Castle, Old Geese’s Tavern, Pint Tavern, Taylor`s Tavern, and later Traveler’s Home and Western Stage House; it was the first such public house in Chicago; built in 1823 by James Kinzie and David Hall on Wolf Point [now 338 N; corner of W Water and N Canal streets]. A sign with a painted wolf hung on a tree branch by the door, but no name was written on it; the work was believed to be that of a lieutenant from the fort—probably Lieutenant Allen painted the shingle. The tavern was later rented to Archibald Caldwell, who obtained – Chicago’s 1st – tavern license in 1829 [granted by the Peoria County Commissioners’ Court on December 8], when such was required. Early in 1830, and until 1832, Elijah Wentworth, Sr. [nickname: “Old Geese”] took over the management, paying Kinzie $300 per year. During those years it was often referred to as Old Geese’s Tavern. Alternatively, the early settlers referred to it as Rat Castle even though it was the best-run tavern in town. In June of 1832, Charles Taylor and his wife Mary rented and ran the business for about one year, and it was General Scott’s headquarters during the Black Hawk War of that year, then referred to as Taylor`s Tavern; in 1833 William W. Wattles bought it; later in 1833 Chester Ingersoll bought the tavern and operated it under the name Traveler’s Home and Western Stage House; in 1834 it ceased to be a public house. [266, 714] [12]

Wolf Ridge  a wooded sand ridge near 115th Street and Racine Avenue that was home to a large number of wolves.

Wolfram, Henry  owned and operated a farm in the early 1830s, located between Halsted Street, George Street, Diversey Avenue and Sheffield Avenue; street name: Wolfram Street (2832 N). [320]

Wolverine  nickname for Michigan natives or residents, used in Chicago as early as 1833 [see advertising by Wellmacher, Johann]; the predatory mammal (Gulo gulo), from which the name is derived, vanished from Illinois as settlement began. Michigan is referred to as the Wolverine State. [734] [341]

Wood, Alonzo Church  born in Farnham, Canada c.1809; came in August 1834; 1839 City Directory: mason and builder, Cass [Wabash] Street, near Ohio Street; in 1879 he listed himself as residing in Granby, P.Q[?]., while in 1885 he resided at 69 Clinton St. [243, 351] [12]

Wood, Nancy  see DeCamp, Samuel G.J.

Woodbridge, Charlotte  see Wadsworth, Elisha S.

Woodbury, Abigail  see Smith, Charles B.

woodlands, eastern  see eastern woodlands; also see Little Woods.

Woodruff, Alson and James  date of arrival uncertain; in partnership with [see] Daniel Elston as Elston & Woodruff, they first made soap and candles in a log barn on Kinzie Street at the junction of the North Branch with the river. Alson was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat that November — its first issue of November 26 advertised the “Soap and Candle Manufactory of Messrs. Daniel Elston & Co.”; a notice in this newspaper in April 1834 announced the death of Alson`s wife, Mandane, at age 24. In 1834 James had a store in a frame structure at the corner of South Water and Wells streets, the first building that Polemus and Thomas Hamilton completed in Chicago. The following year they sold their interest in the company to [see] Charles Cleaver, who also acquired Elston`s interest in 1836. [12] [319]

Woods, John  (c.1785-1831) an educated English farmer who emigrated to the English Prairie [see Birkbeck, Morris] in Edwards County, Illinois, during the early 1820s. He published a detailed account of his experience [734a] and prepared a 1822 map of the Illinois country; see the Maps, 1822, John Woods.

Woodstock Trail  early area trail used by Indians and early settlers, leading NW from Fort Dearborn, partly coinciding with the later [see] Elston Avenue.

Woodworth, B.  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Apr. 28, 1821, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Woodworth, James Hutchinson  (Dec. 4, 1804–Mar. 26, 1869) born in Greenwich, NY; arrived from Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1835; late that year filed a claim for wharfing privileges for the W half of lot 4, block 19; listed as co-owner of 160 acres of land, together with Hugh G. Gibson, in Section 18, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; on Oct. 24, 1836, with his brother-in-law [see] Theophilus Greenwood, contracted with the Illinois-Michigan Canal Commissioners to work as canal contractors; 1839 City Directory: Robert P. & James H. Woodworth, wholesale dry goods merchants, 103 Lake St. In Halifax he married Martha (née Knox, c.1810-); they had two daughters, Mary and Martha (1836-1911, Mrs. Robert W. Rayne); elected as 2nd ward alderman in 1845-1846, and as 1st ward alderman in 1847; from Mar. 7, 1848, and through 1850, he served two consecutive terms as Chicago’s 12th and 13th mayors [participated as mayor in the official opening of the Illinois-Michigan Canal on April 16, 1848]; in 1850 he is listed as a miller in the NY Census and married to Elmira (NY 1817-), with a young daughter (1847) and young son (1849) born at Chicago; during the 1850s was twice water commissioner and a banker; a great grandson of James, John W. Leslie, was instrumental in having a virgin prairie preserve named after him in Glenview, IL: see Monuments section. James is buried at Oakland Cemetery in Dolton, IL. [48a, 48b, 48c, 243, 435a, 503a] [12]

Woolf, James  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Woolley, Jedediah, Jr.  also Woolsey, Wooley, Jedidah, Jediah; born in New York; came in 1830, listed on the Peoria County Census that year, and purchased from the canal commissioners lot 9, block 44, for $50 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], and still owned it in 1833; he also acquired the western half of the NE quarter of Section 4 in Township 39 N, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; became the first county surveyor in 1831. He married Betsy Watkins, sister of [see] John Watkins, in January 1832; on April 25 that year he laid out a street leading from the settlement to the lakeshore, 50 feet wide; his description read as follows: “From the east end of Water street, in the town of Chicago, to Lake Michigan. Direction of said road is south 88 1/2 degrees east from the street to the lake, 18 chains 50 links”; in May served under Capt. G. Kercheval in the Chicago militia company during the Black Hawk War; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; by 1834 he had built a sawmill on the Du Page River at Troy in Will County. [249, 319, 421a, 692b, 708, 714, 734] [12]

Wort, Elizabeth  see Jordan, Walter.

Worth, Colonel  member of Gen. Winfield Scott`s staff on the steamboat Sheldon Thompson which brought the [see] cholera to Chicago on July 10, 1832. [714]

Worthingham, William  listed erroneously as William Worthington in Andreas (volume 1); together with Alanson Sweet, and under contract for John Noble, he built – Chicago’s 1st – brick house in 1833, standing N of the river on a lot adjacent to the later Lake House hotel; on Sept. 25, 1834 he was appointed firewarden for the first ward; as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Sept. 29, 1834, he married Jeannette [Jennette, Jessy] Shaw (twin sister of Emily Shaw, who married Alanson Sweet) on Sept. 26 at Naper’s Settlement; 1839 City Directory: plasterer, Adams Street near Clark; the death of a son, George, was announced in the Chicago Democrat on Feb. 24, 1843. [243, 357, 499a] [12]

Wright, Daniel  (1778-1873) born in Rutland, VT; arrived from Ohio in 1833 with wife and several children; soon removed to Dutchman’s Point, then in June 1834 built the first house in Lake County, farther N; in September his wife and youngest son Daniel died, and in 1835 a teenage son died; in 1836 his daughter Caroline married a William Wigham, his neighbor Hiram Kennicott officiating as justice of the peace. Daniel Wright died on Dec. 30, 1873, and was buried at Half Day, IL.

Wright, Edward  born at Sheffield, MA, in 1821; came in 1833, still a boy, attending Miss Chappel’s school in 1834; son of [see] John W. Wright, brother of John Stephen, Timothy, and Walter; active in real estate speculation and development; 1839 City Directory: Michigan Avenue, corner of Madison Street; later served as paymaster in the U.S. Army; had died by 1879. [243, 351, 452] [12]

Wright, Freeman G.  born in Shaftsbury, NY, c.1800; arrived in September 1832; by 1879 he lived in Racine, WI. [The name may be identical with {see} Wright, Truman G., the discrepancies resulting from transcription errors; eds.] [12]

Wright, John  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [12, 319] [714]

Wright, John Stephen  (1815-1874) born in Sheffield, MA; well educated son of [see] John W. Wright, brother of Timothy, Walter, and Edward; arrived on Oct. 28, 1832, with his father; initially worked in his father’s first two stores, but soon became a successful real estate dealer during the speculative fever that gripped the town in the early 1830s, though he was still underage; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. Tracing from the recorded surveys of the town in the Cook County Clerk’s Office, in 1834 he made a manuscript map [National Archives, Washington, D.C.] that was used in preparing one of two maps published that year in New York by Peter A. Mesier (see Maps). All four brothers were active in real estate speculation and subdividing. John S. lost his already considerable fortune (c.$200,000) during the crash of 1837, but recovered financially by diversifying into forwarding and commission business as well as manufacture and sale of machinery; 1839 City Directory: forwarding commission merchant, North Water Street; like his father, he was a charter member of the first Presbyterian church, and financed its construction on the grounds of the Presbyterian church and of Chicago’s first schoolhouse built for this purpose (1835), allowing the so-called Infant School to move from its makeshift quarters in the First Presbyterian Church building to its own quarters on Clark Street, S of Lake, near the church and still on the church lot. He married Catherine (Kitty) Blackburn Turner at Blakeley, VA, on Sept. 1, 1846; their three surviving children were: Augustine Washington (born 1847), Maria Alexander (1849), and Chester Dewey (1852); became the founder and editor of the Prairie Farmer newspaper; in 1855 he became a member of the just-formed Old Settlers’ Society of Chicago; in 1856 he bought the blockhouse of Fort Dearborn and what remained of the stockade, making the well seasoned oak lumber into furniture; a 300 acre large wooded section of Wright property on the lakeshore two miles N of Lake Street became known as Wrightwood. In 1870, he published Chicago: Past, Present, Future: Relations to the Great Interior and to the Continent; died on Sept. 26, 1874; his grave site is located at Rosehill Cemetery (see Monuments); street name: Wrightwood Avenue (2700 N). Also see Wright’s Woods. [12, 37, 164, 319, 351, 432, 476, 735] [432a]

Wright, John W.  (1783-1840) often called Deacon Wright, because of his strong religious background and church affiliation; had visited Chicago on horseback in 1815 but found the site unpromising then; on Oct. 28, 1832, he came back by lake schooner with his son John Stephen Wright and merchandise to start a business, intending to settle in Galena, but stayed in Chicago; left his son in Chicago while fetching more goods from the East, returning in 1833; in the spring of 1834 he brought the remainder of his family from Massachusetts: wife Huldah (née Dewey, married Sept. 26, 1814), Timothy (born 1817), Walter (1819), Edward (1821), Anne Eliza (1824), and Frances Sarah (1827); listed as owner of 180 acres of land consisting of the SW quarter of Section 8, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; in the original town, he also purchased in November 1832 from Walter Selvey [Searcy] for $100 lot 6 in block 17 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]. In early August 1833 John Wright was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town, then was one of the “Qualified Electors” who voted to incorporate the town [for a copy of that meeting’s report, see entry on incorporation], and was on the voting list for the first town board on August 10 as John W. Wright; he also received $15 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty later in September. He was a charter member of Chicago’s first Presbyterian Church under Reverend J. Porter and later served as its deacon, acquiring his nickname. His first store was in a one room log cabin at the SE corner of Lake and Market streets that his son John Stephen had rented from Mark Beaubien in November 1832. In September 1833 Eliza Chappel took over the log cabin for her school, making it – Chicago’s 1st – schoolhouse, and Wright moved into a larger store he had built in block 17 on Lake Street [note his brief ad in the Oct. 3, 1835 edition of the Chicago American]; the three younger children—Edward, Anne, and Frances—attended the Chappel school in 1834; legal notices involving John Wright appeared in the Sept. 3, 1834, Chicago Democrat as John K. Boyer sought payment for “12 pieces of cotton sheeting and about 30 lbs. of coffee” in a circuit court suit filed July 7. Wright’s later residence was at the foot of Madison Street, on Michigan Avenue just S of J.B. Beaubien’s house. [319, 432] [12]

Wright, Mrs. Maria S.  see Scammon, J. Young.

Wright, Samuel  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [12, 319] [714]

Wright, Thomas  arrived from New York in 1834; teacher at the English and Classical School for Boys, succeeding Dr. Henry Van der Bogart in 1834, and being succeeded in 1835 by James McClellan; was appointed recording secretary of the Chicago Bible Society on Nov. 25, 1835, elected librarian of the Lyceum on Dec. 12 and president of the Young Men’s Temperance Society, organized on Dec. 19; in 1837 he served on the first board of education. [351] [12]

Wright, Thomas  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [12, 319] [714]

Wright, Timothy  born at Sheffield, MA; arrived in 1833; son of [see] John W. Wright; brother of [see] John Stephen, Edward, and Walter; initially worked in his father’s store on Lake Street on block 17; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; in 1836 worked as a member of a surveying party on the Illinois & Michigan Canal project; 1839 City Directory: Michigan Avenue, corner of Madison Street; in 1853 he acquired part-ownership of the Chicago Tribune; in 1857 served as trustee of the Dearborn Seminary; later moved to Philadelphia. [13, 243, 319, 432] [12]

Wright, Truman G.  arrived from Vermont in 1834 and served as firewarden that year; late in 1835 filed a claim for wharfing privileges; was town trustee in 1836; acquired 160 acres of downtown land in Section 6, Township 39, prior to 1836; plus 80 acres in Section 18, Township 39, as assignee, plus lakeshore property, constituting the SW corner of Section 34 of Township 40, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; legal notice in the Chicago American of Sept. 2, 1837: Truman G. Wright vs. Sylvester Marsh, attachement; 1839 City Directory: speculator, boarded at Tremont House; removed to Racine, prior to 1879, where he still lived in 1885. Also see entry for Wright, Freeman G. [28, 243] [12]

Wright, Walter  born at Sheffield, MA, in 1819; arrived in 1833; son of [see] John W. Wright, brother of [see] John Stephen, Edward, and Timothy; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; 1839 City Directory: Michigan Avenue, corner of Madison Street; active in real estate speculation and development; in 1848 he served as president of the Young Men’s Association of Chicago, which had been started in 1841 by Walter L. Newberry, and which later became the Chicago Library Association. Walter had died by 1879. [13, 243, 319, 351, 432] [12]

Wright’s Woods  also Wright’s Grove; a formerly wooded part of the extensive real estate holdings of members of the John W. Wright family, on Clark Street between Wrightwood Avenue and Diversey Street. In Wau-Bun Juliette Kinzie describes how she would ride N on the path that preceded Rush Street “to the little prairie W of Wright’s Woods”; street name: Wrightwood Avenue (2700 N). [406]

Wyandotte  schooner from Buffalo under Captain Easterbrook, called at Chicago on Aug. 21, 1834.

Wycoff, Peter  a discharged soldier who worked for Archibald Clybourne; voted in the elections of July 24 and Nov. 25, 1830.

Wythe, Mary Kent  came to Chicago from Philadelphia in 1833 and married [see] Philip Ferdinand Wheeler Peck in 1835.