AA Welcome to the Encyclopedia section. This is – chicagoua – the Indian name for Allium tricoccum, a symbol for our early history; see Allium.
Abbott, Dr. Constant (July 21, 1803-Dec. 5, 1885) son of Elijah and Lydia Abbott, born at Piermont, NH; graduated from Dartmouth Medical School in 1830, and later that year married Ruby (née Gillett; Hartford, VT [1804-1894]) on November 16 at Hartford; a child Caroline M. (Carrie, Mrs. Thomas S. Page) was born at Hebron, CT, in 1832. The family moved to Naperville in 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; listed in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 1 and Apr. 1, 1834, as having unclaimed letters at the post office; Louisa P. (Mrs. Isaac Newton Sweet) was born in 1836 (-1922), and William Gillett (-1919) was born the following year at Ottawa, IL. The family was included in the 1850 U.S. Census in Whiteside County, also then listing the youngest daughter Frances Ann (Fannie, Mrs. Peleg N. Carson; 1843-1920). Dr. Abbott also practiced in Illinois at Marshall and at Washburn where William returned following service in the Civil War, opened a general store and married Lydia Theresa Toy (1847-1947); they had six surviving children. In 1867 William established a drugstore with his father at Chenoa, IL. Dr. Abbott died there, as did Ruby and several of their children and grandchildren; all are buried in the Chenoa Cemetery. [179a] 
Abbott, James, Jr. (June 1, 1778-Mar. 12, 1858) Detroit fur trader; son of James (Dublin, 1724-c.1800) and Mary (née Barkle, Philadelphia [c.1749-May 30, 1821]) Abbott, Sr., a prominent Detroit couple; older brother of [see] Samuel, Sr. James visited John Kinzie in Chicago on Oct. 27, 1804, as shown in Kinzie’s account book; married [see] Sarah Whistler at Fort Dearborn on Nov. 1, 1804, with John Kinzie performing the ceremony of Chicago`s second recorded marriage; purchased the schooner Tiger for the American Fur Company`s Detroit Outfit on Sept. 6, 1822, as noted on a Michilimackinac invoice; served as postmaster for the Michigan Territory until May 1833; later that year was awarded $2,300 as an American Fur Co. agent in the treaty negotiated at Chicago; became a judge and senior partner of James Abbott & Sons. The couple lived in Detroit and had seven children: James Whistler, William S., Madison Fitz, Mary Ann, Caroline, Sarah and Cornelia. [10aa, 319, 379a, 404, 571a] [270a]
Abbott, Lucius, M.D. born in Connecticut; practiced medicine privately before joining the army as an assistant surgeon, assigned to Detroit; was at Fort Winnebago late summer in 1831 when [see] William Belcher died; second husband of [see] Margaret McKillip Helms, marrying on Jan. 25, 1836, at Detroit.
Abbott, Madison Fitz (Jan. 5, 1809-Aug. 19, 1834) born in Detroit; son of James and Sarah (née Whistler) Abbott, Jr.; on September 28, the twelfth day of the 1833 Chicago Treaty, was chosen “to act as appraiser of goods and merchandise furnished for the use of the Indians” jointly with Benjamin B. Kercheval and Robert Stuart by the Board of Commissioners. 
Abbott, Samuel, Sr. (1783-Apr. 26, 1851) of Mackinac; second son of James (Dublin, 1724-c.1800) and Mary (née Barkle, Philadelphia [c.1749-May 30, 1821]) Abbott, Sr., a prominent Detroit couple; younger brother of the Detroit trader [see] James Abbott, Jr. What apparently was the earliest letter ever mailed from Fort Dearborn was written on Apr. 30, 1804, by Capt. John Whistler and sent to “Samuel Abbott, Esq. [of Abbott & Durxwell] … courtesy Comodore Brevoort [of the brig Adams]. Dear Sir: I had the pleasure of receiving your favor of the 27th Ultimo, also the inclosed account the amount of which you will find inclosed in two noats–There is a ballance of a few cents. I wish you would endevour to send me a barrel of fish by the first vessel that may come this way, and send the account of the fish so as to enable me to make payment. Probably you will take in return corn for payment–if so I must send it in barrels, two for one bushels. Give my compliments to Mr. Hoffman, and tell him I will pay particular attention to sending the box to Mr. Beats, but I fear it will not be this fall. Dear Sir, I remain your friend and very humble servant. J. Whistler.” Abbott was a militia officer in 1805, and in 1817 was with the American Fur Co.; at Florissant, MO, on Oct. 25, 1822, he married Mary Bridgette St. Cyr-Lacroix (1801, St. Louis), daughter of Hyacinthe St. Cyr and Helene Hebert (later Mdme Pierre Lacroix); the couple had one son, Samuel, Jr., in c.1824. Later at Mackinac Abbott served as justice of peace, notary public, probate court judge, collector of customs, and mayor. Mary died c.1888 at Green Bay, WI. 
Abbott, Titus H. partner of [see] Asahel Pierce in the firm Pierce & Abbott, a smithy “nearly opposite Chicago Hotel” in 1833; notice of dissolution appeared May 7, 1834; an unclaimed letter notice in the Chicago Democrat on Sept. 2, 1835, may imply that Abbott moved on.
Abell, Sidney (Mar. 10, 1809-1863) also Abel; born in Bennington, VT; son of Henry and Polly (CT, née Abell) Abell; attorney from Pennsylvania; third postmaster of Chicago, appointed by President Van Buren on Mar. 3, 1837, to succeed John S.C. Hogan; came to Chicago in 1834 and advertised on February 17 and May 25, 1835, a law office on Lake Street, one door E of the New York House, and on June 24 and August 1 an office shared with “Esq. Harmon on Dearborn St.” [see ad]; Isaac Dewey Harmon was not a trained lawyer, but sometimes advised others on legal matters; 1839 City Directory: postmaster, 37 Clark St. On Sept. 22, 1840 in Sangamon, IL, he married Martha Jane Lowry (c.1814-) of Springfield, IL; 1843 City Directory: attorney at law, bds Lake House.  
Accault, Michel also Aco, Ako, Accau; French fur trader and associate of La Salle during the years 1669-1680; lived for extended periods with Kaskaskia Indians, and his knowledge of the language of native tribes made him welcome as a translater; traveled in the Northwest with Father Hennepin in 1680. Near Peoria by 1691, he married and fathered two sons (Pierre and Michel) with Marie [Aramipinchicoue], daughter of Kaskaskia chief Rouensa; both young children were baptized at the Mission de la Conception. Accault partnered with Tonti and La Forest in a Chicago trading post, managed for them by Pierre de Liette, Tonti`s cousin, from 1697 to c.1702. By mid 1706, Marie Rouensa had married trader Michael Philippe, and they had six children; Accault had either died earlier or left to continue trade among tribes on the northern Red River in Louisiane. [241, 259, 392a, 647, 649] 
Adams, George U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted on Aug. 21, 1806, and reenlisted Aug. 21, 1811; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Feb. 26, 1807, Aug. 28, 1809, Nov. 19, 1811, and once more shortly before the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; killed in the initial battle of the massacre.  
Adams, George of the firm Ludby & Adams; died at age 35 on Sept. 1, 1835, as announced in the Chicago Democrat the following day; partner of [see] Ludby, John. His son George is listed in the 1839 Chicago Directory as a butcher. In the 1843 Chicago Directory his widow placed the following ad: “Adams, Mrs. Maria, laundress [widow of George, butcher], N. Clark, bet Water and Kinzie”; the son is listed in the 1843 and 1844 Chicago Directories as a laborer, at J. L. Gray`s [a grocer at the E corner of North Water and North Clark streets]. Maria died on Mar. 11, 1884, aged 69. 
Adams, John (1735-1826) Massachusetts native; second president of the United States, serving from 1797 to 1801; under Adams the Northwest Territory was divided and Chicago became part of the new Territory of Indiana in 1801; street name: Adams Street (200 S).
Adams, John Quincy (1767-1848) Massachusetts native; sixth president of the United States, serving from 1825 to 1829; during his term the Erie Canal was opened in 1825, establishing a major route for immigration to the West and thereby initiating a new era for Chicago; street name: Quincy Street (220 S).
Adams, Joseph S. (1794-1885) born in Staffordshire, England; sergeant of the Fifth U.S. Infantry regiment; transferred from Fort Brady to Fort Dearborn in May 1833, arriving on the same vessel with [see] Reverend J. Porter; he and his wife are listed as charter members of the first Presbyterian church in June that year. When the troops moved on to Fort Howard late in December 1836, only Adams, Lt. L.T. Jamison and Maj. J. Plympton remained behind. As ordnance-sergeant of the post, Adams moved his family from the village into the fort and stayed until the end of May 1837, considering himself the last soldier [as opposed to officer; Jamison was the last officer] of Fort Dearborn and, retiring from the military to a claim in [Northfield Township], began to farm; with his wife Hannah had several children, among them a son Henry, who was born at Fort Dearborn in 1836, and in September 1916 lived at 2014 Warren Ave. in Chicago; a son Ralph, who married a daughter of Alderman [see] Bernard Ward; and a daughter who became the wife of Dr. Allen W. Gray; after his death on June 9, 1885, his widow lived in Evanston. Adams detailed his reminiscences of this period in a 1881 letter to John Wentworth. [13, 237a, 708] 
Adams, William baker; arrived June 1833 and remained until 1836; in partnership initially with Johann Wellmacher, the dissolution of which was listed in the Chicago Democrat on March 25, 1834 [a “Willie Adams and his sisters” attended school under Miss Eliza Chappel in 1833, possibly William Adams` children]. 
Adams, William Henry (c.1813-1882) arrived in 1831 from New York and signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on October 5, and the [see] Herrington Petition in December; served under Capt. G. Kercheval in the Chicago militia during the Black Hawk War; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833 and voted at the first town election on August 10; 1839 City Directory: surveying, mapping, &c.;, Lake Street; married Elizabeth Bradley on June 23, 1839; became alderman in 1849; died on June 6, 1882. [12, 243, 319, 714, 733]
Adams a 150-ton vessel, the first United States government brig on the Great Lakes, built in 1799 in the Rouge River shipyard, named after the president, launched in 1801 and used, among other missions, to supply Fort Dearborn from Detroit beginning in 1804. Dr. Cooper came to the fort on the Adams in 1808. Visits by its Captain Henry Brevoort and members of the crew were recorded in John Kinzie’s account book on Aug. 7, 1807, on May 24 and 25, 1808, on Sept. 5 and 12, 1808, on Aug. 27, 1809, and on May 26 and June 12, 1810. During the 1812 war General Hull surrendered the ship, then in drydock, to the British who renamed it Detroit; the Americans recaptured the vessel later that year; stranded and burned at Black Rock. [389a, 404, 441b] 
Additions to Chicago during the early part of the speculative land boom, several additions to the original town plat were made in quick succession to accommodate the demand for real estate; these were the Breese & Beaubien Addition, the Canal Addition, the Carpenter (or Carpenter & Curtiss) Addition, the Duncan Addition, the Fort Dearborn Addition, the Kinzie Addition, the Newberry Addition, the Russell & Mather Addition (or North Branch Addition), the J.B.F. Russell Addition, the Wabansia Addition, the Wight Addition, and the Wolcott Addition. For details, see individual entries. Also to be counted as additions are the fractional Sections 15 and 22 along the lakeshore, immediately S of the Breese & Beaubien Addition, both formally incorporated as shown on the 1836 map by E.B. Talcott [see Maps].
Adventure Kinzie · Forsyth & Co. used this term in the account books to indicate that the customer intended to enter dangerous territory or designated that engagés had been outfitted with goods needed for trade among Indians on credit during the autumn, to be reimbursed with furs following the winter hunt. Prior to 1820 Indian territories were off-limits to white men, unless they were maried to daughters or sisters of Indian chiefs; an example was [see] William Burnett, married to Kakima, sister of Top-ni-be [also Topenebe], the principal Potawatomi chief. Burnett also founded a trading post on the Kankakee River in 1790 and was allowed to freely move and trade throughout Indian territory until his death in 1812. [393c] [692g]
Aekin, L.H. resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. 
agency houses for the first Fort Dearborn, the two-story structure in which the U.S Indian agent would conduct his business, was built by the soldiers in 1805, a short distance west of the fort, outside the stockade, near the south bank of the river, with the U.S. factor`s house between the agency and the fort; an old-fashioned log-building [covered with split oak siding], with a hall running through the center, and one large room on each side. Piazzas extended the whole length of the building, front and rear. A letter of Oct. 9, 1807, from Captain Whistler to Secretary Dearborn, indicated that a house for the “agent and Factor Interpreter” was being built at that time on the north side of the river, where, according to Whistler, the Indians would find it easier to camp, but as it turned out, only the interpreter`s building was constructed on the north side. On Aug. 16, 1812, the Indians burned the fort, the agency and the factory. [Where the agency house had stood, the soldiers of the next fort would later erect a large hexagonal barn.] For the second fort, the agency house was on the north side of the river, close to the bank, west of the Kinzie house. It may have begun as the [see] Burns house, built c.1809 by [see] Ezekiel Cooper, and later enlarged, remodeled, and occupied in succession by the Indian agents Jouett (for himself and his family) and eventually Wolcott. By the time Dr. Wolcott married, the building had become known as [see] “Cobweb Castle.” A third agency house was later built immediately south of the fort on the lakeshore, apparently to have separated the conduct of business from the Wolcott family`s living space; this structure was purchased in 1822/23 by Crafts and J.B. Beaubien and enlarged to serve as a trading post for the American Fur Co. of which they were the Chicago agents. 
Agnes Barton a 125-ton schooner built by Frederick A. Howe, Sr. and Captain Burk at Buffalo, NY, and first sailed under Captain Burk to Chicago, calling in June 1834; called again at Chicago later that year on September 14 under Captain Ludlow. 
Aird, James a visiting Scotsman, a trader from upper Michigan who is listed in John Kinzie’s account books on July 15, 1807. During July 1807 Kinzie transported 46 packs for him across the Chicago portage; was in partnership with the British trader [see] Robert Dickson at Green Bay and also worked for the American Fur Company; died at Prairie du Chien on Feb. 27, 1819. 
Albee, Cyrus P. (c. 1813-Mar. 25, 1871) arrived from Vermont in 1834, and did various work, settling on meat marketing; an unclaimed letter was noted in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 2, 1835; 1839 City Directory: Funk`s Market, corner of Lake and Dearborn streets; married Harriet Wilson of Ohio in 1843; 1843 City Directory: butcher, at Fulton Market, s.-w. cor Lake & Dearb; 1844 City Directory: [Albie, C.P.] clerk at Fulton market.  
Alexandre also Alexander; a brother within the Séminaire des Missions Étrangeres; among those who came from Quebec to visit the Mission de l`Ange Gardien des Miamis a Chicagoua on Oct. 21, 1698. When the group left for the Illinois River on the 24th, he remained behind at the mission until Easter of 1699, when members of the party picked him up on the return trip to Quebec; likely a lay brother who assisted the abbés, his full name is not known but his distinction is that of being one of the earliest visitors to Chicago.
Algonquian (always pronounced /al- GONK -kee-un/) also Algonkian; the term for a group of related North American Indian tribes, comprising about 50 related languages and situated primarily between the eastern seaboard and the Great Lakes and farther to the Rockies at the time the first Europeans appeared, so initially identified by Champlain and others in the early 1600s; allied with the French in conflict against the Iroquois. Both the Miamis and the Potawatomis, the two tribes dominant in succession in Chicagoland from the time the Europeans arrived to that of the forced relocation of all Indians beyond the Mississippi, were among the Algonquians; other peoples who spoke Algonquian languages were the Ojibwa [Chippewa], Ottawa, Sauk, Fox, Illinois, Maskouten, and Shawnee; á Algonquin Avenue (5600 W). [456b]
Algonquin (/al- GONK -kwin/) preferably and traditionally so spelled; for a time spelled Algonkin; a single language spoken now in southern Ontario, a dialect of Ojibwa; a language name typifying and bestowing its name on the Algonquian language family, comprising about 50 languages. [456b]
Allen, John John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by a customer of this name on July 20, 1805; a John Allen is listed as private on the Fort Dearborn muster roll, Dec. 31, 1810, having just enlisted on Nov. 27. Allen returned from New York in 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August that year; 1839 City Directory: John P., boot- and shoemaker, North Water Street. [319, 404, 708] 
Allen, Lt. James (c.1806-1846) native of Ohio; Fifth Infantry; as cartographer, accompanied an 1832 expedition led by Henry B. Schoolcraft into Minnesota to establish the true headwaters of the Misssissippi River, and in 1834, published a map thereof; stationed at Fort Dearborn as brevet second lieutenant from May 14, 1833, to January 1834; present during the Indian Treaty of Chicago in September 1833, and among the commisioners and witnesses who signed the document; superintended early harbor construction as a temporary assignment from the U.S. Army Engineer Department and replaced Major Bender in January 1834, as harbor superintendent, serving until September 1838; with C. Petit and Henry Moore began the Chicago Reading Room Association in July 1835; advanced to captain on June 30, 1837; later that year on October 15, he submitted a map, Improvement of the Harbour of Chicago, with Capt. Thomas Cram`s annual report to the U.S. Army Engineer Department; 1839 City Directory: steamboat builder and captain, boarding at the Lake House.  
Allin, John U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn under Captain Heald, enlisted in November 1810; seriously wounded during the initial battle of the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812 ; executed by the Indians later that evening. 
Allison, Thomas English; came in 1832 with his wife Mary and four young sons (Thomas, John, George and William); shortly thereafter purchased a farm near Clybourn Place, three miles N of the settlement; in 1834 moved to Northfield Township and continued to farm; built the first bridge across the Des Plaines River in 1834/35, at his own expense. 
Allium Latin for garlic, a word of obscure origin; a genus of the plant family Alliaceae, containing Allium canadense(wild onion, used for food by the Indians; found in sunny and lightly wooded areas); A. stellatum (prairie wild onion, on rocky banks in the interior); A. cernuum (wild nodding onion, prairie habitat); and A. tricoccum (wild garlic; French, ail sauvage; on wooded river banks; broad-leaved and blooming white). With extensive research John F. Swenson convincingly demonstrates [see essay] that the Indian name chicagoua for Allium tricoccum is the word that was adapted for the settlement`s name. The plant once grew abundantly along wooded river banks in the Chicago region and can still be found in some of Chicagoland`s forest preserves, private gardens, and at Morton Arboretum. Note illustrations. 
Allouez, Père Claude Jean (1622-Aug. 27, 1689) French Jesuit; born in St. Didier, France; arrived at Quebec in 1658 and served at Trois Rivieres and other St. Lawrence settlements for seven years; founded the Mission de Saint-Esprit among the Ottawa and other tribes at Chequamegon Bay on western Lake Superior in 1665, and the Mission de Saint-François-Xavier in 1671 on the Wisconsin Fox River, a few miles above Green Bay [near De Pere]. In the Jesuit Relations of 1666-1667, Father Allouez referred to Lake Michigan as “Lac Illiniones, as yet unexplored,” [possibly misread for Lac Illinioues] and recorded that the Fox called the lake “Match-i-hi-gan-ing”; submitted a valuable manuscript map [see excerpt in missions], Lac Svperievr et avtres lievx ou sont les Missions des Peres de la Compagnie de Iesvs Comprises sovs le nom D`ovtaovacs, with Father Marquette that, as an engraving, was printed in the Jesuit Relations · 1670-1671. Father Allouez was Father Marquette`s immediate superior in 1673 when the father and Jolliet discovered the Chicago site, and first visited Chicago on Apr. 10, 1677 to find 80 Illinois warriors encamped along the Des Plaines River [the chief greeted him with a 100-word welcome address, – Chicago`s 1st – oration] and willing to escort him to a larger village of Kaskaskia, opposite Starved Rock, carrying on Marquette`s mission work with the Kaskaskia intermittently until 1687. There exists some evidence of a short-lived Jesuit mission and village in Chicago under Father Allouez at the time Durantaye maintained a fort here (1684-85). This infant settlement was destroyed and its inhabitants scattered by an Iroquois raid in c.July 1686; Denonville`s 1687 attack on the Senecas was in part retaliation for this raid. Father Allouez`s name is engraved on the Marquette monument of 1926 at Chicago. After his death he was buried at the Mission de Saint-Joseph [Niles, MI], founded under his direction in the 1680s; Father Aveneau succeeded him there in 1690. [34a, 105aa, 342a, 456b, 605, 611, 649, 681, 682] 
Alscum, Madaline or Olscum; French mètis servant girl indentured to Susan Randolph Allen, wife of Indian agent Charles Jouett; lived with family at Chicago from 1816 to 1818; in 1818 married [see] Joseph Ozier, a soldier from Fort Dearborn.
Amaranth schooner; anchored in Lake Michigan near Fort Dearborn on July 17, 1833, after a three week voyage from Buffalo, NY; cargo was transferred ashore by small boats and nearly 75 passengers were taken on shore near the residence of [see] Heman Bond. 
Ament, Anson Clark (August 1816-1850) born in Elizabethtown, Hardin County, KY; son of John Viele and Eunice Ament; during the Black Hawk War, enrolled in Capt. James Walker`s company as private on June 25, 1832, with brothers Edward and Hiram; requested a furlough and on July 19 joined Captain Naper`s company as private with brother Calvin, mustered out on Aug. 15; his wife`s name was Sarah; died in the Civil War.  
Ament, Calvin (1814-1856) born in Elizabethtown, Hardin County, KY; son of John Viele and Eunice Ament; with brother Anson, enrolled as private in Captain Naper`s company on July 19, 1832, during the Black Hawk War; mustered out on Aug. 15. He married Sarah Dean at Hancock, IL, on Jan. 24, 1846; two years later he married Martha Ann Lee there on April 4. 
Ament, Edward Glenn (Sept. 18, 1806-Nov. 22, 1888) born in Dansville, Livingston County, NY; eldest son of John Viele and Eunice Ament; in 1821 homesteaded within Bureau County; worked for Joseph Ogee, an Indian interpreter, in 1824 at Peoria, where he met Mark Beaubien and John Kinzie; during 1825-1826, worked for the Clybourne brothers in Chicago, voting on Aug. 7, 1826; joined his brothers working in the lead mines at Galena, then returned again to homestead in 1828; met Peter Specie in 1831 and was persuaded to resettle near Chicago, involving all brothers; joined Captain Walker`s company as private on June 25, 1832 with Hiram and Anson, mustered out August 12; married on May 6, 1832 , Emily Ann Harris (Emily Ann was born on Nov. 6, 1815, and died in November 1836); son Preston Warfeild was born in 1833; married Mary Luce in 1839; in 1885, was living at 160 LaSalle Street. [458, 714] 
Ament, Hiram E. (July 27, 1812-Nov. 28, 1895) born in Elizabethtown, Hardin County, KY; son of John Viele and Eunice Ament; carpenter, enrolled as private in Captain Walker`s company with brothers Edward and Anson during the Black Hawk War, June 25, 1832, mustered out August 12; married Nancy C. Harris (sister of Emily Ann, his brother Edward Glenn`s wife) on Apr. 7, 1836, and daughter Mary Jane was born on Mar. 5, 1837, in Naperville, IL (Mary Jane married Asa Preston White [born Aug. 29, 1835, Shenandoah, PA] on Feb. 28, 1860, at Pleasant Valley, CA); Nancy subsequently died, and in Kane County on Jan. 11, 1844, Hiram married Sarah, daughter of Rev. Asa White [see Ament, Sarah White]. In 1847 the White family, Hiram and Sarah, and daughters Martha (born 1845 in IL) and Sophronia (born 1846 in IL) traveled west to Oregon; in 1849 Hiram and Sarah temporarily returned to Illinois again, where son Alfred was born; then to California, where Hiram and family are listed in the 1850 census as living in Stockton. Twin daughters Adeline and Emeline (Emma) were born on Apr. 13, 1854, in Centerville, CA (Emeline later married Amos Swan of Bartlett Springs, CA; Adeline died May 16, 1931, and Emeline on Mar. 7, 1932, both at Oroville, CA). In 1859 Hiram received property in Humboldt County, by way of a California Bounty Land Grant for his service in the Black Hawk War; in the 1880 U.S. Census taken at Chico in Butte County, Hiram lists two sons, Edward (born July 30, 1860, at Arcata; became the mayor of Berkeley, CA, from 1932 to 1939; died Feb. 24, 1949, at Berkeley) and William (born 1867 in San Jose; died Apr. 12, 1906, at Oakland). The only Ament brother to settle in the West, Hiram died in Greenville, Plumas County, California. See photograph of Hiram Ament taken c.1875. [458, 714] [188a]
Ament, John Lawson (Mar. 22, 1810-Apr. 22, 1872) born in Elizabethtown, Hardin County, KY; son of John Viele and Eunice Ament; married Sarah Ann Hodge (Dec. 3, 1813-May 25, 1877) on Sept. 17, 1830, at Stouts Grove, Mclean County, IL. At Princetown in Bureau County they had thirteen children; the surviving eleven were: Thomas Jefferson, Emaline, Francis Marion, Mary Jane, Julia Ann, Nancy Hodge, Eunice Lawson, John Hardin, William Shelly, Dewitt Cinton, and Mark. At his death John Lawson was buried in Princeton; his wife Sarah Ann died at Bloomington.
American Bottom an expression frequently found in 18th- and 19th-century literature, meaning a stretch of bottom land on the E side of the Mississippi River valley in southern Illinois, between the mouth of the Missouri and that of the Kaskaskia rivers, kept fertile by periodic flooding and framed E and W by rocky walls; the land had encouraged the development of flourishing French settlements by 1750, when Chicago was merely an isolated grouping of cabins within a vast wilderness. H.S. Tanner [see entry] in 1832 explained that “… the soil of these bottoms is alluvial, of astonishing fertility, often embedding trees and other vegetable matter.” For detailed descriptions of the American Bottom, together with an appealing 1796 map [see image] taken from Collot`s Voyage dans L`Amerique Septentrionale, see Victor Collot or Clarence W. Alvord among the references below. For a different map of the American bottom, see Thomas Hutchins in the Chronology section, year 1762. [44, 155a, 529] 
American Fur Company (1811-1842) chartered in New York State in 1808 by John Jacob Astor and launched in 1809, successor to the [see] North West Company on American soil; the company’s headquarters were in Michilimackinac, with agents in Chicago and elsewhere in the Midwest. The company had a profound influence on the economic and social life of early Chicago from 1816 to 1832, supplying the Indians with manufactured goods from the East in exchange for the natural resources harvested by them. In addition to fur, the Indians furnished [see] fish from the rivers and lakes, which the company salted or dried for shipment. John Kinzie (1816-1823/1825-1827), John Crafts (1823-1825), and Jean Baptiste Beaubien (1827-1835) were the Chicago/Fox River area agents, and Antoine Deschamps (1817-1824) and Gurdon S. Hubbard (1824-1835) were agents for the Illinois River trade; an entry in John Kinzie’s account books shows that he was visited by a representative of the American Fur Co. on July 9, 1806, when the company was still in the planning stage; multiple trading posts were established by the company on the Illinois River, the Rock River, and in the interior between the Illinois and Wabash rivers. Traders on the Illinois River came to or through Chicago frequently to deliver furs and replenish their stock of trade goods for Indian use. The first company post on this river and closest to Chicago was established in 1817 opposite the mouth of Bureau Creek (now within the town of Hennepin), on the E side of the river; the post was run by a succession of hired traders. The next one further south was built in 1818, located on the E side of the Illinois River, three miles below Lake Peoria within what is now Creve Coeur, IL. Louis Buisson was placed in charge, and it became known as the Opa post. He held this position until his death in 1830. A third and a fourth post were established further down river; records suggest that one was located at the site of present Beardstown, IL, and the southernmost post near present Valley City, IL. Robert Stewart, as agent for the company, received $3000 at the Indian treaty of 1829, and at the Chicago treaty of September 1833 the company received $17000 through its agent Robert Stuart and an additional $2300 through its agent James Abbot, with $1000 of the total alotted at the latter treaty to [see] Jean Baptiste Chandonnai. Depletion of wildlife caused trade to diminish as early as 1827 and because the trapping was done by Indians, the fur trade ended in 1835 with the removal of the Indians. Also see fur trade; Buisson, Louis; Traders` Brigades; Crooks, Ramsey; Stuart, Robert; Matthews, William. [296, 404, 692c] 
American Hotel also called American Inn; on North Water Street near Kinzie Street, operated by William McCorristen from 1836-1839; was the former Steamboat Hotel, which in 1835 was managed by John Davis, and later that year by J. Dorsey. [Nye, visiting in 1837, said of it: “dirty and poor food.”]
American Land Corporation eastern firm organized in 1834 by Charles Butler, specializing in western land investments and capitalized at one million dollars. Butler became its first president and through the business channeled large funds to Chicago, fueling the 1833-37 land boom; for more details, see Butler, Charles; Bronson, Arthur.
Amiot, Louis also Amyot, Lammiot; born near Chicago late in 1745 (- Chicago`s 1st – recorded birth of a child of European ancestry), the son of Jean Baptiste Amiot, a French Canadian blacksmith who with his Ottawa wife Marianne (-August 1758) had their son baptized at Michilimackinac on June 14, 1746; translated from the French, the church record reads: “the said child having been born at the Rivière aux plains [Des Plaines River] near chikago at the beginning of the month of October last”; Louis died in October 1757. The Amiots were a large French family; Louis`s paternal grandfather may have been Sieur Charles Joseph Amiot of Michilimackinac, located within the fort as shown on a contemporary map (1749) by Michel Chartier de Lotbinière. [Family records may be found in the Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin 19:17, 153, 155; eds.] Louis`s birth is of particular interest, supporting the belief that there was a nearly continuous settlement of French families in the Chicago region throughout the 18th century. 
anarchy with regard to the Illinois country, a breakdown of jurisdictional authority that began in 1781 in what had been Illinois County of Virginia, when the Virginia Act of 1778 that had created the county expired; anarchy lasted until the spring of 1790. A breakdown of the local criminal justice system developed. Murders and other crimes went unpunished, and certain persons established themselves as overlords. In 1790, civil jurisdictions were reorganized as part of the new Northwest Territory of the United States.
Anderson, Capt. Thomas Gummersall (1779-1875) British trader at Milwaukee from 1803 to 1806, competing there with two French traders, LaFramboise [François] and Le Claire [Pierre]; rode south in 1804 to Chicago to greet “new neighbors,” the first garrison of the unfinished Fort Dearborn; as an elderly man he wrote a narrative of this visit and of the dinner with Captain Whistler and family, still quartered in one of the log cabins belonging to the local traders. In the War of 1812 Anderson fought for the British; in June 1814 he commanded a detachment of Canadian volunteers to go Prairie du Chien on an expedition to fight the Americans. [Quaife considers Anderson`s narrative unreliable, but he was no doubt at Fort Dearborn, therefore the account is within the bibliography; eds.] 
Anderson, J.W. was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; received $350 in payment for a claim in September that year at the Chicago Treaty. 
Anderson, John, Sr. (c.1815-1846) from Lousiana; listed in the 1833 Chicago Treaty as recipient of $600 for a claim made; unclaimed letter existed per notice in the July 2, 1834, Chicago Democrat; married Marie [Mary] C. Tremblé (c,1817-1848; Marie received $500 at the 1833 Chicago Treaty, held in trust by Pierre Ménard, Jr.), daughter of [see] Archange Thérèse Morin Tremblé Mann and Toussaint Tremblé, at Chicago in 1835; the couple had three children: John Jr., Peter, and Marie Anna (1839- ); following separation or John`s death, Mary and children joined the Potawatomi at Council Bluffs, IA, where they are listed on the 1846 annuity roll, living next to her mother Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé Mann; Mary died soon after arrival, by 1848. John Jr. married Elizabeth Hardin and Peter married Julia Hardin, granddaughters of [see] Claude LaFramboise. Marie Anna married Louis Harris in 1856, who went with her brother John to the Leadville, CO, gold strike; married [see] Antoine Bourbonnais in c.1860. [12, 13] [275a]
Andreas, Alfred Theodore (1839-1900) co-author, editor, and publisher of History of Chicago, From the Earliest Period to the Present Time, three volumes, published 1884 to 1888; the first volume contains “A Map of Chicago in 1830.” [See enlarged map detail; for the complete map, see Maps section.] Andreas also published History of Cook County, Illinois in 1884 and History of Milwaukeein 1881. [13, 14]
Andrews, David New Jersey surveyor and civil engineer, arrived in 1834 (unclaimed letters noted on Oct. 8, 1834; July 1, 1835; and Jan. 2, 1836); did surveys throughout Cook County and for early government land sales; became the first settler on Wolf Ridge by 1838, operating a sand farm near 126th Street and Wentworth Avenue; in 1840 married Sophia Caroline Ward of Will County Following Andrews` death in 1885, the family donated land for the construction of W Pullman Park, the highest elevation in Chicago, with many old trees that include black oak.
Andrews, Prestly U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted on July 11, 1806; listed as sick on a muster roll from Nov. 30 to Dec. 10, 1810; reenlisted in 1811; John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by Andrews on May 8, 1807, on Aug. 27, 1809, and on Nov. 6, 1811; Andrews was badly wounded during the initial action at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and killed later that night. [12, 404, 708]
Anker Site in the summer of 1958, archaeological excavations were made at the former Howard Anker farm on the N side of the Little Calumet River where an early Indian village once existed, c.1400-1500; an unusual number and variety of found artifacts among many burial sites exhibited widespread contact and trade with tribes within the Mississippi River valley. These artifacts included marine shell beads, disc and face pipes, effigy bowls and copper beads, finger rings, earplugs, and necklaces, bracelets. [61a]
Ann schooner on Lake Michigan under Captain Ransom in 1821, delivered American Fur Co. trade goods from Michilimackinac to James Kinzie at Chicago ; wrecked that year, with loss of life, off Long Point, Lake Erie. [48 ]
Antelope a 75-ton schooner built at Perrysburg, OH, in 1828; called at Chicago with passengers and merchandise from Buffalo, NY, on July 11, 1835, under Captain Edwards, and returning later in July from Michigan City. 
Archer Trail an American Indian trail (one of the first county roads in 1831, known then as the “Road to Widow Brown’s House”) along which [see] Col. William Archer laid out “Archer`s Road” in 1836 to facilitate IL & MI Canal construction between Chicago and Joliet; see Old Chicago Trail. [417a]
Archer, Col. William Beatty (Jan. 30, 1792-Aug. 9, 1870) IL & MI Canal commissioner, appointed to a new board in 1836 together with Gurdon S. Hubbard (soon replaced by Col. James B. Fry) and Col. William F. Thornton; to facilitate canal construction he laid out “Archer`s Road” along an American Indian trail between Chicago and Joliet, which was frequently impassable until properly graded; Lockport, S of Runyontown, was also surveyed under his direction in 1837. Street name: Archer Avenue, 5500 S · from 6400 W to 7160 W. [288a, 320, 417a, 734]
Archimedes built in 1835, this steamboat was used in the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal from 1836 to 1848, where it remained to perform maintenance tasks and tow vessels through the canal in subsequent years. The illustration, drawn by W.E.S. Trowbridge and courtesy of the Chicago History Museum, shows the Archimedes in the canal in 1848. See Guthrie, Ossian.
Armstrong, Lt. John (1755-1816) from New Jersey; in spring 1789, explored the Illinois River and its connection with Lake Michigan. In the process he visited Chicago and traversed the portage, observing later “[a]t the carrying place of Chicago, the water happened to be very high, in consequence of the rains that had lately fallen, for it is the over flowing of the water of the branches that makes the carrying place so easy at high water. A Battoe [sic; see bateau] may pass at such time without carrying anything. … But at low water, or in a dry Season, all must be carried 9 miles….” In 1790 he was sent on a top-secret United States government mission to assess the feasibility of exploring the Missouri River. Visiting St. Louis and Cahokia disguised as a trader, he reported that such a mission was dangerous and impossible. His report of June 2, 1790 contains a detailed map of the Illinois River system, including the portage; the map was not drawn by Armstrong, but acquired by him from an unknown source, probably in St. Louis. Also see entry on Mount Joliet for his description of this geographic feature. He was later appointed a judge in Cincinnati and treasurer of the Northwest Territory. 
Armstrong, William H. arrived from the West Indies in 1835 and worked for Gurdon Hubbard; an unclaimed letter existed per notice in the Sept. 2, 1835 Chicago Democrat; 1839 City Directory: clerk, G.S. Hubbard & Co. 
Arnold, Isaac Newton (1813-Apr. 24, 1884) lawyer from Harwick, NY; came in the autumn of 1836 (1835, according to others); initially employed by Augustus Garrett to draft real estate and general contracts during the land boom; became the first elected city clerk in March 1837; 1839 City Directory: attorney and counsellor at law, Clark Street (listed as Arnold & Ogden by his partner [see] Mahlon D. Ogden); married Harriet Augusta Dorrance in 1841; 1844 City Directory: of A. & Ogden, house corner of Ontario and Dearborn sts; represented Chicago in Congress in 1863; eventually served as honorary president of the Chicago Historical Society. [233″, 243, 473, 597] 
arpent an old Parisian unit of land measure, both of distance (30 toises = one arpent = c.192 feet) and area (one square arpent = 0.84 acres). This and other Parisian measures were the official standards in all of New France; see also league.
artificer one of several civilians at frontier military posts, such as Fort Dearborn, hired under the authority of the commanding officer to perform such specialized work as carpentry, brickmaking, ironworking, gunsmithing, &c.; many treaties with the Indians obligated the government to provide such workers to serve the Indians in keeping their firearms, knives, and tools in condition; subject to military discipline while employed.
Ascome, Ant. also Auskun, Ascum, Auskeem, Auskeen; John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by a customer of this name on Aug. 26, 1807, on May 14, 1808, once between June 1 and Aug. 15, 1812, and again on May 17, 1818.
Ashbrook, Thomas U.S. Army private; enlisted on Dec. 29, 1805; John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by Ashbrook earlier on May 21, 1805 and on Mar. 5, 1807; served at Fort Dearborn until his enlistment expired on Dec. 29, 1810; did not reenlist, thereby escaping the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [12, 404, 708]
Astor, John Jacob (1763-1848) born in Waldorf, Germany, arrived in New York in 1783; first sold bakery goods, then toys, then furs in 1786 at Montreal, buying and shipping to London; by 1808, with the surrender of the northern posts to the United States, he began the Southwest Company and soon acquired other fur trading concerns; was granted a charter in 1809 by New York State for the [see] American Fur Co., for which many Chicago traders eventually worked; launched the company in 1811; agents were first sent to Chicago in 1817, and John Kinzie’s account books show that “J. J. Aster [sic]” visited him on Oct. 15, 1817; Astor and his company controlled much of the settlement`s economic and social life through 1833. In 1825 Astor paid more than half of Chicago’s total property tax through his representative John Crafts, amounting to $50. Astor lived in New York, while the company`s main business was in Michilimackinac, with agents throughout and beyond the Northwest; in 1834 he sold his interests in the American Fur Co.; died in New York. Chicago street name: Astor Street (50 E). [12, 404]
Atalanta 100-ton schooner from Buffalo, NY, under Capt. Joseph Caskey; called at Chicago on July 1, 1834, bringing “SALT in good barrels” for HUBBARD & Co. Captain Caskey, age c.35, died in Buffalo shortly thereafter, as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Sept. 10, 1834. On Nov. 6, 1835, the vessel returned to Chicago from Buffalo under Captain Shepherd. The ship was built at Fairport [Harbor], Ohio in 1832.
Athena female Negro slave of John Kinzie in 1812, serving as cook and housemaid; wife of Henry, also one of Kinzie`s slaves; survived the massacre of 1812 in the boat with the Kinzies, but lost her husband in the trade [see Black Jim] for Captain Heald`s release.
Atkins, Eliphalet was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; unclaimed letter notice in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 1, 1834.
Atkinson, Joseph replaced William Hissey as partner to [see] Thomas Jenkins, as noted in the Aug. 15, 1835, Chicago American; Jenkins & Atkinson, a general store [see adjacent ad] on South Water Street between Dearborn and Clark, existed until January 1836. The 1843 City Directory lists “Atkinson, Joseph hatter, at I.C. Stephens`, 108 Lake, res 53 Clark” and also “Atkinson, Mrs. Joseph milliner and dress maker, 53 Clark, res same”; the 1844 City Directory lists “Atkinson, Joseph hatter, at I.C. Stephens`, house Clark street” and also “Atkinson, Mrs. milliner and dress maker, Clark st, opposite P.O.” 
Atwater, Jesse (Mar. 29, 1784-June 9, 1866) born in Washington County, NY; son of Jesse and Rachel (née Blakeslee) Atwater; father of Olive A., wife of [see] Benjamin Fuller, with whom he came to Brush Hill in 1835; his sister Rachel married [see] Elisha Fish. [280a, 660]
Auguel, Antoine also Aguel, Auguelle; nicknamed Picard; traveled with Father Hennepin in 1680; member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through Chicagoland in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]
Austerlitz 134-ton schooner owned by Oliver Newberry; carried the first shipment of pork east from Chicago in the spring of 1833; on July 9 arrived from Buffalo with skilled workmen and many supplies for the Chicago harbor project, and as late as November 18, under Captain Smith, brought a “full cargo of Merchandize, &c.; for citizens of this village”; piloted by Captain McKinstry, brought lumber and 15 passengers from Detroit on April 27, 1834, and returned with merchandise from Buffalo four times through November; called at Chicago twice under Captain Robertson in 1835 until, with full cargo for St. Joseph and Chicago, as per notice in the Nov. 28, 1835 Chicago American, was driven ashore by storm below Grand River.
Austin, Dr. William G. a druggist and physician; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; unclaimed letter notice for him in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 1, 1834; on May 25, 1835, a notice in the Chicago Democrat, placed by attorney A.G. Leary, indicates that Leary and Austin shared an office on Lake Street, “two doors below Cook`s Coffee House”; later on August 7 advertised in the Chicago American his drugstore for botanics and his practice of “botanic healing art” [see ad]; was one of three directors for the Young Men`s Temperance Society, organized on December 19 that year; on Oct. 10, 1836, he entered into partnership with Dr. W.B. Dodge, with their office on Lake Street opposite Rice’s coffee house; 1839 City Directory: Dodge & Austin, Drs., Lake Street, W of Dearborn. [221, 243]
Autray, Jean François Bourdon, Sieur d` also Autry; born in Quebec in 1647; member of La Salle`s 1682-83 expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through Chicagoland in January 1682 on the way south; was later honored by the French Crown for his service.
Aveneau, Père Claude (Dec. 25, 1650-Sept. 11, 1711) born at Laval, France; entered the Jesuit novitiate at Paris on Oct. 19, 1669; taught at Arras from 1671 to 1678, then continued his studies at Paris, Bourges, and Rouen; taught another year at Alençon and came to Canada in 1685. Assigned to the Ottawa mission the following year, he labored until 1690 and then went among the Miamis, succeeding Father Allouez at the mouth of the St. Joseph River, at the St. Joseph Mission where [see] Father Jean Mermet aided him in the autumn of 1702. Valued for his advice and influence, Father Aveneau served the Miami for more than 20 years; he died at Quebec. 
Axtel, Almond was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; an unclaimed letter listed in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 1, 1834 was addressed to Axtel & [Ashbel] Steele.