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La Barre, Antoine Joseph Le Fèvre  governor of New France when Illinois was part of Canada; succeeded Governor Frontenac in 1682 and was succeeded by Governor Denonville in 1684; inimical to La Salle; died 1688; also see Chronology for the year 1683.

La Clair, Peter  see La Claire, Pierre.

La Claire, Pierre  also Peter or Pieriche (diminutive) LaClair, Le Claire, LaClerc; also Pe-a-nish; métis Potawatomi who lived near Fort Dearborn in 1812 and worked for John Kinzie; G.S. Hubbard recalls that starting before daylight, La Claire “… carried the news of the war of 1812 … sent by Major Robert Forsythe to his uncle, Mr. John Kinzie, … [walking] from the mouth of St. Joseph River around Lake Michigan, a distance of ninety miles, in one continuous walk,” then dining with the Kinzies before reporting to the officers at Fort Dearborn by nine p.m.; during the massacre of August 15, he played an important role as interpreter in the surrender negotiations of the survivors. Early in 1817, Kinzie`s account book indicates that Pierre had returned to Chicago. Under the Chicago Treaty of Aug. 29, 1821, as a son of Moi-qua [name of his Indian parent, as listed in the treaty document], he received a section of land on Elkhart River, and at the Treaty of Prairie du Chien of 1829, was awarded a section of land at the Pawpaw Grove; married Margaret Pachequetachai [possibly meaning `diligent`; also Pechequetaroai] on Jan. 1, 1827, John Kinzie, J.P., officiating; voted on July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830 (see elections); in 1832 served as official interpreter with the Indian Agency, and during the Black Hawk War served as private in Captain Boardman`s Cook County company, then in the company of Potawatomi. In early 1833, by which time he and his wife Margaret had one child, he was an early member of the Catholic congregation and his name, for a family of three, was on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them. Later in September at the Chicago Treaty a Fanny Leclare, presumably his daughter, received $400, Capt. David Hunter as trustee. Pierre is noted in 1857 as residing in Indian country. [12, 226, 404, 456b, 559, 561] [714]

La Compt, Madam  real name Marie Joseph La Marche, wife of Louis Le Comte; both residents of Cahokia c.1772 to after 1808.
“Madam La Compt” was a real person whose life story has been fictionalized and conflated with those of her mother and daughter by the master of unreliable Illinois history, [see] John Reynolds, who “remembered” a legend that she had lived in Chicagou in 1765 as Mme Pilette de St. Ange.” He had known two of these three women but wrote as if they had been one person, “Madame La Compt,” long after they were all dead. Reynolds boasted that he wrote his book, published 1859, entirely from memory “which may be relied upon,” but many fragments of history, dimly remembered by him or his informants, reassembled to produce an abundance of legends, including this one. In Reynolds’ defense it may be noted that these three women bore similar given names: Marie Joseph, Marie Josephte, and Marie Josette. The published vital records of St. Joseph, Michillimackinac, and Cahokia (there are none for Chicago before 1833) permit a sketch of these three remarkable women, and of the two women from whom they were descended. All five are given here in reverse chronological order.
(1) Marie Josette Languedoc born c.1773 in Cahokia; married there on May 1, 1791, to Michel Pilet dit St. Ange, Cahokia. Reynolds, who moved to Illinois about 1800, knew her until she died at Cahokia in 1843; there is no evidence that she and her husband ever lived in Chicagou, as Reynolds claimed, especially not in 1765. After 1800 Michel’s brother, Louis Pilet did live in Chicagou as well as Peoria, but his name has been unfortunately garbled to Pettle and Petelle in Kinzie’s account book, and this decidedly non-French name has concealed his true identity. The 1787 census of Cahokia, written in French, spells their surname, and that of their brother Charles, as Pilet. Louis “Pettle” or “Pelette” was a frequent customer of John Kinzie from December 24, 1803, to July 21, 1812. In the U.S Peoria land claims hearing of 1820 he is Louis Pilette; Reynolds, who was heavily involved in the various land claim proceedings, would have known of him.
(2) Marie Joseph La Marche the real “Mme Le Comte,” born at St. Joseph after July 28, 1753, baptized July 4, 1756; married [1] Joseph Languedoc at Cahokia on Jan. 16, 1772; married [2] Louis Le Comte, native of Ange Gardien parish, Quebec, at Cahokia Jan. 27, 1775. Confusion as to their having lived at Chicagou may have arisen because Chicagou was the site of the Ange Gardien mission 1696-1702. Louis was still alive on Jan. 21, 1808. Reynolds knew both him and his wife; she probably died before her daughter, Marie Josette, the year of whose death, 1843, he falsely attributed to her mother, Marie Josephte Esther L’Arche, baptized Jan. 1, 1734 at age about one year, thus creating a woman who supposedly lived a remarkable 109 years.

(3) Marie Josephte (Josette) Esther L’Arche (L’Archeveque) born at St. Joseph c.1733, baptised there Jan. 1, 1734. She married [1] Jacques Bariso de la Marche; they had children including three sons still living at Cahokia in 1790, but he died after July 1756, and she then married [2] Charles le Boeuf dit La Flamme; they had children who were minors at his death, date unknown; two of them were living at Cahokia in 1790. As the wife of La Flamme she might have lived at Chicagou in 1763, when there were “a few French families” present, but they were at Cahokia by 1772 when her daughter married Joseph Languedoc there. She married [3] Thomas Brady of Cahokia, marriage contract June 8, 1779; her son Philippe La Flamme came of age about 1783, and Esther (as she often appeared in St. Joseph church records) seems to have been alive then. But she was certainly dead by Oct. 1, 1794, the date on which Brady’s second (?) wife, Josephine Charlier, was buried at Cahokia. Reynolds could not have known Esther, who died when he was but a child.
(4) Marie Magdeleine Réaume born c.1714; died on Feb. 20, 1784, in the parish of Varennes north of Montreal; married [1] Augustine L’Archeveque (L’Arche) before 1729; he died before July 1748, the year their son Austin was born; she married [2] Louis Paschal Therese Chevalier, leader of the St. Joseph community after 1758; they had two sons [see] Louis Paschal [Jr.] and François and were both alive in 1780 when the paranoid Governor Sinclair ordered the elderly couple relocated to Michillimackinac. She and her husband were the celebrated personalities and great Indian diplomats; Reynold may have heard their stories from her granddaughter and great-granddaughter and attributed them to “Madame La Compt.”
(5) Symphorosa Ouaouaboukoue [ouaouaboukoue meaning `white spots-woman` unless `runs-to-and-fro-woman`], probably a Menominee of Green Bay (La Baye); married there before 1714, [1] Jean Baptiste Réaume, official interpreter at the post. Symphorosa died before 1752, when Réaume married [2] Marie Matchi-ouagakouat [matchiwagakwad in Ojibwa, meaning `Bad Axe`; also `twisted-looks-she`] informally at La Bayein 1752, solemnized at Michilimackinac Aug. 15, 1754, thus rendering legitimate their 11-month old son, Jean Baptiste fils. Later male members of the Réaume family were well-known traders, interpreters, and Indian diplomats; the legends of these men may still have echoed in Cahokia in the 19th century, and found their way into Reynolds’ malleable memory. [456b, 559, 584, 595] [649]

La Croix, Michel  fur trader on the Illinois River during the transitional period between British and American control who regularly used the Chicago Portage; he may have been working originally for or with the well established trader [see] William Burnett (St. Joseph, MI), and in 1808 became a permanent resident at La Ville de Maillet (Peoria). While Burnett was a born American, La Croix’s sympathies were with the British. In 1812 American military under Captain Craig burned down the entire Peoria village, including La Croix’s trading post, during which raid he was in a pirogue loaded with furs and headed for Canada. His wife Catherine (née Dubuque) and children Adeline (later married Samuel B. Chandler), Julia Maria (married Llewis Morris), and René M. were at the cabin during the attack but escaped with their lives. Later, after Michael`s death, Catherine married Gov. John Reynolds. [468a] [692c]

La Forêt, François Daupin de  also Delafort, Delaforest; La Salle`s lieutenant who commanded Fort Frontenac until 1685; administered Fort St. Louis du Rocher with his cousin Tonti in the Illinois country between 1685-1689; in 1689, following La Salle`s death, was granted the exclusive Illinois trade rights with Tonti and together with de Liette built Fort St. Louis de Pimitéoui at Lake Peoria in 1691; in April 1693, La Forêt sold half of his share in the Illinois colony`s trading rights to Michel Accault at “Checagou,” payment to be made there in August, making it – Chicago`s 1st – recorded business transaction and the largest of all time — one-quarter of Illinois` entire trading rights; companion of Tonti, de Liette, and Accault, with whom he worked intermittently at Chicagou from 1696 to c.1702 in a fur trading venture, with a trading post [near Tribune Tower]; by 1710 he had replaced Cadillac as commandant at Detroit, where he died in 1714. [46, 259] [649]

La Fortune, Jean Baptiste  actually named Tellier dit La Fortune or Lafortune; Mackinac métis engaged as interpreter at St. Joseph, 1818 to 1819; in September 1821, “1 N.Y. Hair Trunk,” worth four dollars, was shipped to him at Chicago from Michilimackinac on the schooner Ann; worked for William H. Wallace as interpreter at Hardscrabble in 1826; voted on August 7 that year [see Chronology]. [10aa] [220]

La Fortune, Joseph  actually named Tellier dit La Fortune or Lafortune; listed in John Kinzie`s ledger on June 3, 1804, following François LaFramboise; with a written note in the margin, Gurdon Hubbard later identified him as an “Indian Voyageur.” Joseph continued to trade with the [see] Kinzie · Forsyth & Co. at Peoria Lake; the last entry noted for Joseph Lafortune is “Muskrat” on July 1, 1812, “By a trip to Chicago with packs.” By then he was working engagements with his son Jeffery, who earlier on January 29, 1808, owed 24 livres for a gun. [404, 649] [275a]

La Jeunesse, Jean Baptiste  also La Geuness; French Canadian fur trader who was granted at Fort Dearborn a U.S. government license to trade with the Indians at “Chicagou” on Aug. 30, 1803. The license was granted by William Wells, then Indian agent at Fort Wayne, and states that “No Liquors [are] to be carried to the Indian Country on any account whatever.” The document is within the Chicago History Museum Collections. [226]

La Lime, Jean Baptiste  see Lalime, Jean Baptiste.

La Metairie, Jacques de  royal notary at Fort Frontenac (Kingston, Ontario), acting under a royal commission of 1678 and chosen by La Salle, the proprietor of that fort, to accompany his expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south; may well have been the one who inscribed the lead plate describing the “discovery” which was buried at the site which is now Venice, Louisiana, beside one of the three mouths of the Mississippi River. [486a]

La Meterie  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

La Salière, Pierre  also Le Sallier, but properly: [see] Le Sellier, Pierre.

La Salle, Père Jean Cavelier de  elder brother of René Robert Cavelier de La Salle, the explorer; born at Rouen, France; Sulpician priest; survivor of the ill-fated Texas expedition; after his brother`s death in Texas was a member of the group with Henri Joutel that reached Chicago on Sept. 25, 1687, via Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock), continuing to Canada, and then to France. [191]

La Salle, IL    town on the Illinois River, named after the French explorer.

La Salle, Nicolas de  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south; the two La Salles were not related. [486a] [46]

La Salle, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de  (1643-1687) born at Rouen, France; La Salle immigrated in 1667 to Montreal, where his brother Jean served as a priest of the Sulpician order; from a local landowner, René-Robert soon developed into one of the great explorers of the New World. As a protege of Governor Frontenac, he began his voyages in 1668; his movements in 1670 cannot be clearly traced, but by some historians, Magry among them, he is credited with a visit to the Chicago portage, and from there S to the Ohio River, in 1670; most authorities believe however that Marquette and Jolliet, in 1673, were the first Europeans to visit the site of Chicago, while La Salle reached Chicago for the first time in 1679, on his way to St. Joseph and the Illinois River; in 1674 La Salle visited France and in 1675 the king rewarded him for his explorations with a patent of nobility and with ownership of Fort Frontenac, which La Salle had built in 1673 and named after the governor. In 1678, the king granted him a monopoly in the trade of buffalo skins [see text of the letters patent below], Tonti came from France to join him as his lieutenant, and that year La Salle had the first Great Lakes sailing vessel built, Le Griffon; La Salle built Fort Niagara and Fort Miamis in 1679, Fort Crevecoeur in 1680, and Fort St. Louis du Rocher and Fort Chicagou in the winter of 1682-83, with Fort St. Louis du Rocher becoming the first permanent European fortress in the Midwest. His design was to establish a colony in the Illinois country to serve as a bridgehead from which to penetrate the Mississippi valley. During their famous 1681-82 voyage to the Gulf of Mexico La Salle and Tonti passed through Chicago in January 1682; in their company were the following 21 additional Frenchmen [see individual entries]: Antoine Auguel, Andre Baboeuf; Gabriel Barbier; Louis Baron; Sieur François de Boisrondel; Jacques Bourdon, Sieur d`Autray; Antoine Brassard; Pierre Buret; Jacques Cochois; Colin Crevel; Jean du Lignon; Andre Henault; Jacques de La Metairie, the notary; Nicolas de La Salle (not related to the commandant); Jean Masse; PèreZenobius Membré; Jean Michel, the Surgeon; Pierre Migneret; Jean Pignabel; Pierre Prudhomme, the armorer; and Pierre You. Travelling with them were 30 Indians, of which seven were women and three were children. On April 9, 1682, at one [now Venice, LA] of the three mouths of the Mississippi River La Salle solemnly took possession of the entire Mississippi Valley for France, calling the territory Louisiane after the French king; the official account of this expedition is known as the Procès Verbal. In his reports, La Salle began in approximately 1681 to use the word Chicagou to indicate specifically the site of the present city; two of La Salle`s letters, written at Chicagou and dated June 4 and September 1, 1683, indicate that he spent considerable time there during this year; it is believed that La Salle built a fort or post in the southern Chicago area, possibly near Blue Island or Hegewisch, in 1683. Leaving Tonti in charge at Fort St. Louis, La Salle left Illinois for the last time in the fall of 1683 and traveled to France, from there to prepare his intended colonizing ocean voyage to the mouth of the Mississippi; his ships overshot their goal [see Mississippi River for a possible explanation], stranding La Salle and his men on the Texas coast, and La Salle was murdered on March 19, 1687, in Texas by discontented members of his expedition. Street names: LaSalle Drive and LaSalle Street (both at 140 W).
Letters Patent, granted by the king of France to the Sieur de La Salle in 1678:

LOUIS, by the grace of God, King of France and of Navarre. To our dear and well-loved Robert Cavelier, Sieur de la Salle, greetings: We have received with favor the very humble petition, which has been presented to us in your name, to permit you to endeavor to discover the western part if New France; and we have consented to this proposal the more willingly, because there is nothing we have more at heart than the discovery of this country, through which it is possible a road may be found to penetrate to Mexico; and because your diligence in clearing the lands which we granted to you by the decree of our council of the 13th of May, 1675, and, by Letters Patent of the same date, to form habitations upon the said lands, and to put Fort Frontenac in good state of defence, the seigniory and government whereof we likewise granted to you, affords us every reason to hope that you will succeed to our satisfaction, and to the advantage of our subjects of the said country. … For these reasons, and others thereunto moving us, we have permitted, and do hereby permit you, by these presents, signed by our hand, to endeavor to discover the western part of New France, and, for the execution of this enterprise, to construct forts wherever you shall deem it necessary; which it is our will that you shall hold on the same terms and conditions as Fort Frontenac, agreeably and conformably to our said Letters Patent of the 13th of March, 1675, which we have confirmed, as far as is needful, and hereby confirm by these presents. And it is our pleasure that they be executed according to their form and tenor. … To accomplish this, and everything above mentioned, we give you full powers; on condition, however, that you shall finish this enterprise within five years, in default of which these presents shall be void and of none effect; that you carry on no trade whatever with the savages called Outaouacs, and others who bring their beaver skins and other peltries to Montreal; and that the whole shall be done at your expense, and that of your company, to which we have granted the privilege of the trade in buffalo skins. And we command the Sieur de Frontenac, our Governor and Lieutenant-General, and the Sieur Duchense, Intendant, and the other officers who compose the supreme council of the said country, to affix their signatures to these presents; for such is our pleasure. Given at St. Germain en Laye, this 12th day of May, 1678, and of our reign the thirty-fifth. Louis. [12, 46, 54, 131, 169, 192, 194, 384, 424, 486a, 519, 613, 672, 673, 674]

La Taupine  see Moreau, Pierre.

La Tendre, Jean Baptiste, Sr.  also Letendre; a French Canadian voyageur married to a Potawatomi woman called Keecheeaqua (possibly meaning`Big Woman`); later worked as a hired hand, first in the Milwaukee business of Jacques Vieau and then that of Solomon Juneau; for the latter, he made numerous trips to Fort Dearborn as a runner, carrying heavy loads of specie [largely silver coins] used for annuity payments or in trade with the Indians, who would not accept paper money. In Chicago on Nov. 7, 1830, La Tendre and second wife Josette Sounagesse witnessed the baptism of son Jean Baptiste, Jr., by Father Badin; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $200 in payment for his children at the Chicago Treaty in September. When the Potawatomi were removed from Milwaukee in 1837, he went with them to Kansas. [319] [12]

Labaque, François  arrived in 1832 and served in the Black Hawk War under Capt. Gholson Kercheval; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833 [12, 319]

Lac de Puans  see Lake Michigan.

Lac Marais  see Mud Lake.

Lacker, Frederick  see Locker, Frederick.

lacrosse  name given by French pioneers to a ball game they saw the North American Indians play, who in turn called it baggataway; oldest organized sport in America; De Liette, Tonti`s cousin, described in his writings how he saw the game being played by the Indians on the extensive meadows behind the native villages at Lake Peoria; it was not taken up by white men until c.1840. [649]

Laducier, Francis  also Laducia, Ladusier; testified against James Kinzie before Justice Alexander Doyle on July 7, 1829, in the proceedings concerning the unlicensed sale of whiskey by Kinzie [Laducia owed seven shillings, paid with a dollar, receiving 12 1/2 cents in change with which he bought a pint of whiskey, unlawful as Kinzie had no license to sell less than a quart]; voted on Aug. 7, 1826. On July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830, Laducier voted at James Kinzie`s house [see elections]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; according to Wentworth, Laducier had no family and died at Archibald Clybourne`s house. [319] [12]

Laframboise & Bourassa  a partnership between one of François` sons (Claude, Alexis or Joseph) and Leon Bourassa; awarded $1,300 at the Treaty of Chicago, Sept. 26, 1833, in settlement for a claim accepted against one or more Indians (Treaty Schedule B). [12] [13]

LaFramboise, Alexis  (1763-1800) also Alexander; second son of Jean Baptiste Fafard dit La Framboise and Geneviève La Bissoniere of Trois Rivières, Canada; brother of [see] François, Claude, and Joseph; successful Mackinac fur trader who opened up a second post at Milwaukee by the mid 1780s; married Josette Blondeau Adhemar in 1792 at Mackinac; had turned his Milwaukee trading post over to François by 1795.

LaFramboise, Alexis  born 1794, son of François and his Potawatomi wife Shaw-we-no-qua [meaning `south-woman`]; one of three Chicago militia members who survived the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812 by deserting, traveling to Milwaukee with his parents; in 1817 returned to live in Chicago; early in 1833, by which time he was married and had two children, his name (for a family of four) appeared on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. At the Chicago Treaty of September 1833 he claimed and received $1800, plus $200 for his children. [12, 226, 319] [275a]

LaFramboise, Claude  also Glaude or Glode; son of Jean Baptiste Fafard dit LaFramboise and second wife Marguerite Chatelain; brother of Jean François, Alexis, and Joseph; successful fur trader at Green Bay; boatman at St. Joseph in 1819; married [see] Angelique Chevalier; daughter Marguerite was born c.1822; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; following Angelique`s death, he married a Potawatomi woman c.1836 while at Leavenworth with Billy Caldwell. At Council Bluffs, IA, Marguerite married John Hardin, a farmer; they had daughters Elizabeth and Julia, who later married [see] John Anderson’s sons, John Jr. and Peter. [421a] [275a]

LaFramboise, Claude  (1795-1872) son of Jean François and his Potawatomi wife Shaw-we-no-qua [meaning `south-woman`]; one of three Chicago militia members who survived the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812 by deserting, traveling to Milwaukee with his parents; in 1817 returned to live in Chicago; assessed on $100 personal property in 1825; voted on Aug. 7, 1826; worked for W.H. Wallace as an interpreter in 1826 and 1827; was granted a reservation on both sides of the Des Plaines River at the Prairie du Chien Treaty of 1829; his wife`s name was de Nacouche and one son, Joseph, was baptized by Father Badin on Oct. 18, 1830; served as private with his brother Joseph under Captain Kercheval in the Chicago militia during the Black Hawk War, listed on the muster roll of May 3, 1832; early in 1833 was a member of the Catholic community, his name (for a family of four) appearing on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; at the Chicago Treaty in September he received $300 for his children. 1839 City Directory: Claude Laframboise; died in Kansas. [12, 220, 226, 319] [456b]

LaFramboise, François, Jr.  (c.1793-1830) also lnown as Francis La Frambois; was baptized, together with his sister Josette, as Jean François LaFramboise, Sr.’s  natural children at Mackinac on Oct. 18, 1797, mother not recorded, probably Indian. François voted in Chicago on Aug. 7, 1826; ran a trading house with his father on the W bank near the forks between Madison and Washington streets; married Marianne Chevalier, and the couple had one son Antoine (1826-), his baptism noted at Council Bluffs, IA, within the Bourbonnais/Ouilmette/Chevalier records; François voted again on July 24, 1830; died later that year, as on Dec. 17, 1830 Jean B. Beaubien was appointed administrator of his estate by Peoria county probate judge Norman Hyde, with John Hamlin and David Hunter as appraisers; may have died at Kankakee or Peoria after 1830 as he is not listed among the heirs to the estate when Jean François, Sr. died. [12, 585a] [275a]

LaFramboise, Jean François, Sr.  also François Dauphin de la Forest Laframboise; son of Jean Baptiste Fafard dit LaFramboise and second wife Marguerite Chatelain; brother of Joseph, Alexis, and Claude; member of the large LaFramboise family of French traders at Mackinac and Milwaukee; on Oct. 18, 1797 two young children [François, Jr. and Josette] were baptised as his natural children at Mackinac, mother not recorded, probably Indian. Jean François was sent to Milwaukee to run Alexis` trading post by 1797, but within two years he incurred the enmity of local Indians and the business failed; during the winter of 1799 his canoe became imbedded within the lake ice at Chab-way-way-gun [Sheboygan] and its cargo of trade merchandise was stolen by Chippewa and Ottawa Indians. LaFramboise was known to be at Milwaukee as trader for several years after 1800 as noted by [see] Thomas G. Anderson in 1803; he and his Potawatomi wife Shaw-we-no-qua [meaning `south-woman`; Madaline, according to Eckert] were the parents of Claude, Joseph, Alexis, LaFortune; the family moved to Chicago in 1810 or 1811 and lived along the E side of the south branch, about a mile S of the forks, but left for Milwaukee shortly before the 1812 massacre; they returned in 1817 and purchased the Leigh farm from John Crafts, and, with son [see] François, ran a trading house on the W bank near the Forks between Madison and Washington streets. Congressional records show that on July 29, 1829, LaFramboise was awarded two thousand dollars for the 1799 loss of his canoe and merchandise by the Prairie du Chien Treaty; he died in Chicago on Apr. 26, 1830, and Stephen Forbes was appointed appraiser of his estate, which was divided equally between Claude, Joseph, Alexis, and Josette (Mrs. J.B. Beaubien), each receiving a fourth: $253.04. At the Indian Treaty of 1829 his heirs claimed and received in his name $2000. [12, 226, 275a, 585a] [665]

LaFramboise, Joseph (the Indian Chief)  son of François and his Potawatomi wife Shaw-we-no-qua [meaning `south-woman`]; became a Potawatomi chief by marriage to Therese Peltier; assessed on $50 of personal property in 1825; voted on Aug. 7, 1826; his wife worked for [see] W.H. Wallace from Oct. 15, 1826 to Jan. 11, 1827, making shirts and performing various services, receiving $9.36; Joseph voted on Aug. 2, 1830; purchased from the government in 1830 a lot constituting the northern part of block 43 (see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright) but sold the land soon after to Christopher Idie; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; sons Jean Baptiste and Ambroise were baptized on Oct. 12, 1830, by Father Badin; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; served as private under Captain Kercheval in the Chicago militia during the Black Hawk War, so listed on the muster roll of May 3, 1832; early member of the Catholic congregation, signing for a family of seven on the April 1833 petition to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to Chicago; son François was baptized on August 8; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; acted as one of the principal spokesmen for the Prairie and Lake Potawatomi at the Chicago Treaty of 1833; received $300 for a claim at the Treaty in September, plus $1000 for his children, and was granted an annuity of $200 per year for life, as well as one section of land on the Des Plaines River immediately S of the northern Indian boundary line, for himself and his six children [a part of his reservation is now within the Indian Boundary Division of the Forest Preserve District of Cook County, and is described on Forest Preserve maps]; his daughter Therese married the postal clerk Thomas Watkins, and years later, after their divorce, married Madore Beaubien. In 1835, Joseph went W with the Potawatomi, but was still listed in Chicago`s 1839 City Directory: Joseph LaFromboise, Indian chief. [12, 220a, 319, 421a] [456b]

LaFramboise, Joseph (the trader)  (1775-1809) son of Jean Baptiste Fafard dit La Framboise and Geneviève La Bissoniere of Trois Rivières, Canada; brother of François, Alexis, and Claude; respected Mackinac fur trader; moved to Milwaukee in 1802, after having acquired François` financially stressed property in that town two years earlier; established a trading post at Grand River [MI] where he was murdered by an Indian in the winter of 1809; his wife [see] Magdelaine Marcott LaFramboise carried on the business with skill and great success, with her headquarters at [Grand Rapids] through 1821. [10aa] [565]

LaFramboise, Josette  (1796-1845) baptized with [see] François at Michilimackinac on Oct. 18, 1797; the natural daughter of François Framboise, Sr.; employed as nursemaid by the Kinzie family, where she witnessed the killing of Lalime by John Kinzie; in 1812 she married the widowed Jean Baptiste Beaubien as his third wife, but remained with the Kinzies when, shortly before the 1812 massacre, her husband with the children from earlier marriages removed to Milwaukee; at the time of the massacre, she was with the Kinzies in a boat and survived; later she joined her husband in Milwaukee until 1818, when the entire family returned to Chicago; Jean B. and Josette had George (died early), Susan, Monique, Julie, Alexander, Ellen, Philip and Henry (twins), Marie, Margaret, Caroline, and William. Josette received $500 for a claim at the Chicago treaty of September 1833, and $1000 for her children.
Josette’s grave stone, shown here, is located in Franklin Park, IL, in the NW portion of the intersection between River Road and King Avenue. It is accompanied by an additional informative plaque which can be seen in the entry on Beaubien, Josette, in the monument section. [12, 226] [275a]

LaFramboise, LaFortune  born 1797, son of François and Potawatomi wife Shaw-we-no-qua [meaning `south-woman`]; Chicago militia member in 1812 who escaped death in the Fort Dearborn massacre by deserting, fleeing to Milwaukee; in 1817 he returned to live in Chicago; was not listed among the heirs to the estate when his father died in 1830. [226] [456b]

LaFramboise, Marguerite Magdelaine Marcot  (c.1780-1846) daughter of the French trader Jean Baptiste Marcot and his Ottawa wife Marie Neskesh (1744-), daughter of Ke-wi-na-quot/Returning-Cloud, who was also known as Misigan [probable meaning, `big-house`]; younger sister of Thérèse Marcot Laslière Schindler (1775-1855), who, like Marguerite Magdalaine, became a successful female fur trader; older sister of Charlotte Marcot (c.1784-Jan. 2, 1806). Marguerite Magdelaine married Charles Agacouchin on July 1, 1792, at St. Joseph of St. Hyacinthe, Quebec; their son Jean Baptiste was born in 1789; their 18 months old natural daughter Charlotte Marcot was privately baptized in July 1794 at the parish church of Ste. Anne at Mackinac; Charles died in 1799, and son Jean Baptiste was adopted by his aunt Charlotte (née Marcot) and her husband Charles François [John] Chandonnet; Marguerite Magdelaine Marcot then married Joseph LaFramboise on July 11, 1804 at the Eglise Catholique Paroisse de Saint Ignace at Mackinac; Joseph was murdered by an Indian in 1809 on the upper Grand River [near Grand Haven, MI], and devoted widow Magdelaine acquired a license to trade the following year and continued the business to great acclaim at Michilimackinac, becoming an employee of the American Fur Co.; in 1818 and 1821 she was listed as trader on Grand River; described by contemporaries as “a woman of a vast deal of energy and enterprise—of a tall and commanding figure, and most dignified deportment”—”[a] woman of extraordinary ability, spoke French remarkably well, and, in deportment and conversation, a lady highly esteemed; after her husband`s death she took control of the business, and continued as a trader in the [American Fur] Company`s employ.” Madame LaFramboise appears to have never been in Chicago, but was well known by Indians and traders alike throughout the Northwest. Her younger daughter, Josette, in 1817 married Capt. Benjamin K. Pierce, elder brother of a future president of the United States. Late in 1821 she sold the trading post to [see] Rix Robinson; at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833 she claimed and received $400 jointly for herself and her son Jean Baptiste Chardonnet. [10aa, 12, 456b, 735c] [565]

LaFramboise, Therese  daughter of Joseph LaFramboise; married post office clerk Thomas Watkins in 1836, but the marriage did not last; in 1854, as widow Hardin, she married her cousin Madore Beaubien in Kansas.

lager beer riots  see Boone, Levi Day, M.D.

LaGrange  lake schooner, built in Buffalo, NY; called in July 1833 to deliver supplies for harbor construction; in 1834 made four visits under Captain Cushwa, one which brought the [see] Deacon W. Churchill family to Chicago, and in July delivered “a lot of original still and landscape Paintings, in elegant guilt frames” which were sold “very cheap for cash” by J.H. Mulford; in 1835 the vessel returned twice under Captain Gauchvois, on July 14 and September 10; sank at Pt. Pelee in 1847. [48]

Lahontan, Louis Armand de Lom D`Arce, Baron de  also La Hontan; spent several years (1683-1693) in French military service in the Northwest and published in 1703, his volume New Voyages to North America, describing travels that took him as far W as the longitude of Santa Fe, and including a mapCarte de la Rivière Longue, the western parts of which are conjectional and rely on information and sketches he collected from the Indians; on it he shows the Chicago portage extending from the lake directly to the Illinois River, omitting the Chicago River and Mud Lake; his spelling is Chegakou. Lahontan claims to have passed through Chicago on April 24, 1689. His 1705 map Carte Generale de Canada [shown here] covers the entire Great Lakes region. [3b, 420] [421]

Laird, George W., James, and William  received treaty money at Chicago on Sept. 27, 1833 [see “treaties” for detail]; a copartnership between George and William was dissolved in November 1833, according to an announcement by George in the Chicago Democrat in July 1834; the same announcement reported that he conducted business “in the old stand at Pau Pau” and had “just received a splendid assortment of New-Goods from New York” and would “sell as cheap as the cheapest.” Sometime in 1834 George built a tavern at [now] Naperville which he named [see] Pre-Emption House; by October 22 that year George had become postmaster of the Paw Paw post office, providing lists of remaining letters to the Chicago Democrat until at least April 1836. In the May 27, 1835, Chicago Democrat Philinda Laird placed a notice as administratrix of William`s estate at Ottawa. [12, 217a, 415] [314a]

Lake Chicago  also Glacial Lake Chicago; term used by geologists for a lake that preceded Lake Michigan; was formed when the Wisconsinan glacier retreated from the Chicago area, beginning about 14,000 years ago. Lake Chicago`s level, at its highest, was almost 60 feet higher than the level of present Lake Michigan and the lake completely covered the area now occupied by Chicago. Its northern outlet into the St. Lawrence River was still blocked by remnants of the glacier and it drained through the so-called Chicago outlet, a notch in the Valparaiso moraine, into the Mississippi system. Its western shores reached to where Oak Park and LaGrange now exist. As the glacier shrank in stages, the major three of which are often referred to as the Glenwood phase (50 feet above the level of Lake Michigan; c.12,000 years ago), the Calumet phase (35 feet; c.10,000 years ago), and the Tolleston phase (20 feet; less than 8,000 years ago); each left behind many sandy beach ridges. The lake`s southern shores were dammed by the hills of the Tinley-Valparaiso terminal moraine systems; as the glacier retreated farther and cleared the northern outlet, the lake level fell further and Lake Chicago became Lake Michigan. Also see entry on Lake Chicago in the Monuments section. [309] [346]

Lake County  what is now Lake County was originally within the boundaries of Cook County and determined the Lake Precinct by commissioners in September 1835; became a portion of McHenry County in 1837 until Mar. 1, 1839, then acquired its own status as a county. [299] [304]

Lake House  hotel on the N side of the river, near the bank opposite the fort, at Rush, Kinzie, and Michigan streets, facing the latter; ground was broken in 1835, completed in the fall of 1836; three stories high and built of brick, the hotel was elegantly furnished and construction cost was $100,000; was owned by the Lake House Association, whose members were G.S. Hubbard, Gen. D.S. Hunter, John H. Kinzie, Dr. W.B. Egan, and Maj. James B. Campbell; was managed by [see] Jacob Russell from late 1836 into 1837. By 1850 Lake House no longer functioned as a hotel but had become a charitable hospital for the poor with initially 12 beds, wherein December of that year members of the order Sisters of Mercy took over the nursing care. Among the attending physicians was [see] Dr. Daniel Brainard, giving free care for the privilege of conducting teaching sessions with his Rush Medical School students on the premises. Thus Lake House became Chicago`s original Mercy Hospital site and retained this purpose until October 1953, when it moved to a new brick building on Wabash Avenue and Van Buren Street. [150a] [357]

Lake Illinois  earlier name for Lake Michigan. Jolliet used Lake of the Illinois, but also Lac Missihiganin. [Early attempts by Europeans at transliteration of an Indian names usually resulted in a variety of spellings; eds.]

Lake Michigan  created by glacial action during the ice ages, its size varied much during its early development; these various stages have been given different names by geologists [see Lake Chicago]; during the last several millennia the level of Lake Michigan has averaged at 580 feet above sea level, with deviations of up to eight feet occurring in 500 to 600 year cycles, upon which there are superimposed 20 to 30 year cycles with lesser deviations. When the Europeans first visited Lake Michigan, the larger cycle was at its peak and the water level was probably eight feet higher. According to Father Allouez, the Fox word was Match-i-hi-gan-ing, and according to Father Hennepin in 1679, the Indian name was Misch-I gon, meaning `great lake-place-of.` Earlier names used for Lake Michigan were Lake of the Illinois or Lac des Illinois (Frs. Marquette and Dablon, Jolliet, La Salle), Lac St. Joseph (Father Allouez), Lac Dauphin (La Salle and Father Membré), Miesitgan and Missigan (Father St. Cosme), Missihiganin (Jolliet), and Lac de Puans (Sanson); according to Shea, Father Marest was first to use the name Lake Michigan, explaining that it was wrong to call it Lake Illinois, because the Illinois did not live nearby.
A traveler to Chicago in 1838, the French scientist Francis Comte de Castelnau observed: “I have seen the storms of the Channel, those of the ocean, the squalls off the banks of Newfoundland, those of the coasts of America, and the hurricanes of the Gulf of Mexico. Nowhere have I witnessed the fury of the elements comparable to that found on this fresh water sea.” [94, 115, 346, 389a, 456b] [565]

Lake Peoria  see Peoria, IL; also see the entries on “Pimitéoui,” the native Miami-Illinois word for Lake Peoria.

Lake Shore Trail    much used by Indians and pioneers, this trail extended from Michilimackinac to Green Bay, S along the shoreline and around the lower end of the lake, with an extension to Detroit (Fort Dearborn-Detroit Road).

Lake Trail  the major E-W trail of the early settlement, still traceable in the modern street pattern, closely following the course of Lake Street from the lakeshore westward through the suburbs of Elmhurst, Addison, and Elgin, then N along the E shoreline of the Fox River.

Lake, David  was listed as a charter member of the first Presbyterian church in June 1833, in the Fort Dearborn garrison; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319] [237a]

Lalime, Jean Baptiste  (1759-June 17, 1812) also La Lime, but “Lalime” is how he always wrote his name; family name was Lepine, and Lalime is a dit name [his Lepine surname and ancestry were only discovered in 2005]; was baptised 1759 in Quebec; an early agent by 1787 of William Burnett, the St. Joseph trader, and an active trader with the Indians, supplied by and hired by Burnett, after moving to Chicago as early as 1792 [according to an Aug. 17, 1792, entry in Burnett`s account book]; from 1804 on, he was Indian interpreter at Fort Dearborn, initially for the officers, and later also for the Indian agent; a well educated man, fluent in French and English [likely Potawatomi, possibly Ottawa], and on friendly terms with the officers of the fort; bought [for William Burnett] the Point de Sable property in 1800 for 6,000 French livres and sold it to John Kinzie in 1803 but stayed in Chicago, living after the sale in the interpreter`s house on the N side of the river, nearly opposite the mouth of Frog Creek; was a friend of the Fort Dearborn physician Dr. William Smith, who called him “a very decent man and a good companion,” and with whom he had lived in the “borrowed” Kinzie house during the winter of 1803-04. In 1808 he broke one of his legs (as per a supposed letter published in the Territorial Papers of the United States, Vol. 16); the fracture was improperly set and he was lame subsequently. On May 15, 1809, the U.S. Factor Irwin wrote a letter from Fort Dearborn to the Secretary of War W. Eustis in Washington, reporting a death threat against “the Interpreter.” Lalime was killed by John Kinzie during an unprovoked attack on June 17, 1812, witnessed by Madelaine and Victoire Mirandeau, Matthew Irwin, and Dr. Van Voorhis, as reported in letters from both Irwin and Van Voorhis to the Secretary of War, published 1959 by the Ohio Historical Society [different dates of the murder stated by Eckert and Quaife represent undocumented speculation; eds.]. One of Irwin’s letters gives detail that an attempt was made to lure him and Van Voorhis into an ambush outside the fort, and presumably there was a plot to kill them as witnesses to the murder. The eyewitness reports do not say that Lalime was armed, and the murder weapon was a butcher knife which Kinzie sharpened and concealed in his coat, according to the report of John Harris Kinzie in a document in the CHM Kinzie family file. Lalime was married to a Potawatomi woman named Nokenoqua [noquee-noqua, possibly meaning `tender-woman`] and had a son Jean Baptiste La Lime, Jr. [who received land grants on the St. Joseph River at the Chicago Indian Treaty of 1821]. Family friend [see] John Burnett initially met the needs of Nokenoqua and her son following Lalime`s murder; returning to St. Joseph, they eventually married. Lalime was initially buried about 200 yards from Kinzie`s house on the N side of the river [the southern end of Rush Street] within plain view of the front door and piazza, a gravesite that Kinzie afterward would tend well. After Kinzie`s death his son, John H. Kinzie, caused the bones of Lalime to be dug up and reburied within the church yard of St. James Church. His bones are now in the possession of the Chicago History Museum. [12, 13, 109, 393c, 410, 456b, 649, 692g] [564]

Lampmann, Heinrich S.  later Henry S. Lampman; German immigrant brickmaker – Chicago`s 1st – who arrived in 1833 from Ann Arbor and was employed by Tyler K. Blodgett at Blodgett`s new brickyard; in 1885 lived at Litchfield, MI. [12] [342]

Lampmann, J.  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1833. [342]

Lamset, Pierre  (Dec. 11, 1789-Feb. 22, 1846) originally Pierre Marie Pichet DuPre Lamusette; also known as Peter Lamsett, Peter Lampsett, Peter Lamseet, Peter Specie [so named by the early settlers because he invariably refused paper money, accepting only coins], Peter Pecie; born at Saint-Charles-sur-Richelieu, son of Pierre Marie and Angelique Hudon Beaulieu Pichet DuPre Lamusette; voyageur in 1807; working with Joseph Bailly along the St. Joseph River in 1811; Indian trader and resident of Chicago in 1825, when he was assessed for tax purposes, owning $100 of personal property and paying $1 in tax; made two purchases at the estate sale of Francis May on May 12, 1828, including a martingale [harness strap]; had a claim one mile S of Hardscrabble on which Russell Heacock settled in 1828; in 1830 Lamset settled in the Fox River valley at what later was called Specie Grove; he discovered coal in the county and worked as coal merchant, selling it to the blacksmiths of the vicinity; also was known to have hired himself out to new settlers, using a breaking plow he owned to prepare the prairie for cultivation. Peter Lamset was among the refugees seeking shelter at Fort Dearborn during the early phase of the Black Hawk War in 1832; received $100 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; owned land in Kendall County until 1835; buried in the cemetery at Dresden, Grundy County, IL. [12, 220a] [275a]

land boom  in 1835-36 a speculative mania for land within and beyond Chicago developed, prompted by the plans of the federal government to build the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Large amounts of money flowed in from the East through investors such as Arthur Bronson, Charles Butler, and Edward Russell. Dr. William B. Egan of Chicago is said to have bought a tract of land in 1834 for $300 and sold it again in 1836 for $60,000; Augustus Garrett, one of the major entrepreneurs, is said to have sold $1.8 million worth of property in 10 months. The deals were often shady, as highlighted by this note in Chicago American, July 2, 1836: “The rapidity with which towns are thrown into the market is astonishing. Houses are born in a night, cities in a day, and the small towns in proportion.” The boom ended in 1837 with a financial crash, precipitated by action of Congress, which had passed a law on June 23, 1836, regulating the deposits of public money and discrediting the issues of any bank unable to redeem its issues in species. Most speculators lost their fast-won fortunes. Even the military officers stationed at Fort Dearborn had been unable to resist the lure of real estate speculation, as the fragment of a feverish letter written by Commandant Major Wilcox [see below] may demonstrate. The dizzying pace of land value appreciation in the early 1830s is demonstrated by one particular lot with 20-foot frontage in the 100 block of Lake Street, W and immediately adjoining the property of Thomas Church: it sold for $7 in 1830, for $250 in 1834, and for $800 in 1836.
Excerpt of Major Wilcox letter: Fort Dearborn, 6. June 1835
… every house in town is filled to overflowing, from Ten to Fifty arriving daily. Captain Hunter sold his Land here for 25000 and the Bronsons have been offered 100,000. I suppose it will bring 150,000. so you see what speculations are going on here, I am sorry that I have made out so badly for you, but if you are disposed to trade on the 500. I have no doubt I can mak in 1000 in a year, or if you will make anyone else here your agent they will be able to do the same; Lieutenant Jameson received a commission from Maj Whiting last night to purchase to the amount of 1000 for him, the Lots are very high but going higher every day. I have purchased one for 1000. and one for 200. since I sold the house my water Lot is worth about 4000 now, you may think that I talk too much about lots; but there is an opportunity here of making something such as few officers have, and I should feel that it would be wrong to neglect it. had I done so at first coming here I should have made more money. now, I think it a positive duty lay up something for my Family … Monday 8. since Saturday one ship one Brig and Ten Schooners have come into Port; yesterday passengers were landing all day, say 200 landed, and about the same number on board the morning. on Saturday evening. Mr. Walter Newberry one of the Bronson Firm, sold one Block of 8 lots (which Dr. Wolcot bought of the Canal Commissioners) for $35.000. after the great land sale here I intend to enter a Quarter Section and I will if you think proper enter one for you at the same time, say a half section in a body, I should like to get it near Juliet, it is a flourishing Village and I have three of four find Building Lots there; I wish you could be here this spring for a few days
. …
Sample sales receipt from 1831 by M.F. Walker:
Received, Chicago, August 15, 1831, from P.F.W. Peck, Eighty Dollars, in full for Lot No. 4, block 18, in the plan of the “Town of Chicago,” and in full of all claims to this date. (signed) M.F. Walker. [This lot is located at the SE corner of South Water and LaSalle streets, and in 1854 was valued at $42,000, in 1864 at $60,000; eds.] [12]

land claims  see preemption laws.

land office    see United States Land Office.

land patents  document the transfer of land ownership from the federal government to individuals.

Landon, Jacob  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted November 1807; wounded in action at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and killed by the Indians after surrender. [226]

Lane, Charles Baxter  (Oct. 26, 1832-Aug. 13, 1912) born in New York; son of [see] DeWitt and Amy (née Baxter) Lane; came with his family to the Morgan Park area in 1835; on May 24, 1865, he married Isabella Moss, one of two wives with whom he had nine sons; buried in Hazel Green Cemetery. [387a]

Lane, DeWitt  (Nov. 11, 1805-May 28, 1852) born in Washington County, NY; arrived in the Chicago region between 1833 and 1834, settling in a cabin during the winter on the ancient Tolleston beach ridge near what is now the intersection of 101st and Seeley avenues, Morgan Park; during the spring of 1835, he was in New York State to liquidate his land holdings and late June he returned to Chicago with his family and acquired 160 acres of old Indian Treaty lands between what is now 103rd and 107th streets and between Western and California avenues; DeWitt`s younger brother [see] Dorastus acquired the adjacent 159.3 acres the following day. During the following 15 months additional land purchases were made, totaling over 1467 acres that became known as Lanes Island, a slight rise amidst fertile but often swampy farmland. DeWitt`s wife was Amy Mary (née Baxter, married July 13, 1832) and their young children were [see] Charles Baxter and Marcia Adelia (1833). Amy died in 1849, three years before DeWitt; both are buried in Hazel Green Cemetery. [597a] [387a]

Lane, Dorastus  (Mar. 21, 1818-Feb. 2, 1842) younger brother of [see] DeWitt Lane; came with his brother`s family to the Morgan Park area in 1835 and acquired 159.3 acres of old Indian Treaty lands adjacent to those of his brother`s; buried in Hazel Green Cemetery. [597a] [387a]

Lane, Isaac  enlisted at Fort Dearborn for three years as a private on July 1, 1835. [708]

Lane, James  from Ireland, born 1803; arrived May 20, 1835; worked at the meat market at Old Dearborn street bridge; married Mary Higgins on Sept. 21, 1838; 1839 City Directory: boarding house, corner of North Water and Dearborn streets; was an alderman in 1847; Mary died in 1877 and in 1885 James still lived at 12 Lane Place. [12, 243] [351]

Lane, Joseph  (Aug. 18, 1773-Aug. 28, 1839) a blacksmith; father of [see] DeWitt Lane; he and his wife Hannah (née Mead, born July 15, 1780 in Washington County, NY) accompanied their son`s family to Illinois; a Joseph D. Lane received $50 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; 12 other children remained in New York or Vermont. Hannah died Sept. 16, 1853; both are buried in Hazel Green Cemetery. [12] [387a]

Lanes Island  also Green Island, so-called because of the many walnut trees; centered at 115th Street and Laramie Avenue in [Alsip],
Worth Township, the rise covers an area nearly three miles long; see Lane, DeWitt. [387a]

Lanfear, Lydia Hall  see Rowley, Alfred G.

Langham, E.T.  surveyor general, who on Nov. 29, 1834, documented Section 12 of Cook County by draughting the lower Des Plaines River as it connected with Portage Creek and Mud Lake and extended into Summit. [417a]

Langlade, Charles de  French military officer during the French and Indian War, active mostly in Wisconsin; his father was the earliest [c.1745] permanent settler in Green Bay, WI; his mother was an Indian; was married to an Indian early in life but in 1754 married a French woman; swore allegiance to the British government at the end of the French and Indian War and was of great service through his knowledge of and influence over the local Indian tribes. In 1779, military orders from Major De Peyster brought the then British Captain Langlade to St. Joseph and his men apprehended Jean Baptiste Point de Sable at his trading post at Rivière du Chemin on suspicion of sympathizing with the Americans. [69]

Langworthy, Augustus  appointed in 1830 to enumerate every free white and free colored (black) inhabitant of the new [1825] Putnam County, which then included what is now Peoria County, and all of northeastern Illinois, including the settlement of Chicago; the census was taken in August that year and a final report was submitted on November 23 with the comment: “The number of persons within my Division consisting of Peoria and Putnam Counties. The latter together with the Chicago Precinct the north east being within the jurisdiction of and attached to the County of Peoria proper”; the title “Assistant to the Marshall of the District of Illinois” followed his signature. [Also see entry `population figures`.] [421a]

lannon stone  generic name for a limestone common in the Midwest, white-gray-blueish in its deeper layers, whereas the superficial layers show a warm reddish brown tint from iron oxide within; well appreciated by architects and builders; named after the town of Lannon in southern Wisconsin (incorporated as a village in 1930), which in turn received its name from the early Irish immigrant William N. Lannon who settled in the region in the 1840s and became postmaster of what was originally called Lennon Springs in 1864; quarry activity began in the village in 1836 and is still active; geologically, the stone is part of the [see] Niagara foundation. [394a]

Larabiche  see Fort Wayne, IN.

Larant, Alexander    voted on Aug. 7, 1826 [see Chronology].

Largillier, Frère Donné Jacques  (Picardy, France c.1644-Nov. 4, 1714) also L`Argilier dit Le Castor [the Beaver], so nicknamed by his friends; came to Canada at the age of c.20 to join his maternal uncle, the carpenter Raymond Paget, who had come to Quebec from France with his family in 1647 or 1648, later farming in Beaupré; Jacques soon became a licensed and respected fur trader, and in 1666 he began to explore the wilderness with Adrien Jolliet; in June 1671 he was at Sault Ste. Marie where [see] Daumont de St. Lusson proclaimed the West for France under Louis XIV in the presence of important regional Native leaders; among others, he signed the claim. Subsequently he began working for the Jesuits. Several years after Adrien Jolliet’s death Largillier joined Louis Jolliet, the younger brother of Adrien, and Father Marquette on their 1673 exploration of the Illinois River and the Mississippi, and in 1674 he joined Marquette on his final visit to the land of the Kaskaskia, thus traversing the Chicago Portage during both years; he was with Marquette when the latter died at Ludington, Michigan. In 1676 he became a Frère Donné of the Jesuit order. He initially worked at the Ottawa mission, then spent many years at the Kaskaskia mission and the surrounding villages; there he worked closely with the [see] Fathers Claude Jean Allouez, Claude Aveneau, Julien Bineteau, Pierre François Pinet, Jacques Gravier, Gabriel Marest, Jean Mermet, and others. Largillier died a victim of the 1714 malaria epidemic and was buried in the Kaskaskia cemetery which has since been washed away by the Mississippi River.
Acting on a suggestion by the historian John Swenson [contributing editor of this web site], the ethnolinguist Michael McCafferty made the surprise discovery [2006] that the manuscript of the extant Miami-Illinois/French dictionary that is commonly attributed to Father Gravier [edited and published by Carl Masthay, 2002] was handwritten by Largillier. McCafferty also determined by handwriting analysis that Largillier was one of three Jesuits who added words to another, earlier, extant Miami-Illinois/French dictionary begun in 1696 by Father Pinet at Chicagoua. [209b, 464c, 464h, 464m] [665]

Laroke, Bett.  one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

Larrabee, William M.  arrived from Canada in 1834 with his wife Elizabeth Caroline Bellamy; Elizabeth died at age 29 on May 19, 1837; married Mary Margaret Haight thereafter; served in the voluntary fire department; 1839 City Directory: bookkeeper, William B. Ogden; alderman in 1846; in the 1850s was associated in leading positions with the Galena and Chicago Union Rail Road; died on Sept. 28, 1879; in 1885 his widow lived in Geneva. [12] [351]

Las Casas, Don Bartolomé de  (1474-1566) Spanish Dominican friar, missionary, and bishop of Chiapas who championed native rights; first Catholic priest ordained in America; published Brevissima Relacion in 1552, in which he described the gruesome cruelties inflicted on the Indians and chronicled the fate of the doomed races of the Antilles; active in the West Indies, Peru, and Central America, he became the first known advocate of the abolition of American slavery; Las Casas School, 8401 S Saginaw Ave.; street name: Las Casas Avenue (4924 W). [112, 113]

LaSalle  168-ton schooner from Buffalo, NY; called at Chicago under Captain Stewart on Sept. 13, 1835; capsized near Racine in 1849. [48]

LaSalle  see La Salle.

Lasallier, Pierre  see Le Sellier, Pierre

Lathrop, Samuel S.  born c.1810 in RI; arrived in September 1834; in October 1835 he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; remembered in Andreas as having built a picket fence in 1835 around the isolated grave of Baptist minister Reverend A.B. Freeman; lived at Bristol, IL, in 1885. [12] [351]

Latrobe, Charles Joseph  (1801-1875) English traveler and author who, in September 1833, visited Chicago, coming from Detroit via Niles, MI; witnessed the land session treaty then being negotiated with the Potawatomi; the detailed and perceptive description of his Chicago experience is recorded in his 1835 book, The Rambler in North America, 1832-1833; street name: Latrobe Avenue (5232 W). [See excerpts from Latrobe`s report in Treaty 1833, Chicago, and in the Chronology, September 1833.] [12] [425]

Latta, James  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted April 1810; taken prisoner by Indians at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, then tortured to death the following day. [226]

Latzky, John    on Oct. 1, 1835, married Potily Morris, Father St. Cyr officiating.

Laudon, Jacob  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Nov. 28, 1807; listed unfit for service on a muster roll dated Nov. 30 to Dec. 31, 1810. [708]

Lauer, Casper  also Caspar; German immigrant who arrived with his wife Eva in 1835. On Sept. 18, 1854, he became the first Chicago police officer to die in the line of duty. [342]

Laughton & Taylor    in 1828 a firm by this name existed at “Farm House, Chicago,” selling groceries and whiskey; presumably one or both of the Taylor brothers, Anson and David, were involved as partners together with the Laughton brothers, David and Bernardus. Anson Taylor soon after rented the old Kinzie house and kept a like stock of goods.

Laughton, David and Bernardus H.  also Lawton; Bernardus was also called Bernard or Barney; brothers originally from New England; their father John had owned a trading post on Strumness Island in Lake St. Clair [MI]; David is listed in John Kinzie`s account book between February and May of 1822; in 1823 they received from Dr. Wolcott a license to trade with the Indians at the Vermillion River; both were employed as traders by the American Fur Co.; in 1825 Bernardus had a trading post at Grand Detour on the Rocky River [MI]; together owned a trading post at Hardscrabble in 1826, half a mile S of Chief Robinson`s cabin, but in 1827 they moved to the Des Plaines River, where they built several establishments [see Laughtons’ trading post, tavern, and sawmill]; in 1829 [see] Léon Bourassa is said to have been temporarily involved in this venture. Congressional records show that on July 29, 1829, Bernardus was awarded $1016 by the Prairie du Chien Treaty for debts owed to him by “the United Tribes of Chippewas, Ottowas, and Pottawatamies.” In 1830 David homesteaded, and on September 29 purchased from the State of Illinois 160 acres consisting of the SE quarter of the Canal Section 35, Township 39 R, 12 E [now a part of Riverside]; he also owned land to the S [Lyons]; there is no record of land ownership by Bernardus, who must have built on David`s land, probably in partnership. Bernardus voted that year in the August 2 election and later on November 11 married Sophia Bates from Vermont (sister of Mrs. Elvira Forbes), with whom he had a son named David Henry. In late May 1832 David, in the company of seven Potawatomi in the U.S. Service, encountered a party of maverick Kickapoos in ambush along the Fox River and were detained by those who “… had burnt some houses, & declared their intentions to commit further depredations ….”; with recognition and his character known by some members of the party, David and the Potawatomi were released two hours later. [In 1834, Stephen and Elvira Forbes homesteaded immediately to the E of the land owned by David and described above.] David is said to have had three Indian wives in succession, who all died before him. His last wife, a Potawatomi woman named Waish-kee-shaw [possibly meaning `beginning`], and their son Joseph received a small land grant in the Chicago Treaty of 1833. Bernardus was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $1000 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; he died on Apr. 4, 1834, and David, age 43, died shortly after on April 12 at Belle Fountain; both brothers were buried by Steven Forbes, who was living with them at that time. Isaac Harmon was the administrator of David`s will. David left a nuncupative will in favor of his nephew David Henry, but the probate court recognized instead an earlier will written in favor of [see] Jacob Harsen; with a letter of administration dated Dec. 1, 1834, G.W. Snow announced an auction of David`s estate`s “Stock, Furniture, &c.;” (with that of [see] Daniel Outhet) at Bates` Auction Room on December 31. [12, 13, 51, 51a, 262, 319, 404, 456a, 692g, 714] [637a]

Laughtons’ Trading Post, Sawmill, and Tavern  In 1827 the Laughton brothers built a tavern on the N side of the Des Plaines River in what is now Riverside, IL, where Barry Point Road bridges the river. Immediately upstream from the bridge, by the present day Hoffman Tower and river dam, they built and operated a water-powered gristmill between 1828 and 1832. In addition to the post and the mill, which the Laughton brothers appear to have owned jointly, Bernardus also built and maintained a tavern, taking in overnight visitors. An inscribed
granite boulder [see Laughton’s Trading Post in the Monuments section] claims to mark the location of the former trading post in the Ottawa Trail Woods Forest Preserve. However, more recent [2008] examination of historical data by Philip Vierling strongly suggests that the tavern was located c.1.75 miles upstream from said granite marker and in close proximity to the tavern, the sawmill, and a well established ford, often referred to as Riverside Ford [see Indian Trail Marker in the Monuments section], such ford being an essential facility for any public
house on a riverbank. In her book Wau-Bun, Mrs. Kinzie describes a visit to Laughton`s tavern in March 1831 while traveling with her husband from Fort Winnebago to Fort Dearborn. An excerpt follows, preceding a less well known 1835 account by Chandler Gilman.
Mrs. Kinzie`s account: It was almost dark when we reached Laughton`s. The Aux Plaines was frozen, and the house was on the other side. By loud shouting, we brought out a man from the building, and he succeeded in cutting the ice and bringing a canoe over to us, but not until it had become difficult to distinguish objects in the darkness. … A very comfortable house was Laughton`s, after we reached it—carpeted, with a warm stove—in fact, quite a civilized style. Mr. Weeks, the man who brought us across, was the major-domo during the temporary absence of Mr. [Bernardus] Laughton. Mrs. [Sophia] Laughton was a young woman, and not ill-looking. She had complained of the loneliness of her condition and having been brought out there into the woods; which was a thing she had not expected when she came from the east.

Mr. Gilman`s account: At half-past eight we stopped at a small log hut to breakfast. The public part of the establishment (for it was a sort of inn) consisted of two little rooms; in one was a table, which, when we entered, the combined exertions of a black wench, a tall strapping country girl, and the landlady (the very ugliest woman I ever saw by the by) were covering with materials for a substantial breakfast. In one corner of the other room was a straw bed, on which a poor pallid wretch was extended; his shrunk features, wasted form, and the general appearance of debility, plainly indicating a victim to the fever of the country. Opposite the sick man`s bed, another corner of the room was occupied by a bar, at which several persons were taking in poison—in other climates the seed of disease, in this of death—in the shape of antifogmatics, fever killers, &c.; The other end of the room was crowded with the persons and the luggage of an emigrant family…. From the contemplation of these miserable emigrants we were summoned to our breakfast. [12]

Laumet  see Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, né Laumet.

Laurence, James  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Lauzon, Clement and Maurice  also Lozon, Clemon and Morice; sons of Antoine Nicholas and Angelique (née Chevalier; born July 11, 1733; sister of [see] Luc Ira Chevalier) Lauzon, greatnephews of Antoine Ouilmette`s wife Archange Marie Chevalier; engagés from Detroit where in July and August of 1826 they contracted with [see] William H. Wallace, witnessed by William and Franklin Brewster, to work at Hardscrabble until June 1, 1827; Clement`s contract was for $75, with a balance of $47.75 remaining at Wallace`s death on Mar. 2, 1827, as certified on April 28 by the estate administrator. Late March Maurice came from Detroit with Franklin Brewster to attend to “the concern of Wallace after his death”; his contract for $140 included “trade and traffic with the Indians”; on April 27 he bought a dirk at the estate sale for $3.75. [220, 220a] [275a]

Laval de Montmorency, Mgr. François  student of theology at the College of Louis-le-Grand in Paris; consecrated Bishop of Petraea in partibus infidelium and vicar-apostolic of New France in 1658; at Quebec in 1663 he founded the Seminary of Quebec, modeled on the Society of Foreign Missions of Paris; in May 1698, the Séminaire des Missions Étrangères was authorized, an institution that sent many missionary priests into the Illinois country, “… to establish a residence and found a mission among the Tamaroa …” during the 18th century, and later became Quebec`s Laval University. Some came to Chicago, among them [see] Rev. François Jolliet de Montigny and Abbé Antoine Davion. Among the extraordinary treasures still kept at Laval University is the Journal des Jésuites, an informal day-to-day journal kept by the Jesuit fathers at their house in Quebec from 1645 to 1686, unedited and not meant for publication, unlike the Jesuit Relations, and therefore more revealing to historians in many ways. [207b, 665] [399]

Lavaye, Francis  lived at Chicago in 1828. [220]

Lavene, A.  one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

Law, John    (1671-1729) see Louisiana Province.

Lawe, Rebecca R.  in addition to Rebecca, the following members of of the Lawe family, presumably the siblings of Rebecca, received $100 each for claims made at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833: Therese, George, David, Maria, Polly, Jane, and Appototone. John Lawe, presumably the father of Rebecca and her siblings, received $3000; Rebecca later married [see] Andrew J. Vieau. [12]

Lawrence, James  also Laurence; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714] [319]

Lawrence, Susanna  see Contraman, Frederick H.

Lawton    see Laughton.

lawyers  attorneys were abundant even in the settlement`s earliest years; as Joseph Jefferson expressed in his autobiography, referring to Chicago in the year 1838: “… attorneys-at-law, oceans of them.” Those who visited or settled before 1836 are listed below, with the time of their arrival: Charles Jouett (1805; U.S. Indian agent, did not practice in the community); Russell E. Heacock (1827); Richard J. Hamilton (April 1831); Lewis C. Kercheval (1831); Robert Nelson Murray (1831); Giles Spring (1833; arriving a few days before Caton); John Dean Caton (June 1833); Alexander N. Fullerton (1833); Edward W. Casey (1833); Peter D. Hugunin (1833); James Grant (April 1834); James H. Collins (1834); Hans Crocker (1834); Patrick Ballingall (1834); Justin Butterfield (1834); Henry Moore (1834); James B. Bradwell (1834); Albert G. Leary (1834); Buckner S. Morris (1834); Ebenezer Peck (1834); Sidney Abell (1834); Hiram Kennicott (1834); J. Young Scammon (September 1835); Henry A. Clark (1835); David Cox (1835); Thomas Drummond (1835); Alonzo Huntington (1835); Francis Peyton (1835); Lucien Peyton (1835); Edward G. Ryan (1835); Theophilus W. Smith (1835); James M. Strode (1835; earlier as circuit rider); James Curtis (1835); William Stuart (1835); Thomas Brock (1835); William B. Ogden (1835); Thomas Ford (1835); and Royal Stewart (1835). In addition to those named who resided in Chicago, there were from 1831 on “circuit riding” lawyers (such as [see] James M. Strode, Benjamin Mills) from southern Illinois towns, who would come and go, often traveling with judges (such as [see] Richard Montgomery Young). Circuit riding to other towns was practiced equally by the Chicago lawyers; memories of a circuit riding lawyer, excerpted from Isaac N. Arnold`s Recollections of the Early Illinois and Chicago Bar :
I have known the trip to Springfield to take five days and nights, dragging drearily through the mud and sleet, and there was an amount of discomfort, vexation and annoyance about it sufficient to exhaust the patients of the most amiable. But the June journey was as agreeable as the December trip was repulsive. A four-in-hand, with splendid horses, the best of Troy coaches, good company, the exhilaration of great speed over an elastic road, much of it a turf of grass, often crushing under our wheels the most beautiful wild flowers, every grove fragrant with blossoms, framed in the richest green; our roads not fenced in by narrow lanes, but with freedom to choose our route; here and there a picturesque log cabin, covered with vine; boys and girls on their way to their log school-houses, and the lusty farmer digging his fortune out of the rich earth. Everything fresh and new, full of young life and enthusiasm, these June trips to Springfield would, I think, compare favorably even with those we make today in a luxurious Pulman car. But there were exceptions to these enjoyments. Sometimes torrents of rain would, in the course of a few hours, so swell the streams that the log bridges and banks would be entirely submerged, and a stream which a few hours before was nearly dry, became a foaming torrent. Traveling at such times was never agreeable, and was sometimes a little dangerous.

Le Clair, Antoine, Sr.  native of Montreal; first became an Indian trader at Parc aux Vache, marrying a Potawatomi woman in 1792; moved his family to Milwaukee in 1800 and continued trading, traveling to Detroit yearly in the spring to select goods that were later brought by a vessel that also stopped at St. Joseph and Chicago, returning with furs. Le Clair was observed by [see] Thomas G. Anderson in 1803, and his visits to Chicago were indicated in Kinzie`s account books on Nov. 8, 1804; Sept. 3, 1806; and July 9, 1807; an adventure to Kankakee was noted on Nov. 28, 1808. The family removed to Peoria in 1809, and lived there until October 1812, when Peoria was destroyed. On May 1, 1810, Le Clair again outfitted with Kinzie for a Kickapoo adventure. From June 15 to July 11, 1812, Le Clair made a circular tour from Peoria to Chicago, Milwaukee, Coshquainong [Algonquin: kwâshkwan-ong, meaning `jump, spring-at`], down the Fox River to its mouth, and home again; in a July 14 report to Thomas Forsyth, then U.S. Indian agent in Peoria, he detailed the impressions he gained of Indian attitudes at this critical time, the beginning of the war with England: “… I understood by Indians whom I was formerly acquainted with that all their talk is war with the Americans, and were only waiting (and that with impatience) for word from the British, and the first place they meant to attack was the Garrison at Chicago ….” He later became a co-founder of Davenport, Iowa. His son, Antoine, Jr., was a United States interpreter for the Fox and Sauk Indian agency at Rock Island in 1832 and, upon Black Hawk`s capture in August, translated biographical testimony. [109, 404, 456b, 468a; Wisconsin Historical Collections 11 {1888}: 238-242] [691]

Le Comte, Madam  also La Compt; see Saint Ange, Michel Pilet dit.

Le Griffon  see Griffon.

Le Mai, François  also Le May, Lemay, May, L`May; best known as the French Canadian trader who, according to Mrs. J.H. Kinzie, sold John Kinzie his Chicago house, misinformation [see below] perpetuated by most historians until Quaife found and published the original sales contract in 1928; by some writers the first name is given as Pierre, which seems to be in error, since Father Garraghan found Francis Le May to be among “habitans a Chicagou” who (together with the Pelletiers) took his wife, Marie Thérèse Roy, and children Joseph and Marie Thérèse to St. Louis to be baptized on Oct. 7, 1799; earlier, on Aug. 1, 1790, the name of a François L`May was on the roll of a company of the first Regiment of the County of St. Clair, and it is likely that this was the same person. Le Mai was a métis trader, with a Potawatomi wife, who owned one of the four houses already located on the N side of the river at the time the first Fort Dearborn was built in 1803. In historical accounts, Le Mai is frequently confused with Jean Lalime; Juliette Kinzie popularized the mistake in her book Wau-Bun, reporting that her father-in-law bought his house from Le Mai; but Lalime purchased the house from Point de Sable for William Burnett in 1800 and sold it to John Kinzie in 1803. Le Mai died in March 1828, apparently out-of-doors and in the vicinity of the village; following the death James Kinzie claimed $22.18 against the estate of Francis May, including an item dated Mar. 19, 1828, “Amt. of expense incurred by hunting the corps [of Le May], $1.00”; on May 10, 1828, Norman Hyde, then probate judge of Peoria county, personally appraised the estate of François Le May at Chicago; the estate sale took place on that day; street name: LeMai Avenue (5232 W). [12, 220a, 585a] [267]

Le Moyne family  this family of an immigrant to New France became of extraordinary importance for the cause of France in North America. The father, Charles Le Moyne (1626-1685), born in Dieppe, Normandy, France, as the son of the inkeeper Pierre Le Moyne and Judith Duchesne, arrived in Canada in 1641, age 15; he settled in Montreal after first traveling extensively with the Jesuit fathers to their Great Lakes missions; played a vital role in the defence of the colony against the Iroquois; was made a chevalier in 1668; and by the time of his death had become the richest man in Canada. With his wife Catherine Thierry he had 12 sons and two daughters. Their eldest son, Charles Le Moyne, first baron de Longueuil (1656-1729), was sent by his father to France for education and military training. While there, he married Claude-Élisabeth Souart. In 1683, the young couple moved to New France, where Charles had a distinguished military career defending French settlements against Iroquois and English attacks; in 1700 he became the first Canadian-born baron; served as interim governor of New France from 1725-1726. His son, Charles Le Moyne, second baron de Longueuil (1687-1755), was also trained as a military man and served as interim governor in 1752. Pierre Le Moyne, seigneur d`Iberville et d`Ardillières (1661-1707) was Charles and Catherine`s third and most illustrious son; he established his reputation as a heroic soldier and sea captain in the defense of French trade interests in James Bay and Hudson Bay against English encroachment. In 1698, the French king determined to repeat La Salle`s effort, unsuccessful in 1685, to colonize at the mouth of the Mississippi, and he entrusted Pierre Le Moyne with the task. With his youngest brother Jean-Baptiste, Pierre sailed along the coast W of Florida and on March 2, 1699, their ship entered a channel of the Mississippi delta. A fortified trading post was built at Biloxi Bay [Ocean Springs], the beginning of the colony of Louisiana. Subsequent exploits brought him to various Caribbean islands, where cruel pillaging by his men left some of the local native settlements in ruins and damaged his reputation; died of a tropical fever early in 1707 in Havana, Cuba. Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, Seigneur de Bienville (1680-1767), was the last of the sons, and was raised under the influence of his older brothers after his father`s death; he learned seamanship at an early age, and his brother d`Iberville included him among his crews; took part in the campaigns against the English in 1696 and 1697 along the New England coast and on Newfoundland and at Hudson Bay, demonstrating his courage and leadership. In 1698, he joined d`Iberville on his successful expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River, where they established the Biloxi post. D`Iberville returned to France, leaving de Bienville in charge; his efforts flourished, and by 1706 de Bienville became the first governor of Louisiana, a position he held twice more in later years [see governors]. In 1718, he established a trading post between Lake Pontchartrain and the Mississippi River, which he called Nouvelle-Orléans [New Orleans]; returned to France in 1741, retiring from public life; died in Paris. [430a, 483, 665]

Le Sauteuse  see John Tanner.

Le Sellier, Pierre  also, but improperly, as Le Sallier, Lasalière, La Sallier, and La Salière; French trader at Milwaukee, the St. Joseph River, Muskegon, and Michillimackinac between 1804 and 1818, and a frequent customer at John Kinzie`s trading post in Chicago during those years; in 1822 he opened a trading post in what is now Lee County on the Rock River [see map by Rufus Blanchard, 1883], becoming its first white settler [memorialized in 1937 by the placement of a marker near the remnants of his cabin in Kingdom, c.7 miles NE of Dixon, IL]. In February 1829 Le Sellier`s trading post was taken over by [see] Stephen Mack Jr.; during the War of 1812 he worked for the British cause, and was much in demand; in 1815, as officer of the British Indian Department for eastern Wisconsin, he gave the Indians news of the end of the war; in 1818, he worked as an employee of the American Fur Co. for about one year, and became acquainted with Gurdon Hubbard; acted as local guide for the expedition under Maj. Stephen Long, by whom he was engaged at Chicago in 1823; Keating, a member of the expedition, describes him as a “man, who had lived for upward of thirty years with the Indians, had taken a [second] wife among the Winnebagoes, and settled on the headwaters of Rock river ….” Le Sellier`s first wife was Thérèse Marcot (c.1776-1855), daughter of Jean Baptiste Marcot and an Ottawa woman, variably named Misigan or Marie Anne Neskesh. Le Sellier and Thérèse had a daughter, Marie Anne, who became the wife of Henry Monroe Fisher of Prairie du Chien, and the mother of [see] Elizabeth Thérèse Fisher. In 1817 Elizabeth and her mother visited the Kinzie family, and Elizabeth later wrote about the experience, describing the interior of the Kinzie house. Le Sellier`s 1823 service as guide for Major Long is the last record of him. He was over 80 years of age at the time. His remains are likely to be found in one of the many graves near his Lee County cabin. [29, 109, 394, 404, 692b] [635]

Le Vasseur, Noel  (Dec. 25, 1799-1879) also Levasseur, La Vasseur; born in St. Michel d’Yamaska, Canada, to poor parents, was illiterate all his life; a contemporary and friend of [see] Gurdon S. Hubbard. At age 18 he became a voyageur working for Astor out of Michilimackinac, then interrupted employment for one year to live with an Indian tribe near Prairie du Chien, learning the language. Early in 1820, he traveled to the Illinois River valley by way of the Chicago portage and established a trading post for the American Fur Co. on the Iroquois River at a place earlier called Bunkum, now Iroquois, IL. Hubbard soon followed and operated the post with Le Vasseur’s assistance until 1827, when Hubbard left and Le Vasseur succeeded him. In 1828 he married Watseka [Potawatomi; compare Algonquin wajekân ‘hem’ or less likely washkâ ‘it is crooked’], Hubbard’s first wife, and with her had three children. The marriage ended when Watseka left with her tribe, removed from Illinois in 1837, and he then married Ruth Bull of Danville (eight children). Le Vasseur received $800 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; in 1861 he married Elenor Franchere of Chicago. He is buried in Bourbonnais, IL, a settlement on the Kankakee River which he established and named after [see] François Bourbonnais, Sr., its earliest settler. [12, 692c, 692g] [456b]

Leach, Truman  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

lead    see Galena, IL.

league  A measure of distance. In North America, it is the Parisian surveyor`s league, equalling 2.422 miles. In French the word is lieue, and it consists of 2,000 toises (paces). A toise, according to French dictionaries, is 1.949 meters. From this it can be calculated that the English and American equivalent is 2.422 miles. Louis XIV, in his grant of the Illinois country to La Salle, states that it is measured in “leagues of 2,000 toises.” The common mistake of writers is to assume that “league” means a nautical league, used for ocean navigation. This league is a subdivision of a degree of latitude, a measure that would be useless in land travel, particularly not in a straight line. Travelers on foot or in a canoe could estimate distances by counting the number of paces or toises. Soldiers are trained to esimate distances by this method. The mistaken use of a nautical league, which is about three statute miles, produces erroneous results. [649]

Leary, Albert Greene  arrived from Maryland in 1834; attorney, who later became a member of the state legislature; on May 25, 1835, advertised his office in the Chicago Democrat as located on Lake Street, “two doors below Cook`s Coffee House [the Mansion House], with Dr. W.G. Austin;” his wife was Virginia (née Leary), a niece of President Taylor; 1839 City Directory: attorney and counselor at law, Dearborn Street; died in 1853 in New Orleans. [243]

Leavenworth, Ruth  teacher in 1835 at the Infant School at the first Presbyterian church, succeeding Miss Eliza Chappel, and being later succeeded by Mrs. Joseph Harmon; during her tenure in 1835, John S. Wright financed the building of a schoolhouse for the Infant School, creating its own quarters on the W side of Clark Street, just S of Lake Street. As per announcement in the Chicago American, on the Nov. 3, 1836, Miss Leavenworth married grocer Joseph L. Hanson, Reverend Hinton officiating; 1839 City Directory: [the couple`s home and grocery/provision store] 146 Lake St. [12] [243]

LeClerc, Peresh  also Peresh [correctly, Pieriche, a diminutive for Pierre], Peres La Clerc, the Stutterer; a Potawatomi-Kickapoo boy who was employed by John Kinzie in 1812 and worked for him again in 1816; not identical with [see] Pierre La Claire. Peresh accompanied the detachment and was rumored by some to have used his influence to bring about a merciless attack on the evacuating garrison. [12, 74, 226, 406] [275a]

Lee farm    see Leigh farm.

Lee House    see Leigh House.

Lee, Charles    see Leigh, James.

Lee, James W.  in 1833 listed as owner of lot 7 in block 2, land that first belonged to Jonathan Bailey and then to James Kinzie [see Maps section, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; on Mar. 13, 1836, a notice appeared in the Chicago Democrat indicating that James W. Lee had died in Cleaveland, OH, and that his Cook County property was for sale, its value considered sufficient to cover his debts. [319]

Lee, William  captain of the sloop [see] Friends` Good-Will which visited Chicago in July of 1812. Also see See, Rev. William. [206a]

Lefebvre, Pierre  owner of a small farm in Chicago, which he sold to [see] William Burnett in 1800 for 150 livres, with John Griffing acting as Burnett’s agent and nominee. The location of this farm is not known; it was probably near the Point de Sable and Ralph Belanger properties, which were also purchased by Burnett in the same year. [649] [95a]

Leflenboys, Joseph  at the county seat (Chicago) was granted on June 6, 1831, a license to sell goods in Cook County. [12]

Legg, Benjamin  a child by this name was enrolled as grade school student in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835; son of [see] Isaac and Mary Elizabeth (née Smith) Legg. [728]

Legg, Isaac  (1787-1876) born in Prince William County, VA, son of Ambrose and Margaret (née Moss) Legg; married Mary Elizabeth Smith in 1809, Shelby County, KY; they had a daughter Ann Eliza (later Mrs. John J. Russell) and a son Benjamin. At Mary`s death Isaac married Elizabeth Warford, also of Shelby County, at Putnam, IN, in February 1831; he arrived with his family at Chicago in 1833; son Isaac Shelby was born in 1835; 1839 Chicago Directory: real estate dealer, sixth ward, near Lill`s brewery; son Joseph L. was born in 1840; Legg died in Kankakee County, IL, in February 1876. [243]

LeGrand, Sauqua  see Caldwell, Billy

Legre, Felix  also LeGree; blacksmith, murder victim in 1835 on the road from Chicago to Ottawa, between Laughtons` ford and the house of Elijah Wentworth, not far from Buckhorn Tavern; notices of the murder appeared in the Chicago Democrat on July 8, and in the Chicago American on July 11; the convicted murderer was [see] Joseph E. Norris.

Leif Ericson  Viking discoverer of North America c.A.D. 1000; member of a prominent family of Norwegian origin; his father, Eric Thorvaldsson (Eric the Red) founded the earliest Scandinavian settlement in Greenland. In Leif`s time, there already existed a dim awareness of lands in the North Atlantic ocean W of Greenland; commissioned by King Olaf of Norway to sail to Greenland in the year 999, he sailed from Norway to Greenland, missed its southern tip, and landed at “Vinland” [probably Newfoundland]; realizing his mistake, he promptly returned to Greenland, reaching it before the autumn of 1000; colonies that he and other Norse explorers subsequently founded in North America did not survive long; also see Monuments section. Leif Ericson School, 3600 W Fifth Ave. [280c]

Leigh & Burnett  see Leigh, James and Burnett, John.

Leigh farm  usually referred to as “Lee farm,” “Lee`s place” and later as “Hardscrabble”; the buildings were located on the W side of the south branch of the Chicago River [at 24th Street, Bridgeport], with cultivated land on both sides of the river, occupying about 20 acres; the land was worked by James Leigh and his father-in-law William Russell, and with his partner [see] John Burnett, Leigh & Burnett; Leigh had his own main house on the lake shore just S of Fort Dearborn. On the evening of Apr. 6, 1812, when Leigh, Burnett or Russell were not on the premises, a party of Winnebago killed two of Leigh`s men (Liberty White and Jean B. Cardin) at the farm, while John Kelso and John Leigh escaped. A later owner of Leigh`s farmhouse was John Crafts, who outfitted it as a trading post for the Detroit merchant house, Conant & Mack; François LaFramboise, Sr., later purchased the property from Crafts. [393c]

Leigh House  also Lee House; James Leigh`s main residence, built in 1804 on the lake shore, just S of the fort. Leigh`s widow sold the house to J.B. Beaubien in late 1812; when Beaubien bought the Dean House for his residence in 1817, he used the Leigh House for a barn; by 1832 it was roofless, and Capt. A. Walker, commander of the Sheldon Thompson, purchased the remnants as firewood for his steamship when he delivered soldiers for the Black Hawk War. See the following excerpt of a letter from the captain, published in the Chicago Tribune in 1861.
The number of buildings at that time (1832), where your populous city now stands, were but five [Captain Walker appears to refer only to the part of town E of the forks; eds.], three of which were log tenements—one of them, without a roof, used as a stable. We remained four days after landing the troops, procuring fuel for the homeward voyage, &c.; The only means of obtaining anything for fuel was to purchase the roofless log-building used as a stable. That, together with the rail fence enclosing a field of some three acres nearby, was sufficient to enable us to reach Mackinaw. Being drawn to the beach and prepared for use, it was boated aboard by the crew, which operation occupied most of four days to accomplish. [12]

Leigh, James  (-Jan. 22, 1813) also, but erroneously, Mr. Lee, or Charles Lee, Sr.; Leigh pronounced his name as in “Lee,” but the correct spelling and his correct first name are evident from an autograph letter [see below] he wrote on Mar. 30, 1811, to Col. Jacob Kingsbury, preserved in the Kingsbury Collection of the Chicago History Museum. Apparently John Kinzie, who was a flexible speller, initiated the mistake in his account books, listing him interchangeably as “Sargent Leigh” or “Sargent Lee,” but once (1805) listed him with his full name “Sargent Jas. Leigh.” For the wrong first name [Charles instead of James], N. Matson, in his 1882 book, Pioneers of Illinois, quotes as authority Leigh`s surviving daughter Mary, but one must allow that she lost her father when she was 12 years old, became permanently separated from her mother at the same time, was nearly 86 when interviewed by Matson, and is not quoted verbatim; Captain Heald, in an official report on the killing of two white men at the Leigh farm on Apr. 6, 1812, spells Leigh`s name correctly. Leigh and his family came to Fort Dearborn with the first contingent of soldiers in 1803, his position was that of recruiting sergeant; when his term expired about 1809, he remained and acquired a house on the lake shore immediately SE of the fort near the mouth of the river; in addition, and together with his father-in-law William Russell and his partner [see] John Burnett, he worked a farm on the south branch [see Leigh farm]. Leigh and his oldest son John [age 16] joined the Chicago militia in the summer of 1812; James then went to Mackinac to secure provisions, away from Chicago on August 15; John, daughter Lilly [age 10], and two younger sons were killed in the Fort Dearborn massacre, while his wife Martha [née Russell], daughter Mary, and infant Sally, born 1811, survived. The Indian chief Black Partridge fell in love with Leigh`s widow during her captivity but she was ransomed by the French trader Du Pin [see Des Pins], afterward marrying and living with him and Sally for four years in the abandoned Kinzie House. Mary was ransomed from Indian captivity in the spring of 1813 and later married Louis Pierre Buisson, Jr. In a letter dated July 29, 1813, written to Gen. William Clark, Thomas Forsyth details James Leigh`s losses as “great upwards of one hundred head of horn cattle, several horses, … hogs and all his household furniture, his father in law and brother in law killed …”; Forsyth also reports that Leigh was killed south of Detroit at the Battle of River Raisin Jan. 22, 1813, fighting on the American side; street name: Lee Place (740 N). [12, 172a, 226, 275a, 393c, 404, 459]

Letter from James Leigh to Col. Jacob Kingsbury:
Chicago, March 30th 1811
Sir. It is with a degree of deference I presume to address myself to you not being personally known when I was in the Army—to solicit you for an indulgance which you have it in your power to grant—On my retiring from the Army I got liberty from Captain Whistler to reside on the reserve and which I have made considerable improvements not far distant from the Garrison—I have got a large stock of cattle and find them to be troublesome in the fall of the year to the fences and to evade having any difficulty I got liberty from Lieutenant Ostrander to make a small improvement on the out lines of the reserve near the Portage distant from the Garrison about 3 miles and which I find will be of great benefit to me to reside there in the fall and winter months
 … I request from you—your liberty to improve about 20 acres. The timber which lies on this land is overgrown sugar tree [maple] and basswood which can not be of any benefit for repairing the garrison. I have cleared this winter about 10 acres and have built a small house thereon—If you will grant me the favour of my settlement I shall esteem it a great favour—it is not Sir with any idea to be independent of any garrison order which may be issued from time to time that I selicit—only to hold it comfortable thereto—I beg to refer you to Captain Whistler whom I expect will give you any further information relative thereto, he being acquainted with the situation of it. I rem. Sir your most ob. and very humble S`t. James Leigh [649]

Leigh, Martha  see Leigh, James; see Des Pins, François.

Lemoine, François  also Lamoyne, Lamoine, Lemoine dit Despins; see Des Pins, François.

Leonard, Michael  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted in April 1810; killed in action at the 1812 massacre. [226]

LeRoi, Angeline  see Vieau, Jacques.

Leroi, Joseph  acquired a half-axe for 58 cents and a small kettle for 13 cents at the W.H. Wallace estate sale of April 27, 1827. [220a]

Leslie, Peter  of Philadelphia; purchased some land sight unseen in 1835 or 1836 in the West, with little expectation. But when he arrived at “Chicago on Lake Michigan” in 1836, he immediately discerned a rising force. He wrote home that “The town has more natural advantages than any place I have yet seen and is destined to be the N. York of the West.” In his letter he described the construction and the bustle of the young town. Hotels were springing up, land fever was in the air and ambition was everywhere. “The people of the West have a town-making mania,” he wrote. “This one must succeed.” [377d]

Letendre, Jean Baptiste    see La Tendre, Jean Baptiste.

Letts, David  Pennsylvania farmer, who in 1812 moved with his family to Ohio, and again moved in 1830 to what is now La Salle County in Illinois. Preparatory to his second move, he had traveled alone to Illinois in 1829 to explore farming conditions and to find good agricultural land. Early during this trip he visited Chicago and Fort Dearborn. His youngest son Noah Harris Letts, born 1825, later described his father’s Chicago episode as follows:
So after bidding his family farewell, he took his course north and west till he came to the south end of Lake Michigan and past around west to Fort Dearborn at the mouth of the Chicago River, where it empties into Lake Michigan, where now stands Chicago. The government had built a fort and had stationed a few soldiers to protect what few settlers was in the country and those that would come. He remained there at the fort for about two days gathering what information he could about the country west and southwest of this fort. While here, an officer took a great fancy to his fine Kentucky sorrel mare and offered his claim on 80 acres of land joining up to the fort for the animal. My father only laughed at him. The land is situated now in the central portion of Chicago. [431b]

Levadoux, Abbé Michel  Sulpician priest who in 1782 conducted the marriage ceremony of St. Joseph trader William Burnett and Kaguimie [Burnett`s spelling], daughter of Nanaquoibi, a senior Potawatomi chief, and sister of Topenebe, later principal chief of the St. Joseph band of Potawatomi; in 1796 was appointed vicar-general of the Northwest Territory by Archbishop Carroll of Baltimore; took charge of the Detroit church and from there made multiple trips to Mackinac, sanctioning marriages and conducting baptisms. In the summer of 1796 he visited Cahokia, then returned to Detroit via the Illinois River, passing through Chicago early in July of that year, as documented in a later report he wrote: “Then, continuing my journey [from Peoria, a small village on the Illinois River where he had performed several marriages and baptisms], I reached the borders of Lake Michigan, that is to say, a village called Chicago. I remained there only a day and a half. I was visited by a great Indian chieftain and a large number of his braves. I embarked on the Lake the 8th of July.” Abbé Levadoux does not mention any of the French settlers living in Chicago at that time. He was recalled in 1801, afterward returning to France. [268, 269a] [394b]

Lewis and Clark expedition  provided with detailed orders from President Thomas Jefferson and medical instructions from the preeminent physician Dr. Benjamin Rush, Capt. Meriwether Lewis and Lt. William Clark sailed with a party of 34 from St. Louis up the Missouri River in May of 1804 on their historic mission to explore the unknown West and its native people; they followed the muddy river to its source, crossed the continental divide, and traveled down the Columbia River to its mouth on the Pacific Ocean; when they returned to St. Louis in September 1806 with good maps and a wealth of carefully recorded information, they had done much to dispell ignorance and open the West to settlement, although they were not the first Europeans to cross the entire North American continent [For that honor, see entry on Alexander Mackenzie; eds.]; during the following decades, many enthusiastic pioneers and settlers would pass through Chicago. Also see individual entries on Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. [433] [719]

Lewis, Capt. Meriwether  (1774-1809) Virginia born; together with Lt. William Clark, led the famous [see] Lewis and Clark expedition through the unknown Northwest of the continent in 1804-1806; in 1808 Lewis was appointed governor of Louisiana by President Jefferson but died the following year. [719]

Lewis, John  a child by this name was enrolled as grade school student in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [728]

Lewis, P.J.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Lewis, Sally  see Sherman, Silas Wooster.

Lewis, Samuel  first announced in the Chicago Democrat on June 22, 1835, and repeated a month later in the Chicago American: “… that when a sufficient number of scholars offer themselves, he intends commencing a VOCAL and instrumental music school; at his room on S. Water will attend to repairs and tuning of Piano Fortes and other instruments”; an ad on August 19 announced he has “begun teaching the science of Music” in A. Garrett`s Auction Room; by November 9 had removed to the third story of the four-story building on Lake Street, over the store of Messrs. Breese & Shepard; in 1836 married Eleanor Watts, Reverend Hallam officiating. [544]

libraries  for Chicago`s earliest public libraries and book collections, see Jamison, Lt. Louis T. [the attached illustration shows a letter written by Lt. Jamison to the editor of the “Globe”]; Meeker, Joseph; Chicago Lyceum. Of private libraries there were few before 1836, but Dr. Elijah Harmon was known for his unusually large collection of medical texts.

license, Indian trade  see La Salle, for letters patent from the king to trade in buffalo skins; see engagécoureurs de bois.

Liette, Pierre-Charles, Sieur de  (c.1665-1729) wrote his name Delliette; the name De Gannes, sometimes attributed to him as his pen name, is actually the name of an as yet unidentified copyist; was a younger first cousin of Tonti (son of Tonti`s mother`s brother) and joined him at Fort St. Louis du Rocher in 1687; divided his time from 1691 to 1705 between the Miami at Chicago and the Illinois at Fort St. Louis de Pimiteoui, Peoria, which he had helped build. In Chicago he ran a trading post in partnership with François Daupin de La Forêt, Michel Accault, and Henri de Tonti [located probably near today`s Tribune Tower] which he had to close, leaving in 1705 after the king revoked his trading license; continued as French commander and trader in the Illinois country until 1720. From Liette`s memoirs: “Most beautiful, you begin to see its fertility at Chicago, unwooded prairies, requiring only to be turned up by the plow, most temperate climate.” [12, 101, 190, 241, 259] [649]

lighthouse  on March 3, 1831, the U.S. Congress approved an appropriation of $5,000 to build the first lighthouse on Lake Michigan; the lighthouse was built that year on the south bank of the Chicago River, at the location where the first U.S. factory building had stood from 1805 to 1812, just W of where Rush Street bridge later met the river bank; it was built by Samuel Jackson [or Samuel Johnson, according to {see} Stephen Downer]; it was 50-feet-tall with walls 3-feet-thick, but collapsed on October 30; a sturdier one was erected in 1832 at the same location. It was 40 feet tall, with a stationary light from four oil lamps and with a 14-inch reflector, no lenses, visible from five to seven miles. There was a bell fog signal. A prominent landmark, it was listed in the 1839 City Directory as “U.S. Light House, cor. River st, (at Rush st bridge)”; in the 1844 General Directory [see] Silas Meacham is listed as the keeper of the lighthouse; the structure remained until 1857; Samuel C. Lasby was the first keeper of the light, at a salary of $350 per year, and Jean Baptiste Beaubien was the last lighthouse keeper. For a picture of the lighthouse in 1857 see the entry on Lake House.
The following letter of Oct. 31, 1831, from Isaac D. Harmon describes the collapse of the first lighthouse:
Dear Brother: We have had a flattener pass over the face of our prospects in Chicago. The light-house, that the day before yesterday stood in all its glory, the pride of this wondrous village, is now “doused.” For about a week past, cracks have been observed in it, and yesterday they began to look “squally.” Mr. Jackson (the man who contracted to erect the building), ordered some of the stones, which looked likely to fall, to be taken out. Yet he and his men assured people there was no danger of its falling. Jackson said, “You can`t get it down,” but there were others who were not so sure. My father [Dr. Elijah D. Harmon], in the afternoon, told them it leaned to one side. They laughed at him, and so confident were some of its standing, that, but a few hours before it fell, they went upon the top of it; and amongst the rest, some women. Stones kept dropping from the hole in it; and, about nine o`clock in the evening, down tumbled the whole work with a terrible crash and a noise like the rattling of fifty claps of thunder. The walls were three feet thick, and it had been raised fifty feet in hight; so you must know it made some stir when it fell. The first thing father said to the workmen when he went out was: “Does it lean any now.” They were `shorn of their locks,` and had nothing to say. Various reasons were assigned as the cause of its falling. Jackson wants to make it appear that it was owing to the quicksand under the building, which made it settle, and said that a light-house can not be made to stand here. It would be greatly for his interest to have this story believed; as, by this means he would probably get pay for what he has done; otherwise, he will not. People here, and those that are well qualified to judge, say there is no such thing as quicksand about it, and that it was all owing to the wretched manner in which it was built. I am inclined to believe them. Judging from the piece of wall now standing, the mortar looks like dry sand, and the wall is two-thirds filled up between with stones not bigger than a man`s head. Finis. Yours affectionate, Isaac D. Harmon. [12, 243, 289] [506]

Lill, William  (Apr. 2, 1808-Aug. 11, 1875) born on a farm in Lincolnshire, England, leaving for New York in 1834; traveled by river through Pennsylvania and Ohio, then walked from Louisville, KY, arriving at Chicago on July 17, 1835; initially worked for William B. Ogden grading streets; worked with and for the brewery begun by Wilhelm Haas and Konrad Sulzer, soon after partnered by Haas and William B. Ogden; 1839 City Directory: brewer, Chicago ave. cor. and Pine [Michigan] st; in 1843 he teamed with [see] Michael Diversey to purchase the brewery; 1844 Chicago Directory: of L. & Diversy, brewers, n Sand [St. Clair] & Chicago Avenue; in 1849 married Helen Houfe. In the fire of 1871 he lost the brewery and residential properties but soon recovered financially with an exceptional malt house; died in Denver, CO; street name: Lill Avenue (2534 N). [12, 17] [342]

Lincoln & Reader  see Lincoln, Solomon.

Lincoln Avenue  known earlier as [see] Little Fort Road, leading toward Waukegan, where an early but fictitious French trading fort was believed to have been. It was actually at Milwaukee.

Lincoln, Abraham  (1809-1865) 16th president of the United States, born in Kentucky, raised in Indiana, moved with his father`s family to southern Illinois in 1830. In 1837 Lincoln moved to Springfield, IL. He had served in the militia during the Blackhawk War of 1832 but did not then come to Chicago. [See] General David Hunter wrote to him later stating that he first “… had the pleasure of meeting [Mr. Lincoln] in early chicago and again at the great Whig Convention in Springfield in 1840.” During July 5-7, 1847 Lincoln attended the River and Harbor Convention at Chicago, his speech noted in its papers. He was in Springfield when nominated for President by the Republican Convention at Chicago in 1860; the meeting took place in a building called “the Wigwam,” the exact location where earlier stood the [see] Sauganash Tavern. In subsequent years Lincoln’s name was attached to a number of roads and geographical features that were part of the early Chicagoland scene, such as [see] Sauk Trail (Lincoln Highway, U.S. 30), cemeteries (Lincoln Park), and Indian trails (Lincoln Avenue). Abraham Lincoln School, 615 W Kemper Place. Also see the Lincoln bronze statue in the Monuments section of this web site. [Don Pitzen]

Lincoln, O.S.  roller boy for John Wentworth at the Chicago Democrat in 1836, and – Chicago`s 1st – newspaper carrier. [12]

Lincoln, Solomon  arrived from New York in 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833, and in December advertised the opening of a tailor shop on the S side of Lake Street, near LaSalle; referred to as the “prairie tailor” as the location at that time was considered out on the prairie; on Sept. 28, 1834, his wife Ester (née Cobb), also from New York, died at age 27 from bilious fever; in the Oct. 7, 1835, Chicago Democrat, Lincoln advertised with a partner—Lincoln & Reader: “Four or five Journeymen Tailors will find steady employment, by applying to the subscribers immediately”; became a fire warden in December; 1839 City Directory: tailor and clothier, 156 Lake St. [Reader`s identity is not known; eds.] [145] [12]

Lincoln`s Coffee-House  as reported by [see] J.D. Bonnell, a popular drinking establishment near a corner of Wells Street, N of the river, in the winter of 1835-36. [The editors could not establish the identity of the owner, who frequently ran down wolves when sighted on the prairie, on his fast gray horse.]

Linctot, Daniel Maurice Godfroy de  born c.1730, probably at Detroit; his father had been a respected officer in the French army in Canada, his mother also French; Cahokia trader who became an Indian agent for the Americans and a major under George Rogers Clark during the Revolutionary War, when military maneuvers brought him to Chicago, probably more than once; contemporary of Jean Baptiste Point de Sable, and acquainted with him; prepared a manuscript map of the Great Lakes. [69] [559]

Lindsley, A.B.  also Lindsay; government agent sent from Fort Wayne to Fort Dearborn in the summer of 1822 as a guide for [see] Charles C. Trowbridge and to close out the factory under Jacob Varnum and sell its holdings; for the goods in stock, valued at nearly $16,000, Lindsley realized only $1,250; also see United States Factory System. [679a] [559]

liquor  see trade goods.

Liscom, Margaret Ellen Kinzie  (Mar. 3, 1836-Mar. 7, 1909) born at Fort Dearborn; youngest child of [see] James and Leah (née See) Kinzie; in 1837 she was taken with older brother John by her parents to Racine, WI, where her mother died; she matured under her grandfather [see] Rev. William See`s tutelage there and married James M. Liscom on Jan. 27, 1857; they had four children: Jennie (Mrs. Thomas W. Brown), Edwin M., Fred, and Bert; by 1870 the family had resettled at Heyworth, IL. Articles in the Bloomington newspaper, The Pantagragh, in the years 1892, 1896, and at her death in 1909 celebrated her as “being the first white child born in the city of Chicago after its incorporation.” The Town of Chicago, incorporated in August 1833, was incorporated as a City on March 4, 1837. [179a]

Lisle, IL    village SW of Chicago along what is now Ogden Avenue. Settlement began in 1832 with the brothers James C. and Luther Hatch; by 1834 the settlement had its own post office under Postmaster John Thompson, who conducted business from his home. In 1840, Mark Beaubien bought farmland from William Sweet and a cabin, living there and also opening a tavern within; the building still exists and the Beaubien family cemetery is nearby.

Little Fort  an historically unsubstantiated French fort at Waukegan was actually near Milwaukee as noted in a 1779 ship`s log and other 18th century documents. In circa June 1790 the Surveyor of and Secretary of Northwest Territory Winthrop Sargent interviewed [see] Jean Baptiste Maillet regarding the northern course of the Illinois River and Indian encampments beyond Milwaukee. In his report he noted “… [page 11] Upon the West Side of Lake Mischigan thirty Leagues from Chicago [north of Milwaukee] is an Indian Village of __ 25 more Putawatimas, Wiscan is their Chief & a good Indian. 2 Leagues North from this to the little Fort where there is a Village of __ 20 Ottawas & Cortereils—Black Beard [Bear] the Chief. ….” The name was changed to Waukegan in 1847, with wâkiegan meaning `house` or `fort` in Ojibwa, particularly a white man`s dwelling. In [see] Father Gravier`s c.1696 dictionary, wakagamiwi means `bay`, which is present at Waukegan. The Algonquin word waku means `bent`. Lincoln Avenue leading toward Waukegan, was once an Indian trail formerly called Little Fort Road. Also see Petit Fort. [Ohio Historical Society, Box 3 folder 9; 649] [456b]

Little Turtle  (c.1747-1812) Michikiniqua, also Mechecunnaqua [mihshihkinaahkwa, the Miami-Illinois word for `painted terrapin` is literally`big turtle`]; Miami Indian chief and renowned orator, born near Fort Wayne, IN; in 1782 abducted and raised 12 year old William Wells, who later became his son-in-law; devised the strategy that led to the defeat of General Harmar in 1790, when Indians resisted the infiltration of the Northwest by settlers; the Indian victory was short-lived and, within five years, Gen. Anthony Wayne defeated the Indians and forced the signing of the 1795 Treaty of Greenville. During the negotiations Little Turtle denied the existence of a former “fort” at Chicago, as recited in the treaty; he said, “we have never heard of it,” the authoritative refutation of a persistent myth. Little Turtle always abided by this treaty, and did not join forces with Tecumseh in the War of 1812; died on July 14. [12, 456b, 708] [464c]

Little Woods    local term for the forested area on the E side of south branch of the Chicago River.

Littleton, J.  one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

Littleton, Samuel    voted on July 24, 1830 [see Chronology].

Livingston, Eliza  see Plympton, Capt. Joseph.

Livingston, John R.  arrived from New York in 1835; in October signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; 1839 City Directory: real estate agent, boarded at Lake House.

livre  former French monetary unit and a silver coin, later replaced by the franc. Point de Sable sold his Chicago house and associated property in 1800 for 6,000 livres, then the equivalent of $1,200.

lizard mound  of Chicago; see Hopewell Indians.

Llewellyn  also El-Lewellyn; a schooner mastered by Captain Howe in June 1834 when [see] William Payne contracted to transport men and sawmill equipment to [see] Shipwagen; newly introduced in late May 1835 as Llewellyn and plied as a packet boat between David Carver`s pier at Chicago and Calvin Britain`s pier at St. Joseph throughout the season until October, carrying passengers and merchandise; piloted by Captain Clark beginning June 23, then Captain Howe beginning July 25, the vessel called 17 times that year.

Lloyd, Alexander  see Loyd, Alexander.

Lobbeke, Friedrich  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1832. [342]

Locker, Frederick  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted April 1810; killed in action at the massacre of 1812. [226]

Lockwood, Samuel Drake  (1789-1874) served as Illinois Supreme Court justice from 1825-1848; street name: Lockwood Avenue (5300 W). [12]

log houses  log houses prior to 1828, all cabins or houses constructed by early Chicago settlers were made out of locally cut and roughly hewn logs; this is true also for the first and the second Fort Dearborn, built in 1803 and 1816, respectively. Initially, the French-Canadian method of construction predominated, probably an adaptation of the Huron method. Typically, the structure had a peaked roof for better run-off, covered with thatch or bark shingles. Construction called for planting the logs used for the walls of the cabin vertically into the ground, chinked with grass and mud mortar. The fireplace was centrally located. The more elaborate version had a piazza running along the front (as in the Point de Sable/Kinzie house) or encircling the entire building (examples may still be seen in Ste. Genevieve, MO). These structures had a short life span, due to the easy access of soil moisture to the wood, with early onset of rot. Interestingly, Jean Baptiste Point de Sable built his Chicago log house (the later Kinzie house) in c.1784 with the logs horizontally arranged, as shown on the 1808 Fort Dearborn draft prepared by Capt. John Whistler [see map with entry Kinzie House chronology]. Later houses were built with logs set on a stone foundation and arranged horizontally. The floors of log cabins and much of the furniture were made of [see] puncheons, as was the stockade of Fort Dearborn. Beginning in 1828, the construction of frame houses was introduced and soon became the dominant method of building construction. Also see entry on “balloon frame” construction, first used in Chicago in the early 1830s. [344]

Logan, Hugh  U.S. Army private of Irish extraction at Fort Dearborn under Captain Heald; enlisted in May 1806; taken prisoner by Indians at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and killed later in the day. [708] [226]

Logan, James  a British agent, sent into the Illinois country in 1718 by Sir William Keith, royal governor of Pennsylvania, to survey French routes in the West, knowledge of which might later prove useful to the British; he reported only ruins of a fort at Chicago. [12] [441]

Logan, John  the name of a postmaster whom Alexis Clermont remembers delivering mail to at Chicago during the Black Hawk War in 1832; possibly a military man then occupying Fort Dearborn who has not yet been identified [eds.]. [147]

Logan, Stephen T.    judge of the October 1835 term of the Circuit Court of Cook County, held at the Presbyterian church; presided over about 100 civil cases that were divided among 25 or 30 members of the bar.

Lolliet, Emma  see Brookfield, William.

London, England  seat of jurisdictional control over Chicago and the Midwest from 1763 until 1796. For details, see Chicago jurisdiction. [544]

Long Knives  `Big Knives` in Shawnee, She-manese; in Potawatomi, Chemokemon [these are the singular forms; the plural forms are Shemanese-aki and Che-mokemon-og]; by these terms the Indians referred to the United States soldiers, especially the officers (referring to their swords) and the Virginians. [649] [456b]

Long Portage Road    see Portage Trail.

Long, Lt. Edwin Ramsay    from North Carolina; Second Infantry; served as brevet second lieutenant at Fort Dearborn from June 17, 1832, to May 15, 1833, under Capt. William Whistler; died in 1846.

Long, Maj. Stephen Harriman  (1784-1864) from New Hampshire; graduate of Dartmouth College and professor of mathematics at West Point from 1815 to 1818; as major within the U.S. Corps of Topographical Engineers and acting engineer of fortifications, he was sent by Secretary of War William H. Crawford to explore the route of the proposed Illinois & Michigan Canal in September 1816; in the process, and traveling by way of Michigan City around the lower end of the lake, he visited the recently rebuilt Fort Dearborn, where Capt. H. Bradley was in command, and then made a manuscript map of the “Illenois River” [see detail of map in Maps] that in March 1817 accompanied a report submitted to George Graham, then acting secretary of war: “… a canal uniting the waters of the Illinois, with those of Lake Michigan, may be considered the first in importance of any in this quarter of the country, and, at the same time, the construction of it would be attended with very little expense, compared with the magnificence of the object.” On June 5, 1823, he revisited Fort Dearborn (then under the command of Lt. Col. John McNeil), this time with an expedition to explore the valleys of the Red and Minnesota rivers and the border country between the former river and Lake Superior, described by the expedition`s historian-geologist-mineralogist William H. Keating [see Bibliography]; also with him were Thomas Say as entomologist, Samuel Seymour as artist, and J. Edward Colhoun as topographer and astronomer; they stayed at the fort until June 11; street name: Long Avenue (5400 W). [12, 394, 437, 681] [682]

Loomis, Horacio G.  born c.1814 in Burlington, VT; came on May 3, 1834; joined his cousins Charles and Issac Harmon in their store to form the “mercantile business Harmon, Loomis & Co.” [see 1835 ad in the Chicago American]; was a member of the fire engine company No.1 (“Fire Kings”) in December 1835 [see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, with entry on firefighting]; 1839 City Directory: (Harmon & Loomis), SW corner of Clark and South Water streets; in 1848 became a charter director of the Chicago Board of Trade, and in 1851 served on the board of the Chicago City Hydraulic Company; lived in Naperville in 1879, but by 1885 lived in New York; street name: Loomis Street (1400 W). [12] [351]

Loomis, Roxanna Marie  see Wentworth, John.

Loomis, Welthyan  see Harmon, Dr. Elijah D.

Loraine  sloop built at Black River, OH, in 1834; called at Chicago first under Captain Kimball on Aug. 25, 1834, then under Captain Johnson on Aug. 10, 1835.

Losier, Oliver  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; likely [see] Lozier, Oliver. [319]

Louis XIV of France  (1638-1715) the Sun King; his long reign lasted from 1643 to 1715; from 1682 on he formally ruled Chicagoland from Versailles, as part of the French colony of New France, with Quebec as its capital.

Louisiana Province  the territory was claimed for France by [see] La Salle on April 9, 1682, when his expedition reached the mouth of the Mississippi River; in accordance with international custom of the time, the claim included the entire Mississippi basin and the draining systems of its tributary rivers and therefore included parts of what is now metropolitan Chicago. Louisiane became a colony in 1699 when [see] d`Iberville, sailing from France, arrived at the mouth of the Mississippi and built the first settlement called Fort Maurepas (Fort Biloxi) at present Ocean Springs, MS; in 1702, the small community was moved to Fort Louis on Mobile Bay, and in 1706 d`Iberville`s brother de Bienville became the first governor of the colony [see governors]. In 1713, the French government granted a 15-year lease for development and exploitation of the entire colony to a rich merchant, Antoine Crozat, whose expectations of large gold and copper mines and of lucrative trade with Mexico were, however, soon disappointed; in August 1717 he surrendered his lease to the Duc d`Orleans, French regent since the death of Louis XIV (1715). The following month an association called La Companie d`Orient (also Banque GénéralCompanie des Indes, Louisiana Company, Company of the West, and Company of the Colonies) was formed in Paris. John Law, a shrewd and unscrupulous adventurer from Scotland who had become a Paris banker and friend of the regent, controlled the company that obtained a charter to last for 25 years. Granted extensive privileges that included the printing of paper money (produced in huge amounts) and a monopoly of the tobacco trade, Law also imported the first black slaves to Louisiana and attracted European settlers, among them many Germans. For a short time, France was carried away by a wave of speculation in Mississippi stocks, but in 1720 the “Mississippi bubble” burst and Law, losing his hold on the company, fled to France; living in obscurity, he died at Venice (1729). In 1722, the regent placed control of the company in the hands of three commissioners, who continued to encourage agricultural development, and the seat of government was moved from Mobile to New Orleans the next year. In 1731, the company surrendered its charter and Louisiana became a royal province of France; in 1732, de Bienville again became governor with full powers. All along, the Chicago portage was the essential travel link between Louisiane and the older French colony of [see] Nouvelle France, and the resident traders of the small Chicago village benefited from its strategic location. When France lost the French and Indian War in 1763, it was forced to cede all its possessions in North America to England, except that the portion of Louisiane west of the Mississippi became Spanish. In 1800 Spain, by a treaty which was never published, ceded its holdings back to France, from which it was acquired by the United States through the Louisiana Purchase in 1803. For additional details, see jurisdiction and the Chronology section for the year 1699. [431, 438] [665]

Louvigny, Louis de la Porte, Sieur de  (1662-1725) French officer under the command of Frontenac who first arrived in Nouvelle France as early as 1682. He was sent to Mackinac with a relieving contingent of soldiers in 1690, and served there as commander of the fort until 1694, when Great Lakes Indians threatened to rebel against the French; was followed at that post by Cadillac; in the following years Louvigny, together with his fellow officer Sieur d`Aillebout de Mantet, carried on the work begun by La Salle; their joint memoir was published by Margry [see Bibliography] and includes a 1697 map [Service historique de la Marine, Vincennes] of the Mississippi showing all forts for which La Salle had been responsible, as well as the fort at Chicagou built in 1693 by Mantet [shown here is the Illinois River and Lake Michigan detail of this map]. In 1700 he commanded at Fort Frontenac, served at Trois Riviére and Quebec as a major, and in 1703 was at Detroit as an officer in the garrison under Cadillac; in 1716 led an expedition against the Fox Indians and during his absence was appointed lieutenant-governor of Canada; died in a shipwreck near Louisburg on Aug. 27, 1725. He was the brother-in-law of Daniel Greysolon du Luth, after whom the city of Duluth was named. [448, 559, 681, 682; Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections 34:316-17] [718]

Love, Eunice  see Ament, John Viele.

Lovett, Joseph  (1789-1855) born in New London, CT; came in 1833 and filed a claim in Jefferson Township near John K. Clark; returned to Chicago with his wife Lydia (née Crouch) and family in 1835; Joseph Lovett School, 6333 W Bloomingdale Avenue. [278]

Lovett, Julia  see Merrill, George.

Low, Juliette Gordon  Juliette Low (1860-1927), who preferred to be called “Daisy”, was a great-granddaughter of [see] John Kinzie (1763-1828) and his second wife Eleanore Lytle (1771-1634). She visited England in 1912, learned of and became enthusiastic about the British Girl Scout organization, and upon her return to the United States formed the first Girl Scout group in her native country, including the production of Girl Scout cookies.
Her grandparents of the Kinzie line were John Harris Kinzie (1803-1865) and Juliette Magill (1806-1870), her parents William Washington Gordon II (1834-1912) and Eleanore Lytle Kinzie (June 18, 1835-1917). In 1865 Daisy came to live with her grandparents John Harris and Juliette Kinzie in Chicago for a period of eight months. Daisy married William Mackay Low ( -1905). In 1948 the United States government issued a postage stamp honoring her as the first American Girl Scout pioneer. [438b]

Lowe, James M.  arrived from Massachusetts in 1834; 1839 City Directory: clerk, circuit court clerk`s office; served as city clerk in 1843; charter member of the Reformed Presbyterian Church in 1845. [12] [733]

Lowe, Samuel J.  arrived from England in 1834 with his wife and at least one child, Samuel J. Lowe, Jr.; 1839 City Directory: high constable, deputy-sheriff [until 1842], 125 Clark St.; his first wife Roxana L. died in 1839, and on Dec. 30, 1841, he married Eliza J. Beattie; member of the board of the Mechanics` Institute in 1848; died in 1850. [12] [97]

Lowry, Martha Jane  see Abell, Sidney.

Loy, Andrew  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted in July 1807; was killed in action at the Fort Dearborn massacre. [708] [226]

Loyd, Alexander  (1805-Apr. 11, 1871) also Lloyd; Irish, born in Orange County, NY; came in 1833 and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; during the third election of town trustees in June 1835, he was one of eight elected [with the first initial E., not A.]. In November 1837 he was the chief engineer of the fire department; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and builder, 51 Wells st. Loyd was elected the 4th mayor (Democrat) on Mar. 3, 1840; 1843 City Directory: carpenter and builder, (A. Loyd, H[arvey] A. Blakesley, and Henry Norton), res 52 Wells. Loyd, Blakesley & Co. lists as “dry goods and groceries, 101 Lake.” The 1844 Chicago Directory lists Lloyd as “builder, of L., Blakesley & Co. res Wells b Lake and Randolph sts” and also as Lloyd, Blakesley & Co. dry goods and gro, 101 Lake st ( See card ): “Wholesaler and Retail Dealers in GROCERIES, NAILS, GLASS, SHOES, LEATHER, &C.; [same address and names] Cash paid for Wheat.” In 1867 he lived at 277 W. Monroe and later moved with his wife to West Lyons; He and his wife both died in 1871; they were survived by four children. [319, 435a, 728] [12]

Lozier, Oliver  arrived in 1833 from New York; as per notice in the Chicago American of Aug. 15, 1835, he filed for divorce from his first wife Olive, who did not appear in court on October 12; on March 18, 1836, advertised a rifleshop “nearly opposite New York House;” on June 1, 1837, married Mary Ann Topley; 1839 City Directory: painter and glazier, corner of Canal and Jackson street; likely also [see] Losier, Oliver.

Lozon, Clemon and Morice  see Lauzon, Clement and Maurice.

Lucanus elaphus F.  giant stag beetle, the largest of the North American staghorn beetles, the males growing up to six cm (2 3/8 inches) in length; once common in northern Illinois; needs decaying oak trunks for the larvae to mature; lacking such, it disappeared from the Chicago region during the first half of the 20th century. The photo accompanying this entry shows a specimen from Dr. Danckers` collection.

Lucas, Fielding, Jr.  son of a publisher; bookseller in Baltimore who published in 1823 the General Atlas Containing District Maps of all the Known Countries in the World which included, five years after statehood, an Illinois county map. Chicago then existed at the eastern end of the long panhandle of Pike County; N of the settlement the land, undivided, still belonged to the Indians.

Luce, Mary  see Ament, Edward Glenn.

Lucier, Charles  made small purchases at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on April 27, 1827; his wife was Isabelle (née Plante); on Oct. 28, 1830, his daughter Marie Isabelle was baptized in Chicago. Charles received $75 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833 and is listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took that same year. [12, 319]

Lucinda  schooner transporting lumber, merchandise, and passengers between Chicago and St. Joseph in 1834 under Capt. Robert Hugunin; its first Chicago call, from Oswego, NY, was on June 18; eight more calls followed that year, and after the last one on Aug. 17 the ship departed for French Creek, NY. [Captain Hugunin returned to Chicago with the Jefferson on Nov. 19, 1834.]

Ludby & Adams  a soap and candle manufactory; see Ludby, John and Adams, George. [135]

Ludby, John  (-Jan. 24, 1872) arrived from England in 1834 and, together with William Bennet, acquired the SE quarter of Section 32 in Township 40 N, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; in addition, on his own acquired 80 acres in Section 32 of Township 39. Partnered [see] George Adams in Ludby & Adams until Adams` death on Sept. 1, 1835; later that month on the 30th he advertised in the Chicago Democrat a Soap & Candle Manufactory on Lake Street, “a few doors above the New York House”; on hand he kept “Sperm and Dip`d. Candles of the first quality. Also, Hard and Soft Soap, Neats Foot Oil, which he will sell for cash, or exchange for Ashes, Grease or Fat, on the most reasonable terms”; in late November 1835, he submitted a deposition in support of his claim for wharfing privileges, while [see] William Ludby, J[ames] H. Collins, William Saltonstile and Thomas Stannig all filed affidavits in favor of his claim. In the 1843 Chicago Directory Ludby listed as “soap and candle maker, South Branch, 3 miles south”; he died at age 78. [12, 135] [28]

Ludby, William  see Ludby, John.

Lumbard, Hiram  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

lumber mills  see mills.

Lupton, Benjamin  born in England in 1817; came to America in 1831 and to Chicago late in 1833, where he apprenticed himself to the blacksmith Mathias Mason; remained with him three years, returning to England to marry Mary Arrowsmith; returned with his bride and settled at Dutchman`s Point [Niles], opened the first blacksmith shop in 1840 and worked there for over 20 years.

Lutra canadensis  see river otter.

Lyceum    see Chicago Lyceum.

Lynch, James A.  enlisted at Fort Dearborn for three years as a private on Nov. 22, 1833; deserted on Oct. 22, 1836. [708]

Lynch, Michael  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted in December 1805; wounded badly and taken prisoner by Indians at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812; killed for inability to keep up the following day en route to the Illinois River. [226]

lynx  Felis lynx, also known by the scientific name Lynx canadensis; similar to the bobcat, Felis rufus. Lynxes were common in Wisconsin, but have also been included on lists of mammals formerly found in Cook County. [“Helping Wildlife and Wild Places Adapt to a Changing Planet,” America’s Wilderness Summer 2009; 341, 398bb]

Lynx canadensis  alternate scientific name for Felis lynx.

Lyon, Hiram  a farmer, born at Cartwright, NY; enlisted in the army for three years at age 25 at Albany, NY, on September 23, 1834; as listed in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American he was one of 15 deserters from the Fort Dearborn Garrison between January 1 and July 28, prior to the withdrawal of all troops on December 29 that year. He deserted on July 26 and a reward of $450 was offered for his apprehension. (Chicago Genealogy Club, v. 2, no. 1, September 1969)

Lyon, Lucius  United States Surveyor from Detroit; surveyed the boundary line between unceded land and land ceded by the Potawatomi, Chippewa, and Ottawa tribes at the Treaty of Prairie du Chien, July 26, 1829; the survey map was made soon after ratification in 1830 under the direction of Secretary of War Hon. J.H. Eaton; Lyon later became the first senator from the State of Michigan. [319, 681] [682]

Lyon, Matilda  see Dodge, William, Jr.

Lyon, William P.  placed several ads in the Chicago Democrat and the Chicago American in July and August of 1835 to advertise his intended wholesale grocery that opened Sept. 1 on South Water Street near the drawbridge; his stock included a “large and well selected assortment of GROCERIES; comprising a general variety of Wines, Teas, Sugars, Coffee, &c.;”; on Sept. 12 he advertised “Boots & Shoes. A few pair of gentlemen`s superior waterproof boots lined with India Rubber.”

Lyons, IL  an early community on the Des Plaines River SW of Chicago, although not incorporated until 1888; already well known in 1834, when it was described in a gazetteer (according to Benedetti) as follows: “Lyons is a town site on the Des Plaines at Laughton`s old trading house, twelve miles west of Chicago. It has a saw mill, three houses and a tavern.” The Laughton brothers were the first to homestead here in 1827; they also built the tavern. They were attracted to the ford that accommodated the crossing of the Old Portage Trail; it soon became known as Laughtons` ford. The saw mill was built by Stephen Forbes in the early 1830s and stood on the E side of Riverside Ford; it changed hands several times and burned down near the end of the century, when it was known as Dr. Fox`s Mill. [12] [51]

Lytle, Eleanor  see McKillip, Daniel; see Kinzie, John.

Lytle, John and Sarah  also Little; John Kinzie`s second set of parents-in-law, the parents of Eleanor Lytle Kinzie [see Kinzie family tree] and Margaret Lytle Forsyth, wife of William, Jr.

Lytle, Margaret  see Forsyth, William, Sr. His son William, Jr., was Margaret Lytle`s husband.