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Sa-naw-waw-ne  Indian war chief in 1812, leading the attack on Fort Dearborn. [546a]

Sabin, Martha  see Sabin, Sylvanus; see Howard, Alexander Hamilton.

Sabin, Sylvanus  (July 20, 1783-Sept. 4, 1838) born in Monson, MA; in May 1810 at Middlebury, NY, he married Marcy Stanton (Hartland, VT May 3, 1788-Nov. 10 1874), daughter of Phineas II and Esther Gallup Stanton. In Wyoming County, NY, the couple had four children: Alira (March 1812-May 14, 1834; Mrs. Hezekiah Smith), Martha (Feb. 26, 1814-Dec. 13, 1891 Joliet, IL; Mrs. [see] Alexander Hamilton Howard), Lucy (July 3, 1818-Nov. 27, 1888; Mrs. Adial S. Jones), and Albert S. (Oct. 20, 1821-Apr. 13, 1903 Hinsdale, IL). The family came W to farm in 1833 and settled at Naper`s Settlement. [593a]

Sabine, William A.  first advertised in the June 8, 1835 Chicago American as a “Storage, Forwarding & Commission Merchant” [see ad], then specifying the following week: “30 bbls. Cider – A prime article”; continued weekly to advertise new assorted goods; also worked that summer at David Carver’s pier, scheduling passengers and unloading or loading freight that was shipped on the Llewellyn between Chicago and St. Joseph; he then got into real estate business as shown by an ad of Aug. 10, 1835, in the Chicago American; 1839 City Directory: Sabine & Co., North Water; boarding house, 161 Lake St., upstairs.

Sac Indians  abbreviated corruption of Sauk or Ou-sa-ki; see Sauk Indians.

Sacagawea  (c.1788-1812) a young Shoshone Indian woman, member of the [see] Lewis and Clark expedition; born and lived in Idaho. When approximately 12 years old, she was captured and later adopted by Indians from the Hidatsa tribe of North Dakota, and was raised at the Hidatsa-Mandan villages near today’s town of Bismarck; by the summer of 1804 Sacagawea was married to the French trader Toussaint Charbonneau. Lewis and Clark needed translators with knowledge of western Indian languages and therefore engaged both Toussaint and Sacagawea as members of the expedition in 1804. Sacagawea was pregnant, and on February 11, 1805, she gave birth to a healthy baby boy, Jean Baptist Charbonneau, at Fort Mandan. Her services to Lewis and Clark were highly valued, especially when it came to negotiations with the Hidatsa for horses desperately needed to cross the Rocky Mountains: she would translate Hidatsa to Shoshone, Toussaint from Shoshone to French, and François Labiche, another member of the Corps, from French to English. She further served as a valued guide when the expedition traveled through parts of her homeland. In 1812, six years after the expedition, Sacagawea had a second child, named Lisette Toussaint. Most historians believe that Sacagawea died on Dec. 22, 1812, of a disease while with her husband at Fort Manuel, a Missouri Fur Company trading post in present-day South Dakota. In gratitude to Sacagawea, and eight months after her death, Lt. Clark adopted both Jean Baptist and Lisette and arranged for their future education.

Sackett, Joshua S.  joined Captain Hogan’s Cook County volunteer company as private on May 24, 1832 during the Black Hawk scare; built the first log house and built a hotel on the Barry Point Road in Lyons Township; acquired prior to 1836 the eastern half of the NW quarter of Section 32 of Township 40 N, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; in 1885 lived in Garden Prairie, Boone County, Illinois. [12, 51, 51a, 278, 714]

sagamité  Montagnais Indian word for a soup made by boiling “Indian wheat” [corn] in maple syrup. [464c]

Saganashkee Slough  Algonquin word implying either ‘English-land’ or ‘English grass’; also Sauganash, Ausagonosh-kee, Ausoganashkee; also known as Grass Lake, the Pass, and the Sag, the swamp is an arm of the Des Plaines River that occupied the southern part of the former glacial outlet of Lake Chicago; rising and falling lake levels during the last 12,000 years have rendered “the sag” alternatingly with an eastward current, then a westward current, and often with no current; lower lake levels about 3,500 years ago caused the separation of the sag swamps from the headwaters of Stony Creek—N of Lanes Island—and of the sloughs near Tinley Creek, also known as Batchelors Grove Creek—S of Lanes Island. The area is thought to have been the site of possible European military encampments, both French and British, during their respective periods of dominance. For a pre-1836 bridge across an arm of the Saganashkee Swamp, see entry for bridges and ferries. Much of the Saganashkee Slough has survived as part of the Palos Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District, where this prehistoric outlet of Lake Chicago can be visited (see Monuments). [456b]

Saginaw  Algonquin, mouth of the river; street name: Saginaw Avenue (2638 E).

sailing vessels  the era of large sailboats on Lake Michigan began in 1679 with Le Griffon, built for La Salle; they alone crisscrossed the lakes until 1818 when Walk-in-the-Water became the first steamboat on Lake Erie. Fort Dearborn and the settlement were visited by two to three ships per year, rarely more, throughout the spring and fall, while coastal small-boat transportation was used during the other seasons. Preserved letters of the St. Joseph trader William Burnett reveal that as early as 1786 it was not unusual for sailing ships from Mackinac to stop at Chicago, although most commerce along the shores of Lake Michigan was carried out by canoe or bateau. Among the few ships that are known to have come to Chicago by 1835, are the Felicity in 1779; the Tracy in 1803; the Adams and the May with multiple visits from 1804 to 1810; the General Hunter in 1805; the Dover and the Ranger in 1807; the Contractor in 1805 and 1808; the Salina and the Ellenor [the correct spelling could be Eleanoreds.] in 1809; the General Wayne and the Ghent in 1816; the TigerHeartless, and the Baltimore in 1817; the Hercules in 1817 and 1818; the Jackson and the Fairplay in 1819; the Pilot in 1825; the Young Tiger and the Sheldon in 1826; the Savage in 1828, the Napoleon in 1830, 1831, and 1833; the Marshal Ney in 1830 and 1832; the Telegraph and the Marengo in 1831; the Dart in 1832; the Austerlitz, the David Carver, and the Westward Ho in 1833, 1834 and 1835; the General Harrison, the LaGrange in 1833 and 1834; the El-Lewellyn, the Nancy Dousman, and the Jefferson in 1834; the Detroit, the Hiram, the Jesse Smith, the Illinois, and the Huron in 1834 and 1835; and the Swan, the Henry Roop, the John Grant, the United States, the Illinois, the Benjamin Franklin, and the Chance in 1835 [see individual vessels for captains and exact visiting dates, where available]. The Clarissa was the first sailing ship built at Chicago and was launched in 1836. In 1833, only two brigs and two schooners arrived from the lower lakes; in 1834, 176 vessels came (among them the Illinois and the Phillip, first and second to sail into the new harbor beyond Dearborn Street bridge). In 1835 about 250 ships entered the Chicago harbour [including multiple arrivals of the same ships], and in 1836, by December 1, 456 ships had come, 39 of which were steamboats. See individual entries for various vessels. Also see steamships, and boats. [Chicago American] [404]

Saint Ange, Pilette de  see “La Compt, Madam.”

Saint Augustine, FL  settlement in Florida, founded by Pedro Menédez de Avilés in 1565; oldest permanent European settlement in North America, and capital of Spain’s territorial claim that stretched N to Newfoundland; in theory, the Chicago region was under the jurisdiction of St. Augustine for part of the 16th century. See jurisdiction.

Salienne  Potawatomi métis youth of about 14 in 1812 who lived near Fort Dearborn, possibly with the Riley brothers, and occasionally served as interpreter at the fort; was in the procession when the fort evacuation got underway, but survived the massacre of 1812 by joining the Indians at the beginning of hostilities. [226]

Salina  a private schooner; visited Chicago in 1809; confiscated by the British military during the 1812 war, but later recaptured by the U.S. Navy. [441b]

Salisbury, Stephen Milburn  born in 1796 at Weymouth, MA; married Eliza Bagley on Sept. 1, 1831, and nine days later left with his wife for Chicago; noted in a journal the steady course of travel by horse and wagon until Sept. 28: “At daylight we started again and arrived at the ferry across the grand Calimine about sunrising at which place we took breakfast. Went on again and reached Chicago a little before Sun setting & put up at Mr. Grave’s in the Fort which is called Fort Dearborn.” The couple soon after moved to farmland at Wheeling where they would raise a family; enlisted as sergeant in Napier’s company during the Black Hawk War; in several Chicago Democrat announcements he officiated in marriages, presumably as justice of the peace. [714] [12]

sally port  first Fort Dearborn soldiers’ term for the tunnel they dug from the storehouse in the NE corner of the stockade to an underground room at the river bank, containing a water well; meant to assure access to water in case of a prolonged siege.

Saloon Building  three-story brick building erected in 1836 by Capt. J.B.F. Russell and George W. Doan at the SE corner of Clark and Lake streets, then the largest hall W of Buffalo devoted to public meetings and serving as city hall for the first five years; see Monuments section. [It was named after the French salon, meaning ‘small reception hall’ or ‘meeting hall’ and not ‘drinking establishment’ – a connotation that developed in America at a later time.] [13, 456b] [12]

Salt Creek  tributary to the Des Plaines River.

Salter, John  an entry on June 16, 1804, within John Kinzie’s account book lists [John] Salter as Fort Dearborn’s shoemaker. [404]

Saltonstall, William  also Saltonstile; arrived from Michigan in 1835 and petitioned on Nov. 21 for wharfing privileges; 1839 City Directory: fish dealer, W Madison Street; wife Mary died in 1839, according to notice in Daily American. He later married Sarah Aikens. [243, 351] [28]

Sambli, Arkash  corrupted name for [see] Mann, Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé.

Sampler  a class of decorative pieces of needlework which were traditionally stitched on linen with colored silk or cotton threads by young girls between the ages of 6 and 16 years in households or schools from about 1700 to 1850 in this country. Many contain alphabetic lettering, often enhanced by idyllic pictures or biblical themes. Such samplers, some produced in early Chicago, can be found in museums and private collections. The example shown here, 32” square, was made by 12 year old Alice Mary Beaubien, granddaughter of [see] Mark Beaubien. For another example, see the entry on Wallece, Ann. [394”]

Sand Ridge  early name for a settlement along the Michigan City Road S of the Calumet River [Riverdale]. Locations called Sand Ridge can be found both S and NW of downtown Chicago; the names refer to the long sandy beach ridges created by various stages of early Lake Chicago. Indian trails followed the ridge and early pioneer cabins were built atop to avoid the moisture of the surrounding swamps. The oldest sand ridges were formed during the [see] Glenwood phase; the most prominent during the Calumet phase. In Calumet City, IL, this once prominent geological feature—formed during the Tolleston phase—is memorialized by the names Sand Ridge Nature Center and Sand Ridge Prairie, both representing parts of the Thorn Creek Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District (see Monuments). Another known Sand Ridge was N at Jefferson on which Elijah Wentworth, Sr., established Wentworth Hotel in 1836. [604b] [13]

sandhill crane  Grus canadensis; in earlier days was frequently seen in the area, as reported by David McKee, a resident along the Chicago River from 1823 to 1832: “Excellent fish abounded in it, and over it hovered wild geese, ducks and sandhill cranes in vast flocks, and pelicans and swans were sometimes seen”; now an uncommon migrant and rare summer resident in northern Illinois. [64]

Sanford, Rathburn  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Sanitary Drainage and Ship Canal  completed in 1900, it was a successor to the Illinois & Michigan Canal (construction of which was started in 1836); it was the Sanitary Drainage and Ship Canal that, on completion, constantly reversed the flow of the Chicago River. Each canal is a separate entity, the two partially paralleling each other, and both following the course of the prehistoric natural Chicago outflow of the southern end of glacial Lake Chicago through the Des Plaines valley, connecting the Great Lakes with the Mississippi River system by way of the Illinois River.

Sansamani  Winnebago chief, participant in the Fort Dearborn massacre; survived. [226]

Sanson d’Abbeville, Nicolas  (1600-1667) influential cartographer and founder of the great French school of cartography of the 17th century; as tutor to Louis XIV and Géographe du Roi he had access to the records of the royal court and of the Jesuits, detailing exploration and conquest of North America. In 1650, he published the first map of New France to show all five Great Lakes (more maps would follow); California is shown as an island. In 1673, Jolliet and Father Marquette carried his 1656 map of Florida with them on their trip to the Mississippi River valley; see Maps section.

Sargent, Gov. Winthrop  (May 1, 1753-June 3, 1820) born in Gloucester, MA; son of Winthrop and Judith (née Saunders) Sargent; graduated from Harvard College, then became captain of a merchant ship owned by his father in 1771; with the outbreak of the revolution he enlisted in a MA Artillery regiment in July 1775 and by December was a captain lieutenant in another regiment of the Continental Artillery, fighting with his guns first at the siege of Boston, then within ensuing major battles; was promoted to captain in January 1777 and brevetted major on Aug. 25, 1783. By 1786 he was surveying townships in (now) eastern Ohio, under Gen. Rufus Putnam, and appointed Surveyor of the Northwest territory (beyond the Ohio River) by Congress, helping to survey the first lands laid out in the Land Ordinance of 1785; with inside knowledge of the area he formed the Ohio Company of Associates, its secretary in 1787; that year he was appointed by the Congress of the Confederation as the first secretary of the North West Territory, beginning service with [see] Gov. Arthur St. Clair in 1788; at Marietta in 1789 he married Roewena, daughter of Gen. Benjamin Tupper, in the first marriage ceremony held under the laws of the North West Territory. Sargent worked closely with Governor St. Clair and frequently served as de facto governor in his absence; served during the Indian wars in western Ohio late 1791 and in 1794-95, becoming adjunct-general; he was appointed the first governor of the Mississippi Territory on May 7, 1798, serving until removed by President Thomas Jefferson in May 1801. A Federalist, he retired from public life and developed the first plantation in Natchez; his second wife was Mary McIntosh Williams Sargent; he died in New Orleans. See Point of Oaks, also see French Peoria in the Essays section. [649, OH Historical Society {Box 3 folder 9}]

Sargents, John K.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; member of the first Baptist church, present at its organizational meeting on October 19; a John Sargent resided at Lisle in 1830. [319] [12]

Satterlee, Merritt Lawrence S.  (June 18, 1824-1904) son of John and Bela (née Blakeslee) Satterlee; born in Milford, CT; worked as clerk in Thomas Church’s grocery store on Lake Street in 1835; 1839 City Directory: clerk, Thomas Church; became partner in 1840; married Emily Twogood on Dec. 30, 1844; in 1885 lived at 2704 Michigan Avenue. [351] [12]

Sauganash  often used as the Sauganash, also Sakonosh, versions of the Algonquin word shâganâsh [meaning ‘white man’, especially ‘Englishman’] and the Ojibwa word jâganâsh [meaning ‘Englishman`, ‘Irishman’], both corrupted from the English word “English”; Sauganash is the Indian name of [see] Billy Caldwell. Sauganash School, 6040 N Kilpatrick Ave.; street names: Sauganash Avenue, Caldwell Avenue. For other spellings and applications of the word, see also Saganashkee Swamp. [456b]

Sauganash Hotel  also referred to as Sauganash Tavern; later became United States Hotel; landmark tavern that was begun in 1829 as the Eagle Exchange Tavern, owned by Mark Beaubien; originally a log cabin, it was enlarged by the addition of a two-story blue shuttered clapboard building that opened in 1831 under the name Sauganash Tavern, at the SE corner of Lake Street and Market [Wacker Drive], and became the social center of the town. Levi Osterhardt ran the Sauganash until he moved S to run George Dolton’s tavern/hotel on the Calumet River. On Aug. 10, 1833, the first town trustees were elected here. Beaubien sold the tavern to John Murphy in 1834, who renamed it United States Hotel, until his new United States Hotel on the W side of the river had been completed. From 1837 to 1839, the structure served as Chicago’s first theater under the promoters Isherwood and McKenzie, then became a hotel again under the old name Sauganash, and under a succession of owners; was destroyed by fire in 1851. At the same location stood, in later years, a building called “the Wigwam,” where Abraham Lincoln was first nominated for President; the Wigwam fell victim to the fire of 1871. See Sauganash Hotel in Monument Section for additional information. [160, 351] [12]

Sauk Indians  also Sacs, Sakis or Ou-sa-kies; Algonquian tribe that may have originally dwelt near Quebec as Black Hawk claimed; first encountered by the French near Saginaw Bay [MI]; allied with the Fox when Father Allouez encountered them in 1666-67 at Green Bay; by 1718 they had gravitated S to Rock River and were pro-British; along the Wisconsin River in 1766, where their large village on Sauk Prairie was visited and described by Jonathan Carver. Black Hawk, believing that a treaty in 1802 had tricked the tribe into selling their land E of the Mississippi, began a border war in 1831 [see entry on Black Hawk War] which involved Cook County; at its close the surviving Sauk retired to Iowa, and from there to Kansas and Oklahoma. [111, 151] [12]

Sauk Trail  also Sac or Mohawk Trail; central part of the principal E–W interregional Indian route that spanned most of the North American continent, crossing through the Calumet region from Rock Island to Detroit; the Santa Fe Trail and the Oregon Trail are western extensions; the trail coincides with portions of Indiana Highway 2, 73rd Avenue in Merrillville, Joliet Street in Schereville, then follows U.S. 30 [Lincoln Highway] proper west of its intersection with Joliet Street to just west of the Illinois/Indiana state line. Avoiding swamp land, common throughout the Calumet region, the trail followed the top of the Valparaiso moraine and the Glenwood Beach ridge. To reach the westbound part of the Sauk Trail from Fort Dearborn, the traveler would use one of two connecting trails, the first one coinciding with modern day Archer Avenue, the other with Ogden Avenue (formerly the Brush Hill Trail), reaching the Sauk Trail at Aurora. The eastbound portion could be reached by way of the Tolleston Beach Trail to Bailly’s trading post. In later years the Beach Trail from Chicago to Bailly’s and the Sauk Trail as it continued to Detroit were collectively called the Chicago Road. A portion of the Thorn Creek Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District is called the s Sauk Trail Woods (containing Sauk Trail Lake), and through it runs the Sauk Trail Road of S Chicago Heights, becoming Lincoln Highway further E (see Monuments). [604b, 699]

Sault Sainte Marie  also Sault-Ste.-Marie [Sault is now pronounced /soo/]; here a French mission was founded in 1668 by Frs. Marquette and Dablon at an Ojibwa village, later supported by a trading post; a town remains extant, the oldest permanent European settlement in Michigan.

Saulteurs  see Chippewa.

Saunders, Elizabeth  see John Campbell Rue.

Sauter, Charles and Jacob  early German immigrant brothers who came with their families in 1834; 1839 City Directory: boot and shoemakers, 212 Lake St. Charles (1802-1882) was an alderman in 1844 from the second ward; Jacob was later a member of a band with Nicholas Berdell that played for dances at John Berg’s Inn on LaSalle Street and at the “Ten Mile House” [83rd Road and Vincennes Road]. [342]

Savage, Henry W.  resident in 1835; his name was on a school-related petition signed on Sept. 19, 1835. [12]

Savage  a 30-ton schooner built for Oliver Newberry in 1827 at St. Clair, under the command of Captain Hinckley, loaded with supplies for the garrison of Fort Dearborn in the fall of 1827, was driven by contrary weather to seek shelter in the mouth of the St. Joseph River, remaining there for the winter; was the first entry of a sailing vessel into that river; presumably, cargo was delivered in the spring of 1828. [235] [118]

Saver, Dill  his real name may have been Ditlsaver, first name unknown; early member of the Catholic community; in April 1833 his name, not completely legible, was on the petition by citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319] [12]

Saw-awk  Potawatomi chief from Michigan territory; brother of [see] Chief Topenebe and father-in-law of Chief Leopold Pokagon; was in Chicago on the day of the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. [546a]

sawmills  see mills.

sawyers  some of the first sawyers, who prepared planks and boards to construct the first Fort Dearborn, were so listed in John Kinzie’s account books throughout 1804 and 1805: Otho Hayes, Richard Garner, John Suttenfield, and Corporal McCabe. [404]

Saxton, Mr.  head of several clerks working in Madore Beaubien’s store, whom Andrew J. Vieau replaced in 1835; left for Racine, Wisconsin.

Say, Thomas  the “father of descriptive entomology in America,” Say came to Chicago and Fort Dearborn on June 5, 1823, as a member of Maj. Stephen Long’s expedition to explore the Red River &c.; the report of this visit—and of the entire expedition—was written by William Keating [see Bibliography]; his major work was American Entomology, published in Philadelphia, 1824-1828; in 1826 he joined the Utopian colony at New Harmony, IN, where he died of a fever in 1834.

Sayre, Col. Caleb  (c.1778- ) always known as “Colonel”; born in Orange County, NY; settled in New Lenox Township, Will County, in c.1829, living in an Indian bark shanty; nearby in Joliet Township built the county`s first sawmill on the N side of Hickory Creek in 1832; in 1833 he partnered Mansfield Wheeler, preparing oak and walnut lumber for the first frame houses in Joliet. His nephew Charles Sayre (Nov. 30, 1812-Oct. 23, 1879), son of William and Matilda (née Fairchild) Sayre, arrived from Elizabeth Union, NJ, in 1834 and was the first tailor by trade in Joliet. [734] [692b]

Sayres, James  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Scammon, Jonathan Young  (1812-Mar. 17, 1890) born in Whitefield, ME; lawyer, arrived in Sept. 20, 1835 on the steamboat Pennsylvania from Buffalo, and on Dec. 7, 1835, replaced Henry Moore [who went into legal practice of his own] as deputy to Colonel Hamilton, the circuit court clerk; subsequently he formed a law partnership with Buckner S. Morris; assisted William Ogden in preparing the plans for the Chicago & Galena Union Railway; was a practicing Swedenborgian (New Jerusalem Church), but was initially the only one in town; in 1837 married Mary Ann Haven Dearborn of Bath, ME; 1839 City Directory: attorney and counsellor at law, 105 Lake st.; 1843 City Directory: (S. & [Norman Buel] Judd), reporter supreme court, res 91 Michigan ave; 1844 City Directory: S. & Judd, attorneys, 123 Lake st. 2d story, and J. Y. of S. & Judd, house cor. Mich. av. and Randolph. He went on to become one of the early bankers of Chicago; served as alderman in 1845; following Mary Ann’s death in 1858, he married Mrs. Maria Sheldon Wright in 1867; accumulated a large fortune but suffered great losses in the fire of 1871; lived in Hyde Park from at least 1879 on; died on Mar. 17, 1890, aged 77 years. Jonathan Y. Scammon School, 4201 W Henderson St. Also see the March, 1857, issue of Chicago Magazine. [Portrait from Chicago Magazine, 1857] [97, 136a, 243, 351, 597, 707, 728] [12]

Scarritt, Rev. Isaac  (c.1781-1861) also Scarrett; born in Connecticut; married Candace (July 6, 1785-1819), daughter of Perez and Martha Lois (née Barney) Mason, in 1806 in Grafton Country, NH; the couple had one surviving daughter, Martha Barney (Mar. 8, 1815-1884 ND; Mrs. Elihu Springer); on Oct. 10, 1821, he married Rachael Rutherford (VA 1792-) in Madison County, IL. As a Methodist Episcopal minister, he succeeded Rev. Jesse Walker as Superintendent of the Fox River Mission in 1828, and that summer visited Chicago, residing at Miller’s Tavern, where, on a Sunday evening, he conducted a religious service that was well attended by both civilians and soldiers from the fort; performed the marriage ceremony that united Archibald Clybourne and Mary Galloway on June 6, 1829, and the double ceremony for John Kinzie Clark with Permelia Scott and Willard Scott with Caroline Hawley on July 22, 1829; in 1831 built a log house at the Du Page settlement for himself, his wife and son, P.P., and kept a horse and a cow; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; in the July 30, 1834, Chicago Democrat he (of Fountaindale) is listed as a candidate for county commissioner. In 1858, he removed to his son`s home in Joliet where he lived until his death in May, 1861. [319, 734] [12]

Schadiger, John  in 1832 or 1833 Schadiger, together with [see] Julius Perren, built a rude log shanty on the N Branch of the Chicago River in Dutchman`s Grove, which is now within the limits of Niles Township. Soon afterwards, Schadiger moved to Wisconsin. [13]

Schanck, Lewis G.  (1801-1864) from New Jersey; said to have been the first settler in Lake County; in 1833 he accepted a contract to take soldiers and supplies from Chicago to Green Bay in sleighs; aided the Indian removal in 1837.

Scharf, Alfred Frederick  (1847-1929) valuable historian and amateur archaeologist, active in Chicago between 1890 and 1910, a contemporary of Charles A. Dilg; born in Saxony, Germany, and settled with his family at Peru, IL, in 1855; came to Chicago in 1864 to support his family, working in a cigar factory and news depot; continuously collected and documented Indian artifacts, noting Chicago area trails and camps on a map in 1898; written materials are within the Chicago History Museum.

Schermerhorn, John T.  with initials J.F., was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; Commissioner; signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document later in September as a witness. [319] [12]

Schlickan, Donald W.  born in Chicago in 1925; architect, historian, and artist who has lived and worked in the city throughout his life; designer of the 1982 replica of Fort Dearborn for the city. He has combined his multiple skills to accurately measure and graphically pinpoint topographical relationships between Chicago dwellings of the early 19th century and the modern metropolitan street pattern. In particular, he has determined the exact location of the outlines of both the first and the second Fort Dearborn with reference to the present Michigan Avenue bridge, improving the results of earlier studies that had been used to place historical markers into the Michigan Avenue pavement [see the Fort Dearborn listing in Monuments]. For illustrations by Schlickan, see the Home page and his blueprint for the entry Kinzie House.

Schmidt, Johann  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1835. [342]

Schmidt-Burnham Log House (Winnetka)  see McDaniel, Alexander; also see Monuments.

Schnaebele, Jacob  German immigrant in 1835, coming from Pennsylvania; became a member of the German Evangelical Association. [342]

Schneider, J.  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1832. Robin L. Einhorn [233”] reports that a John C. Schneider – possibly identical with the above – became publicly involved in the liquor debate of 1855 under Mayor Boone. [342]

Schneitmann, L.  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1835. [342]

school districts  in September 1835, there existed in Chicago two public and four private [see] schools; on Sept. 19 a petition was signed by 19 residents requesting a public meeting to consider organizing the township for school purposes. The result was the division of the town into four school districts; the boundaries of each are detailed in Andreas. [12]

School Section  the Northwest Ordinance had reserved the land value of Section 16 of each survey township for educational purposes. Chicago’s school section was the square mile area SW of the original Thompson plat and was bordered by State Street, Twelfth Street [Roosevelt Road], Madison Street, and Halsted Street; on Dec. 8, 1829, J.B. Beaubien, Archibald Clybourne, and Samuel Miller were appointed as the first trustees. First available at $18 per acre, Timothy B. Clarke chose not to acquire portions of “a low, swampy marsh, thickly set in willows, and during a large part of the year impassable to a horse.” By order of the county School Commissioner Colonel Hamilton, all but four of the 144 blocks in this section went on public sale, which occurred Oct. 20 to 24, 1833, and brought $38,865, a larger than anticipated yield. John Bates was the auctioneer [also see Chicago schools]. [734]

Schoolcraft, Henry R.  (1793-1864) native of New York; mineralogist, anthropologist, author [see extensive bibliography]; lived at Sault-Ste.-Marie and was for 20 years the U.S. Indian agent associated with Fort Brady; was married to a Chippewa; in August 1820 he came through Chicago as a member of an exploring party sent out by the secretary of war, John C. Calhoun; on Aug. 25, 1835, he was on the steamboat [see] Monroe as it arrived in Chicago coming from from Buffalo, NY, via Sault Ste. Marie. For Schoolcraft’s comment on the reproduction and printing of his sketch made at that time of the village, as seen from the lake, see below. For his description of Chicago, its vicinity and its prospects, as he saw them, see Chronology, August 1820. Schoolcraft died in Washington City. [599-604]
I took the sketch which is reproduced in the fourth volume of my Ethnological Researches, Plate xxvii [adapted by Seth Eastman], from a standpoint on the flat of sand which stretches in front of the place. The view embraces every house in the village, with the fort; and if the reproduction of the artist in volume IV may be subjected to any criticism, it is perhaps that the stockade bears too great a proportion to the scene, while the precipice, observed in the shore line of sand, is wholly wanting in the original. [12]

schoolhouse  occasionally used name for Reverend Jesse Walker’s cabin and meeting house on the W side of the north branch [SW corner of Canal and Kinzie streets]; the structure stood about 30 yards from the river bank and in early 1833 was temporarily used for school purposes [see Chicago schools].

schools  in earlier times, efforts to educate children were left to each family; in the winter 1810-11, Robert A. Forsyth, age 13, was privately engaged to teach reading to six year old John H. Kinzie with the help of a speller that had been brought from Detroit. In 1816, the retired soldier William A. Cox taught school in an old bakery shack on the Kinzie estate, and his pupils were likely the Kinzie children and three or four more from the fort. An unknown sergeant taught at the fort in 1820, and Russell Heacock did so in 1826. In 1829, Charles H. Beaubien taught the Jean Baptiste and Mark Beaubien children at a small family school near the garrison. In June 1830, Stephen Forbes and his wife Elvira were employed by Mr. Beaubien and Lieutenant Hunter of the fort and began to teach a class of about 25 children, ages 4 to 20, in a house owned by J.B. Beaubien, located at the lakeshore near the foot of Randolph Street; this arrangement lasted for about one year. Some traders could afford to send their children away for schooling; Josette Ouilmette and Madore Beaubien went to the Baptist mission school in Niles, MI, and Joseph Bailly sent his three daughters to Detroit or Montreal; most children were not so favored. In October 1831, Richard J. Hamilton, esq., was appointed commissioner of school lands for Cook County, and the school fund remained in his charge until 1840. In the autumn of 1832 John Watkins, privately employed by Richard Hamilton and Thomas Owen, began teaching school in Hamilton’s old horse stable on the N side of the river, halfway between the Forks and the lake; after the first quarter, the class (12 children, “four of them white”) was moved to Father Walker’s house at Wolf Point; subsequently, in 1833, Hamilton and Owen had a new structure built on the north bank of the river, just E of Clark Street, for the use of Watkins and his class. The era of public schooling began with Miss Eliza Chappel who, in September 1833, opened an Infant School for about 25 children [age up to 12 years] in a log house on the SE corner of Lake and Market streets, owned by Mark Beaubien and previously used by John Wright and his son John S. as their initial store. In the summer of 1834, the school was moved, for better accommodation, to the Presbyterian church [SW corner of Lake and Clark streets]. In 1835, when Miss Chappel married Reverend Porter and was succeeded by Ruth Leavenworth, the school received its own building, financed by John S. Wright, on Clark Street and on the grounds of the church property, constructed by Joseph Meeker; this was the first school to receive, in 1834, an appropriation from the school fund of the county, and thereby became – Chicago’s 1st – public school [In October 1833, most blocks of land of the Chicago School Section had been sold at auction, providing the first funds for public schools]. On Dec. 18, 1833, Granville T. Sproat came from Boston and opened an English and Classical School for Boys in a small building, belonging to the first Baptist church, on South Water Street, near Franklin; in March 1834 he was joined by an assistant, Miss Sarah L. Warren; other early teachers at this school were Dr. Henry Van der Bogart, Thomas Wright, and James McClellan; the school also became public in 1834. During the winter of 1834-35, George Davis opened a school above a store on Lake Street, between Dearborn and Clark; in 1835 Davis taught school at the Presbyterian church; in 1837 [see] Jacob Russell, with [see] Theophilus S. Greenwood and Dr. E.S. Kimberly, established a free school for all students. Also see Sunday school. For an excerpt from a 1879 letter describing his experience as a teacher, see entry on Watkins, John; and from a letter by Sally Warren, on commuting to school, see entry for Warren, Sally L.

schoolteachers  see teachers.

schooner  small seagoing fore and aft rigged vessel, with two or more masts; also see canaller schooner. [389a]

Schwartz, Adjt. Gen. J.C.  M.M.; in September 1833 he signed the Chicago Treaty document as a witness, and received $4800 for a claim at the same treaty. [12]

Scolville, Almeda  see Napier, Capt. John.

Scots in Chicago  earliest settlers of Scottish ancestry are listed in chronological order of arrival. For detail, see individual entries: William Burnett, 1798; John Kinzie, 1804; Alexander Robinson, 1812 or earlier; Kennicott family members, 1832 to 1836; George Smith, 1834. [582a]

Scott, Alice Lovisa  see Warrington, Arthur.

Scott, Alsey  see Cook, Thomas.

Scott, Capt. Martin B.  from Vermont; Fifth Infantry; stationed at Fort Dearborn from Nov. 4, 1829, to Aug. 20, 1830, under Major Fowle, and presented to visiting James M. Bucklin that summer as “the celebrated rifle and pistol shot”; was killed in battle, as colonel, in Mexico on Sept. 8, 1847. [704]

Scott, Deborah  daughter of Stephen J. and Hadassah Scott; see Watkins, Deborah Scott. [12]

Scott, Deborah  see Watkins, Morrison.

Scott, Gen. Winfield  (June 13, 1786-May 29, 1866) born near Petersburg, VA; son of William and Ann (née Mason) Scott; very tall, 6 feet 6 inches in height, he entered the army as a captain of light artillery on May 3, 1808; became lieutenant colonel in the 2nd Artillery in July 1812, then colonel adjunct general the following year, and brigadier general in March 1814; brevetted to major general following service in the War of 1812; when the army was reduced in 1821, Scott became head of the Eastern Department; fought in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as Brevet Major General of the North Western Army; arriving at Chicago on the Sheldon Thompson with soldiers stricken with cholera, the General made Fort Dearborn his hospital and “Rat Castle” [nickname for Wolf Point Tavern] his headquarters from July 10 to 29, 1832 [see Indian Army Trail for the route General Scott and his men took in pursuit of Black Hawk]; on July 5, 1841, at General-in-Chief Alexander Macomb`s death, he was appointed Commander in Chief of the U.S. Army and between 1846-48 led the expedition which captured Mexico in the Mexican-American War. As a war hero and member of the Whig party he ran for president in 1852; retired as Commander in Chief on Oct. 31, 1861; died at West Point, NY, on May 29, 1866; street name: Scott Street (1240 N). The bronze plaque shown here, located in Riverside at what is known as Bourbon Springs, memorializes three separate events, involving General Scott, General Jean Baptiste Beaubien, and Daniel Webster. Also see the entry “General Winfield Scott” in the Monuments section. [Photograph by Alan Gornik, 2010] [326, 607, 714] [12]

Scott, Permelia  daughter of Stephen J. and Hadassah Scott; married [see] John Kinzie Clark on July 21, 1829, Reverend Scarritt officiating, in a double ceremony that also wedded her brother Willard to Caroline Hawley; lived with John K. at Northfield; a daughter from this marriage, Hadassah Clark, married Walter Millen of Du Page County in 1846; died in 1877, surviving her husband by 12 years. [706] [12]

Scott, Philip  is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [421a] [319]

Scott, Seth  is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; listed as owner of 80 acres of land, in the NW quarter of Section 18, Township 39, prior to 1836, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113. [421a] [12]

Scott, Stephen J.  (1788-1852) from Connecticut, where he was owner and master of a schooner doing trade on the Atlantic; in 1825 he moved with his family from New York State to St. Joseph [Michigan], then crossed the lake to Chicago on the schooner Sheldon in August 1826, settling at [see] Grosse Pointe; his wife was Hadassah (née Trask) and their children were: Willis, Willard, Wealthy, Deborah, and Permelia; purchased numerous items at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on April 27, 1827. In 1829 he was appointed “constable pro tem” for the Chicago region by Alexander Doyle, justice of the peace at Peoria; that year the family removed to the forks of the Du Page River when Archange Ouilmette, at the Treaty of Prairie du Chien, was granted acreage that included the Scott homestead. Scott voted in the elections of July 24, Aug. 2, and Nov. 25, 1830; he is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; later resettled his family at Naperville; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. When the Laughton brothers both died in April 1834, Scott took over and operated their tavern on the Des Plaines River, together with Stephen White of Lyons; in 1849 went to California and died there. [51, 319, 421a, 706-8, 734] [12]

Scott, Wealthy  daughter of Stephen J. and Hadassah Scott; married [see] David McKee; a son was born on Sept. 18, 1830, and named Stephen J. Scott McKee. [706] [12]

Scott, Willard  (1808-1890) born in New York; arrived in August 1826 with his parents (see Scott, Stephen J.). While hunting with his father, they found appealing land along the Du Page River, and when Archange Ouilmette’s land grant necessitated their relocation, the family chose to resettle at the forks of that river. On July 22, 1829, he married Caroline Hawley, Rev. Isaac Scarritt officiating, in a double ceremony that also wedded his sister Permelia to John Kinzie Clark; their children were: Thaddeus Scott (Aug. 7, 1830); Williard, Jr. (Oct. 9, 1835); and Alvin (May 28, 1838); voted in the election of July 24, 1830; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831. During the 1832 Black Hawk War he served as private under Captain Napier in the Chicago militia company; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; later resided at Naperville, where he built and managed the three-story Naperville Hotel; still lived there in 1885. [319, 351, 421a, 706-8, 734] [12]

Scott, William H.  listed prior to 1836 as owner of 80 acres of land in Section 34, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Scott, Willis  born c.1809 in New York; arrived in August 1826 with his parents (see Scott, Stephen J.); on Nov. 1, 1830, married Mrs. Louisa B. Caldwell, the Reverend William See officiating; he worked for Dr. Finley at the fort and for the Clybournes; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was living at the settlement until 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; moved to Waukegan, returning to live in Chicago in c.1866; Sarah Barney was his second wife; the couple had one daughter, Alice Louisa, who later married Arthur W. Warrington; lived at 199 W Washington St. in 1885. Henry Hurlbut (Chicago Antiquities) learned from Willis that the Kinzie house on occasion doubled as an inn, payment expected. [319, 351, 606, 706, 734] [12]

Scovill, Mary A.  see McHarry, John.

scrip  see money.

seal of Chicago  see Chicago, Town, seal of.

Secoes, Jean Baptiste  also Secor; voted in elections on Aug. 7, 1826, and Aug. 2, 1830; did odd jobs for James Kinzie and probably for others; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, though according to Wentworth he died of the cholera in 1832. [319]

section  a surveyed square area of land, one mile on each side, representing 1/36th of a [see] township in accordance with the [see] Federal Land Ordinance of 1785, and each section containing 640 acres. Further subdivision, such as sections into city blocks, is governed by local factors such as geographic features, patterns of population growth, &c.; For the division of the original town of Chicago into numbered blocks, see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright.

Section 16  next section south of Section 9; a [see] school section.

Section nine  of Survey Township 39, Range 14 of the U.S. land survey, one of the alternate sections which by the Federal Act of 1827 had fallen to the canal commission [extending from State Street W to Halsted and from Madison N to Chicago Avenue]. The original town X plat, prepared in 1830 by James Thompson, surveyor for the canal commission, covered most of the southern half of Section nine.

Sedgwick, Charles H.  name in the customer account book of the printer John Calhoun under the date Sept. 6, 1835; possibly the same Sedgwick who prior to 1835 co-owned downtown property in Section 9 in Township 38, together with Charles Bronson and Dr. Temple. [12]

See, Leah  (Nov. 15, 1815-June 15, 1837) born in Logan, KY, daughter of Rev. William and Minerva (née Moss) See; married [see] James Kinzie in Chicago; they had three children, two surviving at her death in Racine, Wisconsin Territory, in 1837. Also see Liscom, Margaret Ellen Kinzie. [179a]

See, Rev. William  (April 1787-Aug. 20, 1859) son of George and Martha (née George), born in Charleston, WV; Methodist Episcopal minister, blacksmith, and ferry owner; married Minerva (daughter of John and Drucilla [née Carroll] Moss; VA Oct. 31, 1793-Nov. 12, 1852) on Feb. 127, 1810 at Palmyra, KY; lived in Kentucky, Missouri, and Morgan County, IL, before coming to the Calumet River in 1830; on June 9 of that year was issued a license by the commissioners court of Peoria County to keep a ferry at that stream, which the tavern owner [see] Johann Mann operated for him; voted on Aug. 2 and Nov. 25, 1830; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; in September 1830 seemingly purchased lots three, four, five, and six in block 23 [old transaction lists show a William Lee as initial purchaser, probably a misspelling; see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], which soon after he sold to Walter Selver; received eight votes for justice of the peace, but Stephen Forbes won with 22 votes. Later as blacksmith, worked for David McKee, and was also Chicago’s first resident Methodist preacher. His sermons and appearance were vividly, though unflatteringly described by the author of Wau-Bun, Juliette Kinzie, whose sensibilities were ruffled by the less-than-spotless hands of this hard working preacher during the service; for a sample of her reaction to Reverend See, see below. Some authors doubt that See was ever ordained and refer to him as an exhorter rather than a preacher, but on two marriage certificates preserved at Peoria he describes himself as “an ordained minister of the Methodist Episcopalian Church.” Edwin O. Gale describes him as follows: “—not a very scholarly man, yet conscientious and earnest, making up in lungs what he lacks in learning, and in blows any deficiency in ideas.” He and his wife and daughter Leah (Nov. 15, 1815-June 15, 1837) lived on the W shore of the north branch, in view of the Forks [SW corner of Canal and Kinzie streets]; Leah became [see] James Kinzie’s first wife. His cabin, later called the “school-house,” was subsequently occupied by Reverend Beggs, then Father Walker. He was the fourth blacksmith to come to Chicago after Mirandeau (1811), McKee (1823), and Pothier (1828 or earlier). See officiated at the following marriage ceremonies: John Mann with Thérèse Archange Tremblé on Aug. 3, 1830, and Willis Scott with Lovisa Caldwell on Nov. 1, 1830. On March 8, 1831, he was appointed clerk of the commissioners court of Cook County, followed in this office by Colonel Hamilton in 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; in January 1835 he sold his blacksmith tools to Asahel Pierce and removed with Minerva to Racine, Wisconsin Territory, near the Root River rapids; following daughter Leah`s death there in 1837, he tutored his granddaughter, [see] Liscom, Margaret Ellen Kinzie. In the late 1840s the family moved to Clyde, Iowa County, WI, as did the James Kinzie family, where the two men built a gristmill. Minerva died on Nov. 12, 1852; Reverend See then married a woman named Mary, then later Lemira Mellan; he died in Clyde and was buried there in the Norton Cemetery. [12, 179a, 266, 275a, 319, 421a]
Excerpt from Juliette A. Kinzie’s Wau-Bun:
There also was a Mr. See lately come into the country, living at the Point, who sometimes held forth in the little school-house on a Sunday, less to the edification of his hearers than to the unmerciful slaughter of the `King’s English.` … Once upon a Sunday we were rowed up to `the point` to attend a religious service, conducted by Father S– , as he was called. We saw a tall slender man, dressed in a green frock coat, from the sleeves of which dangled a pair of hands giving abundant evidence, together with the rest of his dress, that he placed small faith in the axiom—‘cleanliness is a part of holiness.’ [406]

Seission, Holden  (1790-1878) also Holder Sisson; native of RI; lived in Chautauqua County, NY, then farmed in Indiana; arrived at Chicago by schooner in October 1831, settling with his family in Lockport Township [Will County]; commanded, at the rank of captain, one of seven Cook County volunteer militia companies during the Black Hawk War, defending the northern Illinois frontier; his company was organized on July 23, 1832, and disbanded on August 15; served as one of the three commissioners of newly formed Will County with James Walker and Thomas Durham. [714, 734] [13]

Selvey, Walter  also Selvy, Selver; an early settler who is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; by 1831 he claimed or acquired much land in Du Page Township; in Chicago purchased real estate in c.1832 from William See in block 23 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], and sold real estate in block 17 to John Wright; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; transacting business poorly, he lost his property and wealth, dying in poverty near Aurora. [319, 421a] [734]

Sely, Lewis  on Oct. 23, 1835, submitted a bill to the town council for a fire engine; on Dec. 8 Hubbard & Co. communicated with the council in regard to an engine that was then ordered by the corporation; see entry for firefighting. [28]

Seminary of Quebec  also Séminaire (Societé) des Missions Étrangères or Seminary (Society) of Foreign Missions; see Laval de Montmorency, Mgr. François. [693]

Semple, Hamilton  of Pekin, IL; temporary resident of Chicago in May 1832; accompanied volunteers back to Chicago from Ottawa during the Black Hawk scare; left the army on July 7, 1832 and mid-month reported the latest war news in the Edwardsville and Springfield papers; was commissioned major of the 38th Regiment (Tazewell County), Illinois Militia, with rank to date from August 6, 1832. [714]

Sergents, John L.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; listed as subscriber of the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

serpent mound  of Chicago; see Hopewell Indians.

Seward, Harriet C.  see Brown, William Hubbard.

Sexton, Stephen  (1810-April 7, 1861) born in Rochester, NY, the last son of Sylvester Sexton, a Scotsman, who had migrated with his wife and seven children from County Clare, Ireland, in 1808. A carpenter, Stephen married Ann, daughter of [see] Thomas Gaughan, and came to Chicago early in 1834. Excelling as a draughtsman he contracted and built one of the first public schoolhouses and the Lake House; 1839 City Directory: carpenter, Kinzie street near North State; the 1844 Directory listing reads: carpenter, house Kinzie st. b[etween] Cass and Rush sts. The couple had 12 children: Margaret Elizabeth [Mrs. James E. Cassidy], Thomas S., Mary Ann [Mrs. James E. Ennis], James A., William H., Sarah E. [Mrs. John Highland], Henry M., George M., Eliza [Mrs. George B. Hopkins], Austin O., Joseph W., and Louis N. Ann died on March 27, 1861, preceding her husband by 11 days. [3, 728]

Seymour, Samuel  artist and painter of landscapes, came to Chicago and Fort Dearborn on June 5, 1823, as a member of Maj. Stephen Long’s expedition to explore the Red River &c.; the report of this visit—and of the entire expedition—was written by William Keating [see Bibliography]. [394] [12]

Shabbona  (c.1775-1859) alternate spellings: Shabnai (Clifton), Shabonee (Hurlbut), Chabonee (G.S. Hubbard), Chaubenee, Chamblee (Hurlbut), Shawbonee (A.T. Andreas), Shaub-e-nee (B.L. Pierce), Shau-bee nay (Juliette A. Kinzie), Shaubena (E.G. Mason), and Shabbona (J.A. Clifton, F. Beaubien); also called Coal-Burner, Burly Shoulders. Son of an Ottawa father and a Seneca mother, born near the Maumee River in northwestern Ohio, brother of Maw-naw-bun-no-quah [Jean Baptiste Beaubien’s second wife], he married Pokanoka, the daughter of the Potawatomi chief Spotka, and became himself an important Potawatomi chief when his father-in-law died [from this, his first marriage he had a daughter named Ho-no-ne-gah who married {see} Stephen Andrew Mack, Jr.]. The tribe, living near the town of Ottawa, later moved to Shabonee’s Grove [DeKalb County, IL], where they remained until 1837. After the death of his wife he married a second and later a third time, and had children with each. The name of his third wife was [see] Canoku (Fat Woman). He was friendly to early settlers in Chicago and was a friend of Billy Caldwell; fought with Tecumseh and the British against the United States in the War of 1812 but later became reconciled to the advance of the new republic; was not at Fort Dearborn on Aug. 15, 1812; opposed the Winnebago uprising of 1827 and the Black Hawk War of 1832. In 1830 he assisted James M. Bucklin, chief engineer, in plotting the Illinois & Michigan Canal route; participated in the Treaty of Chicago in 1833, where he was granted a stipend of $200 per year for life. He migrated W with his tribe in 1836, but later returned to Shabonee’s Grove; died on July 27, 1859, and was buried at Morris. A fine [see] ambrotype was made of “Chief Shaubonee” on June 7, 1857 at Morris by the artist H.B. Field and was given to “… son Duane to keep—his father`s old Indian friend and Noble old Hero. God bless his soul forever”; was acquired by and is preserved in the Chicago History Museum. A portion of the Thorn Creek Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District is named Shabbona Woods to commemorate his name (see Monuments section). For a small episode from Shabbona’s later life, see the following excerpt from an article by Frank G. Beaubien. [Chicago History vol. 3, no. 8 Summer, 1953; 37, 210, 226, 229, 275a, 460, 697]
I remember when I was a little boy of five years of age when my father [Mark Beaubien] kept the lighthouse, the Indians would come and camp in our yard. That was the time the Indians used to come once a year to get their pay from the government, they always came to our house. Father used to place me on the table and play his violin and I would dance for the Indians and old Indian Chief Shabbona would give me maple sugar and a pair of moccasins for the dance. I always looked for him. The last time I saw him he came to our house on Pine street on the North side, it was the year 1858. He died in 1859. His wife and children used to come to our house after his death, when we moved to Naperville and bring her children and grandchildren with her. [12]

Shapley, Capt. Morgan L.  arrived from New York on June 27, 1833; beginning in July held an executive position in harbor construction under Maj. George Bender, together with Joseph Chandler; he describes how the piers were begun in late summer in a letter to John Wentworth that follows; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; a notice in the Chicago Democrat of June 11, 1834, announced his wedding on June 8 to Nancy Stewart, Reverend Porter officiating; 1839 City Directory: Government works, near the Garrison; later moved to Meridian, TX, where he still lived in 1885. [319, 351, 708]
An excerpt from Captain Shapley’s letter to John Wentworth:
There were two or three stores on South-Water Street. Mark Beaubien, the noted fiddler, had a hotel at the head of Lake Street. There were less than a dozen dwelling shanties in the entire town. The first stone was procured about three miles up the south branch of the river. The work was commenced on the south side of the river. The ties and timber were procured upon the Calumet River, and were rafted into the Lake. The next year, 1834, the work was commenced upon the north side of the river, Lieut. James Allen, superintending. [12]

Shattucks, Andalucia  see Marshall, Dr. James.

Shattucks, Rosanna M.  see Marshall, Dr. James.

Shaw, Emily and Jeannette  twin sisters; see Alanson Sweet for Emily, William Worthingham for Jeannette.

Shaw, James  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Shawbonee  see Shabbona.

Shawenoqua  see LaFramboise, François, Sr.

Shawnee  a term meaning ‘southerners’; an Algonquian tribe, originally located in Tennessee and South Carolina, but by the time of the French and Indian War they had relocated to the upper Ohio valley, SE of the Chicago region; spearheaded Indian resistance to the advancement of white settlers under their great leaders Tecumseh and The Prophet, but met defeat at the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811; descendants of the tribe live now in Oklahoma and in Ohio. [456b]

Shea, John Gilmary D.  (1824-1892) productive American historian; Jesuit who later obtained dispensation to resign from the society; editor of written materials of early French explorations and mission work in New France throughout the 19th century; translator and publisher of Father Marquette’s travel reports; born in New York, died in New Jersey; see Bibliography. [611-13]

Sheboygan   noted as Chabonigan on Coronelli`s second map of 1688 [see Maps]; earlier names and spellings by the first settlers: Ship-wi-wia-gan, Chipwagen, Shipwagen, Shipwagan, Shipwagon; phonetic spelling in Indian languages: shab-wa-wa-go-ning (Potawatomi), saw-be-wa-he-son (Menominee), jâbonigan (Ojibwa), meaning ‘needle’ or some kind of piercing tool. In the winter of 1799 [see] François LaFramboise`s canoe became imbedded within the lake ice at Chab-way-way-gun [Sheboygan] and its cargo of trade merchandise was stolen by Chippewa and Ottawa Indians living nearby. Pioneer settlement on the western shore of Lake Michigan 130 miles N of Chicago at the mouth of the Sheboygan River began in the summer of 1834 when a group of men from Chicago built a cabin and sawmill by the rapids of the river, two miles from its mouth, to exploit the heavily forested region. The effort was financed and led jointly by William Payne and [see] Oliver C. Crocker. With them were several hired hands, among them the mechanic John V. Rogers, Charley Ware, H.O. Stone, an interpreter named Beaubrin [Beaubien?], and Crocker’s cousin, Oliver A. Crocker. The first lumber was sawed in February 1835, and was shipped to Chicago as early as the ice had melted. But difficulties developed with the local Indians, and spring freshets washed out the mill dam. Discouraged, they sold mill and cabin in the summer of 1835 for $10,000 to William Farnsworth, a trader and entrepreneur who had been living in what is now Sheboygan County since c.1818. Farnsworth went to Chicago in 1835 to engage Jonathan S. Follett to run the sawmill for him, and he and Mrs. Eliza Follett became the first permanent settlers of the new community. [456b]

Shedaker, John  voted in the Peoria County election of Nov. 25, 1830; came to Chicago in 1831, and served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 under Capt. G. Kercheval as a member of the Chicago company. [714]

Shedkoe, Christopher  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; resident of Naperville. [319]

Sheldon Thompson  241 tons, the first three-masted steam brig on the Great Lakes, and probably the first steamer to navigate the length of Lake Michigan, built in 1825 at Huron, OH. The brig regularly serviced Chicago and, on the occasion of requiring fuel, its Capt. Augustus Walker would purchase, disassemble and take on board an old log cabin. On July 1o, 1832, together with the William Penn on the 18th, it brought troops and General Scott—as well as the cholera—to Chicago for the Black Hawk War; the first steamboats to visit Chicago. [714]

Sheldon, Delia A.  see Drummond, Thomas.

Sheldon  schooner; visited in 1826 under Captain Sherwood, bringing the Stephen J. Scott family to [see] Grosse Pointe. [706-8]

Shenstone, William  (1714-1763) English poet; studied at Oxford, but returned without a degree to his farming estate near Birmingham where he wrote poetry and created one of the earliest and most influential landscape gardens; a volume of Shenstone’s poems was brought to Fort Dearborn by Capt. John Whistler in 1803. On leaving Chicago in 1810, he presented it to Dr. John Cooper, who carefully treasured the gift; the book was later returned to Chicago and can be viewed among the collections of the Chicago History Museum, one of very few items from the first Fort Dearborn that have survived.

S O N G XII. 1744.

O’ ER desert plains, and rushy meers,
And wither’d heaths I rove;
Where tree, nor spire, nor cot appears,
I pass to meet my love.

But though my path were damask ’d o ’er
With beauties e ’er so fine;
My busy thoughts would fly before,
To fix alone — on thine.

No fir-crown ’d hills cou ’d give delight,
No palace please mine eye:
No pyramid’s aereal height,
Where mouldering monarchs lie.

Unmov ’d should Eastern kings advance,
Could I the pageant see:
Splendor might catch one scornful glance, Not steal one thought from thee. [617]

Shepherd, Mary  see Brookes, Samuel L.

Sheppard, Robert  contractor and lumber merchant from Dundee, Scotland, arrived in 1834; possibly the partner of Josiah S. Breese, [see] Breese & Sheppard, who opened a dry goods store late September 1835; later on December 23, as [Zenas] Dickinson & Sheppard, submitted a proposal to the town board to build a fire engine house for $375; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and builder, Cass [Wabash] Street near Ohio; listed in the 1844 City Directory similarly; died in 1871, leaving a wife, son (Robert D. Sheppard), and two daughters; in 1885 Mrs. Samantha Dickinson Sheppard, invited as an old settler by the Calumet Club, lived at 510 West Jackson St., Robert’s widow. [3, 28, 243] [12]

Sherman, Alson Smith  (Apr. 21, 1811-Sept. 22, 1903) also Alanson; son of Nathaniel and Deborah (née Hobart Webster); arrived from Barre, VT, in November 1836 with younger brother [see] Oren, both marble cutters; married Aurora Abbott (1814-1883) on Oct. 26, 1833 at Williamstown, VT; 1839 Chicago Directory: mason, cor. W. Washington and Clinton; 1843 Chicago Directory: [Sherman, Alson Smith] builder, (Johonnett, Wells & Co.), res W. Washington near Clinton; similarly listed in the 1844 Chicago Directory, under A. S., house b Canal and Clinton sts; served as the 8th mayor of Chicago in 1844-45; living at Waukegan late in 1898. [435a, Chicago Chronicle – Dec. 18, 1898] [168a]

Sherman, Elizabeth  see Foot, John.

Sherman, Francis Cornwall  (Sept. 18, 1805-Nov. 7, 1870) son of Ezra and Mary (née Camp) Sherman, brother of Silas W. Sherman; married Electa (June 20, 1806-) daughter of Reuben and Susan (née Benedict) Trowbridge on Jan. 30, 1825; came with his family from Newton, CT, by way of Buffalo to Detroit; from there he came to Chicago on horseback with his oldest son [see] Francis Trowbridge, arriving Apr. 7, 1834, while the rest of his family followed later; put up a frame structure on Randolph, between LaSalle and Wells streets, and opened a boarding house; within a year he acquired a wagon and team of horses, and moved west on Adams Street near Market, building another house and manufactured bricks near the river, but remained alert to any business opportunity; made the bricks for Archibald Clybourne’s 20-room residence on Elston Road [Elston Avenue] in 1835; that July he was elected to the town`s third Board of Trustees, the alderman of the 2nd ward. He started the three storey brick City Hotel at the SE corner of State and Lake streets in 1835-36, which later became the five storey brick Sherman House at Clark and Randolph streets; 1839 City Directory: contractor and builder, 85 Clark St. In 1841-42 he served as Chicago`s 5th mayor and as city treasurer in 1842-43; 1843 Chicago Directory: brickmaker and builder, res Michigan ave, county commissioner; 1844 Chicago Directory: brick maker, house Michigan ave. Again in 1862-63 he served as Chicago’s 26th mayor, and during the term its length was extended to two years, which he served through 1865. The couple had three surviving children after Francis: Edwin (July 22, 1827-Nov. 23, 1855), Martha E. (c.1831-) and George (c.1838-). Francis died in 1870; Electa died on Nov. 12, 1881. [435a, 728] [12]

Sherman, Francis Trowbridge  (Dec. 31, 1825-Nov. 9, 1905) born in Newton, Fairfield County, CT; oldest son of Francis C. and Electa (née Trowbridge) Sherman; came on horseback to Chicago with his father, [see] Francis Cornwall, on Apr. 7, 1834; 1839 City Directory: clerk, Francis C. Sherman; 1844 City Directory: clerk, at H. H. Husted`s [clothing store, 97 1/2 Lake; a draper and tailor who also resided with his clerk`s family] res F. C. Sherman`s. He was the foreman of volunteer fire Engine Company No. 4 from 1846 to 1848; married Ellen N. Vedder at her parents residence in Northfield, IL, on Oct. 8, 1851. He served as colonel of the Eighty-eighth Illinois Infantry in 1862 in the Civil War, was a prisoner at Andersonville, GA, in 1864 and mustered out as Brigadier General; was appointed Postmaster of Chicago in 1867. Three of their seven children survived: sons F.C. and E.G. and daughter Mrs. E.J. Marsh of New York. [728]

Sherman, Joel Sterling  (c.1817-) born in Newton, CT; arrived in September 1834; son of Silas W. Sherman; married Harriet R. Botsford (niece of J.K. Botsford) of Connecticut; 1839 City Directory: farmer, Northfield; lived in E Northfield in 1885. [243] [12]

Sherman, Maria  see Outhet, Daniel.

Sherman, Mrs. H.  of White Creek, NY; placed an ad in the Chicago Democrat on Nov. 26, 1834, offering her services of millinery and dressmaking, within “a room in the house of H. Kimball, two doors east of Mansion House”; wife of [see] Sherman, Joel Sterling.

Sherman, Oren Hobart  (Mar. 5, 1816-Dec. 15, 1898) son of Nathaniel and Deborah (née Hobart Webster); arrived from Barre, VT, in 1836 with older brother [see] Alson, both marble cutters; began a dry goods store on LaSalle Street between Lake and South Water, soon partnering stepbrother Nathaniel Pitkin; 1839 General Directory: Sherman (Oren) & Pitkin, fancy dry goods, 150 Lake street; 1843 General Directory: (S. & Pitkin), res 79 Clark – Sherman & Pitkin [Nath`l], dry goods and groceries, 107 Lake. In 1853 he specialized in stone and lime, forming a stock company to supply the market with building materials; following the fire in 1871, he established Chicago Marble Manufacturing Co., working as president and manager until retirement; he died at Grayson, Chicago. [Chicago Chronicle, Dec. 18, 1898] [168a]

Sherman, Phinneas  arrived in 1832 with wife and daughter, both named Elizabeth, and claimed land along the Des Plaines River [near Higgins Road, Proviso Township]; moved to Norwood Park Township in 1834 on account of the prevalence of ague near the river; on Nov. 12, 1834, the daughter married [see] John Foot. [278] [13]

Sherman, Rebecca  daughter of [see] Silas W. Sherman; participant in an outing on horseback in the spring of 1835, as described by John D. Caton; married [see] Peter Pruyne on Aug. 26, 1835, and after Pruyne’s death married [see] Thomas Church on Nov. 5, 1839. [121]

Sherman, Rebecca  see Pruyne, Peter.

Sherman, Silas Wooster  (c.1791-Aug. 15, 1852) son of Ezra and Mary (née Camp) Sherman, brother of [see] Francis Cornwall; married Sally Lewis (c.1800-) on Mar. 16, 1816, at Brookfield, CT; arrived from Newton, CT, with his family in 1832 and soon became assistant deputy to Cook County Sheriff Stephen Forbes. Sherman was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; was appointed street commissioner [jointly with O. Morrison] that autumn, when Benjamin Jones resigned from the post; ran for constable at the election on December 9, per announcement in the Chicago Democrat of December 3; elected Cook County sheriff on Aug. 4, 1834; later that year he became actively involved in organizing the town into school districts, his name being on a school-related petition signed on Sept. 19, 1835; the couple were active members of the Episcopal St. James’ Church; 1839 City Directory: ex-sheriff, 48 Clark St. Sally and Silas were parents of [see] Rebecca and Joel Sterling. Silas died at Chocolat Bayou, TX, and Sally died in Chicago on May 27, 1870. [319] [12]

Sherrill, Laura A.  see Caton, John Dean.

Sherror, David  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Oct. 1, 1810, killed in action at the massacre of 1812. [708] [226]

Sherry, Eliza Concannon  see Clybourne, Henley Henry.

Sherwin, Luke  young Vermont sailer of the Hercules, the schooner which last docked at Chicago early in October, 1818; the ship wrecked between the mouths of the two Calumet rivers on the 4th; all passengers and the crew were lost. [389a]

shipping  for information on early Great Lakes and river transportation pertinent to Chicago, see individual entries under boats, sailing vessels, steamboats.

Shipwagen  also Ship-wi-wia-gan, Shipwagon, Shipwagun, Chipwagen; see Sheboygan.

shipwrecks  associated with early Chicago, prior to 1836, see Le Griffon (1679), the Heartless (1817), the Hercules (1818), the Ann (1821), the Pioneer (1825), the Utica, the Austerlitz, the Marengo, and the Chance (1835). Frequent early shipwrecks and other near disasters led to the United States development of the Chicago harbor.

Shirreff, Patrick  also Shiereff; Scottish agriculturist who journeyed to Chicago from Detroit by stage in September 1833 and gave a description of what he found in A Tour Through North America; Together with a Comprehensive View of the Canadas and the United States, as Adapted for Agricultural Emigration; see Bibliography. [618] [544]

Shobonnier  see Chevalier, François Pierre.

shoemakers  an entry on June 16, 1804, within John Kinzie’s account book lists [John] Salter as Fort Dearborn’s shoemaker; also see E.B. Hall (1832), Loton W. Montgomery (1833), Solomon Taylor (1833), William Henry Adams (1833), William Hartt Taylor (1834), Charles and Jacob Sauter (1834), Thomas Whitlock (1835), and George Willoughby (1835). [404]

Short, Hugh  arrived from New York in 1835; died in Milwaukee. [351]

Shrigley, John  arrived from England in 1834; a notice in the Sept. 17, 1834 Chicago Democrat announced the death of an only young son, Charles Rollins, from “dropsy in his head”; on Nov. 8 the paper gave notice that the Eagle Hotel had been relinquished by Paul J. Carli [to Shrigley]; elected constable on Aug. 5, 1835, as per notice in Chicago Democrat; in the Oct. 24 Chicago American E.K. Hubbard advertises Shrigley’s dwelling in the Kinzie Addition available to rent on Nov. 1; elected high constable on May 3, 1837, for a two-year term; 1839 City Directory: tavernkeeper [Dutchman’s Point], succeeding Benjamin Hall. [243, 351, 544] [13]

Shu-ne-ah  Anglicized and mildly corrupted version of the Kaskaskia Illinois Indian word for ‘money’, adopted and used by early Chicago
villagers (see entry on wharfing privileges, letter from a reader of Chicago American on Dec. 12, 1835). [456a:102, `ch8ria`]

Shull, Mary S.  see Porter, Hibbard.

Sibley, Henry H.  began employment with the American Fur Co. at Mackinac under Robert Stuart in 1830; during that year he had occasion to accompany John H. Kinzie on a trip to Chicago, writing later about his sighting in an autobiography; for an excerpt of his experience, see below.

We embarked on a sail vessel called the “Napoleon,” commanded by Captain Chesley Blake, one of the oldest and best sailors on the lakes, and after an uneventful voyage, varied only by short landings at ports on the South shore of Lake Michigan, we reached Chicago, where we remained several days. I found on the present site of the “Queen City of the Lakes,” in May 1829 [The author is probably mistaken and means 1830, as is apparent from related correspondence; eds.], a small stockade constructed for defense against the Indians, but abandoned, and perhaps half a dozen dwellings, occupied by the Beaubien and other families, and a single store stocked with a small, but varied, assortment of goods and provisions. A more un-inviting place could hardly be conceived of. There was sand here, there, and every where, with a little occasional shrubbery to relieve the monotony of the landscape. Little did I dream, that I would live to see, on that desolate coast, a magnificent City of more than half a million of inhabitants, almost rivaling metropolitan New York in wealth, and splendor. … Our craft returned to Mackinac without accident, … and I entered upon my duties as office clerk on the first of June following, finding a home in the charming family of Mr. Stuart.

Sibley, Solomon  U.S. commissioner who, with Gov. Lewis Cass, negotiated the Treaty of Chicago in August 1821 with the local Ottawa, Chippewa, and Potawatomi tribes; Henry R. Schoolcraft was the secretary. [544] [12]

Siggenauk  see Black Bird.

Silloway, Sarah  see Gale, Abram.

silver  a precious metal highly valued for ornamental purposes by Indians of the Chicago area. Once John Kinzie, a trained silversmith, fashioned and sold many pieces of silver jewelry to the tribes [see illustration of Kinzie`s trade mark from a silver cross in the possession of Wilderness Trail Museum, Fort Loramie, OH]. The books of the St. Joseph trader William Burnett show that he imported from the East silver “brooches” of various kinds and sizes by the thousands, and sent his agent Jean Baptiste Lalime thus supplied on trading trips to Indian villages. On Dec. 11, 1803, at Chicago Lalime acquired two silver thimbles from John Kinzie; Francis Ducharme bought two large crosses for $7.50 in January 1807, on the same day a brooch was exchanged for six [musk]rats, as noted in Kinzie’s account books. On display at the Forest Park Library are articles [see Indian silver, in Monuments] that once belonged to Indians who lived along the Des Plaines River at the time of death; burial mounds were later leveled to create the Forest Park Cemetery. The artifacts found were traded sometime between 1760 and 1820 when silversmiths in Quebec and Montreal crafted laminated ware for the North West Company; items of adornment include wristbands, armbands, brooches, gorgets, and earrings. [589a, 688] [404]

Simmons, John  also Simons; U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, of German extraction; enlisted on Mar. 14, 1810; married to Susan Millhouse; two children: David (born 1809, died in the massacre) and Susan (born 1812 at the fort and survived the massacre; see Simmons, Susan); John was killed in action at the massacre. His wife and infant Susan were taken to the Green Bay area by Indians and subjected to much hardship, but eventually arrived at Susan’s parents’ home in Ohio after walking more than 1,000 miles; died at Springfield, IA, in 1857. [172a, 226, 546a, 564, 619, 708, 725] [559]

Simmons, Susan  (1812-1900) also Simons; born at Fort Dearborn on February 18 to Pvt. John and Susan Simmons of Ohio; her married name was Winans; she died on April 27 in Santa Anna, CA, as the last survivor of the Fort Dearborn massacre; see Simmons, John, for more details. [226, 546a, 564, 619, 725] [559]

Simons, Edward  arrived from Ohio in 1834; owned a meat market on Lake Street, temporarily in partnership with Sylvester Marsh, dissolved as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Aug. 6, 1834; he continued “to supply at the Boston Market.” To Simons fell the task of butchering the last black bear killed in Chicago on Oct. 6, 1834; he reported that the animal weighed 400 lbs; 1839 City Directory: butcher, Archibald Clybourn; in 1885 the widow, Laura Bronson Sprague Simons, lived at Pacific, Cook County, IL. [243, 351] [12]

Simonton, Lt. Isaac Pierce  from Ohio; Fifth Infantry, stationed at Fort Dearborn during the time of the Treaty of Chicago in September 1833, acted as commissioner and signed as witness on the document; died Feb. 21, 1842. [567]

Sinclair, Capt. Patrick  British captain and, beginning in 1779, lieutenant governor of the Province of Quebec (which included Chicago at that time), founded [see] Fort St. Clair (Fort Sinclair, the Pinery) in 1764 near Detroit, where he employed Jean Baptiste Point de Sable as manager of his estate from 1779 to 1784; suceeding Colonel De Peyster, he served as commandant of the old Fort Michilimackinac (on the Michigan shore) from 1779 to 1781. Under his command a new fort was constructed on the island in the straits, his forces were moved there on May 24, 1781, and the old fort was abandoned. In 1785 Sinclair was sent to debtor`s prison in England for mismanaging Crown funds. [323a] [564]

Sinclair, James  (c.1801-1871) tinsmith from New York; came in 1835; married to Lydia Ann Hicks; 1839 City Directory: 58 Washington St.; in 1885 his widow lived at 366 State St. [243, 351, 733] [12]

Sinclair, John  arrived from New York in 1832. [351, 733] [12]

Sits Quietly  see Topenebe.

Skedkoe (Skedker?), Christopher  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Skokie  a swampy lake in the 18th century; full name: Kitchi Wabaskoki, from Ojibwa kitchi wâbaskiki, meaning ‘big swamp, marsh’; forming the headwaters of the northern branch of the Chicago River; the remnants are the Skokie Lagoons, near the town of Skokie, IL. [456b]

skunk  Mephitis mephitis, the striped skunk, occured throughout Illinois in pioneer days, as it does today. Its local Miami Indian name, phonetically spelled, was shikaakwa. The same name was used for the garlic plant Allium tricoccum, now known as “wild leek” or “ramps,” which grew extensively in the Chicago area in pioneer days, and from which the city derived its name. See “Chicago, name, origin.” [464b] [341]

slavery  widely practiced in North America by the Indians before and after the arrival of the Europeans, the latter also having, in general, no principal objection to slavery at the time. Father Las Casas, active in Peru, Central America, and the West Indies, was a rare exception with his active antislavery stance. The possession of both black and Indian slaves was officially sanctioned by the New France government in 1709 [for more details see entry on panis]. Even Father Marquette owned a slave who belonged to the Illinois tribe, presented to him in 1673 by the Ottawa, and whom he used as a guide. In 1718, the French trading concern Compagnie d’Orient under John Law was given permission by the French crown to import African slaves into Louisiane, of which Illinois was then the northern extension. Black slaves first came to Illinois in 1720 and were commonly referred to as pieces d’Inde during French rule. In 1724, the treatment of slaves became regulated by the government through the Code Noir, a relatively humane document for its time. The price for a male black slave was fixed at 660 livres, which made slaves affordable only to the very affluent. The main French distribution point for black slaves was Ste. Domingue; Jamaica served this purpose for the British. In 1732 there were 168 slaves in Illinois, in 1742 there were 317, and in 1752 the number reached 445, as opposed to 768 Frenchmen. Indian slaves, called panis [singular and plural], were kept as well by affluent Frenchmen, probably entering the market as sold captives of warring tribes; registers kept by notaries for the purpose of recording civic affairs—such as the Registre des Insinuations des Donations aux Siège des Illinois—give ample evidence of the practice. Slaves had no family names, only first names; they adopted a family name only if they were freed. On April 14, 1775, the Philadelphia Quakers under Benjamin Franklin organized the first American society dedicated to the abolition of slavery. The Ordinance of 1787 for the temporary government of the North West Territory passed unanimously by Congress on July 13, made slavery unlawful with the following passage: “There shall be neither slavery or involuntary servitude in the said Territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted.” However, the law was not enforced, and slavery continued, although gradually to a lesser extent, in all parts of the Old Northwest. Governors Reynolds and Edwards of Illinois and Governor Dodge of Wisconsin all held many slaves. [See Edwards, Ninian; see Reynolds, John, for slave ownership-related newspaper ads; see also Finney, Bernard.] John Kinzie bought, held, and sold slaves: see Nash, Jeffrey; Black Jim; Athena; Pepper; and Henry. Captain and Mrs. Heald brought the slave girl [see] Cicely with them to Fort Dearborn in 1810; Cicely had a young child, and both she and the child were killed at the massacre of 1812; Mrs. Heald claimed $1,000 personal property loss from the U.S. government for the death of the two slaves, but her petition was denied. Military officers at army posts were encouraged to purchase slaves rather than to take servants from the ranks. U.S. Indian Agent Charles Jouett brought the slave Joe Battles from Kentucky in 1809. Jefferson Davis was accompanied by his slave, Pemberton, throughout his years of service in the Northwest. In 1819, the Illinois legislature enacted a general code of law that included “the black code” which required all free Negroes coming into the state to bring with them certificates of freedom and to have these recorded with county clerks. This code remained at least partly in effect until 1865. Those found without a certificate might be sold into peonage for a year. When the first newspapers were printed in Chicago, they frequently contained ads by parties whose slave had run away, giving a description of the slave and offering a generous monitory reward to anybody who would capture and return him or her [see ad from the Chicago American with this entry]. It was illegal to bring slaves into the state and set them free. It was legal to whip slaves for going more than 10 miles from home without permit. Not until Dec. 18, 1865, when the 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was ratified, did slavery finally end in Chicago and Illinois. [12, 82, 105, 112, 113, 233a, 308]

Excerpt from the Magazine of Western History, relative to the Negro population of Chicago in 1833:
August of 1833, there resided in Chicago six or seven colored men, all of whom had come from free States. The law givers of Illinois, however, had not contemplated such a contingency, the earlier population having come mostly from slave States. The laws had provided that if a negro was found in the State without free papers, he should be prosecuted and fined, and if necessary, sold to pay the fine. … Some enemy of the black man … felt it to be his duty or his interest, to prosecute these early representatives here of the proscribed race. They were duly apprehended, and J.D. Caton undertook their defence, and pleaded their case before the “court” of county commissioners. … [“Court” was then the legal designation of that body.] and the young lawyer overcame their natural modesty, or their unwillingness to assume a function hitherto unheard of. They ended by acceding to the learned jurist’s expositions of the law, and as the highest accessible representatives of the judiciary of the sovereign State of Illinois, they granted to his grateful clients the required certificates of freedom, which were never questioned, and passed for excellent ‘free papers.’ … For his services in this case, Mr. Caton received one dollar from each of the beneficiaries from the decision …. [316]

Sleight, Capt. Morris  New York merchant and sea captain; came to Chicago late in June 1834 and from there explored “Capt. Napier’s settlement,” soon known as Naperville. By 1836 he had acquired much land in the village and surroundings, some of which he later donated to the settlement for public use. Letters he wrote in the 1830s from Naperville to his wife Hannah [née Gibbs] in Hyde Park, NY, are now a part of the Chicago History Museum`s archives, donated by Sleight`s descendants. In 1837 Sleight moved his family to Naperville; the couple had daughters, but their names given in various records contradict each other. Sleight became active in local politics and served as village president from 1861 to 1862. [415] [350a]

slew  see slough.

Sloan, Douglas  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Sloo, Thomas, Jr.  of Hamilton County; member of the initial canal commission created by Illinois Governor Cole in 1823, to have the canal lands surveyed and a cost estimate prepared.

sloop  single-masted sailing vessel with a mainsail and a jib, rigged fore and aft.

slough  pronounced /sloo/, also written as ‘slew’; early midwestern term for an elongated depression in the landscape, as were frequent in the low, wet parts of the prairie at Chicago, containing a pond or slow-moving streamlet at least part of the year, serving as a drain of surplus waters. Frog Creek [see] ran in such a slough beginning at about Adams Street and emptying from the S into the main branch of the river at State Street. Charles Cleaver remembers there was a very wet spot, or slough, on Clark Street south of Washington, unnamed, which emptied at LaSalle Street, coming from the SW beyond Randolph Street. For a slough story shared by Cleaver, see below. Also see Ogden’s Slough and Healy`s Slough; see floods.
Cleaver reports: Another story, told in a lecture given by James A. Marshall, is rather more than I can vouch for. It was this: That our minister, who was then a young bachelor, in walking home with a young lady from Wednesday evening meeting, got into a slough, and in their endeavors to extricate themselves kept sinking deeper and deeper, until they were more than waist-deep in mud and water, and that it was only from their screaming for help that assistance came and saved them from a muddy and watery grave.
I know of no slough that was deep enough for that except one running south from the river about State Street, gradually lessening to about Adams Street. There was a very wet spot, or slough, on Clark Street south of Washington
. [473]

smallpox  also variola; an epidemic viral disease with potentially fatal outcome, brought to America by European immigrants at an early time; the Indians proved highly vulnerable. Abbé St. Cosme reported the devastation among the Arkansas Indians in 1699: “It is not a month since they got over the small pox which carried off the greatest part of them. There was nothing to be seen in the village but graves”; in a 1794 letter by Guillaume la Mothe, interpreter at Mackinac, to Joseph Chew, secretary for the Department of Indian Affairs at Montreal: “There is likewise at Chikagoe Fifty Indians died of the Small Pox which alarms the Indians much in this Post.” The French Canadian population of Chicago suffered less, but there were annual smallpox mortalities from the beginning, with major outbreaks in 1857, 1864, 1865, 1872, and 1873. Not until 1880 was the disease brought under control by vaccination.
The following is an account by Andrew J. Vieau, Sr., on the 1832 smallpox epidemic among the Potawatomi:
In the winter of 1832-33, the small-pox scourge ran through the Indian population of the state. Father [Jacques Vieau of Milwaukee] and his crew were busy throughout the winter in burying the natives, who died off like sheep with the foot-rot. With a crooked stick inserted under a dead Indian chin they would haul the infected corpse into a shallow pit dug for its reception and give it a hasty burial. In this work, and in assisting the poor wretches who survived, my father lost much time and money; while of course none of the Indians who lived over, were capable of paying their debts to the traders. This winter ruined my father almost completely. [213]

Smith, Barton  legal notices involving him appeared in the Sept. 3, 1834, Chicago Democrat; in a July 7 circuit court suit John K. Boyer sought payment for “12 pieces of cotton sheeting and about 30 lbs. of coffee” from Barton and four others.

Smith, C.  C. Smith & Co. advertised an “extensive assortment of HATS of every description” in the Nov. 4, 1835, Chicago Democrat; the “New Hat and Cap Establishment” was a few doors S of the Auction Store on Dearborn Street.

Smith, Captain  [first name yet undetermined] within the U.S. Department of Engineering, he prepared “Map of Chicago River” in 1818 — from the confluence of its two major branches to its mouth, indicating the exact location of Fort Dearborn and the properties of Antoine Ouilmette and John Kinzie.

Smith, Charles B.  came in 1835 from Warsaw, NY; married Abigail Woodbury of New York in 1843. [351]

Smith, Chester  enlisted during the Black Hawk War as first lieutenant in Walker’s company from June 19 to Aug. 12, 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [714]

Smith, Daniel D.  created the map A Map of all the Lands belonging to the Kickapoo Tribe of Indians in the State of Illinois Ceded to the United States by Treaty Signed at Edwardsville in the State of Illinois July 30th 1819 [National Archives, Washington, D.C.]. A Captain Smith of the U.S. Engineering Department made a mapMap of the Chicago River [The War Department, Washington, D.C.] in 1818; nothing else is known that can identify him as Daniel D. Smith. [326, 681] [682]

Smith, Eli and Elijah  likely brothers who arrived with their wives in June 1831, as part of the Hampshire Colony wagon train from Massachusetts, an organized Congregational church of 18 members; stayed overnight at “The Wolf,” Elijah Wentworth’s tavern; an Elijah Smith is listed as a merchant tailor at 48 Clark St. in the 1839 City Directory. [234] [12]

Smith, Elizabeth  see Rexford, Heber S.

Smith, Ezra B.  from Nassau Village, NY; a young clerk employed in John Holbrook’s store three months before dying of bilious fever; an obituary in the Aug. 12, 1835, Chicago Democrat noted his funeral on the 13th at the Exchange Coffee House.

Smith, George  (1808-1899) native of Aberdeenshire, Scotland, who came in 1834 and resided in Chicago until 1861; listed prior to 1836 as owner of 80 acres of land in the SW quarter of Section 18, Township 39, also as owner-assignee of additional 80 acres in Section 24, Township 39 (Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113); by 1834 Smith owned a lake vessel and imported lumber to Chicago; in October 1835 he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; 1839 Chicago Directory: Smith & Co., George, bankers, exchange brokers, 187 Lake st; 1844 Chicago Directory: private bankers and exchange brokers, Bank Buildings [card: La Salle Street] and – of G.S. & Co. res City Hotel; in later years became an influential banker and a director of the Galena and Chicago Union Railroad; he formed the “Scottish Illinois Land Investment Company,” a successful venture of the early boom period. Later he owned a castle in Scotland; his 1885 address was the Reform Club, London, England; died on Oct. 7, 1899. [13, 351, 623] [12]

Smith, Horacio G.  was elected constable at the special Peoria County election for constable and justice of the peace on July 24, 1830, receiving 32 votes for constable to defeat Russell Rose, who had 21 votes [Chicago was then part of Putnam/Peoria County]; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830. [421a]

Smith, James A.  arrived from New York in 1835; before leaving for Chicago, James signed an agreement with his father, Charles Smith, to create a business partnership for the purpose of selling hats. This he did, naming the business `C. Smith & Co.` in honor of his father and placing an advertisement in the Nov. 4, 1835 Chicago Democrat which read “extensive assortment of HATS of every description”; the “New Hat and Cap Establishment” was located a few doors S of the Auction Store on Dearborn Street. The name was later changed as found in the 1839 City Directory: James A. Smith & Co., hat and cap manufacturers, 127 Lake St.; a notice in the Chicago Daily American of April 30, 1840, announces dissolution of his partnership with his brother John M. Smith, who had arrived in Chicago after 1835. In October 1835 James A. signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; he died on July 23, 1875. [12, 351] [12]

Smith, Jedrithon  his signature.

Smith, Jedrithon and Jeremiah  listed prior to 1836 as co-owners of 160 acres of land in Section 34, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; they arrived in 1831, signing the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition on October 5, and the [see] Herrington Petition in December; Jeremiah served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as a member of the Chicago company; Jedrithon (Jeduthan) received $60 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833, and both are listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took that same year; in the Dec. 17, 1834, Chicago Democrat Jeremiah reported an “Estray Steer” and requested that its proven owner pay damages and collect the animal. [319, 351] [12]

Smith, John T.  filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 3, block 16 late in 1835. [28]

Smith, John, Jr.  U.S. Army private and fifer at Fort Dearborn; son of John Smith, Sr.; enlisted on June 27, 1806, and reenlisted in 1811; taken prisoner at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and later ransomed from the Indians. [708] [226]

Smith, John, Sr.  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; father of John Smith, Jr.; enlisted on Apr. 2, 1808; taken prisoner at the massacre of 1812 and killed by the Indians later in the day. [708] [226]

Smith, John, Sr.  made a petition claim for wharfing privileges in 1835.

Smith, Jonathan  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831.

Smith, Judge Theophilus Washington  (Sept. 28, 1784-May 6, 1846) born in New York City, NY; was admitted to the New York bar in 1805; married Clarissa Harlowe Rathbone (CT Nov. 19, 1787-) on June 7, 1808, and they would have six surviving children; in 1816 he and his family migrated to Edwardsville, IL, where he was elected to the state Senate in 1822, serving four years; became a member of the initial canal commission created by Illinois Governor Cole in 1823 to have the canal lands surveyed and a cost estimate prepared; arrived in Chicago in 1830; had become a member of the Illinois Supreme Court in 1825, was impeached in 1832, but acquitted and served until 1842. The couple`s second daughter Adeline Clarissa (NY May 7, 1812-) married Judge Jesse Burgess Thomas of Springfield; in 1833 daughter Louisa Matilda (June 25, 1814-June 29, 1891) married [see] Dr. Levi Boone [mayor in 1855]. At Chicago Judge Smith served as one of the delegates to draw up Chicago’s city charter late in 1836; was one of the initial trustees of Rush Medical School in 1837, when daughter Juliet Elvira (IL June 15, 1821-Oct. 24, 1892) married [see] Henry G. Hubbard; 1839 City Directory: judge, Illinois Supreme Court, boarded at City Hotel; in 1841 youngest daughter Lucy married F.C. Russell; 1844 City Directory: W. of S. & [Patrick] Ballingall, Clark st near S. Water. [351, 604a] [37]

Smith, Juliet Elvira  see Hubbard, Henry G.

Smith, Lawrence  on Oct. 27, 1835, married Mary Welsh, Father St. Cyr officiating.

Smith, Liman  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Smith, Louisa  see Vial, Joseph.

Smith, Louisa Matilda  see Boone, Dr. Levi D.

Smith, Lt. Ephraim Kirby  from Connecticut; served at Fort Howard and Mackinac during the 1820s; Mrs. Mary Ann Brevoort Bristol gives a vivid account of a canoe trip with almost disastrous outcome in the company of Lieutenant Smith on the Fox River of Wisconsin on July 13, 1827, in her Reminiscences of the Northwest [see Brevoort, Maj. Henry B.]; arrived on May 29, 1833, as first lieutenant of the Fifth Infantry at Fort Dearborn and remained until July 1834, and again served at the fort from Oct. 23 to December 1836; present at the Treaty of Chicago in September 1833, and signed as witness on the treaty document; in March 1834, as post adjutant under Major Green, placed a notice in the Chicago Democrat promising $30 reward for information leading to the capture of a deserter; managed the first Chicago ball in 1834; died Sept. 11, 1847, in Mexico at the battle of Molino del Rey. [351] [12]

Smith, Lucy  see Russell, F.C.

Smith, Mary Ann  see Watkins, Samuel.

Smith, Mary Elizabeth  see Legg, Isaac.

Smith, Mason  born in Potsdam, NY, which he left on Aug. 12, 1833, and arrived in Chicago on September 3, traveling with [see] Hezekiah and Ebenezer Duncklee across Michigan and northern Indiana; moved on in that autumn to the center of [now] Addison Township, staking a large claim near the former Duncklee`s Grove and adjoining prairie. [415]

Smith, Mathias  may have been a soldier at Fort Dearborn under Lieutenant Hunter until May 20, 1831, when he was discharged and remained in Chicago; of Naperville, IL, then, signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; voted in the elections of July 24 and Nov. 25, 1830, and Aug. 10, 1833; early member of the Catholic congregation, in April 1833 his name was on the petition by Chicago’s citizens to the bishop in St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; active thereafter in organizing St. Mary’s Church; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; member of the first engine company of the voluntary fire brigade. Emily Beaubien later recalled that Smith became a friend of the Mark Beaubien family and lived with them in the 1830s; that he had been a soldier both in France under Napoleon and in America; died before 1850 and was buried in the Beaubien Cemetery at Lisle (see Monuments section). [41, 319] [12]

Smith, Medora Augusta  see Gale, Stephen F.

Smith, Nancy  see Foster, John Herbert.

Smith, Philip  U.S. Army private; enlisted on Apr. 30, 1806, and reenlisted on Apr. 30, 1811; believed to have been killed during the initial battle of the Fort Dearborn massacre. [708] [226]

Smith, William  arrived in 1831 and served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as a member of the Chicago militia company; 1839 City Directory: teamster, Adams Street between State and Dearborn. [714] [12]

Smith, William  merchant in Sandwich, Canada; in partnership, Forsyth & Smith, with [see] Robert Forsyth from 1803 to 1806, or longer, and based in St. Joseph, MI; had a son named John Kinzie Smith, residing on the Canadian shore of Lake Michigan. Visits to John Kinzie’s trading post by representatives of the partnership, possibly including Smith, are recorded in Kinzie’s account books for Oct. 13, 1803 [on the St. Joseph River] and in Chicago for Nov. 4, 1804 and Aug. 9, 1806. On Sept. 26, 1834, William wrote a letter from Fort Erie, Upper Canada, to Secretary of War Lewis Cass in regard to the 1812 Chicago massacre and requested some compensation through the 1833 Chicago Treaty as a trader who had suffered loss: “… The late John Kinzie being then trading at Chicago under the Firm of John Kinzie & Co; which Firm consisted of J. Kinzie, R. A. Forsyth and myself, and was largely indebted to Forsyth and Smith, say $30,000 or thereabouts,— considering myself justly entitled to a proportion of the aforesaid compensation. ….” [404] [319]

Smith, William C., M.D.  Chicago’s 1st military physician; stationed at Fort Dearborn, arriving with Captain Whistler in 1803 and remaining until spring 1808; later in July that year at Detroit he was too ill to either travel or to practice. Army records show that he enlisted as surgeon’s mate on July 2, 1802, and was mustered out on June 27, 1810; though most of the garrison had to pass the first winter in unfinished quarters, the doctor had the good fortune to live in the Point de Sable homestead with Jean Lalime, who held the estate for Burnett, until Kinzie arrived in 1804 and inhabited the property; he then moved into the fort; in 1808 was succeeded at the fort by Dr. John Cooper. For hearsay most interesting involving Dr. Smith, see entry for Sarah Whistler. [270a, 628] [206a]

Smith, —  a Mr. and Mrs. Smith, with five children, first names unknown, resided at Blue Island. See quotation from the Chicago Democrat in entry on “wolf” for the sad fate that befell Mrs. Smith in January of 1834.

Snow, George Washington  (Sept. 16, 1797-July 29, 1870) born in Keene, NH; came in 1832; surveyor of the Kinzie Addition in February 1833, working under Capt. David Hunter; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and was one of the “Qualified Electors” who voted to incorporate the town. [For a copy of that meeting’s original report, see entry on incorporation.] On December 4, a village ordinance appointed him assessor and surveyor for one year, allowing $3 per day for services rendered; in February 1834, he served as trustee of the English and Classical School for Boys. During 1835 he went East and brought back his wife Elizabeth (née Manierre) and young brother-in-law [see] George Manierre, and then continued to work for the village, as evident from the [see] notice he placed in the Chicago American in September; in October, he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade, and later played a leading role in the fire department; stll later on November 21 applied for wharfing privileges. Snow is considered by some the inventor of the [see] balloon frame method of the construction of wooden buildings, which was widely utilized by builders in early Chicago, while other historians credit his contemporary [see] A.D. Taylor; Snow’s own house, thus constructed, was in the S division; 1839 City Directory: Geo. W. Snow & Co., lumber merchants, South Water st; 1843 City Directory: lumber merchant, S. Water, res 244-6 State, s.-w. cor Jackson. Snow died, en route to Philadelphia, at Altoona, PA, July 29, 1870, aged 72; in 1885 his widow lived at 321 Dearborn Avenue. [28, 245, 288a, 319, 351, 505, 728] [12]

Sobraro, Margaret  also Sobrano; arrived in 1835 on the steamer Niagara from Michigan; on Oct. 13, 1842, married the gunsmith and later successful lumber dealer [see] Joseph Peacock, who came to Chicago in 1836.

social structure  beginning in 1834, many Chicago’s early business and professional leaders saw themselves as a societal elite. Having learned in the East how the members of an elite are supposed to behave, they attempted to replicate in their frontier town the trappings of upper class society; as early as 1834 they staged full dress balls and formal dinner parties. Charles Cleaver recalled that in the late 1830s “the only way two of our most fashionable young ladies from the North-Side could get to the Presbyterian Church … was by riding in a dung-cart, with robes thrown on the bottom, on which they sat.” The working class, however, lived a simpler life. As revealed by editorial comment in the Chicago American of Oct. 3, 1835, “Masons are now getting, in this town, three dollars per day. Carpenters and other mechanics are also getting very high wages.” [233”]

Soules, Rufus  acquired prior to 1836 the western half of the NW quarter of Section 32 in Township 40 N, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; in the March 9, 1836, Chicago Democrat, he advertised to circulate subscription papers; died in May 1885. [12]

Source, Abbé Thaumur de la  see Thaumur de la Source, Abbé Dominique Antoine.

South Bend, IN  a historic town that developed near the bend of the St. Joseph River because of the proximity of an important portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi systems [the St. Joseph–Kankakee River portage], an alternate to the Chicago portage; La Salle camped there when portaging to the Kankakee in 1679. Frenchman Alexis Coquillard, Sr., started the settlement in 1822 by establishing a trading post, known as “Big St. Joseph Station” [for “Little St. Joseph Station,” see Fort Wayne]; a post office then opened at “South Hold,” another early name prior to 1830, and that year [see] Father Stephen T. Badin, who came often to Chicago, built a small log chapel on nearby St. Mary’s Lake; the town was platted in 1831.

South Fork  early tributary to the south branch of the Chicago River that entered the south branch just east of the point where Archer Avenue now crosses the harbor section of the river; the southern end, which originally may have been more than two miles in length, now terminates in the old stockyard district.

South Water Street  also “Water Street” as a colloquial term before 1834, when the other three Water Streets (N, W, and E) had not yet been built up; one of Chicago’s oldest streets, and the only one recognizable as a street as late as 1833 by virtue of its row of early houses, although poorly aligned. Named on the [see] Thompson plat of 1830, it originally ran all the way between Fort Dearborn and the Forks along the south bank of the Chicago River. In 1832, few business establishments were present, and most of these were clustered at the W end; expansion proceeded from here eastward to Dearborn Street, then around onto Lake Street, on which construction proceeded on both sides back to the junction of Lake, Market, and South Water streets, the beginning. In 1920, the part of South Water Street that was W of State Street became Wacker Drive. For a description of the scene, see John Bates’s following 1883 recollection [Bates lived until 1885] of early South Water Street:
In 1833 the settlement of the new town, so far as buildings showed, was mostly on what is now Water Street. There was nothing on Lake Street except perhaps the Catholic church [St. Mary’s] begun on the northwest corner of Lake and State. Up and down Water Street, between what is now State and Wells streets, now Fifth Avenue all the business houses and stores were built. Also nearly all the cabins for dwellings. You could, from every store and dwelling, look north across the river, as there were no buildings on what is now the north side of that street. At that time a slough [Frog Creek] emptied into the river, at what is now the foot of State Street, and was a sort of bayou of dead water through which scows could be run up as far as Randolph Street, near the corner of Dearborn, and there was a dry creek up as far as where the Sherman House now stands. There was a footbridge of four logs run lengthwise across the creek near the mouth of the creek. At the time there was no bridge across the main river, and never had been.

Southwest Company  begun by John Jacob Astor in 1808 at Montreal when northern posts were surrendering to the United States; among several companies that became the American Fur Co. in the Northwest after the 1812 war; John Kinzie worked for this company as an independent agent (listings within his account book on Oct. 15, 1817, and May 1, 1818) during part of his residency in Chicago, and eventually the American Fur Co. [404]

Spain, Solomon D.  isted prior to 1836 as owner of 80 acres of land in Section 34, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Spangler, Margaret Ann  see Manierre, Edward.

Sparhawk, Elizabeth B.  see Bascom, Rev. Flavel.

Spaulding, S.F.  arrived from New York in 1834; in October 1835 he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; in 1885 lived at Staunton, IL. [351, 733] [12]

Specht, Mary Catherine  see Boyer, Dr. Valentine A.

Specie Grove  see Lamset, Pierre.

Specie, Peter  see Lamset, Pierre.

Spence, Agnes  participant in an outing on horseback from Chicago to the Calumet River, with John D. Caton as partner, in the spring of 1835, as described by Caton; [see] James and Mrs. Seth Johnson’s sister; married a J.D. Wilson on May 3, 1843, in Chicago. [121]

Spence, James  born in England; arrived from Pennsylvania early in 1834; was a brother of [see] Mrs. Seth Johnson; had a claim at Big Woods, five miles N of the Chicago River, which he leased to John K. Boyer in anticipation of returning to England; in October he became the victim of the town’s first fire, which destroyed his house at the corner of LaSalle and Lake streets, an estimated $500 loss; 1839 City Directory: canal contractor, 17 Clark St.; died that year as per notice in the Chicago Daily American of Nov. 4, 1839. [351, 728] [243]

Spence, John C.  arrived from Pennsylvania in 1834; 1839 City Directory: hatter, 19 Clark St. [351] [243]

Spence, —  see Johnson, Capt. Seth.

Spohrer, K.  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1833. [342]

Sprague, Laura Bronson  see Simons, Edward.

Spriggs, William  lawyer from Maryland; became one of the first three judges of the U.S. Court for the Territory of Illinois in 1809, serving with Jesse B. Thomas and Alexander Stuart.

Spring, Giles  (1807-1851) Massachusetts born, came in May 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; advertised his office in that year’s December 17 issue of the Chicago Democrat as “ATTORNEY AND COUNSELLOR AT LAW And Solicitor in Chancery. OFFICE second door west from the corner of Franklin and South Water-streets” and soon became a highly regarded Chicago lawyer; in 1835 he shared an office on Dearborn Street with the physician [see] H. Spring, M.D., possibly his brother, as advertised in the Chicago American. At a large meeting of concerned citizens on Nov. 21, 1835, he introduced resolutions of condemnation in regard to the town council’s [see] wharfing privileges ordinance, circulated a remonstrance, and filed a deposition in support of Anson and Taylor’s claim on November 24. At Westfield, NY, he married Levontia Budlong on July 24, 1836, as per notice in the Chicago Democrat on July 24; earlier in February he had formed a partnership with Grant Goodrich that lasted until he was elected to the bench in 1849. 1839 City Directory: 107 Lake St.; in the 1843 Directory, he listed: “res 62 Adams near State”; in the 1844 Directory, he is listed as Spring & Goodrich, residing on Illinois Street between Cass and Rush. According to contemporaries, he died prematurely at age 44, “a victim to the free use of intoxicating liquors.” [13, 28, 319, 351] [12]

Spring, H., M.D.  (1803-1835) advertised as physician and surgeon in the Chicago American of Sept. 12, 1835, with his office on Dearborn Street shared with [see] Giles Spring, Esq., an attorney and probably his brother; aged 32, he died of a lingering illness on November 11 that year as per notice in the Chicago American three days later.

Springfield, IL  settled in 1818 by trappers and hunters; named after a nearby Spring Creek; became the permanent seat of Sangamon County in 1825 and was chosen as the Illinois state capital in 1837, the year Lincoln moved to the town; was chartered a city in 1840.

Sproat, Granville Temple  (c.1808-1887) schoolteacher from Boston who arrived late spring, 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November, and in the first issue on November 26 he published a letter regarding the importance of education, followed by ads in the December issues promoting his newly opened “Academy” (December 17) – the English and Classical School for Boys, in a building belonging to the First Baptist Church congregation on South Water Street, corner of Franklin. In the fall of 1834, with the school securely underway, he chose to move on, taking a position as teacher in a school for Chippewa Indians on Mackinac Island; at Chicago he was succeeded as teacher by Dr. Henry Van der Bogart; died in New York; street name: Granville Street (6200 N). For an excerpt from G. Sproat’s reminiscences of Chicago in 1833, see below. [319, 631, 728]
I shall never forget the pleasant hours spent with [my pupils], during the beautiful summer months, in that nicely furnished school room, the windows of which looked out toward the south, not a building between it and the broad expanse of, prairie, stretching far away, clothed with its beautiful vesture of flowers. … Autumn came and brought a change in our surroundings. From the long rains the streets of the village soon became deluged with mud. It lay in many places half-leg deep, up to the hubs of the carts and wagons, in the middle of the streets, and the only sidewalk we had was a single plank stretched from one building to another. The smaller scholars I used to bring to school and take home on my back, not daring to trust them on the slippery plank. One day I made a misstep and went down into the thick mire, with a little one in my arms. With difficulty I regained my foothold, with both overshoes sucked off by the thick slimy mud. I never recovered them. [12]

St. Charles Trail  early area trail used by Indians and early settlers, leading W from Fort Dearborn at Lake Street.

St. Clair County, Indiana Territory  established and named after Gov. Arthur St. Clair on Apr. 27, 1790, as a subdivision of the Northwest Territory, covering a small part of SW Illinois; on Feb. 3, 1801, it was extended north to the Wisconsin border onto land that formerly belonged to Knox County; on July 4, 1801, it became part of Indiana Territory, and in 1809 part of Illinois Territory. Chicago was intermittently within St. Clair County between 1801 to 1812 [for the exceptions, see entry on Wayne County]; for further details, see jurisdiction. [335a, 436a, 544, 595] [5]

St. Clair, Gen. Arthur  (1734-1818) born in Scotland; came to America in 1757, to Illinois in 1790; soldier of the Revolutionary War; on Feb. 1, 1788, appointed first governor of the Northwest Territory, which included Illinois. In 1791, he fought an unsuccessful campaign against the midwestern Indian tribes, which opposed continued colonialization; in 1794 the Indians were decisively beaten at Fallen Timbers by General Wayne; street name: St. Clair Street (200 E, from 500 to 720 N), originally Sand Street. [594] [12]

St. Cosme, Abbé Jean François Buisson de  (February 1667-1707) born at Quebec, ordained in 1690, and did missionary work at Mines in Acadia. On Oct. 21, 1699 Abbé St. Cosme, on the way to southern Illinois, visited the Chicago area and the flourishing Mission de l’Ange Gardien, as well as a large village of the Miami nearby; then in charge were Fathers Pinet and Bineteau. The leader of the visiting group was Rev. de Montigny; others with them were Abbé Davion, Brother Alexandre, and Tonti as their guide; on October 24 the party proceeded S through the portage (Brother Alexandre remained temporarily) to the Tamaroa in the Mississippi Valley. On his return trip to Quebec during Easter of 1700, then with Abbé Thaumur de la Source, St. Cosme again stopped at the mission; his impression of these visits to Chicago are detailed in a letter to the Bishop of Quebec; for an excerpt, see below. Subsequently he labored at Cahokia, then at Natchez; in 1707 Abbé St. Cosme was killed by a Chitimacha [an Indian tribe whose name means ‘they have cooking vessels’; or in Choctaw: chúti, ‘cooking vessels’ and másha, ‘have’] while descending the Mississippi. [290, 456b, 665]
From a 1700 letter written by Abbé St. Cosme:
… Mr. de Muys [A French military officer, who became Governor of Louisiane in 1705; eds.], ….
Monsieur Montigny, Davion, and myself went by land to the house of the Reverend Jesuit Fathers, the Mission of the Guardian Angel, found there the Reverend Father Pinet and the Reverent Father Bineteau, recently arrived from the Illinois country, slightly ill. Their house is built on the bank of a small river, with the lake on one side and a vast prairie on the other. The village of savages contains over a hundred and fifty cabins, and a league up the river is still another village, almost as large. They are all Miamis. You can see no finer looking people, neither tall nor short usually, legs that seem drawn with an artists pen, they carry their load of wood gracefully with a proud gait as finely as the best dancer; faces as beautiful as white milk, the most regular and the whitest teeth imaginable, full of life, yet lazy, tattooed behind from shoulder to heels; proud, vain, they are given to begging, are cowardly, licentious, entirely given up to their senses, jealous as Italians, thievish, gourmands, vindictive, perfidious, much given to debauchery, especially the men; the reverend Jesuit fathers, who speak their language perfectly, manage (if one may say so) to impose some check on this by instructing a number of girls in Christianity. This often greatly incenses the older men and daily exposes these fathers to ill-treatment and even to being killed.

Abbé St. Cosme reports how a small boy got lost in Chicago in 1699: The next day we began the [Chicago] portage, which is about three leagues long when the water is low, and only a quarter of a league in the spring, for you embark on a little lake [Mud Lake] that empties into a branch of the Illinois, and when the waters are low you have to make a portage to that branch. We made half our portage that day, and we should have made some progress further, when we perceived that a little boy whom we had received from Mr. de Muys [A French military officer, who became Governor of Louisiane in 1705; eds.], having started on alone, although he had been told to wait, had got lost without anyone paying attention to it, all hands being engaged. We were obliged to stop and look for him. It was a very unfortunate mishap, we were pressed by the season and the waters being very low, we saw well that being obliged to carry our effects and our canoe it would take us a great while to reach the Illinois. This made us part company, Mr. de Montigny, de Tonty, and Davion, continued the portage next day, and I with four other men returned to look for this little boy, and on my way back I met Fathers Pinet and Binneteau who were going with two Frenchmen and one Indian to the Illinois. We looked for him again all that day without being able to find him. As next day was the feast of All Saints this obliged me to go and pass the night at Chikagou with our people, who having heard mass and performed their devotions early, we spent all that day too in looking for that little boy without being able to get the least trace. It was very difficult to find him in the tall grass, for the whole country is prairies; you meet only some clumps of woods. As the grass was high we durst not set fire to it for fear of burning him. Mr. de Montigny had told me not to stay over a day, because the cold was becoming severe; this obliged me to start after giving Brother Alexander directions to look for him and to take some of the French who were at Chicag8.
[From a letter later written by Abbé Thaumur de la Source, another member of the de Montigny/St. Cosme party, we learn with some satisfaction the following: I will tell you that Mr. de Montigny took a boy twelve or fifteen years with him, who got lost while making the first portage in the prairies. Mr. de St. Cosme remained with five men and spent two days looking for him without being able to to find him, and during this time I and two others with Mr. de Montigny made a portage of two leagues. This boy made his way to Chicagou, where Brother Alexandre was, thirteen days after. He was utterly exhausted and was out of his headeds.] [613]

St. Cyr, Father John Mary Irenaeus  (1803-1883) born in Lyon, France; arrived at St. Louis in August 1831; ordained as deacon in 1832; raised to priesthood on Apr. 6, 1833, by Bishop Joseph Rosati of St. Louis; first Catholic priest assigned to Chicago [Apr. 16, 1833] in response to a petition sent by local Catholics to the bishop that month [This petition is preserved and is of considerable historic interest, in that it contains the names of all petitioners and the size of each one’s family, reprinted below.]; Catholics then numbered 128, or c.90 percent of the population. After a journey of 12 days from St. Louis, Father St. Cyr arrived on May 1, in the company of Anson Taylor, who had been dispatched from Chicago to serve as escort; he celebrated his first Mass in Mark Beaubien’s 12-by-12-foot log cabin at the SE corner of the Forks on May 5. From this modest beginning he soon formed the Parish of [see] St. Mary’s and built his church near the SW corner of Lake and State streets; the building was completed in October 1833, built by Augustine Deodat Taylor with pine lumber that David Carver supplied from Michigan, and measured 36 feet long, 24 feet wide, and 12 feet high; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town that year. By 1835 Father St. Cyr’s flock numbered 400, Indians and Negroes [see Perry, Nelson Peter] alike; additional duties were to travel to outlying isolated settlements, as far as the Fox River valley, to perform baptisms &c.; In 1837, he was recalled to the diocese of St. Louis; died on Feb. 21, 1883. Father St. Cyr’s letters from Chicago to Bishop Rosati are preserved in the St. Louis Archdiocesan Archives. [12, 13, 267, 269a, 319]
Petition letter to the Bishop of St. Louis, Joseph Rosati, received on April 16, 1833, and answered the following day, asking that a priest be assigned to Chicago:
To the Right Reverend Bishop of the Diocese of Missouri, of St. Louis, &c.;, &c.;
We, the Catholics of Chicago, Cook County, Ill., lay before you the necessity there exists to have a pastor in this new and flourishing city. There are here several families of French descent, born and brought up in the Roman Catholic Faith, and others quite willing to aid us in supporting a pastor, who ought to be sent here before other sects obtain the upper hand, which very likely they will try to do. We have heard several persons say were there a priest here they would join our religion in preference to any other. We count about one hundred Catholics in this town. We will not cease to pray until you have taken our important request into consideration
Written in French and listing the following persons, giving for each the number of family members being represented, for a total of 128 individuals: Thomas J.V. Owen – 9; J. Bt. Beaubien – 14; Joseph Laframboise – 7; Jean Pothier – 5; Alexander Robinson – 8; Pierre LeClerc – 3; Alexis Laframboise – 4; Claude Laframboise – 4; Jacques Chaput – 5; Antoine Ouilmet – 10; Leon Bourassa – 3; Charles Taylor – 2; J. Bt. Miranda and sisters – 3; Louis Chevallier and family – 3; Patrick Walsh – 2; John Mann – 5; B. Caldwell – 1; Dill Saver – 1; Mark Beaubien – 12; Dill Vaughn – 1; James Vaughn – 1; J. Bt. Rabbie – 1; J. Bt. Proulx; J. Bt. Tabeaux – 1; J.B. Durocher – 1; J. Bt. Brodeur – 1; Mathias Smith – 1; Antoine St. Ours – 1; Bazille Desplat – 1; Charles Monselle – 1; John Hondorf – 1; Dexter Hapgood – 1; Nelson Peter Perry – 1; John S.C. Hogan – 1; Anson H. Taylor – 1; Louis Franchere – 1. Entry on the reverse side: Major Whistler’s family, about six. [268]

St. James Church  see Episcopal congregation.

St. Joseph  this community of traders in Michigan territory, close to the current Michigan-Indiana border, was a famous frontier crossroad in the second half of the 18th century, where the Chicago Road from Detroit was joined by the trail from Fort Wayne; was preceded by the Jesuit [see] Mission de Saint-Joseph, built c.1689, and developed in association with nearby Fort St. Joseph, nicknamed Parc aux Vaches or ‘cow pasture’ by the inhabitants, where buffalo cows would earlier return to calve. Its location was on the St. Joseph River two miles S of Niles, MI, near the intersection of the Detroit-Chicago road and the St. Joseph-Kankakee portage route. During the Revolutionary War the principal trader was Louis (Louison) Chevalier, whose co-operation was sought by the warring parties because of his thorough familiarity with the land and its inhabitants. Another important trader was William Burnett, between c.1778 and 1814, with whom John Kinzie and Jean Baptiste Lalime apprenticed; from 1796 to 1800 Kinzie had a trading post here, and a small stream in the area is still known as Kinzie Creek. The community is not to be confused with present day St. Joseph at the mouth of the St. Joseph’s River, opposite Benton Harbor, MI. Also see Bertrand, Joseph. [729a] [216]

St. Joseph Mission  the name which replaced that of the [see] Carey Mission in the Indian Treaty of 1828.

St. Joseph River  early name, Miami River or Rivière des Miamis; the French first met the Miami among several villages along the river, replaced by the Potawatomi; La Salle’s sailing vessel, Le Griffon, had been under orders to meet him at the mouth of the river, but perished in 1679 before completing its mission. Draining mostly Michigan territory, the river’s mouth is located at [Benton Harbor]; gave access to the much-traveled St. Joseph-Kankakee portage, where a large Potawatomi village existed and where Fort St. Joseph was located from c.1712 to its destruction during the Revolutionary War; broadly meandering through Michigan, the river was crossed by the Detroit- Chicago road three times. In 1826, Congress allocated funds for the improvement of the St. Joseph harbor at the mouth of the river, the first federal harbor project on Lake Michigan, and in the following year the sloop Savage became the first vessel to enter the river, though actual work on the harbor did not begin until 1833. [235]

St. Joseph  schooner under Captain Burnham, built at Black River, OH, in 1835, called at Chicago on June 24, 1835, with passengers and merchandise; in the July 8 Chicago Democrat, a notice itemized “60 M. ft. pine lumber, 100 M. shingles, 20 bbls. flour, and 60 bbls. bulk merchandize: the largest cargo ever discharged at this port,” delivered from Grand River, MI; returned five more times that year, going to St. Joseph and Buffalo, NY. [48]

St. Lawrence River  in eastern Canada; the wide mouth of the river was first shown on the 1511 map of Ptolemy, as edited by Sylvanus; the river became the original gateway for European conquest of what was later known as Nouvelle France, which eventually included the Chicago region. Frenchman Jacques Cartier, in 1535, was the first to leave a record of sailing into the gulf of St. Lawrence and then into the river “until land could be seen on either side.” In 1610, Champlain founded Quebec along the St. Lawrence River. The first Jesuit missionaries, Fathers Biard and Massé, arrived in 1611; street name: St. Lawrence Avenue [600 E].

St. Louis, Rivière de  Jolliet’s name for the Illinois River.

St. Louis, Treaty of  see Treaty of St. Louis 1816.

St. Louis  schooner from Buffalo under Captain Vorce, called at Chicago with passengers and merchandise on June 30 and Sept. 9, 1835.

St. Lusson, Simon François Daumont, Sieur de  proclaimed at Sault Ste. Marie in 1671 that “all the adjacent countries, rivers lakes and contiguous streams” belonged to the king of France, Louis XIV; afterward Talon reported that a cross and post with the arms of France had been erected “… in the presence of seventeen Indian nations, assembled on [that] occasion from all parts, all of whom voluntarily submitted themselves to the dominion of his majesty, whom alone they regard as their sovereign protector.” The many Indian nations had been brought together by [see] Nicolas Perrot. [565]

St. Mary Catholic Church  see Catholic congregation; also see St. Cyr, Père John Mary Irenaeus.

St. Ours, Antoine  in April 1833 his name was on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati in St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them. [12]

St. Pierre, —  probably the earliest permanent trader in Milwaukee, where he is said to have lived from 1763 until at least 1779. A nephew of St. Pierre, Morand, was encountered and interviewed by Captain Robertson when his boat, the Felicity, visited Milwaukee in 1779, but the notes in his log are ambiguous. [649] [565]

Stacy, Moses  a soldier in the War of 1812; came to Chicago from New York on a sailing vessel in 1834, and quickly moved west to build a log cabin and settle in [now] Glen Ellyn, IL; unable to refuse shelter to occasional travelers, he soon built a frame tavern along Geneva Road near the intersection with St. Charles Road which became known as Stacy`s Corners. A second tavern built in 1846 has been restored by the Glen Ellyn Historical Society and is now Stacy`s Tavern Museum. The photograph was taken by Alan Gornik, 2007; see Monuments for additional information. [280a, 415] [314a]

Stafford, Capt. John F.   (Aug. 12, 1820-Dec. 19, 1898) born in Dublin, Ireland; the family first settled at Port Hope, Canada, but by 1830 removed to Rochester, NY, following the father`s death; first studied medicine, but became a sailor after the loss of his mother; believed to have first visited Chicago in 1834; he followed his younger brother to Buffalo, NY, with carpentry skills, working thereafter in printing and the grain trade; by 1852 he was in Chicago and a successful merchant, investing in lake boats; he married Elizabeth Cadwallader of Buffalo in 1854; their daughters were Junlata and Minua. Following his death he was most well remembered, with Thomas Hoyne and [see] J. Young Scammon, for securing Lake Front park, the narrow stretch of grass and trees between Madison and Twelfth streets on the east side of Michigan Avenue, which was later developed as Grant Park, now Millennium Park; he is buried in Rosehill Cemetery. [168a]

stag beetle  see Lucanus elaphus.

stagecoach  see Frink & Walker.

Staly, Julia  see Gardiner, Alvah N.

Stamps, W.B.  one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

Stanger, Christoph and Daniel  German immigrant brothers from Pennsylvania, arrived in 1834 and soon formed the first branch nucleus of the [see] German Evangelical Association, which was not formally organized until 1843; they settled on Section 13 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL. [13, 304, 342] [12]

Stannig, Thomas  in 1835 submitted an affidavit in support of [see] John Ludby’s claim for wharfing privileges.

Stanton, Marcy  see Sabin, Sylvanus.

Starr, James  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Nov. 18, 1809; killed at the massacre of 1812. [708] [226]

Starved Rock  a tall rock or cliff in LaSalle County, on the S side of the Illinois River, upon which the French explorer La Salle erected a fort during the winter of 1682-83 and named it Fort St. Louis, which was also referred to as Fort St. Louis du Rocher and Fort St. Louis des Illinois; it functioned as a trade center with the Indians and as a French command post to maintain vigilance over the Illinois route to he Mississippi River. Near the rock, coal was first found in the area, and was used in the forge erected within the fort. Nearby, at [see] Kaskaskia, was a large village of Illinois Indians, said to have been inhabited by 7,000 to 8,000 souls in 1680, eventually numbering 20,000 inhabitants. By 1691 the Illinois agriculture had depleted the nutrients of the local soil, firewood had become scarce, and animals to hunt had decreased sharply in numbers; these were the major reasons for the tribe to relocate to the east bank of the Illinois River near the narrows at the outlet of lower Lake Peoria where Tonti and François Daupin de La Forêt built [see] Fort St. Louis de Pimitéoui during the winter of 1691-92. In 1712 one band of Peoria moved back to Starved Rock where a small group of traders and coureurs des bois had remained; early in 1722 a smaller Peoria band returned to Plum Island, during the years the Fox intermittently raided along the Illinois and Rock rivers, between 1716-1730. A colorful fiction to explain the name of the rock is given by Quaife: a group of the Illinois was starved into submission on the rock by Fox Indians in c.1722. A legend in Andreas claims that a remnant, having retreated to the rock, was starved and then massacred by the Ottawa and Potawatomi in retaliation for the 1769 assassination of the Ottawa chief Pontiac by an Illinois Indian. After a thorough search Alvord stated there were no reliable references to this alleged episode. The only dependable account stating that the Illinois were suffering on Starved Rock is the one of Ouashala, the aging Fox chief, who so told Montigny and the Jesuits, after his war party returned home to Green Bay. Also near the rock, in the Illinois River town Peru, was the final destination of a daily steamboat run from St. Louis beginning in 1833, with stage connection offered to Chicago in 1834 first by Dr. Temple’s line, and later by the line of Frink & Walker. For a description of the rock by La Salle, see the entry on Fort St. Louis du Rocher. For Francis Parkman’s 1897 description of Starved Rock as a great national monument, see below:
“The cliff called ‘Starved Rock’ now pointed out to travelers as the chief natural curiosity of the region, rises steep on three sides as a castle wall to the height of a hundred twenty-five feet above the river. In front, it overhangs the water that washes its base; its western brow looks down on the tops of the forest trees below; and on the east is a wide gorge or ravine, choked with the mingled foliage of oaks, walnuts and elms; while in its rocky depth a little brook creeps down to mingle with the river. From the rugged trunk of the stunted cedar that leans forward from the brink, you may drop a plummet into the river below, where the catfish and the turtles may plainly be seen gliding over the wrinkled sand of the clean shallow current. The cliff is accessible only from behind, where a man may climb up, not without difficulty, by a steep and narrow passage. The top is about an acre in extent.” [13, 464c; photograph by Ulrich Danckers] [596a]

State Bank of Illinois  charter approved by the legislature on Feb. 12, 1835; a branch of this bank was – Chicago’s 1st – such facility, opening mid-December 1835 at the corner of LaSalle and South Water streets in the four-story brick building owned by Garrett, Brown & Brother, with William H. Brown as cashier, Ezra L. Sherman as teller; the board of directors consisted of: president John H. Kinzie, directors G.S. Hubbard, Peter Pruyne, E.K. Hubbard, R.J. Hamilton, Walter Kimball, H.B. Clarke, G.W. Dole, and E.D. Taylor; bank checks were available Dec. 19, as per notice in the Chicago American; the bank failed in 1837.

State Street  Chicago’s main street and its name have a history that begins among the early traders. After Gurdon S. Hubbard established his trading post in Danville in 1823, 120 miles S of Chicago, he pioneered a trail between the two settlements that, in time, became known as Hubbard’s Trace. By 1834, the trace had developed into an important route of travel between the Wabash country and the new town, and that year the state of Illinois elevated it to the status of state road, in anticipation of which the surveyor James Thompson, in 1830, gave its northern portion the name State Street.

Staughton, Elizabeth  see Temple, John Taylor.

Steam Boat Hotel  opened in 1835 on North Water Street, near Kinzie Street, and was operated by John Davis; on November 9 of that year, J. Dorsey and J. Force announced in the Chicago Democrat that they had assumed management and “that nothing shall be wanting to render their House worthy of a call from a few of the many who visit this flourishing village”; was renamed American Hotel in 1836 when acquired by [see] William McCorristen.

steamboats  beginning in 1832, lake steamers would visit Chicago; the Sheldon Thompson under Capt. A. Walker came first on July 10, followed eight days later by the William Penn, both bringing troops for the Black Hawk War—as well as the cholera. In that year H.S. Tanner published View of the Valley of the Mississippi, or the Emigrant’s and Traveler’s Guide to the West that noted a steamboat was trading between Chicago “… and Newburyport, on the St. Joseph’s, in Michigan Territory.” Others followed during the years 1833-1835, including the Daniel WebsterMonroeColumbusAnthony WayneBunker HillMichiganOhioThomas JeffersonUncle SamPioneerUnited StatesPennsylvaniaNiagara and the Chicago; additional steamers were on the upper lakes, but never made it to Chicago, as was the ill-fated Walk-in-the-Water, the first steamboat built in 1818, run on the lakes, and which sank within the year. See separate entries under the boats’ individual names; also see entry under sailing vessels.

Stebbins, Jane Creed  see Kingsbury, Julius J.B.

Steel, Sgt. James C.  also Steele; during the Black Hawk War in 1832 enlisted at Charlestown, IN, on July 4 as 4th sergeant in Capt. Lemuel Ford`s company of the U.S. Mounted Rangers, providing his own horse, gun, clothing and forage; the company left on the 2oth traveling NW to Gurdon Hubbard`s trading post on the Iroquois River, then followed an Indian trail N until the “Canackee River” and camped on August 3rd: “… the river is about 200 yards wide, runs swift and clear, affords the best gravel and sand. The 5th we marched to Mud Creek and refreshed ourselves and horses in a beautiful Sugar Tree Grove, then we went on to Hicker Creek and in-campt [three miles from the Des Plaines River]. We remained there 8 days, in the time, myself and some others went to Shicago for provisions, where I was astonished to see the ded, boddys of the soldiers laying along the shore of the Lake, that had died with the chora, though I learned the Cholera was very allarming to me at that time. There had been one hundred deaths at that Fort at that time. The situation of that place is very promising, but the Sitizins are more like savages than an inlitened people. I was there 2 days and could not get a feed for my horse. I returned to the camp again. ….” [714]

Steele, Ashbel  (1794-1861) also Steel; of English descent, born in Derby, CT; bought land in Chicago in 1830 and moved with his second wife Harriet (née Dawley, 1827; England, c.1809-) and children in 1833, bringing with the furniture – Chicago’s 1st – piano; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; in November he plastered John Calhoun’s printing office. An unclaimed letter listed in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 1, 1834 was addressed to [Almond] Axtel & Steele. In 1834 he served on the cholera vigilante committee and managed briefly the Eagle Hotel on Lake Street; was elected Cook County coroner on August 4, and was part of the hunting party that killed the last black bear in Chicago on October 6; in 1836 he and his family became the first settlers at River Forest, building a large house near Lake Street and the Des Plaines River [now forest preserve]; 1839 City Directory: mason builder, third ward; purchased part ownership of a steam sawmill at the east bank of the river, just N of the Lake Street bridge, which had been built in 1831 by the Chicago firm Bickerdyke & Noble, the only such mill within 20 miles of Chicago; elected county sheriff on Aug. 10, 1840; appointed postmaster of Noyesville [early name for River Forest/Oak Park] on June 14, 1849. He died on Sept. 26, 1861; his widow lived in Maywood in 1885 and died on July 25, 1895; the family grave is at Forest Home Cemetery. Letters of Ashbel Steele are preserved in the Chicago History Museum, in which he describes the thrill of the swift flight in his horse-drawn sleigh over the smooth flat surface of the snowbound prairie. [243, 301, 319, 351, 408, 503a] [12]

Steele, Richard  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; became an early settler in Lake County, where his son Albert B. was born on June 20, 1835; that year he, Thomas McClure, and Mark Noble were appointed viewers to lay out a road from Chicago to the state line, crossing the Des Plaines River. [319] [304]

Stein, Charles  from Siefersheim, Germany; came to America in 1834 and to Chicago in 1835; conducted a small boot and shoe trade; married Magdalena Berg in 1841, Barbara Werner in 1847, and then Maria A. Mutti, year unknown; his widow lived in Blue Island in 1885. [13]

Stephens, Nancy  see Kercheval, Lewis C.

Stephenson, Eliza A.  see Morris, Buckner S.

Stevens, Capt. Robert  (Sept. 19, 1802-Jan. 6, 1864) born in Mason County, KY; in Ohio he married Lydia Ann (Mad River, OH, Jan. 6, 1810-), daughter of John and Elizabeth (née Steinbarger) Pence on Jan. 17, 1828; in Bartholomew County, IN, became captain of a military company until removing to Will County, IL, in 1831 where their third child Elizabeth was born; at the onset of the Sauk Indian scare he took his family S to Danville for safety and returned to raise a crop on his claim; enrolled from July 23 to Aug. 15, 1832, as lieutenant in Captain Seission`s militia company during the Black Hawk War; following the loss of his wife, he married Nancy (OH, c.1814-), daughter of [see] Lewis and Mary (Polly, née Runyon) Kercheval, at Joliet in a ceremony on Oct. 29, 1835, conducted by Cornelius C. Van Horn as per notice in the Chicago American. The couple had six surviving children: Lewis Kercheval (c.1836-), Thomas J. (c.1837-), James (c.1841-), Anna Sarah (c.1843-; Mrs. William Grinton, Jr.), Mary A. (c.1846-), and Albert (c.1851-). Robert died in 1864; in 1878 Nancy was listed as the farmer and son Albert as a horse dealer in Joliet Township. [734] [714]

Stevens, George  co-owner, with Lathrop Johnson, of the New York House, a hotel on Lake Street built in 1834 and opened in 1835; on Sept. 1, 1835, the partnership was dissolved, though they worked together through December, when Johnson assumed responsibility; a George F. Stevens is listed as a drayman in the 1839 City Directory.

Stevens, Luther  contracted with the postmaster general by 1833 to weekly deliver mails from Decatur via Randolph`s Grove, Bloomington, Ottawa, Chestnut, Vermillion and Du Page to Chicago – 185 miles – for $700, known as Route No. 83. [389b]

Stevens, Owen R.  listed as owner of 80 acres of land in the NW corner of Section 6, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Stevenson, Benjamin  second of three delegates from the Territory of Illinois to Congress during the territorial period from 1809 to 1816; the others were Shadrach Bond and Nathaniel Pope.

Stewart  two “maiden ladies” by this name, dressmakers, lived with the family of Major Handy in the old Dean House; they were presumed to be relatives. [728]

Stewart, Clarissa  see Hobson, Bailey.

Stewart, James  also Stuart; subagent of the St. Joseph`s Subagency (at Niles, Michigan Territory) to U.S. Indian agent Thomas J.V. Owen, 1831-33 at Fort Dearborn, serving first with N.D. Grover, then with Gholson Kercheval; made his home at the [see] Carey Mission near Niles; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [714] [319]

Stewart, John  listed on April 17, 1833, as master of the schooner Napoleon upon which George Dole`s first beef shipment (287 barrels) was carried east; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; member of the Methodist congregation who, together with Henry Whitehead, constructed the first permanent Methodist church building at the corner of North Water and Clark streets in the second half of 1834; married to Ellen Adell Millen; 1839 City Directory: Captain, steamer Michigan. For the text of a bill of lading, executed by Captain Stewart, see entry “Newberry & Dole.” [12, 319] [243]

Stewart, Lewis  see Hobson, Bailey.

Stewart, Nancy  see Shapley, Morgan L.

Stewart, Robert  also Stuart; listed as having in c.1832 purchased from J.B. Beaubien, and together with Seth Johnson, lot 3 in block 36 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]. Conceivably, this listing may have referred to [see] Robert Stuart, manager of the American Fur Co. at Mackinac, who occasionally came to Chicago on business, and whose name is spelled variously in Andreas. [12]

Stewart, Royal  attorney; assisted in Col. Hamilton`s office late November 1834 and advertised subscriptions to American Plough BoyNew-York FarmerRail-Road Journal and Register of Internal Improvements, and Mechanics Magazine and Register of Inventions; became secretary of the Chicago Lyceum in December 1834; was admitted to the Illinois bar on Jan. 8, 1835, then advertised his services in the Chicago American on June 8; voted in 1837; 1839 City Directory: Lake Street [12, 13] [243]

Stewart, William    lived with his wife at Flusky’s boarding house in 1835.

Stiles, David  ran a log tavern on the W bank of the south branch of the Chicago River in October 1834, mentioned in an 1883 letter by [see] Enoch Chase, who found “not a vestige of civilization except the wagon tracks and it was the dreariest road I have ever traveled” between Stile`s Tavern and the one run by the Laughtons on the Des Plaines River; his name was on a school-related Chicago petition signed on Sept. 19, 1835. [13]

Stipes, Matilda  see Galloway, James.

Stolp, Charles West  see Stolp, William Russel.

Stolp, Frederick  (Nov. 11, 1781-1873) born in Columbia County, NY; son of Johannes Peter and Catrina (née Chrysler Kreysla) Stolp; served in the War of 1812; brickmaker from Pultneyville in Wayne County; at age 52 walked on foot from New York to Chicago in 1833 and on to Naperville Township, where he found suitable clay for brickmaking and chose land; in 1834 he walked back to New York to fetch his nine children and his wife Janette Willemena (née Pepper, married Aug. 30, 1813 [c.1792-]); returned with family: Catherine W. (Jan. 21, 1814-), Abraham F. (Nov. 25, 1816-), Elizabeth A. (June 17, 1819-), James B. (Aug. 16, 1820-), George W. (Feb. 25, 1824-Jan. 17, 1903), Frederick A. (May 14, 1826-), William Russel (Aug. 10, 1828-May 22, 1908 KS), Charles West (Sept. 7, 1831-Jan. 31, 1887 KS), and Henry P. (Nov. 4, 1833-) in September 1835 and acquired a claim E of Big Woods. [314a] [657a]

Stolp, William Russel  (Aug. 10, 1828-May 22, 1908) born in Wayne County, NY; fifth son of [see] Frederick and Janette (née Pepper) Stolp; came with his family to Du Page County in September 1835; he married Lucy Jane Kinley Smith (IL Aug. 17, 1828-June 1906) on Nov. 15, 1848; the couple resettled in Cowley County, Kansas with his younger brother Charles West and wife Sarah D. Bristol Stolp (NY Sept. 28, 1831-Sept. 17, 1890), also married in Du Page County, IL. [314a]

stone quarry  the quarry nearest to the early settlement was located just S of [see] Healy`s Slough. According to Valentine Boyer, from here came the stones used for initial harbor pier construction, delivered under contract in a large wooden boat by James Spence and John Boyer, who also built the boat. [728]

Stone, H.O.  arrived on the Agnes Barton in June 1834; member of the team that went from Chicago to [see] Sheboygan later in 1834 to build a sawmill on the Sheboygan River. The venture failed, and the party returned to Chicago in 1835. H.O. Stone is likely identical with [see] Horatio O. Stone. [728]

Stone, Horacio O.  (1811-1877) from New York, arrived on Jan. 11, 1835; a shoemaker by training but opened a hardware store and speculated in real estate business, maintaining each business for nearly 40 years; 1839 City Directory: groceries & provisions, South Water Street; a notice in the Daily Chicago American of Dec. 30, 1839, announced the death of two daughters within five days, one-year-old Aurora and five- year-old Semantha. His first wife`s name was Jane Ann; later he married Elizabeth Yager. A card in the 1844 City Directory read: H. O. STONE, Wholesale and Retail Dealer in DRY GOODS, GROCERIES, HARDWARE, &c.; No. 114, Lake Street, Chicago, Ill. Storage & Forwarding, South Water Street. Cash paid for Wheat, Flour, Corn, Oats. In 1854, he began the manufacture of pianos; in his later years he owned much downtown property; died on June 20, 1877; street name: Stone Street (80 E). [12, 37, 243] [351]

Stoner, George  in c.1832 purchased lot 5 in block 23 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] from Wilson Bell [initially the lot belonged to William Lee]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Stony Creek  branch of the Calumet River that used to flow eastward into the Calumet at Fay`s Point, S of Blue Island, helping to drain the southern Chicagoland swamps. However, in times of high water, Stony Creek flowed both eastward into the Calumet and westward into the Saganashkee swamp. Tributaries were Midlothian Creek and Bachelors Grove Creek [now in Tinley Creek]. The Calumet-Sag Canal has replaced Stony Creek.

Stony Ford  one of several ancient fords of the Des Plaines River, located where the underlying Niagara limestone foundation reaches the surface and resists erosion. Indian trails between Chicago and the Illinois River valley crossed at these fords. This one is located in the Ottawa Trail Woods of the Forest Preserve. It can be seen well, except during high water, as an area of shallow rapids just south of the bridge where Joliet Road in Lyons crosses the river [see photo taken from bridge in downstream direction].

Stony Island  a rocky outcropping, part of the laminated limestone formation deposited 400 million years ago by a shallow tropical sea and referred to as the Niagara formation by geologists, it formed an island in Lake Chicago, Lake Michigan`s precursor; what remains of this elevation is located along (street name) Stony Island Avenue (1600 E) and between 92nd and 93rd streets.

Storrow, Samuel Appleton  (1787-1837) Judge Advocate Major of the Northern division, U.S. Army, under General Jacob Jennings Brown from 1815 to 1820; visited Fort Dearborn from Oct. 2 to 4, 1817, traveling overland from Detroit by way of Fort Gratiot [on the St. Clair River] and Green Bay during a three month inspection tour of the western forts. Visits to the lonely fort were rare, and visitors were well received by Commandant Major Baker and the garrison. Mr. Storrow described his Fort Dearborn experience in a letter to Major General Brown, written on Dec. 1, 1817, and in his publication Tour of the Northwest, 1817; for an excerpt, see Chronology, 1817. [12, 428a, 560] [641]

Story, Eben  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Stose, Clemens, Sr.  also Clement Stoce, Stokse, Stoze; German born, came from Pennsylvania; his arrival varies by account from 1833 to 1836, the earlier more likely; E.O. Gale observed Stose`s smithy, where he made calumets and tomahawks for the Indians, on Franklin Street in 1835, bringing the total to three; in 1839 was elected alderman from the second ward; 1839 City Directory: Stose & White [?], blacksmiths, Randolph Street near Wells; probable date of death, Oct. 18, 1881; Andreas noted the existence of an old leathern fire bucket with the name “C. Stoze” among the artifacts of the Chicago History Museum. [12, 243, 265] [351]

Stow, Mary Ann  see Dimmick, Edward.

Stowe, Henry M.  also Stow; arrived from New York in 1834; 1839 City Directory: iron merchant, 11 and 13 Clark St.; 1844 City Directory: foundry, Canal st. store Clark st. b South Water and Lake sts (See card). Later moved to San Francisco. As an Old Settler listed in 1885, he was again living in Chicago. [12, 243] [351]

Stowe, William H.  (c.1806-1881) born in Utica, NY; arrived with his wife Celia in July 1834; was a member of the fire engine company No.1 (Fire Kings) in December 1835; built and operated that year the Western Hotel on the SE corner of Canal and Randolph streets, which he held until 1852. Together with [see] David Bradley in 1835 he also built a foundry on Polk Street near the river, which later made the first Chicago steam engines; 1839 City Directory: foundry, W Randolph Street; 1844 City Directory: at Stowe`s foundry, res Western Hotel; was active in the Presbyterian church. In 1885, he lived at 2236 Michigan Avenue. [12, 243] [351]

Stowell, Augustine  served under Captain Naper in the Chicago company during the 1832 Black Hawk War. [12] [714]

Stowell, Calvin Melvin  (Oct. 25, 1817-Jan. 22, 1892) served under Captain Naper in the Chicago company during the 1832 Black Hawk War; married Melinda Asenath Butts at Belvidere, IL, on July 12, 1840; died at Manchester, IL. [12] [714]

Stowell, Walter  arrived in 1831; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; served as third sergeant under Captain Napier in the Chicago company during the 1832 Black Hawk War; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; later moved to Newark, IL, where he became postmaster. [12, 319] [714]

Street, Ebenezer  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

streets and roads  the first streets of Chicago created by organized governmental activity were those planned and named by [see] James Thompson, surveyor for the Illinois & Michigan Canal Commission, who published his plat on Aug. 4, 1830. For several years most of these streets existed only on paper. As late as 1833, only one row of poorly aligned houses remotely resembled a street, that of South Water Street. The area mapped by Thompson is what, in the context of this book, is called the “original town,” bounded by Kinzie Street on the N, State Street on the E, Madison Street on the S, and Desplaines Street on the W. At the time neither State, Madison, nor DesPlaines streets were named, and it must be realized that until much later in the 1830s the actual settlement was considerably smaller than the area covered by the plat. Thompson`s checkerboard arrangement of streets reflects the mandates of the [see] Federal Land Ordinance of 1785, modified by geographic features of the landscape and preexisting village paths.
The next authority to establish streets or roads, after the canal commission, was the Cook County Board of Commissioners which, during its second court session (June 6, 1831), ordered the first two county roads to be laid out, one “from the town of Chicago [by way of the later Madison Street and Ogden Avenue] to the house of B. Lawton, from thence to the house of James Walker, on the Du Page River, and so on to the west line of the county.” The second was to run “from the town of Chicago, the nearest and best way [along the later State Street and Archer Avenue] to the house of Widow Brown, on Hickory Creek.” Jedediah Wooley became the first county surveyor in 1831 and, on April 25, 1832, was instructed to lay out a street leading from the settlement to the lakeshore, 50 feet wide; his description reads as follows: “From the west end of [S] Water street, in the town of Chicago, to Lake Michigan. Direction of said road is south 88 1/2 degrees west from the street to the lake, 18 chains 50 links.”
The third agency responsible for the creation and maintenance of streets was the Chicago Village Board, which in November 1833 named four streets S of Washington Street, namely Madison, Monroe, Adams, and Jackson, and on June 6, 1834, created the office of supervisor of streets. Numbering of houses on Chicago streets began with Lake Street in 1839. Buildings on all other streets were not numbered until 1848, a move in which [see] J.W. Norris played an important role. An 1833 decree of the town’s aldermen specifies that at least half of the construction cost of sidewalks would have to be paid by the property owners of adjacent lots. By the end of 1835 few, if any, sidewalks had been created. A state road, constructed under authority of the government in Springfield, connecting Chicago with the left bank of the Wabash River, opposite Vincennes, was completed in March 1833; an interstate road, built with federal funds during the years from 1827 to 1836 [see entry on Richard, Father Gabriel], connected Chicago with Detroit, closely following the ancient Indian trail and connecting with Michigan Avenue in Chicago; Catlin says: “… it was nothing to boast about in the driest season and was at times impassable in wet weather.” The Green Bay Indian Trail from Chicago to Green Bay had been designated by an act of Congress as an important national route on June 15, 1832, and therefore to be improved as a national road. Surveyed in 1833, in 1834 it was cut to a width of two rods as far as Milwaukee and improved with corduroy through the swamps and with log bridges over the streams.
Chicago`s street pattern of today reflects both the land ordinance with its N-S orientation and the much earlier arrangement of pioneer and Indian footpaths and wagon trails, the latter yielding only to natural geographic features. For early comments on early Chicago roads, see the eyewitness reports by Edwin O. Gale, John Dean Caton, Charles Cleaver and Z. Eastman below. For an 1835 eyewitness account on the quality of construction of cross-country plank roads through the wilderness, also see Prof. J.B. Turner`s coach report below; as to another method of roadbuilding, see entry for turnpiking. [119, 119a, 233″, 280a, 320, 538, 553]

Edwin O. Gale, referring to 1833: The entire absence of streets, of which, properly so called, there is not one, no, not even a ditch to mark the roads. More over, there is nothing to indicate where they ultimately will be, save the surveyors stakes.
John Dean Caton: It was early in that spring of 1834 that I found myself standing at the crossing of Dearborn and Lake streets looking west; and for the first time I could see where the street was by the line of buildings on either side of it. This was the first time I ever noticed a street in Chicago made perceptible by the buildings on both sides of it. Then for the first time could I fully realize that our little settlement was assuming the appearance of a town. It is not easy to realize that now [1869] there are more than a quarter of a million people.
Charles Cleaver, referring to the late 1830s: I remember, once, a stage-coach got mired in Clark Street, opposite the present Sherman House, where it remained several days, with a board driven in the mud … bearing this inscription: ‘No bottom here’.
Z. Eastman: “… THE TRAVELER OUT OF CHICAGO, if he moved upon one of Frink`s old stages, as they mostly departed at night, could hear during many weeks in the fall and spring the tramp of the horses` hoofs in water,—splash, splash,— for a distance of 8 or 10 miles, until they made the Sand-Ridge at Widow Berry`s Point (now Riverside), or the Oak Ridge, west, or Sutherland`s, at the point of the Sand-Ridge, northwest. So the emigrants, unused to such quaking foundations for a road, departed on their western course, seeking a home beyond the sea of mud, and toiled on hardly (14 miles in fifteen days, never daring to look behind them), till they struck land, far beyond the O`Plain [Des Plaines], as everybody called the sluggish river that now divides Maywood from Chicago. In the summer-season, or after the water had subsided in the spring, so that vegetation could start up, the whole boundless contiguity became a sea of green,—coarse, rank slough-grass growing up, except where trodden down by travel; roots, knitting strong on the surface, made a tough but elastic sod, that would tremble under the tread of the wild buffalo, if any ever came along; but, as they [no longer did; eds.], the trembling was mostly under the wheels of the Hoosier wagon or [see] Frink`s crazy stages which he imported from the Connecticut River Valley, forgetting to rub out the labels on their yellow sides, `Springfield and Hartford,` or `Northampton and Greenfield`. …” [220b]
Prof. J.B. Turner: We selected this route because it would take us over the famous government road being built from Detroit to Chicago, and we had had delightful visions of bowling along a smooth highway built by government money and government engineers. But, alas! instead of being honest corduroy, as required in the contract and advertised in glowing colors, each tree felled and laid side by side with its neighbor tree, at right angles to the right of way, and all spaces carefully filled with dirt, the whole one unbroken, smooth surface, the trees were felled helter-skelter and left just as they happened to fall, but all were covered with dirt and rounded up smooth and even before the inspector came. The first spring rains had washed away the earth. Naked trunks of trees, at all angles and of all sizes, stretched over the impassable morasses of Indiana. By September, the whole route was strewn with broken vehicles, wagon wheels, and parts of stage-coaches. The men walked behind, carrying rails on their shoulders to pry out the wheels, when skilful driving could not prevent their slipping between the tree-trunks and they were in danger of being wrenched off.

striker   assistant who does the hammering for a blacksmith.

Strode, James McGowan  (c.1798-c.1862) from Tennessee; early settler of Sangamon County, IL; circuit riding attorney who was before the courts by 1823; during the [see] Winnebago War in July 1827, he joined an Illinois mounted militia unit it journeyed to northwestern frontier to subdue hostilities; on August 26, Captain Strode then mustered the Company of the Galena Mounted Volunteers which served under Brigadier General Atkinson until September 16; he remained in Galena as a practicing attorney and still riding the circuit, first coming to Chicago for several days in 1831. In early April 1832, he returned to Chicago from Galena in the company of attorney [see] Benjamin Mills and Judge Richard M. Young; they became aware of the early unrest of the Black Hawk War, and warned the Chicago settlement of the impending danger. In August 1832, he was the Democratic nominee for state senator and won, representing much of the area north of Peoria; moved to Chicago in August 1833; in 1835 he introduced legislation authorizing a government loan to commence work on the IL & MI Canal; on July 7, 1836, he was commissioned as register for the U.S. Land Office [succeeding James Whitlock], with its office on Lake Street, between Clark and Dearborn; 1839 City Directory: register land office, Saloon Building, Clark Street. After 1837, he was a practicing member of the Chicago bar and a prosecuting attorney until 1848. Strode moved to Woodstock c.1850 and served as McHenry County judge from 1854 to 1857; he died in KY, settling a family estate. His daughter Luella Strode Howe and his son George W. both later shared that their father came from Kentucky. [Frank E. Stevens Collections; 12, 243, 351, 714] [544]

Stronach, S. Ellen  see Dolton, Charles H.

Strong, George  purchased a claim on Section 18 in Wheeling, IL, in 1833 from a Mr. Sweet (first name unrecorded), who had already built a cabin. The following is quoted from History of Cook County, by A.T. Andreas: “Mr. Strong, before finally deciding to buy this claim, consulted Colonel Thomas J. V. Owen, Indian Agent at Chicago, as to the propriety of moving into it, and as to the probable results. Colonel Owen advised him not to go, as the Indians were hostile, and as, in addition, it would be necessary for him to use the United States troops in defending the rights of the Indians in case Mr. Strong should attempt to occupy the land before the ratification of the treaty. Mr. Strong, however, having set his heart upon his claim, and knowing that the treaty would be ratified in a short time, decided to make the venture, and on Monday, September 2, took possession of his claim. … Soon after moving into the Sweet shanty, it was surrounded by about a dozen Indians, whose intention was to drive off Mr. Strong. He, however, was not to be driven off easily. Going outside, he had quite a fight with them, knocking one of them flat upon the ground. He was immediately surrounded by the others, who with uplifted tomahawks and drawn knives threatened him with instant death. His escape is attributed only to showing no sign of fear. The treaty was soon afterwards ratified, and settlers came on in considerable numbers.” [13]

Strong, Robert  born in Greensboro, VT, in 1806; came in July 1831 with his wife Caroline [née Trowbridge/Willey?]; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; served as private in Captain Boardman`s voluntary county militia and under Capt. J. Brown in the Chicago militia during the Black Hawk War in 1832; bought a claim from Walter Selvey, settling near Dupage town; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; listed in the Chicago Democrat of April 8, 1834 as secretary of the Fountaindale Temperance Society. [12, 319] [734]

Stryker, Christian  settled in December 1834 on Section 12 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL. [13]

Stuart, Alexander  of Virginia; became one of the first three judges of the U.S. Court for the Territory of Illinois in 1809, serving with Jesse B. Thomas and William Spriggs; in 1885 lived at Birmingham, AL. [12]

Stuart, J. Jay, M.D.  probably arrived in Chicago late in 1835; on Feb. 6, 1836, he announced in the Chicago American the opening of his medical office on Lake Street [see ad], jointly occupied with J.D. Caton, Esq. In 1848 he shared a practice with Dr. H.K.W. Boardman; together they joined a group of physician volunteers willing to gratuitously inoculate the poor during the cholera outbreak of 1849. [12]

Stuart, J.N.  partner of [see] Lathrop Johnson in a livery stable enterprise; notice of the June 15, 1835, dissolution appeared in the Chicago American throughout that summer.

Stuart, Robert  (sometimes misspelled as [see] Robert Stewart, as in Andreas` History of Chicago); was managing partner of the American Fur Co.`s entire Northwest operations at Michilimackinac from 1817 to 1834, part of this time with Ramsey Crooks, the New York agent; had migrated from Scotland to Canada in 1805 and joined John Jacob Astor`s firm five years later, and remained with the firm until 1834, when he moved to Detroit. In 1831, he and his wife Elizabeth had as an employee [see] Miss Eliza Chappel, who taught the young children in the Stuart family and later became an early Chicago teacher. On September 28, the twelfth day of the 1833 Chicago Treaty, he was chosen “to act as appraiser of goods and merchandise furnished for the use of the Indians” jointly with Madison F. Abbott and Benjamin B. Kercheval by the Board of Commissioners, and received $17,000 for losses allegedly suffered by the American Fur Company through Indian activities since 1812, and signed the treaty document as a witness. He died suddenly in Chicago in 1848, when again in the city on business. [319] [12]

Stuart, William  lawyer; arrived from New York in 1835; his wife was Eliza G.; advertised in the Nov. 14 Chicago American and in the Dec. 5 Chicago Democrat as attorney, counselor, solicitor, and general land agent at an office in Sherman`s Brick Block, nearly opposite Tremont House on Lake; late in 1837 William Stuart & Co. acquired and began republication of [see] T.O. Davis`s Chicago American; 1839 City Directory: publisher and editor of Chicago Daily American, corner of South Water and Clark streets [his brother Alexander is listed as pressman]; followed Abell as postmaster in 1841 and sold the paper to his brother the following year. [12, 13] [243]

Stubbs, S.A.  born c.1807 in New Jersey; arrived in 18 35

sturgeon  Acipenser fulvescens, the lake sturgeon of North America, occurs in the Mississippi Valley, the Great Lakes, and northward into Canada. It was common in Lake Michigan. When [see] Joseph Kellogg in 1711 entered the lower end of the lake through the mouth of the St. Joseph River, he “was met with Sturgeon of ten feet long.” [735a]

Sturtevant, George W.  placed an ad in the Oct. 28, 1835, Chicago Democrat in regard to a lost red pocketbook, containing sundry papers, two promissory notes, and an agreement for a lot in Juliett. [243]

Sturtevant, J. Helen  see Underwood, John M.

Sucker    an early good-natured nickname for residents of Illinois, loosely used [actually referred to miners from southern Illinois, who would ascend the Mississippi to Galena in the spring and descend the river home in the autumn, like sucker fish]; see entry on Wellmacher, Johann for his bakery advertisement.

sulky    a light two-wheeled horse-drawn carriage having only one seat.

Sullivan, Capt. John C.  U.S. government surveyor for the commission established to delineate boundaries negotiated with the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi in August 1816 at the Treaty of St. Louis; a copy of his map of 1816 is in the Newberry Library and shows the Chicago portage region and the 20 by 70 mile corridor linking it to the upper Illinois River. [682]

Sullivan, Daniel  submitted a claim for wharfing privileges on Nov. 27, 1835. [28]

Sullivan, Mary Ann  a child by this name was enrolled as grade school student in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [728]

Sulzer, Andreas  [Andrew] born 1802; Swiss-German immigrant brewmaster; in 1833 he immigrated with his brother Konrad and met [see] Wilhelm Haas at Watertown, NY; arrived in Chicago with 150 barrels of ale and brewing equipment in 1836 [according to Hofmeister; Angle gives an unlikely 1833 as the year of their arrival]. Together with Haas he founded a brewery that initially produced 600 barrels of beer per year; their brewery was not the first such enterprise in Chicago, but the more successful [see entry on breweries]. An Andrew Sulzer is listed in the 1839 City Directory as a brewer at the corner of Pine [Michigan] Street and Chicago Avenue, the brewery then partnered by Wilhelm Haas and William Ogden. In 1841 Ogden sold his share to Michael Diversey, and the firm became “Lill & Diversey, The Chicago Brewery.” [17, 56a] [342]

Sulzer, Konrad  [Conrad] (1807-1873) Swiss-German immigrant druggist who had studied pharmacology at the universities of Bonn and Heidelberg, immigrated together with his five year older brother Andreas to the U.S. in 1833, and married Christine Young at Watertown, NJ in 1835. With their first child, Friedrich [Frederick], born in March 1836, the couple moved to Chicago in June of that year by way of the Erie Canal. A year later he bought land along the Green Bay Road [now Clark Street] at Montrose Avenue [formerly Sulzer Road] where he established a farm and nursery. In 1837 a second son, Karl [Charles] was born. Konrad developed a reputation as a dedicated public servant. 1839 City Directory: gardener, Lake View [annexed in 1889]. His gravestone can be found at Graceland Cemetery, several hundred yards from the site of his early homestead. The Sulzer Regional Public Library of Chicago at 4455 N. Lincoln Ave. has been named in his honor (see Monuments). In some historical accounts Konrad is confused with his brother Andreas and is mistakenly listed as a brewmaster. [17, 56a, 243] [342]

Summers, William  listed prior to 1836 as owner of 80 acres of land in the SE quarter of Section 18, Township 39, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Summit  a suburb SW of Chicago, named for the highest elevation of the watershed—the summit—through which the Illinois & Michigan Canal was constructed; first documented as a subdivision of the SW half of the SE quarter of Section 12, Township 38 on an 1830s county plat; in 1835 a blacksmithy, a tavern, and a stagecoach house leased by [see] Dr. John T. Temple (later by Frink & Walker), existed at the corner of Archer Trail and Lawndale Avenue; street name: Summit Avenue (800 W). [417a]

Summit Ford    the southernmost of four fords across the Des Plaines River; located at [Lawndale Avenue], where the South Portage Trail of the Chicago Portage also crossed.

Sunawewonee  chief of Prairie Potawatomi from near Peoria; one of the principal chiefs during the Fort Dearborn massacre, which he survived. [226]

Sunday school  first meeting of a Sunday school class took place under Philo Carpenter`s direction on Aug. 19, 1832, in an unfinished log building on the Fort Dearborn reservation, belonging to Mark Beaubien; 13 children and five adults attended; subsequent and regular meetings were held at the fort, Rufus Brown`s house, Mark Noble`s house, Father Walker`s cabin at the Point, and upstairs in Mr. Peck`s store. Other active participants were Luther Childs, the daughters of Mark Noble, Sr. (Elizabeth and Mary), Mrs. Seth Johnson, and Mrs. Charles Taylor. In August of 1833, the New York investor Arthur Bronson visited Chicago in the company of his friend Charles Butler, exploring and socializing, and made a charitable donation of $50 for the Sunday school library. According to S. Lockwood Brown: “the children at that time were mostly half breeds and French who were not much accustomed to restraints and the only way by which they could be got together was to call for them at their homes. Ten of the teachers generally devoted the entire Sabbath to this work regularly.” On March 16, 1835, the First Presbyterian Church, in existence since June 26, 1833, formally organized its Sunday school program, with Joseph Meeker as librarian.

Surgeon, The  Chicagoland`s first western physician, known through the writings of Father Marquette, who must have known him but did not reveal the name of this surgeon and unlicensed fur trader; while Marquette spent the winter of 1674-75 on the banks of Chicago River`s south branch, the surgeon visited him in the company of Pierre Moreau but is not recorded as having treated him for an eventually fatal intestinal disease. Some earlier historians believed that his name was Louis Moreau, unrelated to Pierre Moreau. John F. Swenson identifies him as Jean Roussel or Rousselière. [649] [738]

sutler  person authorized to establish himself near a military command to sell liquor, tobacco, food, services, “black ball” (boot black), brushes, thread, &c.; to the soldiers—any goods not customarily furnished by the government. It was generally believed that more than three-fourths of the soldiers` pay was spent at the sutler`s. The position became especially lucrative when soldiers were under order not to buy goods at other local stores, although prices there might be substantially lower. The status of sutlers was recognized by the Articles of War, which provided for the regulation of hours of business, prices, and the quality of the goods sold; sutlers were appointed by the local commander, and were subject to military order. At Fort Dearborn, the agent in charge of the [see] U.S. factory generally had the implied right to trade; however, the following exceptions were made: from 1807-1809, John Kinzie and John Whistler, Jr. (the commander`s son), held the position jointly; from 1809-1811, Dr. John Cooper and John Whistler, Jr., jointly; from 1811-1812, John Kinzie; from 1820-1823, Henry Whiting (with James E. Heron in 1822); in 1830, Jonathan N. Bailey (according to James M. Bucklin); in 1832, Oliver Newberry (with George W. Dole as clerk). [105, 109] [704]

Suttenfield, John  U.S. Army sawyer at Fort Dearborn; reenlisted as private on Sept. 8, 1807. An entry in John Kinzie`s account books show that he was in Chicago earlier, visiting Kinzie on Aug. 4, 1804, then later on Dec. 31, 1810, and on July 21, 1812; badly wounded at the massacre of 1812, he was taken prisoner and killed by the Indians the next day. [404, 559, 708] [226]

swan  Cygnus buccinator, trumpeter swan; the largest North American waterfowl, formerly hunted widely for food by Indians and early settlers. Father Marquette who saw them in northern Illinois in 1673, Abbé St. Cosme (in 1699), and de Liette (in 1702) all described them as abundant along the Illinois River; hunted widely for food by Indians and pioneers. David McKee, resident from 1823 to 1832, referred to the Chicago River when he recalled: “Excellent fish abounded in it, and over it hovered wild geese, ducks and sandhill cranes in vast flocks, and pelicans and swans were sometimes seen.” [64]

Swan  schooner under Captain Gilbert (sometimes under Captain Duncan), first called at Chicago on June 1, 1835, coming from St. Joseph; called 15 more times in that year with passengers and merchandise, serving the W coast traffic of Lake Michigan; as per notice in the Nov. 28, 1835, Chicago American, the vessel was unheard from following lake storms and feared lost.

Swearingen, Lt. James Strode  (1782-Feb. 3, 1864) native of Westmoreland, Virginia; became second lieutenant of artillery on Jan. 25, 1803, advanced to first lieutenant in 1811, and to captain in 1812. As an officer familiar with the territory between Detroit and Chicago, he was asked to conduct the troops of the first Fort Dearborn along the old Sauk trail to the chosen site, and then remained to assist in the construction under Capt. John Whistler. The trip took 35 days, and all arrived on Aug. 17, 1803; he did not become a permanent member of the garrison. A journal of his experience survives, in which he notes his first impression of “Checago” (below) and which includes a map redrawn by Albert Scharf. During the 1812 war he advanced to become quartermaster general of the U.S. Army, with the rank of colonel; soon after the war he received an honorable discharge; died on Feb. 3, 1864. [12, 544, 564, 646, 722]
Wednesday August 17th. Proceeded on our march at 6 O`clock am. 24 miles and encamped on the Chicago River at 2 Oclock pm. This river is about 30 yds. wide where the garrison is intended to be built and from 18 feet & deep dead water owing to its being stopped up at the mouth by the washing of the sand from the lake, the water is not fit for use The bank where the fort is to be built is about 8 feet high, & half a mile above this mouth the oposite bank is not so high not being a difference of more than two feet of appearance the banks above are quite low The distance from Detroit to the mouth of St. Josephs is 272 miles — to Checago 90 miles, making in the whole 362 miles. [724]

Sweeny, John  also Sweeney; came in the spring of 1834; during the following October shot the last black bear in a tree near the intersection of Adams and LaSalle streets [see bear]; 1839 City Directory: carpenter, boarded with Henry Goodrich [a farmer on Dearborn Street near Washington]; still lived in Chicago in 1885. [12, 266] [351]

Sweet Breeze  the silhouette is that of Wa-nan-ga-peth, daughter of Miami Indian chief [see] Little Turtle and second wife of Capt. William Wells, or [according to one source] of Ah-mah-quau-zah-quah (a sweet breeze), third daughter of [see] Captain and An-ah-quah Wells; donated to the Chicago History Museum by Wells descendant Eva Spaulding Shaw. [288, 708] [260]

Sweet, Alanson  (1804-1891) stonemason; arrived from Owasco, NY, in 1832; initially a resident of the Napier settlement and served as first lieutenant in the militia under Captain Napier; under contract for John Noble and with William Worthingham, built – Chicago`s 1st – brick house in 1833 on the N side of the river [Kinzie Street] on a lot adjacent to the later Lake House hotel; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and was one of the 12 who voted for incorporation at the public meeting soon after [for a copy of that meeting`s report, see entry under incorporation]; that year he also built and managed the first Tremont House hotel and married Emily Shaw [the twin sister of Jeanette (Jessy) Shaw, who married William Worthingham] at St. Joseph; in the July 16, 1834, Chicago Democrat he reported the loss of two saddles, items he generously loaned but were then missing; later lived in Evanston, but died in Chicago; his original portrait in color is in the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. Emily died in 1892. [12, 14, 319, 351] [499a]

Sweet, Richard M.  came in 1830 or 1831 from New York and promptly moved first to Lisle, then the Napier settlement; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; in 1832 served as a private in the Chicago company under Captain Napier during the Black Hawk War; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November, and placed an ad in the December 3 issue, offering 1,500 bushels of corn for sale from his barn on the E branch of the Du Page River, with 300 bushels or less also available from A. Sweet at Chicago; in 1856 became a member of the Old Settlers` Society. [12. 319] [351]

Sweet, Stephen  came in 1830, then removed to Kendall County with [see] Pierre Lamset. [239]

Sweet, William  settled at Lisle in the 1830s and built a log structure that [see] Mark Beaubien acquired in 1840 and adapted as a tavern and later a toll house.

Sweigert, Adam  (1810-Nov. 8, 1899) born in the town of Baden, Germany; came to America when he was 17, then to Chicago in 1830, working as a tinsmith, becoming prominent in business and making a fortune during the boom time of the city; in 1852 he moved to San Francisco by the Panama Canal route. By 1870 he was married (Catherin, age 32), and there were three children: Caroline (age 12), William (age 4), and Mary (age 3); listed as a fruit grower in 1880; died in San Francisco, CA. [168a; Chicago Chronicle Nov. 9, 1889] [593b]

Swenson, John F.   has been interested for 70 years in Indian place names. Growing up in Milwaukee and Sheboygan, Wisconsin, his interest was sparked. He graduated with Honors from Dartmouth College, which was founded to educate Indians. Following his graduation from Northwestern School of Law and his admission to the Illinois Bar, he began to study Illinois history in earnest. About 1984 he became involved in research of the origin and meaning of the name Chicago. His life has been changed forever. His curiosity about the people, mostly French Canadians, who recorded their observations of Chicagou (their version of the native name) led to a study, over the past two decades, of the people who left their documentary trail. He has done extensive research in archives of documents relating to Chicago in France, England, Canada and the United States. Being a lawyer, his standard of proof is high, and he tries always to understand not only the contemporary documents but the legends, usually not contemporary, which are prevalent. As a result, his reports in this volume are based on documents created in the ordinary course of business by observers of events unfolding in their times. He has as a result been engaged in controversies with those whose interests have been in perpetuating myths rather than presenting the documented occurrences. He makes no apologies for his relentless pursuit of the truth, as presented in his essays and entries in the present work. [647a-649a] [647]