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Gaffé, Jean Baptiste  Cahokia and Mackinac trader in the 1780s who in 1782 sent boatloads of trade goods to Chicago. Over what period of time this post was maintained, by whom, and exactly where it was located, is not known. Late in 1783 [see] Rocheblave wrote that his wife and family were still at Chicago, implying a post or settlement. [9]

Gage, Jared  arrived from NY in 1835; brother of John, married to Sarah Merrill; opened a flour and feed store on South Water Street, between Clark and Dearborn; 1839 City Directory: flour dealer, South Water Street between Clark and Dearborn; died on March 31, 1880; in 1885 his widow lived in Winnetka. [12, 351] [733]

Gage, John  arrived from New York in 1835; brother of Jared; in 1837 built a flour mill on the W bank of the south branch, on the N side of Van Buren Street and became known as “the Honest Miller”; 1839 City Directory: flour store, South Water Street, mill S Branch; school inspector from 1837 to 1841; alderman, 1840; his wife’s name is unknown, but a daughter [Maria] died in 1840, according to a notice in the Chicago American on December 28; in 1844 he is listed as proprietor of steam mill and as a flour dealer, still on South Water Street; in 1885 lived in Vineland, New Jersey. [12, 243, 351, 506, 544] [733]

Gage, Stephen T.  arrived from New Hampshire in 1832 and served in the Black Hawk War as a member of the Chicago company; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November. [12, 319, 733]

Gage  armed British schooner patrolling Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built at Detroit in 1773. [48]

Gale, Abram  (1796-Apr. 4, 1889) born in Warwick, MA; married Sarah [née Silloway] at Boston in 1824; arrived on May 25, 1835, with two daughters, one Georgiana, and sons [see] Edwin O. and William H.; purchased a house at the corner of Wells and Randolph streets, where Sarah opened – Chicago’s 1st – millinery store; the attic was rented to Tuthill King and his bride; 1839 City Directory: [Abraham] also Mrs., New York millinery store, 99 Lake St.; 1843 City Directory: butcher, 22 Clark, bds 163 Lake, and Mrs. Abram Gale: milliner, &c.; 163 Lake, res same; in the 1844 Directory they are listed as Abram Gale, meat market, Clark Street N of Lake Street and as Mrs. A. Gale, milliner, 163 Lake Street; the family later moved to Galewood and acquired 320 acres of public land W of town, one of the few farms within the city limits; still lived there in 1885. The family grave site is at the [see Monuments] Forest Home Cemetery. [13, 243, 266, 351, 506, 516a, 728] [12]

Gale, Edwin Oscar  (May 7, 1832-Jan. 13, 1913) born in New York City, son of Abram and Sara [née Silloway] Gale, arrived as a child with his parents on the schooner Illinois with [see] Fernando Jones from Buffalo; see Chronology for the description of his first walk through town on May 26, 1835; initially stayed with his family at the [see] Green Tree Tavern, also vividly recalled in his Reminiscences of Early Chicago and Vicinity. Later, Gale attended the College of Pharmacy and first worked in a drugstore at the Palmer House Hotel where he met clerk William F. Blocki; in 1847 Gale acquired the store and eventually established drugstores in the city with Blocki; married Julia E. Hart of Belvidere at Crystal Lake in 1856, thereafter living in Oak Park; six of their seven sons were still living in 1906 when they celebrated their 50th anniversary, then still residing at 347 Lake Street. Gale died there on Jan. 23, 1913; surviving him were his wife and five sons: Walter H., E. Vincent, Abram, G. Whittier, and Oliver Marble. [351, 503a, 516a, 728] [266]

Gale, John, M.D.  (c.1790-July 27, 1830) born in Rockingham County, NH, and died at Fort Armstrong, IL; enlisted on July 6, 1812, as surgeon’s mate and was assigned to the 23rd Infantry; served in the war of 1812; became the fourth Fort Dearborn military medical officer, arriving with the rank of surgeon’s mate at his post on July 4, 1816, under the command of Capt. H. Bradley, and assisted in the reconstruction of the fort; during 1817 he visited John Kinzie’s trading post, first on February 28 and once more in May, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; remained at Fort Dearborn until Apr. 18, 1818, when he was promoted to the rank of surgeon and ordered to proceed to Fort Belle Fontaine; at Fort Dearborn he was succeeded by Dr. McMahon. Dr. Gale remained in military service for the remainder of his life, serving at different western posts; in 1821 0r 1822 at Fort Calhoun, NE, he married an Indian girl named Ne-co-mi, daughter of an Ayeowa chief, with whom he had a daughter named Mary; remained with the military and died with the rank of surgeon major. [119a, 404] [12]

Gale, Stephen Francis  (1812-1905) born in Exeter, NH; arrived in May 1833; half brother of [see] Arthur G. Burley; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and voted in the election of the first town board on August 10; opened the second book and stationery store in 1835 on South Water Street, between Clark and LaSalle streets; 1839 City Directory: bookseller and stationer, 159 Lake St. Gale also sold patent medicines, advertising Brandreth’s Pills as sole authorized agent; in 1839 Mr. Gale published the first law book ever in the State of Illinois, a compilation of the statutes of Illinois which became known as “Gale’s Statutes”; on Dec. 7, 1841, he married Medora Augusta Smith, youngest daughter of T.M. Smith, circuit judge of the Cook County circuit; there were two children: Medora and Edward F. The 1843 City Directory listing is under Stephen F. Gale & Co. (A[ugustus] H. Burley): books and stationery, 106 Lake, and his residence at 103 Dearborn; in 1844 half brother Augustus was still involved in the business as was a younger half brother Charles Burley, as clerk. In later years he headed the Chicago Fire Department; in 1885 he lived at 55 S Peoria St.; Stephen F. Gale School, 1631 W Jonquil Ter. and Stephen F. Gale Annex School, 7650 N Marshfield Ave.; street name: Gale Street, in the NW section of the city. [12, 266, 319, 351] [498]

Gale, William H.  son of [see] Abram and Sara [née Silloway] Gale, arrived with his family from Massachusetts in 1835; later moved with them to Galewood. [266]

Galena, IL  this frontier settlement near the Mississippi began in 1823 when large lead deposits nearby, worked earlier by Indians, French, and English miners, began to be worked by Americans, thus precipitating the first important American mining rush [see comment by J.M. Peck in his A Gazetteer of Illinois, excerpt below]. The production was 5.2 million pounds in 1827, 11.1 million in 1828, 13.3 million in 1829, and 8.3 million in 1830 [see H.S. Tanner]. Lead was sold at Galena for two to three cents a pound. In the summer of 1829, the first wagonload of lead from Galena arrived in Chicago, the trip taking 11 days. The town rapidly developed after the Black Hawk War had secured western Illinois for settlers as well as miners, and became the most important commercial center in the western country N of St. Louis. Chicago served as a way station for would-be lead miners heading to Galena from the East; in 1834, the trail from Chicago to Galena by way of Naperville and Aurora, used by General Scott’s army two years earlier during the Black Hawk War, became a state road on which a stagecoach would travel between the two towns once a week. As late as 1842, Galena’s wholesale trade would surpass that of Chicago.
J.M. Peck’s 1831 comment about Galena:
Such was the crowd of adventurers in 1829, to this hitherto almost unknown and desolate region, that the lead business was greatly overdone, and the market for a while almost destroyed. … The business is now reviving, and probably will be prosecuted in future more in proportion to the demand of lead. [527]

Galewood  see Gale, Abram.

Galloway, James  son of Samuel Galloway from Scotland, a soldier in the Revolutionary Army; first visited Chicago in 1824 alone and on horseback; in early November 1826 returned with his wife Sally (née McClenthan) and four children: Mary (14), Jane (eight or nine; Mrs. Washington Holloway), Susan (two; Mrs. Joel Ellis), John (10) from Sandusky, OH; they moved into a small, single room log cabin at Hardscrabble which belonged to Chief Robinson [Robinson’s trading post until 1825] and endured a very harsh winter, much in fear of the Indians as mother Sally and Mary purchased wool from Ouilmette, spun yarn, and knit gloves and stockings for sale to the soldiers at Fort Dearborn; in the spring of 1827 moved to the “Grand Rapids of the Illinois River” [Marseilles], bought parts of four sections in Fall River and Brookfield townships, and entered the fur trade; here another son George was born in 1828 and Mary met Archibald Clybourne, who frequently came to the Illinois River valley to buy livestock for his father’s butcher business; the couple married June 9, 1829, Rev. Isaac Scarritt officiating, and settled in Chicago [see also Clybourne, Mary]; Sally died 1n 1830 and James married Matilda Stipes of Virginia; they had two surviving children, Archibald and Marshall. James was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $200 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; he died at Chicago in 1837, as noted in the Chicago American on November 4. [3, 319, 692c, 728] [12]

Galloway, Mary  (1812-1904) see Clybourne, Mary; Galloway, James; Clybourne, Archibald. [12] [728]

Galt, Capt. Patrick Henry  from Virginia; became a third lieutenant in the corps of artillery in 1814, serving several months in the Second Artillery before reassigned to the Fourth Artillery in 1821; was promoted captain in 1829; on July 3, 1832, was named assistant adjunct general by Gen. Winfield Scott for his army in the field, among other staff on the steamboat Sheldon Thompson which brought the [see] cholera to Chicago on July 10, 1832; was commissioned major in the Second Artillery in 1847, and later brevetted lieutenant colonel for service in the Mexican War; he died Jan. 9, 1851. [714] [326]

gambling  during the summer of 1834, gambling was tolerated or encouraged in a number of Chicago’s taverns and shops, notwithstanding the existence of Illinois laws making gambling a criminal offence. On Oct. 24 [also see Chronology] rising anti- gambling sentiments among the townspeople resulted in a “spontaneous” meeting of leading citizens, presided over by Col. John H. Kinzie, with Hans Crocker appointed secretary. On the following day the assembly reconvened and adopted seven prepared resolutions, designed to safeguard Chicago’s reputation and to insure prompt punishment of offenders. The meeting reports and text of the resolutions were published in the Chicago Democrat on Oct. 29, 1834. Four of the resolutions are reprinted as follows:
Resolved, That we consider those persons who for their base and selfish purposes are willing to plunder the unexperienced and thoughtless of their property, and to sacrifice the morals of this community and the reputation of this town, unworthy [of] our friendship of respect and that we will evince, by our treatment of all such persons, whenever and wherever known, our abhorrence of their occupation and contempt of themselves.
Resolved, That witnessed the introduction of persons believed to be sharpers and blacklegs, into this town, with the most indignant feelings, and that we will use all honorable means to bring these wretches and their abettors to that punishment which their base and abominable practices so richly deserve.
Resolved, That cost what it may, we are determined to root out this vice, and to hunt down those who gain by it an infamous subsistence.
Resolved, That the moral sense of this community is opposed to gambling in all its forms and that this shall be felt at home and known abroad

Ganday, Lewis  also Ganaby or Gunday; voted in the Chicago election of Aug. 2, 1830; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Garden City  a nickname for Chicago that probably recalls Morris Birkbeck’s description of the Illinois prairie as a beautiful garden; he published his popular Notes on a Journey in America, from the Coast of Virginia to the Territory of Illinois, in 1818. The Latin phrase Urbs in Horto, meaning “City in a Garden,” was used by Dr. Goodhue in designing Chicago’s official seal. [56]

Gardiner, Alvah Noyes  also Alvin Gardner; arrived in 1830 and on May 18 married Julia Staly [Staley?], Justice J.B. Beaubien officiating; later moved to Blue Island. [708]

Gargyl, Orinda  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Garie’s River  see Guillory.

Garland, J.J.  a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat who advertised on May 19, 1834, and thereafter for journeymen coopers, whom he would employ for fair wages; volunteered with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company in October 1835.

garlic  for the wild garlic plant that gave Chicago its name, see Allium.

Garner, Richard  Army corporal at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Oct. 10, 1810; a sawyer who visited John Kinzie’s trading post during 1804 on June 30, July 3, 7, and 21, and August 4; during 1805 he visited again on June 22 and August 29; in 1812 he returned on April 10 and once again during the period between June 1 and August 15, the date of the Fort Dearborn massacre, all as shown in Kinzie’s account books. He was wounded and taken prisoner by Indians, then tortured to death later that night. [559, 708] [404]

Garow, James  voted on July 24, 1830.

Garrett, Augustus  (1802-1848) from New York state, married Eliza Clark in 1825; arrived late in 1834, advertising an auction in December at his store on South Water Street N of the drawbridge; by late spring 1835, he formed a partnership with the Brown brothers and became, with little financial means, a leading land speculator and auctioneer during the canal-inspired land boom, with a business office in the auction room on the W side of Dearborn Street near Water Street, and by the end of October his sales alone were $1.8 million; among the first items printed in Chicago by T.O. Davis, other than the Chicago American, were broadsides to advertise Garrett’s auctions; in the Nov. 11, 1835 Chicago Democrat he advertised as A. Garrett, Auction & Commission House, No. 1, Dearborn St.; an ad in the same issue listed “lots in the Towns of Chicago, Kankakee, Vienna, Juliett, Romeo, Dresden, Enterprize, Peru, and Bailytown”; a second ad offered “Liquors, Teas, &c.;” items such as five [see] pipes Signett Brandy, five pipes Swan Gin, 24 baskets champaigne Wine, & seven qr. [quarter] casks Sherry, 10 chests hyson and young hyson tea, four hhds. [see hogshead] St. Croix Rum, 28 eight day brass clocks, 100 wood clocks; also see Garrett, Brown and Brother; 1839 Chicago Directory: auctioneer, real estate, boarded at Sauganash Hotel. On Mar. 7, 1843 he became the 6th mayor of Chicago; in the 1844 Chicago Directory his listing is Garrett & Seaman [Willett, Jr.], residing at the Sauganash Hotel; on Mar. 5, 1845, he was elected as the 9th mayor. Following his death on Nov. 30, 1848, his widow established the Garrett Bible Institute in Evanston. [243, 435a, 480, 506, 604a] [12]

Garrett, Brown & Brother  a successful partnership with [see] Nathaniel J. and Daniel B. Brown for which Augustus Garrett had printed broadsides advertising an auction on May 21, 1835, shortly after his arrival in Chicago; in December 1835 the Chicago branch of the State Bank of Illinois opened in a four-story brick building owned by Garrett, Brown & Brother at the corner of LaSalle and South Water streets, and the three men announced in the Chicago Democrat a new copartnership with Oliver H. Thompson – Garrett, Thompson, Brown & Co., for the purpose of buying and selling real estate, conducting a general land agency and also an auction, commission and mercantile business, at either the store in Lake Street or at the Auction & Commission Room on Dearborn. [See attached image of the May 21 advertisement, which is believed to have been the first Chicago printing job apart from that of the newspapers, as shared by editor Douglas C. McMurtrie {Bulletin of the Chicago Historical Society v. 1 no. 2, February 1935}. The location of what the auctioneers refer to as “Germantown” in Chicago of 1835 is not known, eds.] On July 26, 1836 the “Copartnership heretofore existing between the subscribers, under the name, style and firm of [the above], has this day, by mutual consent, been dissolved. The same Brown and Brother have, by the articles of dissolution, assumed the payment of the debts due from, and are entitled to receive payment of the debts due to, the said firm”; so printed as a NOTICE in the Chicago American on August 6, followed by the names Augustus Garrett, Dan`l B. Brown, Nathaniel Brown.

Garrett, Thompson, Brown & Co.  see the preceding entry.

Gary, Erastus  (Apr. 5, 1806-May 7, 1888) native of Putnam, CT; brother of Jude Perrin Gary and Orlinda; traveled to St. Joseph [Michigan] in 1831 to teach school; in 1832, with three others, paddled to Chicago in a dugout canoe, stayed overnight, then continued to the Napier settlement and staked a claim in April adjoining the NE border of the Wilson/Butterfield claim [Winfield]; in 1837 built a sawmill on the W branch of the Du Page River and supplied cut lumber throughout the county; married Susan Valette and had a son, Elbert, prior to 1840; died in Wheaton. [415, 288a] [314a]

Gary, Jude Perrin  (Feb. 3, 1811-May 11, 1881) arrived in Chicago with his sister Orlinda in 1832, following the Black Hawk War; passed through the settlement to join his brother Erastus in Winfield Township; married Margaret L. Kimball; became a circuit riding Methodist preacher; died in Warrenville. [415, 288a] [314a]

Gary, William  from Pomfret, CT; came in 1832 to Warrenville with his wife Lucy (née Perrin) following their children [see] Erastus Gary, Jude Perrin, and Orlinda. Orlinda married Jesse Childs Wheaton on March 26, 1839. [415]

Gaughan, Thomas  born in County Mayo, Ireland, and there married Margaret (née Jackson, relative of President Andrew Jackson); with daughter Ann settled in Rochester, NY, where Ann married [see] Stephen Sexton; Thomas and Margaret came to Chicago in 1819, settling south of the village; he died in 1827; Margaret survived until 1864. [3]

Gautier des St. Germain, J.  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on July 23, 1809 and again during the period between June 1 and August 15, 1812, the date of the Fort Dearborn massacre, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Gebhardt, Peter  settled in January 1835 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL, and sold out to Henry Miller after about six years. [13]

Geiger, Mary  see Wells, William.

General Harrison  schooner, brought a load of Michigan whitewood lumber in the summer of 1833, to be used for harbor pier construction; it returned the following year and entered the newly opened harbor.

General Hunter  a sloop on the Great Lakes; in May 1805 it brought trade goods from Mackinac to Chicago for the account of Kinzie & Forsyth, and returned to Mackinac with furs, after first visiting St. Joseph.

General Wayne  lake schooner, built at Amherstburg in 1807 as Caledonia; used to transport the British force from St. Joseph for the capture of Mackinac in July 1812; after the war Americans renamed the vessel General Wayne; during June and July of 1816, brought 112 soldiers of the Third U.S. Infantry, under Capt. Hezekiah Bradley, from Detroit to build the second Fort Dearborn. The ship`s captain was Captain Burnham, remembered by [see] Alexandre Robinson; in his obituary in The Chicago Tribune his memories of July 4, 1816, included that “… a schooner came to in the offing, bearing Captain Hesekiah Bradley, with two companies and two pieces of cannon” … and that “Captain Bradley most honorably purchased the standing corn as forage, while his men threw up establishments and built palisades on the top. … The men looked badly scared about Indians, and some of them cried when Captain Burnham spread his sails for the lower lakes.”

Generoux, —  vouyegeur by this name visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Dec. 3, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

George III  (1738-1820) king of England from 1760 to 1820, a 60-year span that included 20 years of British jurisdictional authority over Chicagoland, namely from the end of the French and Indian War (1763) to the end of the Revolutionary War (1783), and de facto to 1796.

George, Samuel C.  baker, arrived in 1834 from New York; spotted the last black [see] bear in downtown Chicago that year on October 6; initially ran a bakery on the corner of Lake and LaSalle streets with Josiah P. Cook; on Oct. 29, 1834, they reported partnership dissolution in the Chicago Democrat, and John Bates announced an auction of “the Bakeshop with all Baking utensils” on November 3; in the paper on December 24, George cautioned all persons from cutting timber or drawing away wood on his land in Townships 38 and 40; street name: George Street (2900 N).

Gerber, B.  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1834. [342]

German Evangelical Association  sect founded in 1790 in Pennsylvania by preacher Jacob Albrecht; became established at Chicago in 1835; among those who belonged to this exclusively German church were George C. Gross, Daniel and Christoph Stanger, Jacob Schaebele, Jacob and Martin Escher, Adam Knopp, Jacob Ott, Johan Rehm and Georg Strubler.

Ghent  60-ton military schooner launched in 1815 on Lake Erie, serving primarily on the upper Lakes; took U.S. factor Charles Jouett to his assignment at Fort Dearborn in 1816; was sold to a private party in 1825. [441b]

Gibault, Father Pierre  [also Gibeau, Gibaut] (1737-1804) ordained at Quebec in 1768; became the second vicar-general for the Illinois country, following [see] Father Meurin in this office in 1769 at Vincennes [IN], appointed by Bishop Olivier Briand of Quebec; served as such until 1791. When traveling between the Illinois region and Quebec via Michilimackinac during his many years in office, there can be little doubt that he passed repeatedly through the Chicago portage. [219a]

Gibon, Baptist  also Gibo [?]; visited John Kinzie’s trading post in 1807 on May 14 and on June 5, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Gibson, Caroline  see Cook, Isaac.

Gibson, Daniel  filed an affidavit on Nov. 24, 1835, in support of the Palmer & George [see Palmer, George] claim for wharfing privileges. [28]

Gibson, Hugh G.  listed as co-owner of 160 acres of land, together with James Woodworth, in the SW quarter of Section 8, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Gifford, Louisa M.  see Dyer, Dr. Charles V.

Gigon, Jean Baptiste  an agent for François Duquette, trader at St. Charles, MO; in 1796 Point de Sable’s son-in-law Jean Baptiste Pelletier delivered some furs at Chicago to Gigon. In 1800 Duquette became Point de Sable’s neighbor and eventual creditor in St. Charles. [Gigon`s receipt, St. Charles Historical Society]

Gilbert, Ashley  became a member of fire engine company No.1 (“Fire Kings”) in December 1835, and remained active several years; 1839 City Directory: bookkeeper, Horace Norton & Co.; in the 1844 Directory, his listing is Ashley Gilbert & Co., dry goods and groceries, S. Water Street. [243] [506]

Gilbert, James  arrived in 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and voted in the election of the first town board on August 10. [12] [319]

gill  liquid measure, equal to a 1/4 pint; when Fort Dearborn was dismantled in 1856, a paper dated Nov. 12, 1811, was found — “Permission is thereby granted for one gill of whiskey each: Denison, Dyer, Andrews, [Keamble?], [Burnam], J. Corbin, Burnett, Smith, McPherson, Hamilton, Fury, Grummow, Moffitt, Lynch, Locker, Peterson, P. Corbin, Van Horn, Mills”; the names were partially overmarked, implying satisfaction.

Gillet, Mary  see Taylor, Augustin D.

Gillkison, Captain  this officer [from Fort Dearborn ?] visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 16, 1804, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Gillman, Batist  a trader; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Nov. 2, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Gilluffy, J.J.  a member of the early volunteer fire brigade “Washington Volunteers.”

Ginsday, James  served in the Black Hawk War of 1832 as a member of the Chicago militia company under Captain Kercheval; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319, 708, 714]

glacial age  see ice age.

Glacial Lake Chicago  see Lake Chicago.

Gladwin  armed British schooner patrolling Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built at Navy Island in 1764. [48]

Glas, Joseph  also Glass; U.S. Army sergeant at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on June 18, 1806, for five years; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Oct. 4, 1804, on June 22 and Aug. 20, 1805, and on Sept. 16, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; was transferred to Fort Washington at Cincinnati late in 1811. [404, 708] [226]

Gleacon, Eli  prior to 1836 listed as owner of 80 acres of land in the SW corner of Section 6, Township 39, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Glecen, Luther  trader, attended the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on May 10, 1827, buying five Indian awls and 100 needles for 21 cents; Mrs. Kinzie, in Wau-Bun, located him later at Lake Puckaway.

Glenwood beach  a geological term, designating the highest of a series of three major concentric dune ridges left behind by the shore of glacial Lake Michigan when its level was higher than today, still visible in the landscape today. During the Glenwood phase, 12,000 years ago, the lake was 55 to 60 feet higher. Each of the ridges today, where undisturbed by human activity, reflects its age with its own characteristic set of animals and plants (the dominant Glenwood beach trees are oaks); this ridge was once part of the Sauk Trail used by Indians and early settlers and now the Glenwood-Dyer Road in southern Cook County and U.S. Highway 30 follows part of its course. For the other two ridges, see Tolleston beach and Calumet beach; also see Sand Ridge.

Glenwood phase  see Glenwood beach.

Globe  schooner from Buffalo, NY; visited Chicago with merchandise under Captain Perkins on June 24, 1834, and twice in 1835.

Godfrey, Col. Gabriel  also Godfroy; attended the Indian Treaty of Chicago in 1821 as Indian agent; was described as “an aged but vigorous French gentleman, a sub Indian agent and interpreter” by [see] Charles C. Trowbridge, after touring together in the summer of 1822 when the Indians ceded lands near St. Joseph. “… We carried in our saddlebags a little provision, among which was a small bag of [see] praline. … We had no tent. Each had one blanket. … Our fire being made we had our cup of tea, prepared in our tin drinking cups, and disposed ourselves to rest, choosing a dry spot of earth, and taking our saddles for pillows. We were several weeks out in this tour, and enjoyed it greatly.” A Gabriel Godfrey, Jr., received $500 at the Indian Treaty of 1828; Gabriel Godfroy signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness, and received $2420 in payment for a claim; P. & J. Godfroy received $2000 jointly, and Samuel Godfroy received $120 at the 1833 treaty. The relationship among these various Godfroys remains unclear. [12, 679a] [13]

Godin, Pierre  also Goddin, Godan, Godden, Goddein; a voyageur, who visited John Kinzie’s trading post at the St. Joseph River on Oct. 3, 1803, then at his Chicago post on May 21, June 12 and 24, on Nov. 8, 1804, and finally on July 9, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Goldsberg, William  also Guildbury, Goldsberry; a corporal from Fort Dearborn, a sawyer, who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on August 4 and Dec. 20, 1804, and on Aug. 20, 1805, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Gonsolvus, James  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Goodenough, Daniel  settled in [see] Maine Township in 1834 and built a small log house near the corner of Sections 16, 17, 20 and 21. [13]

Goodhue, Josiah Cosmore, M.D.  (1794-1847) Vermont physician, graduated from the medical department of Yale University in 1829; first practiced in Canada, then came to Chicago in the fall of 1832 [according to publications of the Chicago Medical Society; in contrast thereto, A.H. Waterman writes of his arrival in 1835, and A.S. Hubbard remembers 1834; eds.]; as an agent, advertised in the August and September 1835 Chicago Democrat the leasing of town lots; shared a medical office on Lake Street with [see] Dr. S.Z. Haven as advertised on Feb. 15, 1836 in the Chicago American; also advertised throughout the autumn an office on Lake Street three doors W of Tremont House, with [see] Dr. J.H. Barnard, a partnership in the practice of “Physic and Surgery”; in 1837 drafted jointly with Dr. Brainard the bill for incorporation of Rush Medical School; was active in early city government, designing the city’s first seal, serving as alderman in 1837, and instrumental in founding the public school system; 1839 City Directory: Dearborn Street N of Lake Street. After 1839 he moved to Rockford, IL; in 1846 became a founding member of the Rock River Medical Association [predecessor of the Rockford Medical Association, 1871-1880, becoming Winnebago County Medical Society on Sept. 18, 1881; eds.]; in 1847 the doctor fell into an uncovered well and drowned. [12] [184]

Gooding, Azuba  see Rowley, Calvin.

Gooding, Col. William E.  (Apr. 1, 1803-Mar. 4, 1878) son of James and Caroline (née Andrews) Gooding; native of Bristol, NY; civil engineer on the Welland Canal; was a merchant in Lockport, NY, when he married Anne Maria Cutting (VT c.1811-Jan. 27, 1885) on May 10, 1832 at Troy; arrived May 1, 1833; squatted and later purchased land in what subsequently became known as Gooding’s Grove, 30 miles SW of the settlement, where his father and brothers had located earlier; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; in 1834 was employed by the commissioners of public works of Indiana to work on the Wabash & Erie Canal; in 1836 was selected chief engineer of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, a position held until the project was completed in 1848. The couple had a daughter Emma Maria who married [see] Anson Hawley Taylor, Jr. The colonel died in Lockport at the age of 75. [288a, 734] [319]

Gooding, Joseph A.  arrived in 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; unclaimed letter(s) listed at the post office for Jan. 1, 1834; married Eunice Cutting on March 14, 1837. [319]

Goodrich, Ebenezer P.  arrived in 1833 and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; served as town trustee in 1834. [319] [12]

Goodrich, Grant  (Aug. 7, 1811-Mar. 15, 1889) born in Milton, NY, son of Gideon and Eunice (née Warner) Goodrich; arrived in May 1834; one of the founders of the First Methodist church and member of the first fire company in 1835, and in November was appointed to the executive committee of the Chicago Bible Society; formed a law firm that year with A.N. Fullerton that ended in 1836; went into law practice with [see] Giles Spring and was among the most successful of the real estate lawyers during the land boom. He married Juliette, daughter of [see] Amos and Mary B. [née Woodside] Atwater, in Westfield, NY, on July 24, 1836, as per notice in the Chicago Democrat on July 24; they had four sons and one daughter. 1839 City Directory: attorney and counselor at law, 107 Lake St.; in the 1843 Directory, he listed: “res 269 Illinois near Rush”; in the 1844 Directory, he is listed as Spring & Goodrich, residing on Illinois Street between Cass and Rush; eventually became a respected judge and one of the founders of Northwestern University in 1850. In 1859 he was elected to the Illinois Supreme Court; in 1883 the judge recalled the following early episode; lived at 40 Rush Street in 1885; his grave site is located at Rosehill Cemetery. [12, 13, 351]
In the winter of 1834-35, Gurdon S. Hubbard, John H. Kinzie, and others visited the Legislature at Vandalia, to urge the passage of a bill to commence the work on the [Illinois & Michigan] canal. They succeeded well in getting it through the House of Representatives, and securing the pledges of votes enough to carry it in the Senate; but two Senators who had agreed to support it changed their minds, and secured its defeat. … The indignation at Chicago was hot and fierce, and she must give some signal expression of it. A cannon was procured, effigies of the offending Senators made, and placed on the bank of a cellar, where the Tremont House now stands, and John and Robert Kinzie, and others, performed around them the ceremonies which the Indians practiced around prisoners, devoted to mockery, torture, and an ignominious death, after which one was shot into fragments from the mouth of the cannon. … The other one was laid upon a rude bier, and carried upon the ice in the river, escorted by Geo. White, as master of ceremonies, the town bell-ringer and the only negro here. The effigy was then placed over a can of powder, which was exploded, up-heaving the ice, and blowing the senator high in the air, and tearing him into fragments, amidth the shouts and jeers of the multitude. We were compelled [said the Judge] to furnish our own amusements, and this is a specimen of the way in which it was done. [707]

Goodrich, Timothy Watson  born c.1820 in Benson, NY; arrived in 1832; 1839 City Directory: clerk, T.B. Carter & Co. [dry goods and groceries]; similarly listed in the 1844 Directory, then residing at S. Johnson’s; later moved to Milwaukee; had returned and was living at 544 Astor Street in 1885. [12, 243, 351] [506]

goose  see Canada goose.

Goose Island  originally a small island of yellow clay at the junction of the north branch with the main river, near where the Lake Street bridge exists today. Existent during the early years of the village [dredged in 1866] the land was described as “not much over twenty square yards in extent at any time and entirely covered by the spring floods,” favored by migratory geese, later the geese of Irish squatters living nearby during the `40s and `50s, then acquiring the nickname Goose Island. The name was transferred to a much larger artificial island created by the digging of an alternative channel farther N in the North Branch of the Chicago River, divided into approximately two equal halves by Division Street. [727]

Gordon, Capt. William  U.S. Army; headed an exploratory party to Fort Leavenworth in 1835 that left Chicago in June and returned on September 9. The expedition fulfilled terms of the 1833 Chicago Treaty with the Indians and explored territory for Indian resettlement. The party consisted of Gordon, several other white men [including William Holiday], and 50 Potawatomi, of whom only the name Ma-chu-etah has been recorded. They drew their supplies from [see] Capt. J.B.F. Russell, disbursing agent for Indian removal in Chicago. Also see: Indian removal. [655]

Gordon, Eleanor Lytle Kinzie  (1835-1917) usually called Nelly; granddaughter of [see] John Kinzie and Eleanor Lytle McKillip; daughter of John Harris Kinzie and Juliette Augusta Magill; married William Washington Gordon II in 1886; wrote the book John Kinzie, the “Father of Chicago,” a Sketch, published in 1912. On Oct. 27, 1916, a letter she wrote from Savannah, GA, was published in The Chicago Daily News, reminding readers that she was “the oldest person now living” who had been born in Chicago [see letter below]. Her daughter, [see] Juliette Gordon Low, introduced the organization Girl Scouts to the United States in 1912. [279]
My attention has been called to an article in The Daily News of Sept. 7, giving a list of the oldest and earliest citizens of Chicago. I notice that my name is conspicuously absent. · This is more surprising, as I am the oldest person now living who was born in Chicago—on June 18, 1835. I am, therefore, older than Chicago itself, which was not incorporated as a city until several years after my birth. Although I have lived in Savannah, Ga., sixty years, Chicago ever remains the beloved of my youth and the pride of my old age. · My grandfather, John Kinzie, was Chicago`s first settler (1804), and the land he owned is still mentioned in legal transactions as “Kinzie`s addition.” · I well remember the first census taken of Chicago. I attended the school of a Mrs. Elmore, corner of Michigan avenue and Lake street. As my home was on the north side (corner of Cass and Michigan streets), I had to cross the river at Rush street on a flat scow hauled across by a cable rope propelled by a ferryman with a sort of hockey stick. It landed us at the foot of Fort Dearborn barracks, through whose parade grounds we passed to school. The teacher one day requested all the pupils to wait after school, as she had something very interesting to tell us. “Children,” said she, “I wish to tell you that we have had a census taken of our town, and we have 6,000 inhabitants!” And she added, impressively, “I should not be surprised if some of you children should live to see the day when we have 10,000!” · Rash woman! · The first [Episcopal, constructed in 1836; eds.] church built in Chicago, the original St. James, (corner Cass and Illinois streets), was erected by three men. John H. Kinzie, my father, and George N. Dole[George Washington Dole; eds.], furnished the money; and my uncle, Robert A. Kinzie, gave the land for the church and parsonage. · I am of the opinion, therefore, that anything relating to early Chicago should include my name. NELLIE KINZIE GORDON. [280]

Gornik, Alan  a major contributor to this web site, especially the Monuments section. Alan lives in of Western Springs, IL, enjoys seeking out and visiting the places of events important to Chicago`s history. He is especially interested in locating historical monuments, markers and geographical sites and has contributed many photos and descriptions to the web site. Alan is an avid trail bicyclist and user of GPS technology for location mapping. He makes extensive use of internet resources for his research. Alan has a Masters Degree in Business Administration from the University of Chicago and a Bachelors Degree in Industrial Engineering from Northwestern University. In 2007, Alan was appointed a Trustee to the Western Springs Historical Society, Western Springs, IL.

Goss & Cobb  “Saddle & Harness Making” advertisement can be found in the first issue of the Chicago Democrat, Nov. 26, 1833; by the following June the ad featured trunkmaking; located at the corner of Lake and Canal streets.

Goss, Oliver  native of Vermont; resident of Plainfield in 1832, but purchased in September lot two of block 56 in Chicago for $70, still owner in 1833 when he formed a partnership with his longtime friend’s son, [see] Silas B. Cobb, building a two-story house at Lake and Canal streets, where Cobb opened a harness shop at street level [see Goss & Cobb], renting out the upper floor; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August that year; continued to live at Plainfield as silent partner; the partnership ended amicably on Feb. 18, 1835; he died in 1842. [319]

Gougar, William  also Gougen; farmer in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [734] [319]

Governor-General of all French possessions in the Americas  see de Prouville, Alexandre, marquis de Tracy.

governors of Nouvelle France or French Canada  their function was to represent their king who appointed them; in New France administrative decisions were usually made by the [see] intendant, also appointed by the king. Individual entries may be found for those governors [*] deemed to have been of special importance in the context of Chicago’s early history.
*Samuel de Champlain 1608-1635
Marc Antoine de Brasdefer de Chasteaufort 1635-1636
Charles Huault de Montmagny 1636-1648
Louis d’Ailleboust de Coulonge 1648-1651
Jean de Lauson, Sr. 1651-1656
Charles de Lauson de Charny 1656-1657
Pierre de Voyer d’Argenson 1658-1661
Pierre du Bois, baron d’Avaugour 1661-1663
Augustin de Saffray, chevalier de Mézy 1663-1665
Jacques de Meuf de la Poterie 1665
Daniel de Rémy de Courcelles 1665-1672
*Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac 1672-1682
*Antoine Joseph Le Fèvre de La Barre 1682-1685
*Jacques René de Brisay, marquis de Denonville 1685-1689
*Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac 1689-1698
Louis Hector de Callières 1698-1703
Philippe de Rigault, marquis de Vaudreuil 1703-1725
Claude de Ramezay (acting governor) 1714-1716
*Charles Le Moyne, first baron de Longueuil 1725-1726
Charles, marquis de Beauharnais 1726-1747
Michel Rolland Barrin, comte de la Galissonière 1747-1749
Jacques Pierre de Taffanel, marquis de la Jonquière 1749-1752
*Charles Le Moyne, second baron de Longueuil 1752-1755
Pierre François Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil 1755-1760 [665]

governors of British Canada  (1760-1805) their function was to represent their king who appointed them. Individual entries may be found for those governors [*] deemed to have been of special importance in the context of Chicago’s early history.
Sir Jeffrey Amherst 1760-1763
*General Thomas Gage 1763-1764
James Murray (first governor-general) 1764-1766
Lieutenant-Colonel Æmilius Paulus Irving 1766
*Sir Guy Carleton 1766-1778
Hector T. Cramahé (acting governor) 1770-1774
*Frederick Haldimand 1778-1784
*Henry Hamilton 1784-1785
General Henry Hope 1785-1786
Sir Guy Carleton, Lord Dorchester 1786-1796
Sir Alured Clarke (acting governor) 1791-1793
Sir Robert Prescott 1796-1799
Sir Robert Shore Milnes (lieutenant-governor) 1799-1805 [665]

governors of French Louisiana  (1706-1763) their function was to represent their king who appointed them. Individual entries may be found for those governors [*] deemed to have been of special importance in the context of Chicago’s early history.
*Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, seigneur de Bienville 1706-1707
Nicolas Daneaux, sieur de Muy 1707-1708
*Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac 1712-1715
Jean Michiele, seigneur de Lépinay et de La Longueville (acting governor, then governor) 1715-1717
*Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, seigneur de Bienville (commander in chief ) 1717-1726
Pierre Dugué, sieur de Boisbriant (acting governor) 1725-1726
– Perier 1726-1732
*Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, seigneur de Bienville 1732-1741
Pierre François Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil 1743-1753
Louis Biollouart de Kerlérec 1755-1763 [665]

governors of Illinois  (1818-1835) see individual entries for further detail.
Shadrach Bond 1818-1822
Edward Coles 1822-1826
Ninian Edwards 1826-1830
John Reynolds 1830-1834
Joseph Duncan 1834-1838

governors of United States Territories  that included Chicago (1788-1818) see individual entries for further detail.
Arthur St. Clair – Northwest Territory, appointed 1788
William Henry Harrison – Indiana Territory, appointed 1800
Ninian Edwards – Illinois Territory, appointed 1809

Graham, George  acting secretary of war in 1817, to whom [see] Major Long reported; together with Commissioner Philips, was author of the Report on the Region Included Within the Boundary Lines of the Indian Treaty of St. Louis, August, 1816 that accompanies Captain Sullivan’s map (see Maps section); his brother [see] Richard was Indian agent at Peoria in 1816. [437]

Graham, Richard  younger brother of George; was Indian agent at Peoria in 1816 and replaced Thomas Forsyth that year as Indian agent for the Illinois Territory.

Grahame, Jane  see Jones, Fernando.

Grames, William S.  enlisted at Fort Dearborn for three years as a private on May 11, 1835; was on extra duty as hospital steward, by order of [see] Capt. St. Clair Denny. [708]

Grand Avenue  former Indian trail called Whiskey Point Road in the 1860s, it obliquely cuts through the usual checkerboard street pattern of later origin.

Grand Equestrian Arena  an enterprise that, according to Winslow, gave the first circus performance in a tent on Sept. 14, 1836.

Grand Prairie  see prairie.

Grandpre, Antoine  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Nov. 15, 1807, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Grannis, Henry F.  arrived from New York in 1834; died in 1864. [351]

Grant, James  (Dec. 12, 1812-Mar. 14, 1891) born in Enfield, NC; arrived on April 23, 1834, to become the sixth lawyer; established an office at the corner of Michigan Avenue and Kinzie Street, next to the Cook County recorder’s office; on April 30, 1834, married Eliza (MA 1824-), daughter of Ahira and Serena (née Tucker) Hubbard, younger sister of Henry G.; on Jan. 1, 1835, was appointed state’s attorney, removing his office to G.S. Hubbard’s warehouse, SW corner of Water and LaSalle streets; was among the most successful of the real estate lawyers during the land boom; in 1836 represented large real estate interests for the New York speculator Arthur Bronson; from March 1836 to 1838 operated under a partnership arrangement, constituting the firm Grant & Peyton [Lucien]; 1839 City Directory: attorney, North Water Street near Rush, boarded at Lake House; in 1839 moved to a farm outside Davenport, IA, where Eliza died in 1842. He married Elizabeth L. Leonard (CT Dec. 21, 1825-Dec. 19, 1914) in 1848 and later became a judge, but returned to Chicago for receptions and camaraderie with other “old settlers”; living at Davenport in 1885. Grant died at Oakland, CA, and was buried in Davenport, IA. [12, 13, 351, 604a] [707]

Grant, Orente and David  came in late autumn 1833, and made a claim, building a cabin along the Ottawa or Brush Hill Trail (Ogden Avenue, an official Cook County highway in 1831); Orente (c.1790-) became Brush Hill postmaster in March 1835. The Grants bid on their claim when the Indian land acquired in the [see] 1816 Treaty was made available for purchase in June that year and immediately built a hostelry known as [see] Castle Inn. [280a, 415, 660] [217a]

Grant, Peter  visited John Kinzie’s trading post in July 1823, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Grant, Zachariah  father of Orente and David; prior to 1836 owned 80 acres of land in Section 32, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

grapeline ferry  local name for a privately maintained ferry service across the north branch of the Chicago River prior to 1832, when the first bridge was built; the ferry primarily served patrons of the Wolf Point Tavern.

Gratiot, Charles Benjamin  (1752-Apr. 20, 1817) born in Switzerland of French-Protestant parents; came to Montreal from London at age 17 and by the mid 1770s developed into an influential trader at Cahokia and St. Louis; in 1781 he married Victoire Chouteau, sister of the prominent St. Louis trader [see] Jean Pierre Chouteau, Sr. Gratiot passed through the Chicago portage in 1794 on a journey to Europe, and probably on multiple other occasions when travelling between St. Louis and Michilimackinac; his papers, mostly account books, are at the Missouri Historical Society and are a unique source for the period 1777-87. [139a]

Gratiot, Col. Henry  (Apr. 25, 1789-Apr. 27, 1836) born in St. Louis, MO; son of Charles and Victoire (née Chouteau) Gratiot; brother of [see] Charles, Jr. and sister of Emilie, Mrs. Pierre Chouteau, Jr.; married Susan (CT Feb. 20, 1797-June. 2, 1857), daughter of Stephen and Mary (née Lewis) Hempstead on Feb. 26, 1813, at the Old Cathedral Church in St. Louis, MO; in October 1825, following the admission of Missouri as a slave state to the Union, he moved his family into Illinois, near Galena; when lead ore was discovered farther N the next year, he and his younger brother Jean Pierre purchased the right to mine from the local Winnebago and established mining and smelting operations at Gratiot`s Grove, Wisconsin Territory. Gratiot traveled within the wilderness to negotiate annuity payments with the Winnebago and the Chippewa, signing treaties in 1828 and 1829 on behalf of the U.S. government; was appointed Subagent for the Winnebago in 1830 at Rock Island, IL, and during the Black Hawk War in 1832, informed Brigadier General Atkinson on the movements of the Sauk throughout the area; received $116 in payment for a claim at the 1833 Chicago Treaty. In 1834 he resigned as Indian agent, closed the mining facility, acquired a section of land outside of town, built a house and retired as a gentleman farmer. His concern for the Winnebago remained and learning of mismanagement of annuity payments in late 1835, he traveled to St. Louis for necessary documents and signatures; aware of the favored removal of Indians, he then visited Washington City during early 1836 to obtain assistance for the Rock Island bands and becoming ill, returned by Baltimore, MD, where he died; Susan died at Chapans, WI. [12, 319] [714]

Gratiot, Gen. Charles, Jr.  (1786-1855) son of [see] Charles and Victoire (née Chouteau) Gratiot; older brother of [see] Henry and Jean Pierre; graduated from West Point in 1806; a captain in 1808 and post commandant during the War of 1812, he was promoted thereafter to major and placed in command of all American troops in the Michigan Territory; Brig. General of the U.S. Army in charge of the Department of Engineers, assigned by Congress as responsible for harbor improvement at Chicago on Mar. 2, 1833; initial construction was supervised by Maj. George Bender, Fort Dearborn commandant, who received his orders related to the harbor project directly from Gratiot in Washington City [now Washington, D.C.], as did Lt. James Allen, who succeeded Major Bender as superintendent of the project. [139a]

Graue Mill  see Graue, Friedrich.

Graue, Friedrich  German immigrant from Stolzenau, who came with his family on May 25, 1834, together with the family of [see] Bernhardt Koehler; both families settled adjacent to Duncklee’s Grove on the east bank of Salt Creek and became members of the German Lutheran community; what became known as Graue’s Grove [now part of Hinsdale] was 100 acres large, was immediately S of Duncklee’s Grove. In 1852 Graue built a grist mill on Salt Creek [see Graue Mill, in the Monuments section] which was restored in 1950. [342]

Graue’s Grove  see Graue, Friedrich.

Graves, Dexter  (c.1793-Apr. 29, 1845) son of Charles and Lucy (née Brown) Graves; born in Conway, Franklin County, MA; came from Norwich, NY, arriving in Chicago by 1832 and bought a lot on block 18 from P.F.W. Peck [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] and built a frame house, also building the Mansion House on Lake Street near Dearborn. His first wife was Olive Kendall and their children were [see] Lorin and Louisa (Mar. 1, 1817-Mar. 9, 1894, Mrs. Edward Hadduck); following Olive`s death he married a young woman (Philomena?) of Saybrook, Ashtabula County, OH, in 1818; their children were [see] Henry, Lucy (died of scarlet fever in 1844 at age 19), and Emeline (died young). John D. Caton reports to have stayed at Graves’ hotel in July 1833 “at five dollars per week”; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; on March 25, 1834, an ad appeared in the Chicago Democrat announcing that D. Graves had commenced the Chicago Bakery on South Water Street, a few doors N of Messrs. Newberry & Dole and that he “will always keep on-hand, fresh Bread, Crackers, Cakes, &c.; &c.;”; also that year sold the hotel to his son-in-law [see] Edward H. Hadduck and was trustee of the English and Classical Academy; later did well in real estate; 1839 City Directory: livery stable, 44 State St. [Couch Place] and also: Graves, (D.) & Stevens, (M.W.), Rialto Saloon, 8 Dearborn St.; 1843 Directory: livery stable, alley 46 State, res 42 State; 1844 Directory: livery stable, and res State st. b[etween] Lake and Randolph; in 1906 his son Henry commissioned Loredo Taft to create a monument for his father’s grave in Graceland Cemetery, a haunting bronze figure entitled “Eternal Silence”; see Monuments section. [12, 243, 319, 506, 728] [544]

Graves, Henry  (1819-Sept. 1907) second son of [see] Dexter Graves, with his second wife; born in Saybrook, Ashtabula County, OH, from where he, as a 12-year old, left with his family in 1831 for Chicago; 1839 City Directory: State Street, near Lake Street [with older brother {see} Lorin]; 1843 Directory: livery stable, alley 46 State, bds Dexter Graves; 1844 Directory: at Dexter Graves’ livery stable. Following Lorin`s death in 1852, Henry oversaw management of “The Cottage” and in 1854 built the Garden City racetrack, with its grandstand at Fifty-fifth Street and Cottage Grove Avenue; owned a 400 acre farm near Kankakee and there bred trotting horses; abandoned racing in 1871. He was married to Clementine Johnson who died in 1891; lived at 88 33rd St. in 1885; died at 3254 Graves Court, in the homestead he had built in 1845. [12, 243, 728] [506]

Graves, Joseph  assistant land surveyor working with William S. Trowbridge in the Chicago area in 1835.

Graves, Lorin  (c.1813-Sept. 11, 1852) also Loren; son of [see] Dexter and Olive Kendall Graves; arrived from New York in 1834; married Mary Jane Sevier on May 5, 1841; 1839 City Directory: State Street, near Lake Street [with younger brother {see} Henry]; 1843 Directory: horse dealer, res “The Cottage,” 3 miles south shore [a cottage among cottonwood trees, Cottage Grove]; he also married Sophia Macomber (1817-1881) of Springfield, MA; following his death at 39, Henry managed the business and built a racetrack on Cottage Grove Avenue in 1854; son Charles was adopted. [728] [351]

Graves, Louisa  see Hadduck, Edward H.

Gravier, Père Jacques  (May 17, 1651-Apr. 23, 1708) born at Moulins, France; educated in the Jesuit college there, then entered the novitiate of the order at Paris late 1670; taught at Hesdin, Eu, and Arras between 1672 and 1680, and studied in Paris until 1684; came to Canada in 1685 as an experienced instructor and sent to Sillery, then to Michilimackinac the following year, succeeded Father Allouez at the Mission de la Conception among the Kaskaskia during 1688. Though superior at Mackinac between December 1690 and 1698, he returned to the Mission of the Conception; early in September 1700 Father Gravier visited the Guardian Angel Mission; in late spring 1702 he succeeded Père Pinet at the Mission de Sainte Famille de Caoquias. Severely wounded by a Peoria Indian late in 1705, he sought medical attention in La Mobile and France; early in 1708 he returned to mission work but died soon afterward. Father Gravier was a skilled linguist; an extant Illinois-French dictionary, prepared during his lifetime and commonly attributed to him [edited and published by Carl Masthay, 2002], was handwritten by [see] Jacques Largillier. [34a, 456a, 464i, 649, 665] [613]

Gray, Charles McNeill  (Mar. 7, 1807-Oct. 17, 1885) born in Sherburne, NY; son of Alfred and Polly (née Olmstead) Gray; married Mary Ann Haines (c.1811-c.1838) of Philadelphia, PA, on Nov. 24, 1832; came by the Amaranth with his wife, mother and stepfather [see] Jireh Rowley; older brother of George M.; the couple had one surviving child of three, a son Reuben (c.1836-1882 VA); initially worked as clerk for G.S. Hubbard, later Peter Cohen; appointed street commissioner in 1837; 1839 City Directory: grain cradle factory, 78 Dearborn street; married Maria Louisa Johnson of Brownsville, ME, that year. In 1840 he contracted to build the Randolph Street bridge over the river; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: grain-cradle maker, shop and res Dearborn st. b Randolph and Washington sts.; the bridge complete in 1847, he then partnered Cyrus McCormick as manufacturer; in 1849 was an agent for the Chicago-Buffalo steamship line; a 5th ward alderman, he was elected as the 17th and 18th mayors of Chicago, serving 1853-1855. Charles died on Oct. 17, 1885, and is buried at Graceland Cemetery. [12, 243, 435a, 506, 544] [734]

Gray, George M.  (July 25, 1818-) born in Victor, NY; son of Alfred and Mary (Polly, née Olmsted) Gray; younger brother of Charles M.; stepson of [see] Capt. Jireh Rowley. George arrived in June 1834; 1839 City Directory: agent, C.M. Gray’s factory; in 1878 he was an agent for the Pullman Car Company, and in 1885 lived at the Grand Pacific Hotel in Chicago. [12, 243, 734] [351]

Gray, John  also Grey; was listed as a charter member of the first Presbyterian church in June 1833, in the Fort Dearborn garrison; a John L. Gray is listed in the 1839 Chicago Directory as a grocer at the corner of North Water and Clark streets; he is also listed there in the 1844 City Directory. [132, 243] [237a]

Gray, Polly Olmsted  (May 21, 1786-October 1864) also Olmstead; born in Ridgefield, CT; daughter of Jared and Hannah (née Betts) Olmsted; married Alfred Gray (1778-1820) in 1806 at Sherburne, NY; the couple had two sons ([see] Charles McNeill and George M.) and three daughters (Mary M. [Jan. 1, 1813-; Mrs. Lemuel W. Hard], Jane E. [c.1815-; Mrs. John Ogden, WI], Sarah Ann [Apr. 20, 1820-; Mrs. Horace Chase, IL]; married [see] Jireh Rowley at Victor, NY, in 1823; they had one son, [see] Alfred G.; she died at Hadley, Henry County, IL. [734]

Great Illinois Village  see Kaskaskia.

Green Bay  also Le Grand Baie, Baye des Puans, La Baye; at the mouth of the Fox River, on the W coast of upper Lake Michigan. As to the name Baye des Puans (French for Bay of Stinkers or Bay of Stinkards), where the Winnebago lived, a mistranslation by early French Jesuits is believed responsible: Ouinipeg in Algonquin means “bad smelling waters,” as salt water was so designated by them; Winnebago or Ouinipeguo would therefore indicate “men of the sea,” and Green Bay would have been “bay of the men of the sea.” [Also see puants, for an early comment by Father Ragueneau at the Mission de Sainte Marie explaining why the Winnebago were so called.] In 1671, the Mission de Saint-François-Xavier was moved to the head of Green Bay (from Point Sable to De Pere, WI); from here Father Marquette and Jolliet started their historic expedition, in the course of which they came to what is now Chicago. Thomas Forsyth reports that in c.1812 nearly 40 French settlers lived at Green Bay, where a Jacob Franks operated a fine grist mill. Like Chicago, the settlement was the starting point for westward travel via an important portage route, in this case the Fox-Wisconsin River portage to the Mississippi, as used by Father Marquette and Jolliet in 1673.

Green Bay Indian Trail  also U.S. Military Road and later Green Bay Road; northwestern portion of the Lake Shore Trail, from Fort Dearborn to Green Bay (Fort Howard), a distance of c.225 miles; one of the major trails designated by an act of Congress as an important national route on June 15, 1832, and therefore to be improved as a national road; near Chicago the trail follows a former beach ridge of ancient Lake Chicago, now marked by the course of Clark Street, earlier referred to as Old Sand Road; at Foster Avenue NW to Howard Street at Robey Avenue, then northward along the present Green Bay Road through the northern suburbs. A branch of the Green Bay Trail leads from [see] Grosse Pointe[Evanston/Wilmette] SW (present Gross Point Road following the old trail), across the Des Plaines River at Stony Ford and into the Starved Rock area; an alternative branch trail followed what is now Carpenter Road. See Monuments for the detail on a bronze plaque at the SW corner of Hubbard Street and Michigan Avenue; also see entry for Ridge Road Trail.

Green Tree Tavern  acquired its name from a solitary oak tree nearby; built by Silas B. Cobb for James Kinzie as a two-story frame building in 1833; stood at the NE corner of what is now Lake and Canal streets; had low ceilings and doors, and the windows were set with tiny panes of glass; managed by a succession of landlords, initially by David Clark, then Edward Parsons; was later called Chicago Hotel [as early as December 1833] and Lake Street House [in 1849]; in 1880 the building was moved to Milwaukee Avenue. For a description of the tavern and the activities inside, see the following reports, first by Charles Butler on Aug. 2, 1833 and then by Edwin O. Gale in 1835.
Charles Butler’s report:
… Our Tavern presents a fair sample of the state of things at Chicago. It is new and unfinished. The partition walls not lathed and plastered and of course, free communication between all the rooms. … The south west window of my room looks off on the prairie, which is boundless to the sight and the sun setting in it is very beautiful. The land around Chicago is not in [the] market. It is uncultivated. Hard clay and limestone bottom. …
Edwin O. Gale’s report:
… The Green Tree having no book for that purpose, we were spared the ceremony of registering. Nor was it certain that we could find accomodation until our host had returned from the kitchen, wither he had gone to consult with his efficient wife. … The momentous council was at length ended, and we were assigned a room adjoining the one we had first entered, which was the bar, reading, smoking, and reception room, ladies’ parlor and general utility place in one. … On the east and west side of the room were the inevitable puncheon benches. The walls, ceilings, and board partitions had evidently received a coat of whitewash when the house was built, but it would require more than ocular evidence to establish the fact. Scattered around was an assortment of wooden chairs. Near the north end was a bar counter, useful not only for the receiving of drinks, but also umbrellas, overcoats, whips and parcels. The west end of the bar was adorned with a large inkstand placed in a cigar box filled with No. 8 shot, in which were sticking two quill pens—steel being unknown here, although invented in 1830. … At the other end of the counter were a dozen or more short pieces of tallow candles, each placed in a hole bored in a 2×4 block and fortified by sixpenny nails, standing like mourners around the circular graves in which they had seen so many flickering lights pass away into utter darkness. Hanging in a row against the wall were large cloth and leather slippers, which the guests were expected to put on at night, that mud might not be tracked into every part of the house. Under the counter was a large wooden boot jack…. Resting on a broad shelf, fastened at each end, were large pails of rain or river water, in which floated long-handled dippers, with rags crowded into spaces the rust had eaten through. Next to each pail was a looking glass, its frame veneered with mahogany. Hanging on wooden pegs were three or four towels of that shade so easily produced by dipping dirty hands in water and rubbing briskly in the process of drying. Tied to each mirrow was a horn comb…. In the middle of the room, standing in a low box filled with lake sand, was a large stove used in winter to good advantage not only for the warmth imparted to the room, but for furnishing hot water for toddies, shaving and washing as well. … [W]e were called to supper by a large bell, which was rung by our host in a manner which required no explanation as to its meaning. In the dining room were two tables, the length of the room, covered with green checked oil cloth, loaded with roasted wild duck, fricassee of prairie chicken, wild pigeon pot pie, tea and coffee, creamless, but sweetened with granulated maple sugar procured from our red brethren. These furnished a banquet that rendered us oblivious to chipped dishes, flies buzzing or tangled in the butter, creeping beetles and the music of the Mosquito Band. [266]

Green, Jane Ann  Ann listed prior to 1836 as owner-assignee of 160 acres of land in the NW quarter of Section 20, Township 39, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Green, Mary  see Nolan, Michael.

Green, Mrs. Hannah P.  see Filer, Alanson.

Greene, Maj. John  native of Ireland; Third Infantry; visited John Kinzie’s trading post in Chicago in May 1822, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; at the rank of captain, he became commandant at Fort Dearborn from July to October 1823, at which time the fort was evacuated, remaining so until Oct. 3, 1828; as major and now with the Fifth Infantry, was again commandant at Fort Dearborn from Dec. 18, 1833, to Sept. 16, 1835; died in 1840. [404]

greenheaded flies  Tabanus americanus; also prairie flies, deer flies, horse flies. Appearing greenheaded to the casual observer, they are actually green-eyed, the large eyes covering most of the head; habitat: near ponds, marshes and swamps. While the males eat pollen and nectar, the females live on the blood of large mammals; the wound inflicted is laced with an anticoagulant, so that it bleeds for several minutes. They may still be found in rural Illinois.
In 1833 Jerry Church noted: We then concluded to go to the far west. We bought us a cream-coloured horse and a small red square box wagon to carry our trunks, made a spring seat in it, and got aboard and took the national road for Michigan lake, the mud about two feet deep, and as black as tar. But we waded through it, and at last arrived at a beautiful country on the St. Joseph river. Nothing troubled us then except musquitoes and prairie flies; they were very hard on us and our noble dun horse, and would almost take a suck at our red box wagon, thinking it was blood.

Greenleaf, —  according to the report by J.D. Bonnell, Mr. Greenleaf was a real estate auctioneer in 1835 with his auction rooms on Dearborn Street, opposite those of his competitor Garrett; for a description of his mode of operation, see entry on Bonnell, J.D. [Mr. Bonnell, writing from memory 44 years after his visit to Chicago, could actually have been referring to the land speculator [see] Theophilus Greenwood instead of “Mr. Greenleaf”; eds.]

Greenville, Treaty of  see Treaty of Greenville, 1795.

Greenwood, Samuel M.  born in Halifax, Nova Scotia; younger brother of [see] Theophilus S.; came in the summer of 1836 to work with his brother and nephew on the canal; on May 2, 1837, voted with his brother in the sixth ward (north of the river) in the first city election; 1839 City Directory: canal contractor, Illinois street near Cass [Wabash]; died in 1839, leaving a wife. [48b] [243]

Greenwood, Sophia Elizabeth  see Bishop, James Edward.

Greenwood, Theophilus Snelling  (June 2, 1794-April 7, 1865) born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, though his family were early settlers in New England; an accomplished merchant who learned of opportunities in Chicago and accepted a position with Gurdon Hubbard’s American Trading Company; in early autumn, 1835, he traveled to Chicago with his wife Mary (née Knox, c.1810-1852) and children Theophilus Knox (1825-1910), Sophia Elizabeth, Jane Lois (1825-1841), Clara (1835-January 1836) and household goods by the Erie Canal, ship, coach and the brig Illinois; first a land speculator, living in a two-story frame house at the corner of Wolcott [State] and Ontario streets; in January 1836 and in June, he purchased a total of 160 acres ($1.25 an acre) within a few miles of the canal; later on October 24, with his brother-in-law [see] James Woodworth, he contracted with the Illinois-Michigan Canal Commissioners to work as canal contractors for earth removal, though work was likely done by Greenwood and his son, and with his brother [see] Samuel who arrived by summer, 1836; making embankments along the canal in the Summit Precinct was also partner [see] James Bishop who became his son-in-law; with [see] Dr. E.S. Kimberly and Jacob Russell in August 1837, he established a free school for all students until funds were exhausted late in 1838; daughter, Mary Clare, was born in 1838; 1839 City Directory: bookkeeper, G.S. Hubbard & Co.; 1843 City Directory: clerk, James E. Bishop, res Ontario, bet Wolcott [State] and Dearborn. Early in 1847 he moved to Southport [Kenosha], WI Territory, and again entered the mercantile business; in the mid 1850s following his wife’s death, moved to Freeport, IL; family members are buried together in Graceland Cemetery. [48a, 48b, 243, 357] [506]

Gregg, Elizabeth  see White, Stephen.

Gregory, Anna  see Jones, William.

Gregory, Caroline E.  see Couch, Ira.

Grehn (Gretza?), Lorentz  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

grey gowns  Indian name for the Récollet priests, such as Father Hennepin and other clerics who traveled with La Salle in Illinois country.

Gridley, John  arrived from Onondaga, NY, in 1835 with wife, Nancy (née Seely), and sons Elisha, George, and John, daughters Elizabeth, Mary, and Louisa; moved on to Lake County, near [now] Gilmer, IL, where they acquired several hundred acres of land and built a log cabin. [Information found on an old family cemetery marker which is, or was, located on Route 85 near Gilmer.]

Griffing, John  served during the Revolution in the Suffolk County militia as an enlisted man; later a trader on the Wabash River who was in Chicago in 1800 when, as nominee, he bought Ralph Belanger’s and Pierre Lefebvre’s farms for William Burnett. His name appears frequently in Burnett’s account books. [649] [95a]

Griffith, Capt. William  (c.1786-1824) son of William and Freelove (née Eckle) Griffith, Welsh farmers outside Geneseo, Livingston County, NY; U.S. Army quartermaster sergeant at Fort Dearborn; enlisted May 1812; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on May 4, 1812 and again during the period between June 1 and Aug. 15, 1812, the date of the Fort Dearborn massacre, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; survived the massacre with the help of Topenebe before the battle began; escaped the Indians, traveling and reaching Detroit with the Healds on September 22, and then accompanied them to Pittsburgh; one of the few survivors who later recorded their experience, his account of the massacre is in Robert B. McAfee’s History of the Late War in the Western Country [see Bibliography]. Fluent in Canadian French, Captain Griffith joined the Northwestern army under Gen. William H. Harrison in 1813, commanding an attached spy unit; he fought under Gen. Richard M. Johnson of KY at the battle of the Thames; following his death in 1824, he was buried amid the ruins of Fort Meigs. [71, 226, 404, 463, 559] [12]

Griffon  French, Le Griffon; also The Griffin; received its name in compliment to Count Frontenac, on whose escutcheon two winged griffins were emblazoned as supporters; first ship on the Great Lakes, weighing 45 tons and built in 1678 by Dutch shipwrights for La Salle’s 1679-81 expedition to Illinois; was equipped with five cannons; blessed by Father Hennepin for its maiden (and final) voyage, and placed into the Niagara River above the falls; sailed to the Green Bay peninsula where La Salle, Tonti, and 32 crew members disembarked and continued their voyage with canoes; with a crew of five and laden with furs, Le Griffon was lost on the return trip to Niagara in 1679, presumably foundering in the Rock Island Passage. La Salle’s orders had been for the ship to deliver its cargo and then return to meet him at the mouth of the St. Joseph River. [As of this writing, February 2010, the remains of an ancient sailing vessel that may be Le Griffon were found in the waters near Green Bay in 2001. Further exploration is being planned; eds.]

Grignon, Pierre and Augustin  also Perish, Pierriche [a diminutive of Pierre]; son of Green Bay trader Pierre Grignon and his Menomonee wife; was a visitor to Chicago in c.1794. Through his younger half brother Augustin (1780-1860) a brief narrative of Pierre’s visit [in the Wisconsin State Historical Society Collections 3 (1857)] has reached posterity; see the following excerpt:
Chicago means the place of the skunk. I understood these animals were very plenty there. At a very early period, there was a negro lived there named Baptist Point de Saible; my brother, Perish Grignen, visited Chicago about 1794, and told me that Point DeSaible was a large man; that he had a commission for some office, but for what particular object, or from what government, I cannot now recollect. He was a trader, pretty wealthy, and drank freely. I know not what became of him. Augustin Grignon, Butte des Morts, WI, 1857.
On Sept. 3, 1821, and Aug. 23, 1822, Pierre and Augustin (son of Pierre Grignon and his second wife Louise Domitilde de Langlade) are listed on American Fur Co. invoices for their own account and risk at Green Bay “for trade there, &c.;” In 1825 Augustin lived on the Fox River between Fort Howard (Green Bay, WI) and Fort Winnebago (Portage, WI) with an Indian wife. They had nine children, some of them blond and blue-eyed; one of their daughters married [see] Ebenezer C. Childs. Pierre and Augustin jointly received $650 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; multiple other Grignon relatives [see treaties] received $100 each; a Louis Grignon received $2000. For Pierre Grignon, also see essay on Jean Baptiste Point de Sable. [Wisconsin State Historical Society Collections 7:178 {1876}; 10aa, 12] [13]

gristmills  see mills.

Griswold, Melinda  see Haines, Elijah M.

Griswold, S.P.  worked for M.B. Beaubien, advertising Buffalo Ale in the Aug. 29, 1835, Chicago American — “Just received, a few bbls. superior Ale, and for sale low”; in October, as an auctioneer at the corner of South Water and Dearborn streets, he advertised six lots “situated in the Towns of Juliett and Kankakee.”

Grisworld, Harmon  mail carrier of Niles, MI, who once a week carried the mail on horseback to and from Chicago in 1831.

Gross, George C.  German immigrant in 1835, from Pennsylvania; became a member of the German Evangelical Association. [342]

Grosse Pointe  also Gros Point; a name French voyageurs gave to an area 13 miles N of the Chicago River mouth where the steeper coastline forms an obtuse angle projecting into the lake; was originally densely wooded; here, according to Thomas Forsyth, the Indians netted large numbers of whitefish every June; in 1826 [see] Stephen J. Scott and his family from Maryland homesteaded here; in 1829 the Prairie du Chien Treaty awarded the French-Indian [see] Ouilmette family of Chicago two sections of land at Grosse Pointe, forcing Scott to abandon his homestead on the property and move to the Des Plaines River valley; in the early 1830s Michael Ouilmette ran a small trading post there, but settlement of this N shore region did not begin in earnest until 1835; from 1874 to 1924 a Village of Gros Point existed, later to be incorporated in the communities of Wilmette and Evanston.

Grou, Dr. J.  also Grow; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Nov. 14, 1806 and on Feb. 11, 1807, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

grouse  the two Illinois species, the ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus) and the sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) have become extirpated in the state as a result of hunting and habitat destruction, but were plentiful in pioneer days according to early reports; Dr. Cooper, who spent the years from 1808 to 1811 at Fort Dearborn, reports that “[g]rouse and other game birds were abundant”; for an excerpt of such a report, one by Lt. J.G. Furman in 1830, see birds. [722] [64]

Grovan, Mary  see Taylor, Augustin D.

Grover, N.D.  subagent with [see] James Stewart to U.S. Indian agent Thomas J.V. Owen until December 1831, and only replaced by [see] Gholson Kercheval on May 1, 1832: signed the [see] Badin-Owen petition on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [714] [319]

Grummo, Paul  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Oct. 1, 1810, however he visited John Kinzie’s trading post as early as May 21, June 22 and July 6, 1805, on Mar. 26, 1807, then on Apr. 10, 1812, and once again during the period between June 1 and Aug. 15, 1812, the date of the Fort Dearborn massacre, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; survived the massacre, and was later ransomed from the Indians. [404, 708]

Grus americana  see whooping crane.

Grus canadensis  see sandhill crane.

Gryon  the Gryon children: Rolland, Orville, Abigail, and Charles, probably siblings, were enrolled as grade school students in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded, but they were likely the children of [see] Byram Guerin. [728]

Guardian Angel Mission  see missions.

Guerin, Byram  resident in 1835; his name was on a school-related petition signed on Sept. 19, 1835; likely the Byron Gurin listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November; see Gryon. [319] [12]

Guild, Albert H.  arrived from New York in 1834; 1839 City Directory: Guild & Durant [James T.], dry goods, &c.;, 149 Lake St.; died in St. Louis. [351]

Guillory, —  often misspelled Guillary, Guilleroi, Gary, Garie, Guary, Guyari, Gauri, and Guarie; French trader whose Mackinac-based company owned a post on the W bank of the north branch of the Chicago River near the Forks, located where Fulton Street now intersects with the river. Quaife thought the trader’s correct name was probably Jean Baptiste Guillory, son of Joseph Guillory and Louise Bolon of St. Joseph, but his opinion seems based on a misinterpretation of the name on a trading license issued in 1779 to a Jean Baptiste Guillon. According to John F. Swenson, and based on the Michilimackinac baptismal registry, he was a son of Simon Guillory who died at Mackinac c.1744. Gurdon Hubbard describes a remnant of cornfields at Guillory’s post, noted in 1818; Hubbard learned from Antoine des Champs, Louis Buisson, and other older voyageurs that the property existed prior to 1778, which would make Guillory an earlier resident of Chicago than Point de Sable, who settled there in 1782. Guillory’s name, in its multiple variations as listed above, was also used in the early years, and as late as 1830, for the north branch of the Chicago River—as the River Guarie or Gary River. See Philip E. Vierling`s “Where was the Du Sable farm of 1790” in the Essays section. [12, 357, 564, 692l] [649]

Guion, W.B.  see Guyon, William B.

Guion, William B.  see Guyon, William B.

Gulpin, Samuel G.  mentioned by East as having lived in Chicago in 1828. [208]

Gunday, Lewis  also Ganday or Louis Gouday; voted on July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830.

Gurin, Byron  Byron listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833. See Guerin, Byram.

Gurley, Jason  born 1807 in Ruport, VT, of mixed Scottish, French and English ancestry; married Selina Sturdevant of Brookfield, CT. Jonas left his wife with his parents in the East when making an exploratory visit to Chicago in July 1833, for which he took an Erie Canal steamer to Buffalo, NY, then the Sheldon Thompson to Detroit, thence by stagecoach to Niles, MI, by canoe to the mouth of the St. Joseph River, and finally a sloop to Chicago; he soon moved on to Ottawa on the Illinois River where he almost died of “bilious fever” [malaria]; after his wife joined him, the couple moved to the mouth of the Calumet River in July 1836 where they bought a small hotel; in 1837 Jonas took over management of the Mansion House hotel in Chicago and in 1838 of the Exchange Coffee House; he later went into the real estate business and accumulated a considerable fortune. The couple had no children. [Portrait from Chicago Magazine, 1857] [136a]

Gurnee, Walter Smith  (Mar. 9, 1813-Apr. 18, 1903) born in Haverstraw-on-the-Hudson, NY; son of Halsted and Hannah (née Coe) Gurnee; grew up with an uncle in Romulus where he married Mary M. (Nov. 14, 1820-), daughter of Matthew D. and Jernett (née De La Montagne) Coe; the couple had two children: Mary Evelyn (1833-1881 NY; Mrs. Edward Scott) and Walter, Jr. (c.1837-c.1898), both born at Haverstraw. Involved in the leather trade Gurnee traveled to Detroit, then to Chicago in 1836, establishing a tannery and becoming one of the original directors of the Board of Trade; 1839 Chicago Directory: Gurnee & [Joseph] Matteson, wholesale saddlery hardware, 106 Lake st; 1843 Chicago Directory: (G. & Matteson), city treas`r, res 47-9 Dearborn; 1844 Chicago Directory: Gurn[e]e & Matteson, groceries, hardware, and leather, 116 Lake. In 1851 he defeated James Curtiss to become the 15th mayor of the city and was elected again as the 16th mayor. Gurnee invested heavily in land along the Chicago and Milwaukee Rail Road; helped found Winnetka in 1857 and was named president of the village; continuing to invest in adjoining properties along the line, he declared financial insolvency and returned to NY in 1863. [435a]

Gustin, William  in a July 7, 1834, circuit court suit John K. Boyer sought payment for “12 pieces of cotton sheeting and about 30 lbs. of coffee” from William and four others; legal notices involving him appeared in the September 3 Chicago Democrat.

Guthrie, Ossian  (Feb. 23, 1826-Oct. 25, 1908) born in Turin, NY; son of Alfred and Nancy (née Piper) Guthrie, grandson of Samuel, a physician who discovered chloroform in 1831; young Guthrie began experimenting with steam engines; with civil work experience, he was selected as the design engineer of the pumps used to conduct water into the IL & MI Canal, moving to Chicago in 1844; also a geologist he surveyed the topography of the region in relationship with its early history of the 1673 Jolliet-Marquette portage route and Father Marquette`s campsites in 1674-1675, gathering extensive documents, contemporary fieldwork and surveys of the canals; was master mechanic and chief engineer of the Bridgeport Pumping Works. In 1885 he devised a plan to purify Chicago River`s water with a new drainage canal (Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, 1900); the effort was recounted in his “A Guide to the Chicago drainage canal, with geological and historical notes, to accompany the tourist via the Chicago & Alton Railroad,” 1895. Working with the railroad company and the Chicago Historical Society that year, Guthrie enabled the erection of [see Monuments section] the Marquette Monument on the Tolleston Beach Ridge NW of [see] Point of Oaks. His research was bequeathed to the inhabitants of Chicagoland in 1906. [417a]

Gutmann, Frederick  arrived in 1833 from Bavaria with his wife, Mary; both died in Chicago, Mary in 1857, Frederick in 1869; left six children: Catherine, Barbara, George, Leonard, Adam, and Mary.

Guy, John  listed as a member of the Presbyterian Church in June 26, 1833, and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319] [12]

Guyon, William B.  also Guion; U.S. assistant civil engineer within the topographical corps under Dr. William Howard, together with Henry Belin and Frederick Harrison, Jr.; in 1830 conducted surveys at Chicago in preparation for the construction of the Chicago harbor and the Illinois & Michigan Canal; both Harrison and Guyon became ill in the summer of 1830, and Belin completed the work in 1831, with the assistance of Chauncey Barnard, Jr. His drawings, together with those of the engineer Henry Belin, were used by [see] Lt. J.R. Irwin to prepare the 1834 Irwin map. [423, 681] [682] [682]