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Tabanus americanus  see greenheaded flies

Tabeaux, Jean Baptiste  in April 1833 his name was on the petition by Catholic citizens to the Bishop Rosati in St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319] [12]

tailors  John L. Davis (1830), Charles A. Taylor (1832), Solomon Lincoln (1833), Francis H. and Francis Taylor (1833), Elmira Fowler (1934), Thomas S. Eels (1834), Sarah D. Howe (1835), Edward Burton (1835), Thomas Duncan (1835), A. Jackson Cox (1835), Elijah Middlebrook Haines (1835), George Halsman (1835), Edward Manierre (1835), Robert Price (1835), Ira and James Couch (1835-36).

Talcott & Prescott  as per notice in the Dec. 26, 1835 Chicago American, a map of the Town of Kankakee, drawn by Talcott and Prescott for $25, was missing and its return requested by investors James B. Campbell and Justice [Justin] Butterfield; E.B. Talcott`s partner may have been [see] Eli S. Prescott, listed in the 1839 City Directory as receiver at the U.S. Land Office, 175 Lake. [243]

Talcott, Angelina  (Jan. 15, 1815-Nov. 3, 1842) born in Rome, NY; daughter of Mancel and Betsey (née Cowles) Talcott, Sr.; sister of [see] Edward and Mancel, Jr.; came to Chicago in 1834; married Dr. John F. Daggett, a practicing physician at Lockport, on June 24, 1838. [734]

Talcott, Capt. Mancel, Jr.  (Oct. 12, 1817-1878) also Mancil; born in Rome, NY; son of Mancel and Betsey (née Cowles) Talcott, Sr.; brother of [see] Edward Benton and Angelina; came in 1832 with his parents and farmed; married Mary H. Otis on Oct. 25, 1841; after 1850 was a miner in California, returning to become a stone-dealer; established and managed banks; served as county commissioner and member of the Chicago city council and police board; died on June 5, 1878. Mancel Talcott School, 1840 W Ohio St. [12, 13, 37, 278, 319, 734] [351]

Talcott, Edward Benton  (May 25, 1812-1886) native of Rome, NY; son of Mancel and Betsey (née Cowles) Talcott, Sr.; brother of [see] Angelina and Mancel, Jr.; came in 1835 to work as a surveyor and engineer on the Illinois & Michigan Canal, eventually becoming Superintendent of the entire project; in November, as town surveyor, prepared a map of the lots along the river for which [see] wharfing privileges leases were sold on the 23rd; on the 24th filed an affidavit in support E.B. William`s claim for privileges, and later also a certificate for George Palmer`s claim; prepared an early mapChicago with Several Additions compiled from the recorded plats in the Clerk`s Office, Cook County, Illinois, printed in 1836 (see Maps section) by Peter Meiser in New York [within the Newberry Library and the Chicago History Museum]; 1839 City Directory: United States Marshal; married Mary Rawson Heywood (MA Dec. 23, 1812-Nov. 5, 1881) on Apr. 25, 1842; the couple had two daughters, Mary A. (MA Sept. 6, 1845-) and Florence N. (MA Aug. 5, 1851-); in 1885 he lived at 1235 Wabash Avenue; died in Chicago on Feb. 8, 1886. [12, 28, 164, 243, 734] [351]

Talcott, Mancel, Sr.  (Oct. 13, 1785-Mar. 25, 1857) also Mancil; born in Glastonbury, CT; married Elizabeth (CT Mar. 10, 1790-Nov. 16, 1862), daughter of Eleazer and Mary (née Spencer) Cowles, on Apr. 7, 1811, at Rome, NY; parents of [see] Edward Benton, Angelina, and Mancel, Jr.; arrived with his wife and younger son in 1832, soon after building a house in the NE quarter of Section 34 and farming along the Des Plaines River in Maine Township [Park Ridge]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; wife “Betsy” subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; 1839 City Directory: farmer, Milwaukee Avenue. Mancel died in Hannibal, MO; Betsey died at Chicago. [351] [278]

Taliaferro, Lt. Lawrence  (1794-1771) from Virginia; arrived at Fort Dearborn on July 4, 1816, and, as assistant quartermaster and ordnance officer, superintended the reconstruction of the fort under Captain Bradley; from 1819 to 1840 served as Indian agent at Fort Snelling. [650]

Talley, Alfred Maurice  arrived from South Carolina in 1834 or 1835; married to Mary Monica Taylor; 1839 City Directory: compositor, Chicago Democrat office. [243] [351]

Talmadge, Cynthia  see Fuller, George.

Talon, Jean Baptiste  (1625-1691) first intendant of justice, police, and finance in New France from 1665 to 1668, and again between 1669 and 1675; a powerful official next to Frontenac, setting policy and issuing trade licenses. Chicago was within the region under his jurisdiction. See entry on intendants; also see Monuments.

Tamarais  also Tamaroa, Tamarois; tribe within the Illinois nation; among them, at Cahokia, Father Pinet founded the Mission de Sainte Famillein c.1699, while gradually closing the Mission de l`Ange Gardien de Chicagou. [456b]

Tanner, Henry Schenk  (1786-1856) succeeded John Melish as America`s preeminent map publisher in Philadelphia; in 1823 he published A New American Atlas, Containing Maps of the Several States of the North American Union, containing a scrupulously accurate map of Illinois (see Maps, 1823, Henry S. Tanner); in 1832 he published View of the Valley of the Mississippi, or the Emmigrant`s and Traveler`s Guide to the West that described Chicago as “the principal port on Lake Michigan …, a growing place….” Also see Tanner`s 1832 description of the prairie near Chicago under “prairie.” [682]

Tanner, John  (c.1780-c.1846) his Ojibwa Indian name was Shaw-shaw-wa ne-ba-se (meaning ‘the falcon’); in 1789 in KY he was captured by Indians and so raised, maturing within Ottawa-Ojibwa bands traveling, trapping and trading throughout northern MI, WI, MN, Ontario. He returned to KY only in 1817, stopping in “Chikago” three times over several years and there encountered [see] Indian agents Wolcott and Kinzie, and Major Bradley; with his Indian wife or consort Le Sauteuse he traveled to Mackinac in 1820; shortly before arrival their first child Lucy was born under difficult circumstances and was adopted into the Mackinac family of Mdme Thérèse (née Marcot Laslière) and George Schindler; John then journeyed from Mackinac to St. Louis by way of the Chicago Portage and Illinois River and later provided a valuable account of the crossing of the portage in the dry season. Le Sauteuse remained at Mackinac where she accepted the Catholic faith, found work, and would have five more métis children: Mary [died in Kentucky], James, Martha, and two whose names must still be found. On his travels John encountered and became acquainted with [see] Major Puthuff at Mackinac, Gov. Lewis Cass at Detroit, Gov. William Clark at St. Louis, Robert Stewart of the American Fur Co. and Maj. Stephen Long at Rainy Lake; he was engaged at Mackinac as an Indian interpreter but left in 1828 to become Indian agent Henry Schoolcraft’s interpreter at Sault Ste. Marie. [29] [652]

tannery  – Chicago`s 1st – was built in 1831 just N of Miller`s Tavern at the Forks; was owned and operated by John Miller and Benjamin Hall.

Tappen, Lt. Alexander Harper  native of Ohio; brevet second lieutenant with the Fifth Infantry, stationed at Fort Dearborn from Oct. 15, 1835 to September 1836. Earlier on July 28, by order of Major Wilcox, Commanding Officer, as Post Adjunct he compiled a “Descriptive Roll of Deserters from the Garrison at Fort Dearborn, Chicago, from the 1st of January, to the 28th of July, 1836” which was printed in the August 6 Chicago American; the words “$450 Reward !! Will be paid for the apprehension and confinement of the following named and described Deserters, from the Detachmen of the 5th. Infantry stationed at Fort Dearbon [sic], Chicago Ill.” accompanied the listing. Tappen resigned as a second lieutenant on July 31, 1838, and died in 1851. [326]

Tasker, Amanda  see Downer, Stephen F.

taverns, hotels, and boarding houses  no clear distinction is possible between taverns, inns, hotels and boarding houses; listed below in chronological order are the early regular establishments, omitting the Kinzie house, which is known to have taken in, on occasion and for pay, travelers and others in need of temporary housing. Many of the listed taverns were located in what are now Chicago`s suburbs; a general description of these was given in a letter by [see] Ellen Bigelow, who traveled by stagecoach from Chicago to Ottawa in May 1835: … Upon the prairies every house was a tavern. We usually found them about fifteen miles apart. They are all built of logs, and strongly indicate the indolence which seems the pervading spirit in Illinois. The site selected for them is generally a hollow, rather than an eminence, and the rich soil about them forms a bed of mud, which is trodden in and around the house without the slightest regard to comfort or cleanliness. Large apertures between the logs admit the dust and rain in plentiful showers, which is disposed of by being suffered to find its way through the gaping seams in the rough, hard floor, ….
For details on taverns beyond their construction dates listed below, see individual entries. [12, 55a, 234, 314a, 415, 714]

Wolf Point Tavern (1823) – Chicago`s 1st – was also familiarly called Rat Castle or Old Geese`s Tavern, its later names: Taylor`s Tavern, Traveler`s Home and Western Stage House; Robinson`s Tavern and Store (1825); Miller House, also called Miller`s Tavern (1827); Laughtons` Tavern, on Des Plaines River (1827); Eagle Exchange Tavern, renamed Sauganash Tavern, later United States Hotel (1829); Heacock`s Point, on south branch, S of Hardscrabble (1830), Mann`s Tavern, on Calumet River (1830); Wentworth`s [Jefferson] (1830); Buckhorn Tavern [Lyons] (1830); Mansion House (1831); Green Tree Tavern, later called Chicago Hotel, then Lake Street House (1833); Tremont House (1833); Dexter Graves` boarding house (1833); Rufus Brown`s boarding house (1833); Wentworth`s Black Horn Tavern, on Flag Creek (1833); Exchange Coffee House, later called Illinois Exchange and sometimes New York Exchange (1834); Eagle Hotel (1834); Stiles Tavern, on south branch (1834); Pre-Emption House in Naper`s Settlement (1834); Hobson Tavern on the W branch of the Du Page River (1834); New York House (1835); Half-Way-House of Dr. E.G. Wight [Plainfield, Ottawa Road] (1835); Castle Inn [Brush Hill Trail] (1835); Ellis Inn (1835); Steamboat Hotel, later called American Hotel, also American Inn (1835); Western Hotel (1835); Flusky`s Boarding House (1835); Fay`s Boarding House (1835); Kettlestrings` Tavern, later Oak Ridge Inn [Oak Park] (1835); Planck`s Tavern, Dutchman`s Point (1835); Ike Cook`s saloon (1835); Hollis Newton`s Tavern & Hotel (1835); Patrick and Eve Kelsey`s boarding house (1835); Lincoln`s Coffee House (1835); Patterson`s Tavern [Wilmette] (1835); Lake House (planned in 1835, opened in 1836); Rexford House, Blue Island (1836).

Beginning in 1829, tavern licenses were required and rates were set by the county commissioners; for the official text of – Chicago`s 1st– tavern license, issued to Archibald Clybourne and Samuel Miller on May 2, 1829, see below; the second license went to Archibald Caldwell in December 1829; the third and fourth licenses were granted on June 8, 1830, to Alexander Robinson and Mark Beaubien, each; the fifth and last license granted by the Peoria commissioner to a Chicagoan was that for Russell Heacock on Dec. 7, 1830.

On May 2, 1829, Archibald Clybourne and Samuel Miller received a tavern license from the Peoria County Commissioners` Court with the following stipulations—Ordered: That a license be granted to Archibald Clybourne & Samuel Miller to keep a tavern at Chicago in this state, and that the rates which were allowed heretofore to J.L. Bogardus in the town of Peoria be allowed to the said Clybourne and Miller—and that the Clerk take bond and security of the parties for one Hundred dollars—License eight Dollars`:
Each half-pint of wine, rum, or brandy …… 25 cts.
pint ………. 37 1/2
half-pint gin …….. 18 3/4
pint ………………………….. 31 1/4
gill of whisky ………………………… 6 1/4
half-pint ……… 12 1/2
pint ……………………….. 18 3/4
pint cider or beer …………………. 6 1/4
breakfast, dinner, or supper ……………. 24
night`s lodging …………………………………. 12 1/2
Keeping horse overnight on grain or hay ……. 25
The same as above, 25 hours ……………… 37 1/2
Horse feed …………………………. 12 1/2 [357]

taxation  – Chicago`s 1st – tax levy occurred in 1823 as a Fulton County property tax; the total collected by Collector Amherst C. Ransom from Chicago residents amounted to $11.42, based on a property assessment of $2,242. In 1825, when Chicago was part of Peoria/Putnam County, 14 residents were deemed to own taxable property worth a total of $9,047, and a one percent levy yielded $90.47. The list of County Assessor John L. Bogardus shows the following breakdown: J.B. Beaubien ($10), John Crafts ($50), Jonas Clybourne ($6.25), Dr. Wolcott ($5.72), John Kinzie ($5), A. Wilemet ($4), John K. Clark ($2.50), Alex. Robinson ($2), David McKee/Claude Laframboise/Jeremy Clermont/Peter Piche ($1 each), Joseph Laframboise/Louis Coutra ($0.50). On April 4, 1832, Cook County`s first financial statement showed total taxes collected for the preceding year on real estate holdings and personal property as $148.29. [706]

Taylor, A.W.  arrived in 1831; served under Capt. G. Kercheval in the Chicago company during the Black Hawk War in 1832; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833. [12] [351]

Taylor, Abner  native of Maine; arrived in 1833, a contractor and builder; later a merchant with the wholesale dry goods firm J.V. Farwell & Co. [351]

Taylor, Anson H.  (1798-May 11, 1878) born in Connecticut, brother of Charles A. and Augustin D.; arrived by late 1828 when a firm named Laughton & Taylor existed at “Farm House, Chicago” and sold groceries and whiskey—possibly a temporary partnership with one of the Laughton brothers [“sold goods here in 1829 at the Forks on the West Side,” according to Frank G. Beaubien]; rented the old Kinzie residence from 1829 to 1831 and maintained a store; in 1831 he rented half of Madore Beaubien`s cabin on the SW corner of South Water and Dearborn streets as a tailor shop and signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on October 5; together the brothers built the floating log bridge across the south branch of the Chicago River at Randolph Street in 1832; some time that year he purchased lot 7 in block 16 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] from Gholson Kercheval, a lot which had initially belonged to J.B. Beaubien. As an early member of the Catholic community, his name was on the April 1833 petition by citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them, then he was delegated by the congregation to go to St. Louis and escort Father St. Cyr to Chicago (see St. Mary`s church); was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; submitted a deposition in regard to wharfing privileges on Nov. 24, 1835; 1839 City Directory: general supply store, near the Garrison. Anson built a cabin north along the Green Bay Trail, acquiring 160 acres of Indian land available in 1839. [42, 243, 268, 319, 351] [12]

Taylor, Anson Hawley, Jr.  (Mar. 11, 1831-Aug. 26, 1898) born in Syracuse, NY; son of Anson Hawley and Esther (née Denison) Taylor; married Emma Maria (IL May 17, 1838-Apr. 26, 1926), daughter of [see] Col. William and Anne Maria Gooding, on June 16, 1859, at [see] Gooding`s Grove, Will County. Anson died in Havanna, Cuba.

Taylor, Augustin Deodat  (Apr. 28, 1796-Mar. 31, 1891) born in Hartford County, CT; brother of Charles A. and Anson H.; married Mary Gillett on June 5, 1817 at Windsor; came together in June 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; began work on – Chicago’s first – church, named St. Mary’s Church, soon completing the structure with the (see) balloon frame method (regarded by some historians as the inventor, though others acknowledge G.W. Snow); the cost was $400, including the bell, and the building was 36 feet long, 24 feet wide, and 12 feet wide, and had a small steeple surmounted by a cross; later he built the St. Patrick`s, St. Peter`s, St. Joseph`s [1836], and St. James`s churches [1837]; his last church was built in Naperville; filed a deposition in regard to wharfing privileges on Nov. 24, 1835; was elected to the town board in 1836; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and builder, 74 Lake St. [a Deodat is also listed as carpenter with A.D. Taylor]; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: builder, res Michigan ave, bet Lake and Randolph. Mary died in 1844; the couple had two surviving daughters: Josephine and Eliza. In 1845 he married Mary Grovan; the 1850 U.S. Census lists him as living in ward one with Mrs. (Canada) and two daughters, ages nine and three. Augustin served as alderman in 1853; 1870 U.S. Census: living in ward nine with Mary and children: Josephine Bracken, Eliza, Maria, Henry, Harvey, James and Frank; 1880 U.S. Census: living in ward ten with sons Harvey and James A. In 1885 Augustin`s residence was at 398 West Taylor Street; 1890 U.S. Census: contractor, widowed; he was buried at Calvary Cemetery in Evanston. [12, 243, 245, 268, 269a, 319] [505]

Taylor, Charles A.  (-Sept. 27, 1867) brother of Anson H. and Augustin D.; initially a tailor by trade; following his brother Anson, he arrived from Detroit in June 1832 via Detroit by wagon with his wife Mary, daughter of Almira (née Rood, then wife of Charles Willcox) and Mary`s half sister Julia Ann Trumbull Willcox, then a little girl. James Kinzie`s Wolf Tavern was available at that time, and they leased or ran the business for about one year, “neat and orderly.” By June 18 Chicago area citizens gathered at “Taylor`s tavern” to adopt formal resolutions of thanks to the Michigan Territory Militia troops who first provided protection for the village during the Black Hawk War; together with Anson, Charles built the floating log bridge across the south branch at Randolph Street later that summer; in April 1833 his name was on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; Charles and Mary were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; received $187 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; later that year they chose to become charter members of the first Presbyterian church under Reverend Porter; voted in the election of the first town board on Aug. 10, 1833; entered into a construction partnership with Major Handy and in 1834 built a house on the corner of Canal and Madison streets, but by March the partnership was dissolved as per notice in the Chicago Democrat (March 18); submitted a deposition in regard to wharfing privileges on Nov. 24, 1835, and later that year filed a claim for privileges for lot 3, block 18; prior to 1836 acquired the western half of the SW quarter of Section 4 of Township 39 N, according to Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; 1839 City Directory: tailor, Clark Street; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: fashionable tailor, 42 Clark Street, Between Lake Street and Post Office [house Canal st. b Washington and Madison sts, alderman 3rd ward]. He died in Indianola, TX in 1867; in 1885 his widow lived at 199 S Peoria St., Chicago. [Mary was half sister to Orlando Bolivar Willcox, later a U.S. general, who, as a lad, visited Chicago repeatedly and occasionally attended Reverend Porter`s Sunday school; an article in the [see Essays section] Chicago Sunday Tribune, Part Six of Sept. 20, 1903, is compiled from Mary`s diary by her niece, Mrs. Julia Willcox Tenney of Boston, and vividly depicts the family`s experiences on the road to Chicago and in the early village.] [12, 243, 319, 357, 654, 714] [728]

Taylor, Col. Edmund Dick  (1802-1891) born in Virginia; had served in the Black Hawk War at the rank of colonel; arrived in April 1835 with the appointment as receiver of public monies for the U.S. Land Office, working out of Thomas Cook`s store after June 1 on Lake Street; was on the first board of directors of the branch of the State Bank of Illinois that opened in Chicago in December 1835; in 1837 became active in promoting plans for the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad; 1839 City Directory: Taylor, Col. Edmund D., Taylor, [Josiah S.] Breese & Co., dry goods, &c.;, Lake Street near Clark; before 1885 moved to Mendota, IL, but died in Chicago in 1891. [12, 37] [243]

Taylor, Daniel  see Taylor, William Hartt.

Taylor, Elias    employed as clerk by W.H. Wallace in 1826 and 1827.

Taylor, Francis  (1822-1903) son of [see] Francis H. and Louisa; came with his parents to Wolf Point in 1833; 1839 City Directory: tailor, Francis H. Taylor; married Sarah Conally. [243]

Taylor, Francis Horace  (1797-1889) arrived from Connecticut in 1833; had married Louisa Plantade in 1818; was elected to the city board of trustees at the first city election in 1837; 1839 City Directory: tailor, Wolf Point [until 1863]; tailors George H. and Charles H. Taylor are also listed with Francis H. Taylor in the 1839 Directory; before 1885 had moved to Niles, MI, where he died. [12, 243] [351]

Taylor, Henry  arrived in 1833. [351]

Taylor, L.D.  born c.1820 in Hartfort, CT; relative of the brothers Anson, Charles, and Augustin; came in June 1834; 1839 City Directory: at Augustin D. Taylor`s [carpenter]; still lived in Chicago in 1879. [12] [243]

Taylor, Mary Monica  see Talley, Alfred Maurice.

Taylor, Solomon  arrived from Connecticut in 1833; 1839 City Directory: boot- and shoemaker, Lake Street; his wife Lucy Ann died in 1844, aged 39. [243] [351]

Taylor, W.W.  arrived from New York in 1834; still living in Chicago by 1879. [12] [351]

Taylor, William  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; listed as owner (prior to 1836) of 80 acres land in Section 28, Township 39, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Jan 28, 1834, he offered hay for sale, “3 miles south”; a William Taylor is listed as compositor at the Daily American office in 1839. [319] [12]

Taylor, William Hartt  born in Newport, CT; arrived in June 1834; lived at the SE corner of Wabash Avenue and [Congress Street] as a shoe merchant; in the Sept. 9, 1835, Chicago Democrat he offered ” STEADY EMPLOYMENT and Good Wages” to eight good journeymen boot- and shoemakers; in November was elected trustee of the first Presbyterian church; was active in the volunteer fire department in 1837; 1839 City Directory: listed with Daniel Taylor, boot and shoemaker, 120 Lake St.; in 1857 he and his wife were still active church members; later moved to Brookline, MA. [12] [243]

Taylor`s Tavern  see Wolf Point Tavern.

teachers  for Chicago`s earliest schoolteachers, see entries under Robert A. Forsyth (1810); William L. Cox (1816); Elvira and Steven R. Forbes (1830); Mr. Foot (1831); John Watkins (1832); Eliza Chappel (1833); Granville T. Sprout (1833); George Davis (1834-1835); Mary Barrows (1834); Elizabeth Beach (1834); Catherine Bayne (1834); Dr. Henry Van der Bogart (1834); Thomas Wright (1834); Sally L. Warren (1834); Ruth Leavenworth (1835); Samuel C. Bennett (1835); and James McClellan (1835).

teal, blue-winged  Querquedula discors; this small ducklike bird with powder-blue wing patches is a fairly common summer resident in Illinois, but was in greater abundance in earlier days, according to reports not unlike the one by Lt. J.G. Furman of June 13, 1830, reprinted in Hurlbut`s Chicago Antiquities. [64] [357]

Tecumseh  (1774-1813) Ohio born; great Shawnee chief who spent much time in his life traveling between Indian tribes of the Midwest to attain his goal of a grand Indian confederacy, formed to halt the relentless advance of white settlers into Indian lands; he denounced the Treaty of Fort Wayne; contemporary and associate of Little Turtle, Shabonna, and Billy Caldwell; was half brother of Temskwatawa, also called “The Prophet”; reported John Kinzie`s attempts to win Indian allies to the American side, resulting in the arrest of Kinzie for the capital crime of treason, because in 1813 Kinzie was still a British subject and officer of the British Indian department. Tecumseh died on Oct. 5, 1813, in battle against General Harrison at the Thames River, Ontario. Also see Tippecanoe, Battle of. [12, 212, 609]

Telegraph  schooner, built in 1830 by Capt. Joseph Napier on the bank of the Ashtabula River in Ohio and used in 1831 to transport Joseph and his brother John, their families, P.F.W. Peck, Lyman Butterfield, Harry T. Wilson, and others to Chicago, arriving on July 15; the schooner was then sold and the passengers journeyed W to stake claims or settle along the Du Page River.

temperance  a Chicago Temperance Society existed by 1832 and met at Reverend Walker`s log cabin at the Point, but the exact date of its organization is not recorded. Philo Carpenter in 1832 wrote and circulated the first “total abstinence pledge”; a record of a meeting on Jan. 30, 1834, exists and reveals that Dr. Temple was president, Dr. Goodhue vice president, Philo Carpenter secretary and treasurer, and the following were the additional members of the executive committee: Capt. D. Wilcox (USA), Mr. M.D. Harmon, Dr. H. Van der Bogart, and Lt. J.L. Thompson (USA). Strong feelings concerning the alcohol issue [specifically the selling of liquor to the Indians] had already appeared very early, playing a role in the conflict between John Kinzie and Capt. John Whistler that led to Whistler`s transfer in 1810; illegal sales of whisky to the Indians caused the Indian agent at Chicago to direct James Kinzie to close his business at Milwaukee in 1821; Alexander Doyle, justice of the peace in Peoria with jurisdiction over Chicago, was intent on enforcing the liquor laws, and in 1829 he cited James Kinzie for selling one pint of whiskey without a license. Tavern licenses were first issued in 1829, the first one granted to Archibald Clybourne and Samuel Miller on May 2, 1829. The temperance issue would detonate with the “lager beer riots” in 1855 under Mayor Levi Boone. [184]

Temple Building  a two-story structure, built through the efforts of Dr. John T. Temple; located at the SE corner of Franklin and South Water streets, opened in 1834; the upper floor was used mainly for religious services (Baptists), the lower for school activities; also accommodated J.D. Caton`s law office and Dr. Brainard`s medical office.

Temple Mound Period    see Hopewell culture.

Temple, John Taylor, M.D.  (1804-1877) native of Virginia, medical degree from the University of Maryland in 1824, practitioner of homeopathic medicine who arrived on July 4, 1833, with his wife Elizabeth [née Staughton, 1824] and four children; became a precinct elector and voted for the incorporation of the town at a meeting late in July; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and was one of the “Qualified Electors” who voted to incorporate the town [for a copy of that meeting`s report, see entry on incorporation]; was on the voting list for the first town board on Aug. 10; built a substantial frame house on the corner of Wells and Lake streets as his residence, and an office on the SW corner of Franklin and South Water streets. He had come to Chicago with a contract from the U.S. postmaster general to carry the mail between Chicago and Fort Howard at Green Bay; the route was soon discontinued by governmental order, and he was given the route between Chicago and Ottawa; imported for this purpose an elegant post-carriage from Detroit, and on Jan. 1, 1834, made the first coach trip past Laughton`s Tavern on the “high prairie” Ottawa Trail over Brush Hill (elevation with heavy growth of scrub oak, highest point W of the fort) via Walker`s Grove, taking attorney J.D. Caton along; later that spring the service was taken over by Winters, Mills & Co. On Jan. 12, 1834, Elizabeth Temple was baptized by Reverend Freeman in Lake Michigan near the foot of Randolph Street, remembered as – Chicago`s 1st – lake baptism, and the family arrived for the occasion in the above mentioned stagecoach. In 1834, the Temple children attended school under the Miss Eliza Chappel and the “Temple Building” (see entry) was completed; on Sept. 10 that year an ad in the Chicago Democrat announced a partnered medical practice between John and his younger brother, Peter; John co-owned in 1834 with Bronson and Sedgwick a major portion of real estate in Section 9, Township 39, and under his own name purchased lots in blocks 20 and 40 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] from the government and from John S.C. Hogan. The doctor was very active in organizing the First Baptist Church, was a member of the school board, petitioned for wharfing privileges, became treasurer of the Chicago Bible Society and vice president of the Lyceum, was a member of the first Board of Health in 1835, and a trustee of Rush Medical School in 1837; 1839 City Directory: 218 Lake St. Dr. Temple moved to Galena in 1842, then to St. Louis where he assisted in the founding of the St. Louis School of Osteopathy; died there on Feb. 24, 1877. Lenora Maria, his daughter and age 10 when the family came to Chicago, left an eyewitness account of the 1835 Indian war dance, as well as an account of her own lakeshore baptism [for her accounts see Hoyne, Lenora Maria Temple]; street name: Temple Street (1300 W) was named after him, but renamed N Troop Street. [12, 319] [28]

Temple, Lenora Maria  see Hoyne, Thomas.

Temple, Peter, M.D.  (1812-1889) from Virginia; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; announced in the Chicago Democrat of July 7, 1834, his intention to practice dentistry on Franklin Street, near Lake Street, adjacent to Dr. John T. Temple`s office; in August that year became co-partner with [his brother] Dr. Temple; married Lucy Welford Mathews on Jan. 1, 1835; 1839 City Directory: real estate agent, block 17, School Section; unsuccessful in real estate, he became a practitoner of homeopathy; later moved to Lexington, MO; died on Mar. 18, 1889. [12, 319] [351]

Temple, Virginia Alice  see Montgomery, William.

Tenskwatawa  Shawnee name meaning: thenui, `be open,` and skwáte , `door,` become “The Open Door” or “The Prophet”; also Elswatawa; was half brother of Tecumseh; see Prophet, The. [456b]

Territory of Illinois    see Illinois Territory.

Territory of Indiana   see Indiana Territory.

Tessier, —  pilot and surviving member of the ill-fated 1684 La Salle Texas expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River which, due to La Salle`s error, ended in Spanish Texas. After La Salle`s death, Tessier was one of the group of six who, led by Henri Joutel, reached Chicago by overland route on Sept. 25, 1687, on their way from Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock) to Canada. [456b, 519] [611]

Teuto  original name of the Elmhurst-Addison settlement, derived from the preponderance of German immigrants.

Teuto Community Church    formed in 1834 at Dunklee’s Grove, near Addison, by Lutheran German immigrants; first led in worship by a lay preacher, Friedrich Buchholz, and from 1838 on by its first minister, Ludwig Cachand-Ervendberg.

Thaumur de la Source, Abbé Dominique Antoine  a priest within the Séminaire des Étrangères who in April 1700 returned to Chicago with Rev. de Montigny and Abbé St. Cosme from the Louisiane mission; left a letter describing the experience, published by Shea in 1861; had been a student of Father Charlevoix in Quebec, and was ordained there; he is known to have lived at Cahokia in 1721. [665] [612]

theatre  the pioneer village of Chicago had no established place of regular theatrical entertainment until Harry Isherwood and Alexander McKenzie opened a theatre in the Sauganash Hotel in October 1837, and in 1838 created the [see] Rialto theatre on the W side of Dearborn Street, between South Water and Lake streets Prior to 1837, there were only offered occasional shows by traveling entertainers in improvised quarters; one of these was a Mr. Bowers, who called himself Professeur de Tours Amusant, who advertised in the Chicago Democrat a performance for the date of Monday, Feb. 24, 1834, at Dexter Graves` boarding house; a second delightful performance followed on June 11 given by another ventriloquist, a Mr. Kenworthy. Otherwise, Charles Cleaver reports that “the store keepers played checkers while waiting for customers, and, after closing played cards. Those religiously inclined went to prayer meeting at least once a week, and Mark Beaubien played the fiddle at the Sauganash Hotel for those who wished to dance.” [482]

Thévenot, Melchisédech  (1620-1692) French scholar and author, chronicling French explorations and discoveries, among them Jolliet and Father Marquette`s voyage; introduced the word Michigan; see Thévenot`s map entry and the Bibliography. [12] [657]

Thévenot`s map  first printed map of the Mississippi River, entitled Carte de la découverte faite l`an 1673, published in 1681 in Recueil de Voyages. This map presents the territory between the southern end of Lake Michigan and the Mississippi and depicts in surprising and accurate detail the Chicago River with south branch, the Des Plaines River, and the portage with [Mud Lake] between them. Some historians believe that Thévenot`s map was derived from two Jesuit maps [c.1674: Manitoumie I, Service historique de la Marine, Vincennes; Manitoumie II; Bibliothèque Nationale, Paris; for the word Manitoumie, see separate entry] that coalesced Jolliet-Marquette cognizance and were taken to Paris with Jesuit Relations to be examined and re-presented; the composite map was engraved by Liebaux and included within Recueil de Voyages (see Maps). Shown here is only the Illinois River and Chicagoland detail of the map; for the complete map see Chronology 1681 or the Map Section. [456b]

Thibeaut, Joseph  also Thibaut, Thebault; voted in elections on July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830; his wife`s name was de Charlotte; a son, also named Joseph, was baptized on Oct. 18, 1830, by Father Badin; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; Thebault received $50 for a claim at the Chicago treaty in September, and a Madaline Thibeaut received $100 on Schedule A. [319] [12]

Thiberge, Jean  also Tiberge; one of five voyageurs who traveled with Father Marquette and Jolliet to the Mississippi and the Chicago site in 1673.

Thomas Hart  schooner from Buffalo, called at Chicago on July 9, 1834, with merchandise under Captain McUmber; called again on Sept. 14, 1835, under Captain White, coming from Oswego, NY; wrecked on Lake Ontario in 1842. [48]

Thomas Jefferson  built at Erie, PA, in 1834; with 150 horse power, the 428-ton steamboat from Buffalo called at Chicago on June 14, 1835, with merchandise and passengers under Captain Wilkins, then left for Green Bay. [48]

Thomas Jefferson  schooner under Captain Briggs, called at Chicago on Oct. 2, 1835, coming from Green Bay.

Thomas, Frederick  English druggist from New York who, per anouncement in the Chicago American of June 26, 1835 [see ad], opened Chicago`s fourth drugstore, located on South Water Street, between Dearborn and Clark—the Chicago New Drug, Medicine, Paint, and Oil Store; among the advertised powders, pills, salts, waters, and drops was Thomas` Tincture for Augue and Fever at 50 cents per bottle, and “Physicians` Prescriptions and Family Recipes accurately dispensed”; also included was the availability of “Bleeding, Leeching and Teeth Drawing,” thereby making him – Chicago`s 1st – barber-surgeon; later on August 8 he entered the following ad in the Chicago American: “Any information respecting on Henry Thomas, an Englishman by birth (two years since following the mercantile trade as clerk, in Louisville, KY) will be thankfully received by his anxious brother.” On November 25, he was appointed to the executive committee of the Chicago Bible Society; in January 1836 entered into a partnership with Thomas Jenkins, who had a general store next door, and the new firm advertised as Jenkins & Thomas; two months later the partnership was dissolved, and Jenkins succeeded to the entire business under the new name, Chicago New Drug and Medicine Store. [221]

Thomas, Jesse B.  Speaker of the House of the Indiana Territory in 1808, when Illinois country was part of that territory; when elected to Congress he campaigned for and achieved a separate Territory of Illinois, effective March 3, 1809; in 1818 he presided at the convention that drafted Illinois` first state constitution. [12]

Thomas, Robert and William  children by this name, probably siblings, were enrolled as grade school students in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [728]

Thompson & Wells   real estate firm prominent during the 1835-36 land boom.

Thompson plat    see Thompson, James.

Thompson, Ann  see Carpenter, Philo.

Thompson, Enoch  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December,1831.

Thompson, James  came to Kaskaskia from SC in 1814; skillful surveyor and prominent local politician in Randolph County, IL; canal surveyor for the Illinois & Michigan Canal Commission who, on Aug. 4, 1830, completed a plat of Chicago (a 267-acre portion of Section 9, Township 39, Range 14 E of the third principal meridian, a system of surveying governed by the [see] Federal Land Ordinance of 1785). The map was lithographed in St. Louis. This was the first effort to give shape and outline to the small settlement and established the foundation for legal titles to Chicago real estate; in the process Thompson gave name to many of the downtown streets, including Randolph Street, which he named in honor of his home county. The area mapped was bound by what is now Kinzie Street on the N, State Street on the E, Madison Street on the S, and DesPlaines Street on the W, but at the time neither State, Madison, nor DesPlaines streets were named, and it should be realized that until much later in the 1830s the actual settlement was considerably smaller than the area covered by the plat; the original plat in the Recorder`s Office was destroyed by the 1871 fire, but copies are within the Chicago History Museum (see Maps, 1830, James Thompson). The task completed, he returned home and later became a judge. [12, 164, 351] [704]

Thompson, John  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; an uncollected letter for Thompson is listed in the Jan. 1, 1834, Chicago Democrat; first postmaster at Lisle, IL, setting up the post office in a room of his house in 1834; prior to this date, settlers in Lisle had to travel fo Chicago to send or receive mail, as reflected in a 1833 letter by [see] Luther Hatch to one of his brothers in the east: “Tomorrow I shall travel through the mud the distance of 23 miles to mail you this letter”; his land is now part of the Morton Arboretum; he remained postmaster until 1851, when the Lisle Postal Station was created. [319] [123a]

Thompson, Kobes  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Thompson, Lt. Enoch  stationed at Fort Dearborn in 1830 and voted in the Peoria County election for justice of the peace on November 25 of that year; purchased from Benjamin Harris lot 6 in block 8, which in 1830 had belonged to Edward Keyes [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; on Nov. 21, 1835, submitted a petition for wharfing privileges. [319] [351]

Thompson, Lt. James L.  born in Tennessee; Fifth Infantry; a second lieutenant of the Fort Dearborn garrison from June 20, 1833, until April of 1836; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; became a first lieutenant Oct. 31, 1836, a captain on Mar. 1, 1840, and resigned on Mar. 18, 1846; died by drowning on June 21, 1851. [319, 326] [12]

Thompson, Lt. Robert  from New York; served at Fort Dearborn under Capt. Whistler at the time Dr. John Cooper arrived in June 1808; died at the post during Dr. Cooper`s term. [722]

Thompson, Lt. Seth  from Ohio; enlisted as ensign with the First Infantry on June 10, 1807; as second lieutenant he became second in command at Fort Dearborn under Captain Heald on Aug. 18, 1808, until his death from a brief febrile illness on Mar. 4, 1811; the vacancy was filled by Lieutenant Helm in June 1811. [708] [326]

Thompson, Oliver H.  came from Vermont in 1835 and on Nov. 21 submitted a claim for wharfing privileges; a notice in the Dec. 2 Chicago Democrat reveals his copartnership with A. Garrett and the Brown brothers, now [see] Garrett, Thompson, Brown & Co.; in 1838 his name was on the petition of citizens opposed to granting a license for a permanent theatre at the Rialto; 1839 City Directory: dry goods and groceries, 102 Lake St., and an alderman; married Emma Ann Heartt in 1840. [351] [12]

Thompson, Robert  arrived in 1831 and served as a member of the Chicago company in the Black Hawk War of 1832 under Capt. Gholson Kercheval. [12, 351] [714]

Thorn, Platt  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Thornton, Col. William F.  (1789-1873) native of Virginia; IL & MI Canal commissioner, appointed to a new board in 1836 together with Gurdon S. Hubbard (soon replaced by Col. James B. Fry) and William B. Archer. [12, 734] [351]

Thrall, Edward L.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; advertised in the paper on May 28, 1834, that he had “cloths, cassimere and readymade clothing” for sale on South Water Street, at what used to be Charles Taylor`s stand. [319]

Thurston Cemetery  see Thurston, David.

Thurston, David  (Apr. 9, 1808-May 6, 1879) born in Barker, NY, son of John and Abigail [née Tripp] Thurston; married Catherine Fuller (Lisle, NY July 10, 1812- ) on the same day her brother Benjamin married Olive Atwater, also in Broome County, NY; made a claim in 1834 near [now] Roosevelt and York roads, likely traveling with his brother-in-law [see] Benjamin Fuller; with two young children born in Barker, Jacob F. (Oct. 12, 1832-Jan. 8, 1861) and Abigail (Sept. 27, 1834-Jan. 10, 1907), the family removed to [now] York Township in 1835 where Candace (Feb. 3, 1836-Nov. 8, 1860) was born; in 1843 Thurston acquired for $250 an additional 160 acres along [now] 31st Street, designating in his will a half-acre of land for Thurston Cemetery. David William Boyd was born on Feb. 8, 1849 ( -Nov. 5, 1874) and Adelaid was born on Jan. 8, 1854 ( -Nov. 2, 1945). The Thurston Cemetery, in use between c.1848 and 1903, was extant adjoining [now] Midwest Road in 1962 when the Brook Forest subdivision was developed within Oak Brook; eighteen graves were then relocated to developer Paul Butler`s private cemetery; when the village graded Midwest Road in 2001 additional unmarked family graves were disturbed, all materials dumped into a culvert S of the cemetery; more graves were noted in the backyard of a residence later in September; Midwest Archaeological Research Service, Inc. facilitated the removal and documentation of skeletal remains and any grave artifacts; all remains were reburied on Aug. 23, 2003 in the Butler Cemetery, Oak Brook. [280a, 415] [487a]

Thurston, Harriet  see Crandall, David.

Thurston, John Gates  (1794-1873) a mercantile business man who traveled overland from Lancaster, MA, to Chicago in 1836, with his brother-in-law George Lee, and kept a journal that was published only in 1971. [Although slightly beyond the time frame, the editors have included excerpts on subjects that were still reflecting pre-1836 conditions; see below.]
Chicago. This place has become one of considerable importance. Its growth has been of little more than three years standing, and it contains three or four thousand inhabitants and is destined to become a place of great trade in the way of supplying the vast country beyond it on the northwestern lakes and frontier. It is now the grand focus for speculators from all parts of [the] union who resort here to make sale of their lands and newly manufactured towns which are made to appear like cities on paper, tho there is scarcely a house in them. This making of cities is a great trade here, and what cannot be sold at auction or at private sale in this state are sent to the New York or other Eastern markets to gull the Yankees with. Altho there is enough lotted and now in market which when built upon will hold a population of fifty millions of people; yet the trade is still in a flourishing state and will continue so as long as there can be fools enough found to purchase. This bubble however must burst and probably soon. … There is a remnant of several tribes of Indians, mostly Winnebagoes, still remaining in this place who are to remove beyond the Mississippi this fall. They are about forty in number. They inhabit a building nearly in front of the hotel where I am staying, which has enabled me to witness many of their sports, such as foot races, horse races, card playing, dances, &c.; There is a large piece of vacant ground in the rear of the building in which their sports are kept up daily. Today I witnessed one such as I have never heard of before, which was that of making two horses fight. This was done by surrounding them with a crowd so dense that they could not break through the ring and then compelling them to fight by goading them with pikes, clubs, and all manner of missiles. The poor animals being beset in this manner, to which was added the horrid shouts and yells of the Indians, fought at times with desperation for near two hours till they were wholly exhausted. They were covered with blood and gashes from head to foot, and the kicks and bites which they alternately received. From the desperation with which they fought one would have thought [it] would have demolished them both long before they gave up the fight. It was judged by the spectators they would never recover from the bruises they received, but the Indians drove them out on the prairie and that was the last I saw of them. Never did I witness any sport that was so universally enjoyed as this seemed to be, not only by the men but squaws, children, and all were delighted beyond measure. [662]

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, LL.D.  (1853-1913) born in Massachusetts; historian, journalist, author; authority on western history and editor of the Wisconsin State Historical Journal; was a major contributor to our knowledge of Chicago history; see Bibliography. [37, 665-9]

Tiger  the 62-ton schooner that brought [see] Factor Jacob Varnum, his bride, and factory goods from Mackinac to Fort Dearborn on Sept. 13, 1816; purchased on Sept. 6, 1822, for the American Fur Company`s Detroit Outfit by [see] James Abbott, as noted on a Michilimackinac invoice. [10aa] [48]

timothy  Phleum pratense; a perennial grass species introduced from Europe by early American settlers and used as a hay crop for livestock. In June 1834, John H. Kinzie advertised “Timothy and Clover Seed” for sale in several issues of the Chicago Democrat, and again in the Aug. 15, 1835, Chicago American; in the Nov. 11, 1835, Chicago Democrat Jones, King & Co. advertised 40 bushels of the best quality timothy seed [information derived from Ed Lace, August 1996].

Tinkham, Roland  also Reland; eventual brother-in-law of Gurdon S. Hubbard and Richard Jones Hamilton who, in the summer of 1831, traveled from Massachusetts to St. Louis by way of Chicago; his letters describing the experience are quoted in Henry Raymond Hamilton`s book, The Epic of Chicago; for excerpts, see below; early in 1835 he married Paulina, daughter of Ahira and Serena Hubbard, in Middleboro, then removed to Bangor, ME; also see malaria and Hubbard, Gurdon S. [306]
Arrived at Chicago, having been nearly five days making the journey from St. Joseph. For three or for days I was near being sick in consequence of fatigue and exposure. Chicago is a very small place compared to what I expected; it was the fort and garrison that gave it importance, but since the troops have been removed to Green Bay it is rather a dull place. Here we saw two Indians to one white man. They are almost all Pottawatomies and still own a very extensive tract of country, from Michigan to the Mississippi. Peres La Clerc is here, — the brave, as he is called, who fired the first shot at the massacre of Fort Dearborn, at Chicago. His manhood is nearly departed. His proud spirit was not tamed by his foes, but by his whiskey. … Chicago is on three points where the river forks, about one half mile from the lake. The country on every side is low land prairie, and while we were there it was very wet all around. There is not a frame building in the place, tho` several are covered with clapboard. Cottonwood, which is only a species of Balm-of-Gilead, grows on the streams and wet places of Chicago. There is no road from this place except such as follow Indian trails. … We spent 11 days in Chicago, — hunted, fished, walked about, looked at Indians and squaws and French; went to one court, a curious affair, but the story is long, and I have no time to tell it. [604a]

Tinley-Valparaiso terminal moraine    a system of gravel and clay hills left behind 15,000 years ago by the retreating Wisconsin glacier that scooped out Lake Michigan’s lake bed; it now surrounds, at some distance, the southern end of Lake Michigan.

Tippecanoe  the word is derived from the Indian kitapkwânûnk, meaning `buffalofish-at`. [456b]

Tippecanoe Hall   a large warehouse on the NE corner of Kinzie and Wolcott [State] streets, acquiring the name during the presidential campaign of 1840 as a place for political meetings, and in 1847 became the first general hospital in Chicago under the leadership of Dr. Brainard; however, it already existed in 1834, when the space served as the first place of worship for the budding Episcopal congregation under Reverend Hallam.

Tippecanoe, Battle of  (Nov. 7, 1811) a temporary setback for the Indian confederacy under Tecumseh and The Prophet, who had spent years trying to organize a united front against the relentless advance of white settlers into Indian territory. The battle took place on Tippecanoe Creek near the large Indian village Prophetstown, 150 miles N of Vincennes; General Harrison, commanding c.1,000 well trained soldiers, while victoriously destroying the village, fumbled his attack and suffered nearly 25 percent casualties among his men; he had to wearily retreat to Fort Harrison. Most Indians continued their aggressive stance and were soon to join the British in the War of 1812. [152]

tippling house    drinking establishment; an ordinance was passed on Sept. 1, 1834, providing for a fine of $5 for keeping a tippling house or grocery open on Sunday.

Tipton, John  (1786-1839) Indiana surveyor and legislator who in 1821 visited Chicago and Fort Dearborn and described what he saw in his journal, Surveying line between Indiana and Illinois, 1821. [670]

Titcomb, Timothy  settled in September 1833 on Section 13 in Wheeling, IL, but soon sold his claim to Myron Dimmick, who in turn remained only two or three years. [13]

Todd, John  (1750-1782) born in Montgomery County, PA; was appointed county-lieutenant or commandant of “Illinois County” by Patrick Henry, the governor of Virginia on Dec. 12, 1778, when Illinois was part of that state; arrived at Kaskaskia in May of 1779 to assume office, but remained in Illinois only until the end of the year, asking to be relieved early of his office. With his departure, and with the Virginia Act of 1778 that had established the county soon expiring, the government situation became anomalous, and a time of civil anarchy began for Illinois that lasted until 1790, when Illinois civil jurisdictions were organized as part of the new Northwest Territory of the United States; street name: Todd Street (500W).

Toeffrey, Basil  see Joefroy, Barie

Tolleston beach  a geological term, designating the lowest of a series of three major concentric dune ridges left behind by the shore of glacial Lake Michigan when its level was higher than today; they are still visible in the landscape today. During the Tolleston phase, less than 8,000 years ago, the lake was 20 feet higher than today. Each of the ridges, where undisturbed by human activity, now reflects its age by having its own characteristic set of plants (cottonwood, sand cherries, junipers) and animals. Indians and early settlers journeying between Fort Dearborn and Michigan City would follow a trail on top of this ridge to avoid the low swampy places; Joseph Bailly`s property was on the Tolleston ridge. For the other, higher ridges, see Calumet beach and Glenwood beach.

Tolleston phase    see Tolleston beach.

tomahawk    hatchet-shaped traditional Indian weapon; those with iron blades were furnished to the Indians in large numbers by the fur traders.

Tombien, Jean Baptiste    also Toubien; voted in the election on July 24, 1830.

Tonti, Alphonse de  (1659-1727) younger brother of Henri de Tonti, and part-owner of Henri`s company; accompanied Cadillac to Detroit and assisted in the construction of Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit, becoming the second officer in command of the fort until his death.

Tonti, Henri de  (1650-1704) Americanized, Henry de Tonty; a Neapolitan in exile, explorer in the service of France, faithful companion to La Salle, who spent 26 years in North America, during which time he came to Chicago on many more occasions than has been recorded by historians. Along the Niagara River in 1678, Tonti directed the construction of [see] Le Griffon. In the fall of 1680 Tonti, in the company of Father Membré, passed through the Chicago portage from the Illinois valley to Green Bay (having reached the Illinois River with La Salle by way of the Kankakee portage). On Jan. 7, 1682, Tonti met La Salle at Chicago, and together with a group of 21 additional Frenchmen and 30 Indians they used the portage on their way to the Mississippi, the mouth of which they reached on April 9, 1682. Tonti recorded and later published the names of his French fellow travelers [see entry for La Salle, René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de]. Tonti had lost his right hand in earlier war action and wore an iron prothesis, greatly admired by the Indians. For the end of December 1685 Tonti recorded in his writings [see Bibliography] a visit to a French fort at Chicago then under the command of Durantaye. Tonti was not with La Salle during the fateful 1685 Texas expedition, where the latter was assassinated by his own men during a mutiny. Instead Tonti, with his maternal cousin DuLuth, was engaged at that time in the Denonville expedition under the command of Governor Frontenac, which was the French and their Native American allies retaliatory campaign against the British and Iroquois in New York. Once this task was completed, Tonti went back in October 1687 to Fort Saint Louis (Starved Rock), where he was met by the survivors of the La Salle party; one was La Salle`s own brother, Abbé Cavalier de la Salle, Henri Joutel, Father Anastasius Douay and a few others; they concealed from Tonti the assassination of La Salle and assured him he was in good health along the Gulf of Mexico; by March 1688 the Abbé and company made their way to Canada and it was not until the end of April that two Arkansas Indians arrived at the fort to tell Tonti of the death of La Salle. In December Tonti outfitted an expedition to the Gulf of Mexico to bring back La Salle`s murderers; he left with five Frenchmen and one Indian guide; he penetrated into New Spain territory, and was told by the chiefs of the Cenis nation that the Spaniards had killed or captured the remainder of the men and women in La Salle`s camp at Matagorda Bay, and that a Capitano de Leon was advancing with a regiment of Spanish cavalry to intercept the French trespassers. There was nothing left to do, so Tonti returned to Fort St. Louis to await orders from Governor Frontenac. Tonti and François Daupin de La Forêt built Fort St. Louis on the Illinois River in 1690-91, which Tonti maintained in subsequent years. Tonti was a partner of La Forêt and Accault in a Chicago trading post, managed for them by Pierre-Charles de Liette, Tonti`s cousin, from 1697 to c.1702. In 1699, Tonti guided the St. Cosme party when it passed through Chicago. In 1700, a royal decree obliged Tonti to go to Louisiane, where he rendered signal services to Captain d`Iberville. Tonti died during a yellow fever epidemic in La Mobile; named after him are the Henry DeTonty Woods, a portion of the Palos Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District [see Monuments section]; street name: Tonty Avenue (6150W). [24b, 196, 259, 430, 503, 672-4] [12]

Topenebee  also Topenibe, To-pay-nah-bay and To-pa-na-bee, meaning `Sits Quietly`; as Tuthinipee, he signed the Treaty of Greenville in 1795. Potawatomi chief of a large village on the W bank of the St. Joseph River, Michigan; son of Chief Aniquiba, brother of Chief Saw-awk and of Kaw-kee-mee, wife of St. Joseph trader William Burnett; father-in-law of [see] Chief Leopold Pokagon; said to be a maternal uncle of Jean Baptiste Chandonnai (?); was a friend of the Kinzies and the Healds, whom he helped survive the 1812 massacre, and yet pro-British. Topenebee went to Washington in the fall of 1834 and in the company of Leopold Pokagon and Waubansee, protested against ratification of the Treaty of Chicago of 1833, claiming that Billy Caldwell, Alexander Robinson and Joseph LaFramboise had not represented them well in the treaty negotiations. [546a] [226]

Topley, Mary Ann  see Lozier, Oliver.

Topographical Engineers    earlier name for the U.S. Army [see] Corps of Engineers.

Tordesillas, Treaty of  see treaties.

tornado  The earliest recorded tornado to strike the Chicago area was probably in 1774, as mentioned without a date given in the manuscript narrative of a French trading traveler. The storm uprooted trees at the west end of the Portage des Chênes and then crossed lower Lake Michigan to create a swath of damaged trees along the Rivière du Chemin (the site of present Michigan City) two arpents (384 feet) wide. Caught in the storm over the lake were many tourterelles (passenger pigeons), which were drowned and the bodies washed up along a considerable length of the lake shore. The unidentified traveler noted that the leaves on the damaged trees were still green, indicating that the tornado had passed shortly before his arrival on a trip up the Illinois River to Chicagou, Michilimackinac, Detroit and Niagara Falls. This document, in French, was discovered in 2006 in the Thomas Jefferson Papers in the Library of Congress where it had lain unnoticed for two centuries. The writer, probably a businessman from New Orleans, made detailed observations along the entire length of the waters he traveled from the mouth of the Illinois to Michilimackinac. Most notably he mentioned only one European settlement along the entire length of the Illinois River, surprisingly not at Peoria Lake, but at an unidentified site below it, perhaps at Mauvais Terre, the site of present Naples, where Jean Baptiste Mallet and his brother-in-law Augustin Rocque were known to have had family homes in 1781. The narrator recommended that a trading village be established at the confluence of the Kankakee and Des Plaines, the beginning of the Illinois River, and not at Peoria Lake, where the ground at the south end of the lake was low and swampy. He described the Chicago portage in detail, as well as the Chicago River, at the mouth of which he found some minor unnamed French traders and a small village of Mascouten (not Potawatomi). [386a, 649] [508a]

Torode, John J.  see Torode, Nicholas, Sr.; also see Monuments section for his gravestone.

Torode, Nicholas, Sr.  (1775-Oct. 4, 1845) born in Normandy, France; lived at St. Peter`s Port, a French settlement on the Isle of Guernsey; emigrated in 1819 with his wife Rachel (1779-1844), their five sons—Nicholas, Jr., George, Peter R., Charles W., and Daniel H.—, and his younger brother John J. (1781-1810), settling in Ohio the following year; visited NE Illinois in 1835 and from the U.S. government he acquired an entire section of prairie and wooded land (Torode Woods, Du Page Forest Preserve District) along the E bank of Salt Creek in [now] York Township; within two years the family of six (George and John J. died in Ohio) moved to Franzosenbusch, meaning “The Frenchman’s Grove” – so named by later immigrants, predominantly of German origin, where his youngest son Philander (c.1837-Mar. 19, 1885) was born. In late 1836 Torode purchased 80 acres of land in the [now] Western Springs area with [see] Maj. Sherman King. He and his five sons farmed, raised sheep, quarried limestone, and by 1842 had built a substantial 10-room stone and concrete homestead N of the quarry along Salt Creek, near where York and Roosevelt roads now cross; a natural mechanic, Torode helped Major King build and enlarge his sawmill (preceding [see] Graue Mill) with stone, acquiring it for $500 in 1843. Following the death of his wife and Nicholas, Jr. by 1845, he chose a favored tract of son Peter`s rich land as a burial ground for himself and others, located on the W bank of Salt Creek, N of 22nd Street in [now] Oak Brook—where Nicholas, Sr. was one of the first to be buried that year. In 1846 Peter and his wife Maria (née Plummer, 1816-1885) donated the ground for the first public cemetery in the township – the Torode Cemetery, later becoming known as the [see] York Township Cemetery, which remained in existence until 1961. The Torode graves were then moved to the Clarendon Hills Cemetery at 69th Street & Cass Avenue. For photographs of the gravestones of Nicholas, Sr., his wife Rachel, and brother John J. see the Monuments section. The mill burned down in 1847 and the mill site was sold by 1852 to [see] Friedrick Graue, who in turn erected a new mill at the same location. Philander, Torode’s seventh son, and the only one born in the U.S., took over the house after his father’s death; on Mar. 15, 1854, he married Benjamin Fuller`s niece Abigail Thurston, daughter of [see] David and Catherine (née Fuller) Thurston of Fullersburg; the only son, John Arthur, was born Apr. 15, 1861, and eventually became the next owner. With his wife, Minnie Amelia Rogers (July 1867-Dec. 10, 1955), he had three daughters: Vivian Rogers (Aug. 13, 1889-Aug. 26, 1963; Mrs. Paul De Haan), Edith Minnie (Jan, 12, 1896-Aug. 13, 1996, DeKalb, IL), and Mildred Irene (June 23, 1901-Feb. 15, 1970; Mrs. Charles Vaillancourt). John Arthur died on Feb. 16, 1928. Edith was the last occupant of the Torode house which remained in the family until 1957 when the location became part of the Tri-State toll road. [217a, 259a, 280a, 415, 660, 692b] [487a]

Torode, Rachel  see Torode, Nicholas, Sr.; also see Monuments section for her gravestone.

town crier  village employee in charge of public announcements; in 1833 the job was held by [see] George White, a black man with a voice “the volume of a fog-horn.”

Town Trustees    see Chicago Town Trustees.

Towner, Louisa  see Dole, George W.

township, survey  six mile square parcels of land marked off by government surveyors in accordance with the [see] Federal Land Ordinance of 1785; each township is subdivided into 36 numbered sections, each section containing 640 acres; these survey townships are not identical with the civic townships organized later. Chicago`s downtown area is in Township 39. Also see Maps, 1823, Fielding Lucas.

Tracy  see de Prouville, Alexandre, marquis de Tracy.

Tracy  a 53-ton United States military vessel, the first sloop, built in 1802 at the River Rouge shipyard, named after Connecticut`s Senator Uriah Tracy; the Tracy, with [see] Josiah R. Dorr as its master, carried Captain Whistler and his family to Chicago in 1803, while the soldiers took the land route from Detroit, to begin the task of building Fort Dearborn; in 1809 the ship struck a reef in Lake Erie and sank. The Tracy in 1803 was not the first commercial sailing vessel to reach Chicago, as is sometimes stated; preserved letters of the St. Joseph trader William Burnett reveal that as early as 1786 it was not unusual for sailing ships from Mackinac to stop at Chicago, though most commerce along the shores of Lake Michigan was carried out by canoe or bateau. [389a]

trade goods  many different items appealed to the Indians and were therefore imported from the East or from Europe in massive quantities and exchanged for furs, the latter being the only item of interest to the white trader, exept that recently immigrated Europeans would also trade for food. Recorded inventories of Chicago traders provide an idea of the type of merchandise. The trader John Kinzie was a trained silversmith and, with specialized tools within his smithy, supplied the Indians with silver ornaments; in 1806 one of his silver brooches was accessible for “six rats” [muskrats] and “2 large silver crosses” sold for $7.50. On an American Fur Co. invoice for goods sent to James Kinzie at Chicago from Michilimackinac in September 1821, items listed included various kinds of cord, thread, flannel, cotton and ribbon, scissors, sleigh bells, iron jews`-harps, foolscap paper, double bolt padlocks, hoes, axes and tin, or copper kettles which took the Indians out of the Stone Age. The copper kettles were often used for collecting maple sap in the Indian manufacturing process of maple sugar; brass kettles were introduced in the late 1800s. Prior to the fur trade period Indian knife blades were made from obsidion, horn, or bone. Buffalo horns were soaked in water until pliable, cut and bent into a knife shape, and dried. When William Wallace reordered stock in September 1826, goods included playing cards, shot, powder, snuff, tobacco, whiskey, animal traps, groceries, pork, cooking utensils, and tools; after his death at Hardscrabble in March 1827 following a short illness, his official inventory contained, apart from the pelts collected, the additional items: 168 gallons of highwines, 10 ivory combs, 23 tomahawks, 800 gun flints, Indian mirrors, scalping knives, fox tail feathers, hawkbells, brass thimbles, verdigris, 32 black silk handkerchiefs, mourning shawls, chintz shawls, arm bands and wristbands in large and small sizes, headbands, five different sizes of brooches, 1,375 pair of earbobs, blankets, Indian awls, and needles.
Concerning liquor as a trade good, an excellent description has been given by Philip E. Vierling [692j]: “Liquor played a large role in the history of the fur trade, amounting to 10% of all trade goods sold, while costing little to the trader. In the early 1800s it was the dominant trade item demanded by the Indians. It generally came in three liquid forms: Brandy from the French, rum from the Dutch and English, and whiskey from the Americans. The brandy was transported in six-gallon kegs on horseback, or in a hogshead when aboard a sailing vessel. The rum came in bottles or four-gallon kegs, also on horseback. It didn’t take long for the trader to realize that watered-down liquor would last much longer than when in its concentrated form. It also didn’t take long for the Indians to realize that they were being cheated by the diluted grog. The Indians thereafter created a test to determine if the trade liquor they were given was diluted and by how much it was diluted. They took a mouthful of the grog and spit it on a fire. If the product was pure, the flames would flare up. However, if the product was watered down, there would be a smaller flare-up, or the flames may actually be quenched. The term `firewater` comes from this Indian practice of spitting diluted liquor on flames to test their true alcoholic content.”
Glass beads of various size and color, mostly made in Venice, Italy, were often used as gifts for the Indian. A highly priced variety of beads, made out of white or purple sea shells and difficult to manufacture, was called wampum; it was used by the natives for personal adornment and ceremonial occasions [see entry on wampum for additional information]. For the types of furs received from the Indians in return for trade goods, see the entry on fur trade. [544,692i, 692j] [544]

Trader Indians    term designating former residents of the St. Joseph River valley who, in 1780 and following the destruction of Fort St. Joseph in the Revolutionary War, fled to the Deep River, the major tributary of the Calumet River in Indiana; they included several Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Chippewa bands.

Traders’ Brigades    units of the mobile sales force of the American Fur Co., organized by personnel manager William Matthews; each brigade consisted of 5-20 bateaux ; each bateau had four oarsmen, a steersman, and a capacity of six tons. From the company’s headquarters at Mackinac the brigades would fan out into the wilderness to service the remote trading posts.

Trail Creek    see Michigan City.

Trail Creek Trail  connecting the Sauk Trail with the Lake Shore Trail between La Porte and Michigan City, paralleling Trail Creek.

trails    for early trails of the Chicago area, see Indian trails.

Trask, Hadassah  see Scott, Stephen J.

Traveler’s Home and Western Stage House    see Wolf Point Tavern.

treaties  [Great Indian Council, Chicago—1833 · Gustaf O. Dalstrom, artist {285}]
listed below as separate entries and in chronological order are the major treaties between governments as well as between the U.S. and Indian nations that significantly affected the Chicago area. The main purpose of most of the later treaties was to compel the Indians to turn over vast areas of their land to the U.S. Government in return for financial compensation. In addition, the government made payments to many early Chicago residents, both caucasians and métis, for financial losses claimed to have resulted from the removal of the native populations. U.S. Congressional Documents of the treaties of Sept. 20, 1828, July 29, 1829, and Sept. 26, 1833, show that payments were made to the following recipients:
American Fur Company (1829 – $3000, 1833 – $17000 and $2300 [James Abbott, Jr., agent])
Anderson, John (1833 – $600)
Anderson, John W. (1833 – $350)
Bailey, David (1833 – $50)
Bailly, Joseph (1833 – $4000)
Bailly, Ester, Rosene and Eleanor; children from Joseph Bailly’s second marriage (1833 – $500)
Bailly, Sophia, Hortense and Therese; children from Joseph Bailly’s first marriage (1833 – $1000)
Baldwin, John (1833 – $500)
Beaubien, Charles (1833 – $300)
Beaubien, Jean Baptiste (1833 – $250)
Beaubien, Josette (1833 – $500)
Beaubien, Josette; for her children (1833 – $1000)
Beaubien, Madore B. (1833 – $300 and $440)
Beaubien, Mark (1833 – $500)
Bertrand, Joseph, Sr. (1828 – $2000, 1833 – $652)
Bertrand, Joseph, Jr. (1833 – $300)
Bezion, Françoise (1833 – $2500)
Blackstone, John (1828 – $100)
Blodgett, Tyler K. (1833 – $50)
Boilvin, Nicholas (1833 – $350)
Boilvin, Nicholas; for his heirs (1833 – $1000)
Bonna, Augustus (1833 – $60)
Boucher, Francis (1833 – $250)
Bourassa, Daniel; for his children Joseph, Mark, Jude, Therese, Stephen, Gabriel, Alexander, James, Elai, Jerome; and M.D. [Mdme?]
(1833 – $1000, $600 and $100)
Bourbonnais, François, Sr. (1833 – $500)
Bourbonnais, François, Sr.; for his children (1833 – $400)
Bourbonnais, François, Jr.; for his children (1833 – $300)
Brady, Samuel P. (1833 – $188)
Brewster, Hogan & Co. (1833 – $343)
Brewster, William and Franklin (1833 – $700)
Brookfield & Bertrand (1833 – $100)
Brown, Dr. William (1833 – $40)
Burnett, William (1833 – $1000)
Caldwell, Billy (1833 – $5000)
Caldwell, Billy; for his children (1833 – $600)
Campbell, James B. (1833 – $600)
Chabert, Isadore; for his child (1833 – $400)
Chabert [Chobare], Isadore (1833 – $600)
Chandonnai, Jean Baptist (1833 – $1500 for himself, $1000 for the American Fur Company [Robert Stuart, agent])
Chapeau, Jacques; for his children (1833 – $600)
Chapman, Charles H. (1833 – $30)
Chevalier, Angelique (1833 – $200)
Chevalier, François; for his children (1833 – $800)
Chevalier, Josette (1833 – $200)
Chevalier, Louis Paschal, Jr., as administator of the estate of his son J.B. Chevalier (1833 – $112)
Clark, John Kinzie (1833 – $400)
Clark, John Kinzie; for his métis children (1833 – $400)
Cleavland, Henry (1833 – $800)
Clybourne, Archibald (1833 – $200)
Conner, James (1833 – $2250)
Conner, James and Richard J. (1833 – $700)
Contraman, Frederick H. (1833 – $200)
Contraman, Betsey; J.B. Campbell, trustee (1833 – $600)
Contraman, Nancy; J.B. Campbell, trustee (1833 – $600)
Contraman, Sally; J.B. Campbell, trustee (1833 – $600)
Covill, Thomas R. (1833 – $1300)
Curtis, Joseph (1833 – $50)
Dixon, John (1833 – $140)
Dole, George Washington (1833 – $133)
Ewing, Charles W. (1833 – $200)
Ewing, Harriet Bourie (1833 – $500)
Ewing, William G. and G.W. (1828 – $200, 1833 – $5000)
Ferry, Carolina (1833 – $500)
Fontaine, Felix (1833 – $200)
Forsyth, Robert (1833 – $500)
Forsyth, Robert Allen (1828 – $1250, 1833 – $3000)
Forsyth, Robert Allen; in trust for Catherine McKenzie (1833 – $1000)
Forsyth, Robert Allen; in trust for Mau-se-on-quet (1833 – $300)
Forsyth, Thomas (1828 – $200, 1833 – $1500)
Galloway, James (1833 – $200)
Godfroy, Gabriel (1833 – $2420)
Godfroy, Gabriel, Jr. (1828 – $500)
Godfroy, Jno. B. (1828 – $200)
Godfroy, P. & J. (1833 – $600)
Godfroy, Samuel (1833 – $120)
Grignon, Pierre and Augustin (1833 – $650)
Grignon, Bernard (1833 – $100) [son of Pierre?]
Grignon, Louis (1833 – $2000)
Grignon, Louis and his son Paul (1833 – $200)
Grignon, Paul Sr. and relatives Amable, Perish, Robert, Catist, Elizabeth, Ursul, Charlotte, Louise, Rachel, George, Amable, Emily, Therese, Simon (1833 – $1600)
Hall, Margaret McKenzie (1833 – $1000)
Hall, Margaret McKenzie; for her children James, William, David and Sarah (1833 – $3200)
Hall, Margaret McKenzie; for her grandchildren Margaret Ellen Miller, Montgomery Miller, and Filly Miller (1833 – $800)
Hamilton, Richard J. (1833 – $500)
Hartzell, Thomas (1833 – $400)
Heacock, Russell E. (1833 – $100)
Helm, Margaret McKillip (1829 – $800, 1833 – $2000)
Herrington, James Clayton (1833 – $68)
Hoffman, H.B. and C.W. (1833 – $350)
Hogan, John Stephen Coats (1833 – $50)
Hollenback, George and Clark (1833 – $100, and $50 for Clark)
Hubbard, Gurdon Saltonstall (1828 – $200, 1833 – $125)
Hunt, Alice [Forsyth] (1833 – $3000)
Hunt, George (1833 – $750 and $900)
Hunter, Edward E. (1833 – $90)
Hunter, Maria [Kinzie] (1833 – $5000)
Jami[e]son, Nancy, and child (1833 – $800)
Johnson, John (1833 – $100)
Juneau, Laurent Solomon (1833 – $2100)
Juneau [Juno], Angelique (1833 – $300)
Juneau, Mrs. Josette Vieau; for herself and her children (1833 – $1000)
Kercheval, Benjamin B. (1833 – $1500)
Kercheval, Maria [Forsyth] (1833 – $3000)
King, Nehemiah (1833 – $125)
Kinzie, Eleanor Lytle McKillip, and her four children (1828 – $3500)
Kinzie, James (1829 – $485, 1833 – $5000)
Kinzie, John; his heirs (1829 – $3500)
Kinzie, John H. (1833 – $5000)
Kinzie, John H., as trustee for the heirs of Joseph Miranda (1833 – $250)
Kinzie, Robert Allen (1833 – $1216 and $5000)
Knaggs, Wm. G. (1833 – $100) [Whitmore Knaggs?]
La Claire [Leclare], Fanny (1833 – $400)
La Tendre, Jean Baptiste; for his children (1833 – $200)
LaFramboise, Alexis (1833 – $1800)
LaFramboise, Alexis; for his children (1833 – $200)
LaFramboise, Claude; for his children (1833 – $300)
LaFramboise, Jean François, Sr. (1829 – $2000)
LaFramboise, Joseph (1833 – $300)
LaFramboise, Joseph, and his children (1833 – $1000)
LaFramboise, Magdelaine Marcot, and her son (1833 – $400)
LaFramboise & Bourassa (1833 – $1300)
Laird, George W. and William (1833 – $150)
Laird, James (1833 – $50)
Lamset, Peter (1833 – $1000)
Lane, Joseph D. (1833 – $50)
Laughton, Bernardus H. (1829 – $1016, 1833 – $1000)
Lawe, John (1833 – $3000)
Lawe, Therese, George, David, Rebecca, Maria, Polly, Jane, and Appototone (1833 – $100 each)
Legg, Rachel (1833 – $25)
Lucier, Charles (1833 – $75)
Mack, Stephen, Jr. (1833 – $350)
Mack, Stephen, Jr. (1833 – $500, in trust for the heirs of Mack, Sr. )
Mann, John (1833 – $200)
Mann, Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé (1833 – $400)
Mann, Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé; for her children (1833 – $600)
March, Lawrin [Laurie] (1833 – $3290)
Marquis, William (1833 – $150)
Maxwell, Philip (1833 – $35)
McKee, David (1833 – $180)
McKenzie, Catherine – see Forsyth, Robert Allen
Ménard, Peter [Maumee] (1833 – $500)
Ménard, Pierre Jr. (1833 – $2000)
Ménard, Pierre Jr. (1833 – $500, in trust for Marie Tremblé)
Ménard, Pierre Jr. (1833 – $250, in right of G.W. Campbell)
Miller, Samuel (1833 – $100)
Mirandeau, Jane (1833 – $200, John H. Kinzie as trustee)
Mirandeau, Jean Baptiste, Jr. (1833 – $300, John H. Kinzie as trustee)
Mirandeau, Mrs. Van Rosetta (1833 – $300, John H. Kinzie as trustee)
Mirandeau, Thomas (1833 – $400, John H. Kinzie as trustee)
Mo-ah-way (1833 – $200)
Naper [Napier], Joseph (1833 – $71)
Noble, John and Mark (1833 – $180)
Ogie, Joseph (1833 – $200)
Ouilmette, Antoine Louis (1829 – $800, 1833 – $800)
Ouilmette, Antoine Louis; for his children (1833 – $300)
Ouilmette, Josette (1833 – $200)
Phelps, J.L. (1833 – $250)
Pothier, Joseph (1833 – $200)
Pothier, Victoire, and her children (1833 – $700)
Rabbie, Jean Baptiste; for his children (1833 – $400)
Reed, Charles (1833 – $200)
Reed & Coons (1833 – $200)
Rice, Ann, and her son William M. and nephew John Leib (1833 – $1000)
Rice, Luther, and his children (1833 – $2500)
Roberts, Edmund (1833 – $50)
Robinson, Alexander (1833 – $5000)
Robinson, Alexander; for his children (1833 – $400)
Schandler, Therese [Schindler, Thérèse] (1833 – $200)
Schwartz, John C. (1833 – $4800)
Smith, Jeduthan (1833 – $60)
Taylor, Charles (1833 – $187)
Thebault, Joseph (1833 – $50)
Thibeault, Madaline (1833 – $100)
Trowbridge, Charles C. (1833 – $2000)
Vasseur, Noel [Le] (1833 – $800)
Vieux, Andrew J., Sr. and Jacques; for their children Angelique, Amable, Andre, Jacques, Louis, Josette, Nicholas, Pierre, Paul, Joseph, Susanne and Maria (1833 – $100 each)
Vieux, Jacques (1833 – $2000)
Walker, George E. (1833 – $1000)
Walker, James (1833 – $200)
Walker, [Rev.] Jesse (1833 – $1500)
Weed, Edmund (1833 – $100)
Welsh, Elizabeth Ouilmette (1833 – $200)
Whistler, Maj. William U.S.A. (1833 – $1000)
Winslow, Erastus, M.D. (1833 – $150)
Wolcott, Ellen M. (1833 – $5000)
Wright, John W. (1833 – $15)

In contrast to the individuals listed above, all of which have individual entries in the encyclopedic section, nothing more is known to the editors of the beneficieries in the following list. Most of them probably lived outside of Chicagoland. They may have been present at the Chicago treaty in person, or their claims may have been submitted by proxy.
Allen, Joseph (1828 – $145)
Allan, Mrs., or Chee-bee-quai (1833 – $500)
Amsden, Amos (1833 – $400)
Antilla, Antoine (1833 – $100)
Archange, for her son Co-pah (1833 – $250)
Baily, Isaac G. (1833 – $100)
Bearss, D.R. & Co. (1833 – $250)
Beeson, Jacob & Co. (1833 – $220)
Beeson, Jacob (1833 – $900)
Belair, Peter (1833 – $150)
Beresford, Robert (1833 – $200)
Bertrand, John B., Sr. (1833 – $50)
Biddle, Agate, and her children (1833 – $900)
Bourie, David (1833 – $500 and $150)
Bourie, John B. (1833 – $500)
Bourre, Jean B. (1828 – $700)
Bowrie & Minie (1833 – $500)
Boyd, George, trustee for Joshua Boyd`s children (1833 – $500)
Britin, Calvin (1833 – $40)
Brooks, George (1833 – $20)
Burnet, Martha (1833 – $1000, Robert Forsyth as trustee)
Chalipeaux, Pierre, and his children (1833 -$1000)
Chapin, Adolphus (1833 – $80)
Chobare, François (1833 – $1000)
Cicott, Z. (1833 – $1800)
Cloutier, John Bt., and his children (1833 – $600)
Comparet, Jean B. (1828 – $500)
Conner, Henry and Richard G. (1833 – $1500)
Conner, William [Michigan] (1833 – $70)
Coquillard, Alexis (1828 – $200)
Coquillard & Comparat (1833 – $300)
Corbonno, Pierre, and his children (1833 – $800)
Cowan, James (1833 – $33)
Craig, James W. (1828 – $500)
Curtis, Horatio N. (1833 – $300)
Dailly, Joseph; for his son and daughter, Robert and Therese (1833 – $500)
Dousseau, C. and D. (1828 – $100)
Downing, Rufus (1833 – $500)
Downing, Stephen (1833 – $100)
Drouillard, Andrew (1833 – $500)
Druillard, Louis (1833 – $350)
DuCharme, John B. (1833 – $250)
Duverny, Pierre, and his children (1833 – $300)
Ellice, Samuel (1833 – $50)
Emmel, Oliver (1833 – $300)
Enslen, Henry (1833 – $75)
Evans, Foreman (1833 – $32)
Evans, Montgomery (1833 – $250)
Felix, Frances (1833 – $1100)
Forsyth, John; trustee for the heirs of Charles Peltier (1833 – $900)
Francis, Abraham (1833 – $35)
Fry, Benjamin (1833 – $400)
Gratiot, Henry (1833 – $116)
Gray, Martha (1833 – $78)
Green, John (1833 – $100)
Green, Thomas K. (1833 – $70)
Hall, Rachel (1833 – $600)
Hall, Sylvia (1833 -$600)
Hamblin, John (1833 – $500)
Hanna, S. & Co. (1828 – $100)
Hanna & Taylor (1833 – $1570)
Hardwick, Angelique, and her children (1833 – $1800)
Hardwick, Moses (1833 – $70)
Harris & McCord (1833 – $175)
Hatch, A.T. (1833 – $75)
Haverhill, George (1833 – $60)
Hazard, William (1833 – $30)
Hedges, Jno. P. [John] (1828 – $200, 1833 – $1000)
Hedges, Nancy (1833 – $500)
Hitchcock, Rufus (1833 – $400)
Hively, John (1833 – $150)
Hoyt, Benjamin C. (1833 – $20)
Huff, William (1833 – $81)
Hull, David (1833 – $500)
Hull, Isaac (1833 – $1000)
Hunt, John E. (1833 – $1450)
Jenveaux, Jacque (1833 – $150)
Johns, Henry (1833 – $270)
Jones, John (1833 – $1000)
Klinger, Nicholas (1833 – $77)
Knaggs, George B. (1833 – $1400)
Lacy, O.P. (1833 – $1000)
La Rose, Alexis (1833 – $1000)
Leephart, Jacob (1833 – $700)
Loranger, Joseph (1833 – $5008)
Lowe, Gideon (1833 – $160)
May, Margaret (1833 – $400)
McClure, George W. U.S.A. (1833 – $125)
McCullough, Solomon (1833 – $100)
McGeorge (1828 – $300)
McMillan, Franklin (1833 – $100)
Mette, Jacques (1833 – $200)
Mieure, William, in trust for Willis Fellows (1833 – $500)
Minie, Charles (1833 – $600)
Minie, Francis (1833 – $700)
Morass, Joseph (1833 – $200)
Mouton, Francis (1833 – $200)
Muller, Alexander (1833 – $800)
Muller, Paschal (1833 – $800)
Muller, Margaret (1833 – $200)
Muller, Socra (1833 – $200)
Navarre, Pierre F. (1828 – $100, 1833 – $100)
Page, François [Paget, Francis] (1828 – $100, 1833 – $100)
Parker, Payne C. (1833 – $70)
Peltier, Antoine, Maumee (1833 – $200)
Phelps & Wendell (1833 – $660)
Platter, Jacob (1833 – $25)
Polier, Josette (1833 – $100)
Pomeroy, George (1833 – $150)
Provensale, Alexis (1833 – $100)
Quick, Thomas P. (1833 – $35)
Read, Ebenezer (1833 – $100)
Read, Henry Ossum (1833 – $200)
Rice, Ica (1833 – $250)
Rice, Moses (1833 – $800)
Robb, Thomas (1828 – $200)
Roscum, Antonie, and his children (1833 – $750)
Rosseau, Dominique (1833 – $500)
Shellhouse, Lorance (1833 – $30)
Shellhouse, Martin G. (1833 – $35)
Sherman, Benjamin (1833 – $150)
Shirby, James (1833 – $125)
Smith, Timothy S. (1828 – $100)
Stilman, Henry B. (1833 – $300)
Tharp, John (1833 – $45)
Thompson, Squire (1833 – $100)
Treat, Phoebe, and her children (1833 – $1000)
Turkey, George, and his children (1833 – $500)
Wendall, Tunis S. (1833 – $500)
Wendell, John I. (1833 – $2000)
Whitney, Daniel (1833 – $1350)
Winter, E.C. & Co. (1833 – $1850)
Woodcox, George B. (1833 – $60)
Woodcox, John (1833 – $40)

1494 – Tordesillas treaty signed on June 7, 1494, between Spain and Portugal, and sanctioned by Pope Alexander VI. It settled conflicts arising from the discoveries of Columbus`s first voyage. The treaty allowed Portugal to claim all newly to be discovered territory east of a North/South dividing line located 370 leagues E of the Cape Verde Islands; Spain claimed all territory W of this line. This gave Spain exclusive rights to a vast region that included all of the then still unknown North American continent in return for a commitment to convert the heathens. Thus the Chicago region may be said to to have been a Spanish domain when European colonialization of the New World began. [For a map detail showing the dividing line between Spanish and Portuguese influence in the New World based on the 1494 Treaty of Tordesillas see the 1525-1527 Salviati Map in the map section.]

1632 – St. Germain treaty signed on March 29; one of several successive attempts to settle conflicting interests of France and England with regard to the North American continent; in this treaty Canada is ceded to the French crown.

1763 – Paris treaty concluded between England and France on February 10, ending the French and Indian War. France ceded all of Canada to Britain, except that Britain granted France limited fishing rights and the small islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon; in the south, Britain obtained Louisiana as far west as the Mississippi from France, and Florida from Spain.

1783 – Paris treaty established the independence of the United States from England on September 3, as a result of the American Revolution. Secondary participants at the treaty negotiations were France and Spain; Spain demanded Illinois, based in part on the “conquest” of Fort St. Joseph in 1781, but received Florida.

1794 – London (Jay`s Treaty) negotiated between the United States (represented by Chief Justice John Jay) and Great Britain, and signed on November 19. The treaty adjusted a group of serious Anglo-American issues arising out of the Definitive Treaty of Peace of 1783 as well as disagreements that developed subsequently. Some of these problems directly affected the Chicago area, such as Great Britain`s refusal to evacuate six controlling frontier posts in United States territory, and the active intrigue by clandestine British Indian agents against the United States with the western Indian tribes. It is believed by some historians that the Chicago trader and farmer Point de Sable may have been one of those agents. Great Britain agreed to evacuate all posts by June 1, 1796. Point de Sable moved west in 1800. [152, 649]

1795 – Greenville hopelessly defeated by Gen. Anthony Wayne at the battle of Fallen Timbers in 1794, various Indian tribes [Wyandot, Delaware, Shawnee, Ottawa, Chippewa, Potawatomi, Miami, Eel River, Wea, Kickapoo, Piankashaw, Kaskaskia], through their representatives, met with Wayne at Greenville [Ohio] and agreed to substantial territorial cessions in southern and western Ohio, some land in southeastern Indiana, small tracts around Michilimackinac in Michigan, and “one piece of land, six miles square at or near the mouth of the Chicago River, emptying into the southwest end of Lake Michigan, where a fort formerly stood” [the area now bordered, roughly, by the lakeshore on the E, Cicero Avenue on the W, Fullerton Avenue on the N, and 31st Avenue on the S]. Treaty negotiations began on June 16, 1795, and ended on August 10, becoming the first of a long series of treaties by which the Indian title to the northwestern land was transferred to the United States. [625]

1795 – San Lorenzo concluded on October 27, the treaty between the United States and Spain settled Florida`s northern boundary and gave navigation rights on the Mississippi River to the United States, the latter being an essential precondition for Chicago`s later founding and growth.

1803 – Fort Wayne June 7, with the Delaware, Shawnee, Miami, Potawatomi, Kaskaskia, Eel River, Wea, and Kickapoo, ceding 2,038,400 acres along the Wabash River near Vincennes for $4,000.

1803 – Vincennes treaty concluded on August 7, with the Kaskaskia, Cahokia, and Mitchigami, ceding for $12,000 a large area in central and southeastern Illinois (8,911,850 acres), comprising approximately half of the present state; other tribes ceded their claims to the same area in the Treaties of Edwardsville in 1817 and 1818.

1804 – St. Louis concluded on November 3; negotiated by Governor Harrison with leaders of the Sauk and Fox tribes, resulting in cession to the government of 14,803,500 acres of land in Missouri, Illinois, and southern Wisconsin; the Indians received in return $22,234 and the right to live on the land as long as it was owned by the government. At a later time, this treaty was bitterly denounced as unfair by the Sauk leader Black Hawk, and his defiance led to the Black Hawk War in 1832, in which Fort Dearborn and the surrounding settlements became involved. [12]

1809 – Fort Wayne treaty concluded on September 30 by William Henry Harrison, then governor of Indiana Territory, with the Potawatomi, Delaware, Miami, and the Eel River tribes; it ceded to the United States three tracts of land containing more than 2.5 million acres on the upper Wabash River. The treaty was bitterly denounced by Tecumseh and his followers, and helped precipitate the War of 1812.

1809 – Vincennes concluded on December 9 with the Kickapoo; resulted in government acquisition of 138,240 acres for a $2,700 payment to the Indians.

1816 – St. Louis (Portage des Sioux) on August 24 the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi chiefs met with a U.S. commission under Governor Edwards of Illinois and ceded to the United States a tract of land, 20 by 70 miles, that extended from Lake Michigan to the Illinois River and included Chicago, the portage, and the area for which construction of a canal between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River system was proposed; included in the cession was some land in southwestern Wisconsin. The Indians were told that by ceding their land along the Illinois River they, too, would share in the benefits of increased trade when the canal became a reality. As it turned out, they would be ten years gone before even a portion of the project was completed in the mid 1840s. See Capt. John C. Sullivan; see 1819 map.

1821 – Chicago treaty negotiated late summer that year and concluded on August 29 near the Kinzie house on the northern bank of the river by commissioner Gov. Lewis Cass and Solomon Sibley with the Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Chippewa; attracted an assemblage of 3,000 natives and procured from the tribes a large tract of land [nearly 5 million acres] of western Michigan territory, extending from the Grand River to the Indiana line, in return for an immediate distribution of merchandise, grants of small parcels of land to certain individuals, government-provided instructions for the Indians in blacksmithing, agriculture, &c.; and the assurance of certain annuities in perpetuity. The children of St. Joseph trader William Burnett, Potawatomi métis, were among those granted land sections by the government. Madeline Bertrand, daughter of Potawatomi Chief Topenebee and wife of the French fur trader Joseph Bertrand, received a section of land at the crossing of the Sauk Trail and the Miami Trail, known as Parc aux Vaches, now in Niles Township [see image of monument Parc aux Vaches in the Monuments section]. The treaty cleared the way for the Illinois & Michigan Canal project, and also conveyed to the government the right of way for the construction of the Chicago Road between Detroit and Chicago, which was begun in 1825. The last Indian land in southern Michigan had now been secured, but the territory adjacent to the Chicago site in northern Illinois and southern Wisconsin was still sought. Subagent John Kinzie signed as a witness. [531b, 600]

1825 – Prairie du Chien treaty concluded on August 19 with Winnebago, Sioux, Chippewa, Sauk, Fox, Potawatomi, and Iowa; no land was ceded, rather tribal lands boundaries were determined. Gen. William Clark of St. Louis and Gov. Lewis Cass of Detroit were the U.S. commissioners; during the negotiations Alexander Robinson and Billy Caldwell were appointed chiefs by the assembled Indians. Agreements reached at this treaty were soon to be breached by aggressive settlers, precipitating the Winnebago War of 1827.

1827 – Butte des Morts treaty concluded on August 11, Gov. Lewis Cass presiding, formally ending the Winnebago War and settling questions resulting from the Treaty of Prairie du Chien of 1825.

1828 – Green Bay, Mich. Terr. this treaty with the Winnebago, Chipewa, Ottawa and Potawatomi concluded on September 20 with the Indians losing large territories of western Wisconsin and Illinois. For detail, see Congressional records on Indian land cessions in the United States. In addition, multiple Chicago area residents were awarded compensation at this treaty [see main entry on ‘treaties’ for detail on compensation of individuals].

1829 – Prairie du Chien treaty concluded on July 29 with the Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi, who ceded five million acres of territory described as follows: “Beginning on the western shore of Lake Michigan at the northeast corner of the field of Antoine Ouilmette, who lives near Gross Point, about twelve miles north of Chicago; thence running due west to Rock River; thence down said river to where a line drawn due west from the most southern bend of Lake Michigan crosses said river; thence east along said line to the Fox River of the Illinois; thence along the northwestern boundary line of 1816 to Lake Michigan; then northwardly along the western shore of said lake to the place of beginning”; multiple Chicago area residents, past and present, were awarded compensation at this treaty [for detail, see main entry on ‘treaties’, above]. The United States was represented by the commissioners John McNeil, Pierre Menard, and Caleb Atwater; Indian agents Alexander Wolcott and Thomas Forsyth and the subagent John H. Kinzie were present.

1832 – Fort Armstrong (Rock Island) this was the so-called “Black Hawk Purchase,” signed on September 15 with the Winnebago nation, but also with the defeated Sauk and Fox on September 17, ceding their remaining homeland in southeastern Wisconsin and northwestern Illinois, as well as a 50-mile-wide strip of land in Iowa along the west bank of the Mississippi. By eliminating the Indian threat to homesteaders on the Illinois prairies, this treaty contributed much to the rapidly increasing stream of newly arriving Easterners at Chicago.

1832 – Camp Tippecanoe treaty concluded on October 20, with the Potawatomi; a large area of land south of Chicago and between Lake Michigan and the Illinois River was ceded to the United States; an annual annuity of $600 was granted to Billy Caldwell, and monetary claims were paid to several Chicagoans who included Gurdon S. Hubbard ($5,573).

1833 – Chicago this treaty concluded on Sep. 26, 1833, and occasioned the last and greatest Indian council ever held at Chicago; negotiations between an assembled 6,000 Potawatomi (the so-called United Band of Chippewa, Ottawa, and Potawatomi, represented largely by Billy Caldwell, Alexander Robinson, and Joseph LaFramboise) and U.S. government representatives resulted in the sale of five million acres of Great Lakes land and the relocation to reservations west of the Mississippi of all Indians; in exchange the tribes received half a million dollars in cash, with an equal amount allocated for annuities to be paid later. Numerous local métis received individual payments, annuities and/or land reservations. Debts owed by Indians to white traders were satisfied by the government; thus Robert Stuart, managing director of the American Fur Co., attended to claim compensation for his company amounting to $17,000, allegedly resulting from hostile or fraudulent Indian activities. The associated festivities culminated in a dramatic Indian war dance by 800 braves, described in detail by John D. Caton [for excerpt, see under entry for Caton, John D.; for excerpts of other eyewitness accounts see also entry on Hoyne, Leonora Maria Temple, and that of English traveler Latrobe`s, which follows below]. The commissioners for the government, appointed by Secretary of War Lewis Cass, were George B. Porter, governor of Michigan Territory, Thomas Owen, local Indian agent, and William Weatherford, an Illinois politician. The treaty was concluded and signed on September 26 by the three commissioners and by 77 Indian chiefs. All ranking members of the commission, of the village, and of Fort Dearborn signed as witnesses, among them the interpreters Luther Rice and James Conner, Maj. George Bender, Capt. D. Wilcox, Capt. J.M. Baxley, Lt. L.T. Jamison, Lt. E.K. Smith, Asst. Surgeon P. Maxwell, Asst. Surgeon George F. Turner, Lt. J. Allen, Lt. I.P. Simonton, Robert A. Kinzie, Robert A. Forsyth, and the visiting Daniel Jackson. Thus a major step in the Indian removal program of President Jackson was accomplished, but not everyone was happy. Topenebe and Pokagon, the principal chiefs of the St. Joseph Potawatomi, went to Washington City in the fall of 1834 in the company Waubansee and protested against ratification of the Treaty of Chicago of 1833, claiming that Billy Caldwell, Alexander Robinson, and Joseph LaFramboise had not represented them well in the treaty negotiations.
The Indians were first moved in 1835 to a reservation in Clay County, Missouri, near Fort Leavenworth, but two years later, because of hostile Missouri settlers, were transported to Council Bluffs, Iowa. Later, a third removal took them to a reservation in Kansas. In the wake of the treaty, serious charges were made in Congress of the diversion of funds meant as compensation for the Indians; the point was made that Maj. Robert A. Forsyth, a major beneficiary himself and a relative of the Kinzies, was inappropriately allowed by Governor Porter to serve as a member of the committee on claims, and that as a result of this the descendants of John Kinzie and Robert Forsyth, all without Indian ancestry, claimed and were granted large compensations [altogether $42,516; eds.] for losses allegedly suffered during the War of 1812 by their parents; and that, if those claims were indeed valid, the payments should not have come out of the funds designated for the Indians. Governor Porter was confronted with these charges by President Jackson, but defended himself successfully and the allocation of funds remained largely as the committee had decided, except that in the end there was not enough money and the Indians suffered further reductions. [Details of this controversy may be found in Milo Quaife`s Documents: The Chicago Treaty of 1833, in the Wisconsin Magazine of History 1, no. 1 (1917); eds.]
Charles Joseph Latrobe, observing the Treaty of Chicago in 1833:
[September] … we had to follow the old Indian trail for a hundred miles round the lower shores of the lake. When within five miles of Chicago, we came to the first Indian encampment. Five thousand Indians were said to be collected round this little upstart village for the prosecution of the Treaty, by which they were to cede their lands in Michigan and Illinois. … I have been in many odd assemblages of my species, but in few, if any, of an equally singular character as with that in the midst of which we spent a week in Chicago. … We found the village, on our arrival, crowded to excess; and we procured, with great difficulty, a small apartment, comfortless and noisy from its proximity to others, but quite as good as we could have hoped for. The Potawatomies were encamped on all sides—on the wide, level prairie beyond the scattered village, beneath the shelter of the low woods which chequered them, on the side of the small river, or to the leeward of the sand hills near the beach of the lake. … A preliminary council had been held with the chiefs some days before our arrival. The principal commissioner had opened it, as we learned, by stating that as their great Father in Washington had heard that they wanted to sell their land, he had sent Commissioners to treat with them. The Indians promptly answered, by their organ, ‘that their Great Father in Washington must have seen a bad bird which had told him a lie; for, that far from wishing to sell their land, they wished to keep it.’ The commissioner, nothing daunted, replied, ‘that nevertheless, as they had come together for a council, they must take the matter into consideration.’ He then explained to them promptly the wishes and intentions of their Great Father, and asked their opinion thereon. Thus pressed, they looked at the sky, saw a few wandering clouds, and straightway adjourned sine die, as the weather is not clear enough for so solemn a council; … there seemed no possibility of bringing them to another Council in a hurry. … But how sped the Treaty? you will ask. Day after day passed. It was in vain that the signal gun from the fort gave notice of an assemblage of chiefs at the council fire. Reasons were always found for its delay. One day an influential chief was not in the way; another, the sky looked cloudy, and the Indian never performs any important business except the sky be clear. At length, on the 21st of September, the Pottawatomies resolved to meet the Commissioners. We were politely invited to be present. The council fire was lighted under a spacious open shed on the green meadow on the opposite side of the river from that on which the Fort stood. From the difficulty of getting all together, it was late in the afternoon when they assembled. There might be twenty or thirty chiefs present, seated at the lower end of the enclosure, while the Commissioners, Interpreters, &c.;, were at the upper. The palaver was opened by the principal Commissioner. He requested to know why he and his colleagues were called to the council. An old warrior arose, and in short sentences, generally of five syllables, delivered with a monotonous intonation and rapid utterance, gave answer. His gesticulation was appropriate, but rather violent. [Luther] Rice, the half-breed interpreter, explained the signification, from time to time, to the audience, and it was seen that the old chief, who had got his lesson, answered one question by proposing another, the sum and substance of his oration being that the assembled chiefs wished to know what was the object of their Great Father in Washington in calling his Red Children together in Chicago! This was amusing enough, after the full explanation given the week before at the opening session, and particularly when it was recollected that they had feasted sumptuously during the interval at the expense of their Great Father; it was not making very encouraging progress. A young chief arose, and spoke vehemently to the same purpose. Hereupon the Commissioner made them a forcible Jacksonian discourse, wherein a good deal which was akin to threat was mingled with exhortations not to play with their Great Father, but to come to an early determination whether they would or would not sell and exchange their territory; and this done, the council was dissolved. One or two tipsy old chiefs raised an occasional disturbance, else matters were concluded with due gravity. … The glorious light of the setting sun, streaming in under the low roof of the Council-House, fell full on the countenances of the [Commissioner and the whites] as they faced the West, while the pale light of the East hardly lighted up the dark and painted lineaments of the poor Indians, whose souls evidently clave to their birth-right in that quarter. Even though convinced of the necessity of their removal, my heart bled for them in their desolation and decline. Ignorant and degraded as they may have been in their original state, their degradation is now ten-fold after years of intercourse with the whites; and their speedy disappearance from the earth appears as certain as though it were already sealed and accomplished. … In fine, before we quitted Chicago on the 25th, three or four days later, the Treaty with the Pottawatomies was concluded—the Commissioners putting their hands and the assembled chiefs their paws to the same.
From the letter of an eyewitness to the 1833 Treaty, J.B. Turner, written that autumn:
The next day, after the sale [Treaty] had been completed, the place was filled with drunken Indians, in all stages of helplessness, and all wanting to fight. Under the influence of liquor, the Frenchman dances, the Italian sings, the American talks, and the Irishman and Indian want to fight. When dangerously drunk, the squaws would gather about them, throw them down, and sit upon their backs—often an unsteady and rocky seat. Three heavy squaws were sometimes sitting on one squirming, yelling Indian. I became frightened; I had heard how revengeful an Indian was, what little regard he had for his squaws. I thought, when they came to themselves and found their squaws had been sitting on their backs, there would be a terrible massacre and so I told the Indian agent my fears. ‘You must be a tenderfoot,’ he said. ‘An Indian is always grateful to any one who restraines him when he is drunk; but let any of one try it when he is not, and he will follow them as long as he lives to take his revenge.’ This proved to be true. When they awoke from their drunken sleep, all was peaceful and quiet. [357] [12]

Tremblay, Marie C.  see Anderson, John.

Tremblé, Archange Thérèse Morin  see Mann, John.

Tremblé, Toussaint  (c.1778- ) also Tremblay; French Canadian métis who met and married [see] Thérèse Archange Morin somewhere in Illinois in 1813 or later. They had three children: Louis François (1815- ), Zoe, and Marie [Mary] C. (c.1817-c.1848; Mrs. John Anderson, Sr.), but Tremblé abandoned the family in 1827; Thérèse filed for divorce and married [see] John Mann in 1830. Tremblé qualified for an allotment of land in Kansas in 1863. [275a]

Tremont House  the first Tremont House was one of the town`s “fashionable” hotels, built and run in 1833 by Alanson Sweet, located at the NW corner of Lake and Dearborn; Starr Foot then acquired the establishment and by 1835 it was bought by the Couch brothers; was destroyed by fire on Oct. 27, 1839. The second Tremont House [built on the opposite, SE corner] existed from 1840 to 1849, and a third one was built of brick in 1850; street name: Tremont Street (5636 S), its course being far from where the Tremont House was located. [12] [357]

Tripp, Robinson  [sometimes listed as Dr. Robinson Tripp; eds.] born April 6, 1805 at Sharbon, VT; orphaned at 10 years, he was first a farmhand, then learned carpentry; worked in Syracuse, NY, where he met and married Margaret Brunson (c.1809-Aug. 14, 1894); the couple departed from Buffalo by ship and arrived on June, 30, 1834. He first worked as a carpenter, building his own 16×24 story and a half house on the SE corner of Clark and Washington streets, where he grew turnips and cabbages; later built and repaired boats; 1839 City Directory: carpenter, 119 Lake Street. By 1844, in frail health, Tripp kept books for a doctor and began to study medicine, gradually consulting with college-bred practitioners when occasionally prescribing for patients; in 1849 he sold body braces and trusses with his grandnephew W.A. Fuller. He and his wife had no children, were active in the Methodist community; in 1885 they lived at 1408 Wabash Avenue. On Mar. 27, 1898, The Sunday Chicago Chronicle published an article celebrating the aged physician, soon to be 93, as the oldest living resident. Quote by Dr. Tripp, who came to Chicago in June 1834 [also see entry for brick houses, Chicago`s first]: “… “There has lately been some discussion as to where the first brick house in Chicago was located. When I came to the city the only brick house was a structure a story and a half on Lake street just west of Wells street, now Fifth avenue. This was owned by Mark Beaubien and operated by him as a tavern.” Tripp then lived with his grandnephew and his sisters at 3156 Forest Avenue. He died on July 4, 1900. [12, 168a, 243, 351]

Trois Rivieres, Canada  Three Rivers; vital early fur trading village on the St. Lawrence River in Nouvelle France, where Nicollet and Father Marquette spent time and Jolliet was born.

Trois Rivieres, IN  see Fort Wayne.

Trowbridge, Caroline  see Strong, Robert.

Trowbridge, Charles C.  U.S. Government agent from Detroit, 20 years old when he accompanied the 1820 Cass expedition as assistant topographer, but was not among the detail that reached Chicago that year; in the summer of 1822, while touring the lands ceded in the Chicago Treaty of 1821 and to prepare for certain services awarded to local Indians, he did visit Fort Dearborn and left a description of his visit in a paper read before the Historical Society of Michigan in May 1864, part of which was reprinted in Hurlbut [see Bibliography]. A successful Detroit banker in 1833, he came to the assistance of Major Bender, then commandant of Fort Dearborn and superintendent of harbor construction, when Bender could not locally cash the treasury warrant he had received from the U.S. War Department to pay construction costs; received $2000 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12, 679a] [357]

Trowbridge, Electa  see Sherman, Francis C.

Trowbridge, Elizabeth  see Updike, Peter Lewis.

Trowbridge, John S.  contracted with the postmaster general and was engaged by [see] Postmaster J.S.C. Hogan some time during 1834 as mails from the East increased; a wagon was then substituted for a pony. A [see] Samuel G. Trowbridge listed in the 1839 Chicago Directory as “mail contractor, Clark street.” [389b]

Trowbridge, Mary  see Forbes, John, Jr.

Trowbridge, Samuel G.  arrived in 1834; served as foreman of the first engine company of the volunteer fire company in 1835 [see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, entry on firefighting], and probably owner of the [see] Eagle Hotel at that time; in 1836 he became a member of the town board, county treasurer, as well as a charter member of the first Unitarian church; 1839 City Directory: mail contractor, Clark Street. [12] [351]

Trowbridge, William S.  arrived in 1835 as a trained land surveyor; in that year, assisted by Joseph Graves, he surveyed land around the mouth of the Sheboygan River, as recorded by [see] Oliver C. Crocker; participated in the real estate boom at that time and made a modest fortune, then settled at Milwaukee. [12]

trumpeter swan  see swan.

Tucker, Serena  see Hubbard, Ahira.

Tukoquenone  see Du Page River.

Tuller, Jonathan Alden  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; listed prior to 1836 as owner of 80 acres of land in Section 28, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113. [319]

Tuly, Mrs. Priscilla P.  see Hamilton, Richard J.

Tumess, Angeline  see Diversey, Michael.

turkey vulture  Cathartes aura; fairly common migrant in Illinois, arriving in early spring; while rarely seen in Cook County today, these large birds were reported to have nested near Chicago as late as 1854; in 1832 John Calhoun observed them scavenging for fish along the lakefront. [64]

turkey, wild  Meleagris gallopavo; French, poules d`inde; indigenous to the Chicago locale prior to 1833; writes Father Hennepin, referring to the Illinois country: “On the 16th of October [1679] we began to find a great abundance of game, and our Indian, a very excellent hunter, killed stags and deer, and our Frenchmen very fat poule d`inde“; Father Binneteau, in 1699: “Game is plentiful such as ducks and turkeys.” G.S. Hubbard reported that for the officers and men at Fort Dearborn part of their “amusement at that time, in the fall, were generally hunting deer, wolves, turkey and foxes”; and David McKee recalled: “Deer were plenty, and bear, wild turkeys and otter were fond on the Desplaines”; became extirpated in Illinois but was reintroduced, and is now reestablishing itself near Chicago. The image with this entry is by John James Audubon, engraved in November 1826 by William Lizars, Edinburgh, the first plate of The Birds of America. [46] [64]

Turner, Catherine Blackburn  see Wright, John Stephen.

Turner, George F., M.D.  born in Massachusetts; enlisted in MA on July 23, 1833, as assistant surgeon and was at Fort Dearborn with [see] Dr. Maxwell during the Treaty of Chicago later in September and signed the treaty document as a witness; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town earlier in August; was the 13th and the last of the medical officers appointed to the fort; was promoted to major surgeon on Jan. 1, 1840; died at Corpus Christi, TX, on Oct. 17, 1854. [12, 319, 326] [738]

Turner, John  born c.1806 in Philadelphia, PA; arrived in April 1835; 1839 City Directory: John and Leighton Turner, livery stables, corner of N State and Kinzie streets [Leighton`s year of arrival could not be determined; lived in Evanston in 1885.] John married Sarah Patterson in 1843; still lived in Chicago in 1879, his address for 1885 is Ravenswood. [12, 243] [351]

Turner, Jonathan Baldwin  born 1805 in Massachusetts; became a faculty member of the Illinois College at Jacksonville in early 1833; that summer he traveled N on horseback from August 28 to September 26 in the company of two other professors (T.M. Post and Erasmus Colton), to Chicago to observe the Indian Treaty procedures, later writing about the event. [For excerpts from a letter written about a travel encounter with Potawatomi see below; about Indian activities at Chicago in the wake of the treaty, see entry for Treaty 1833, Chicago; his comments on road construction in Illinois, see entry for streets and roads. [107]
At Quincy we heard that a party was going from Galesburg, and so we pushed onto that place, where we found a party of Pottawatomie Indians, who were going to attend the giving up of their land at Chicago to the government. They, through an interpreter, allowed us to go with them. We started in true Indian style, the young chief and braves first, older men next, followed by the squaws and their papooses with their ponies and camping outfit, and we last of all. In single file we rode through the tall prairie-grass, in many places higher than our heads while we were on horseback, through the theater of the last season`s Indian war [Black Hawk War of 1832] to Lake Michigan. We were not altogether comfortable with our strange traveling companions, for the Indians were not well pleased with the idea of giving up their land at Chicago. But they treated us well, and the novelty of the proceedings made it interesting. Suddenly, when about fifty miles from Chicago, their young chief in front snatched up his gun, cocked it, and said something over his shoulder to the one immediately behind him, and so went the word down the whole line, the excitement growing as the guns clicked, clicked. We were alarmed, as we had seen nothing and could see nothing to cause the sudden excitement. Professor Colton was sure they intended to murder us, and wanted us to put spurs to our horses and at least make an attempt to escape; they had gotten us far out on the prairie and intended to wreak their vengeance on us, the only whites within reach. But Professor Post and I persuaded him that would be foolish; we could not possibly escape in a race, for their horses were tougher and fresher than ours. We had better watch and try some other way, if they really intended to kill us. By this time the squaws and children were equally excited, all jabbering at once. Not a thing could we understand, and not a word from us could they understand. Soon, however, we noticed they were looking not at us, but far away to the south. By rising in our stirrups and looking in the same direction, I saw a deer bounding over the high grass. The Chief left the line and started after him. … When we reached Chicago I told the Indian Agent [Colonel Owen] there of the incident, and said surely he could not get the deer. `Yes, he will; he will follow him for days, and never leave the trail until he catches him.` And, sure enough, in two days he came in with the deer slung over the pony`s back in front of him. [432]

turnpiking  a commonly employed method of building early roads during the first half of the 19th century; [see] George Davis, a 1833 land route traveler to Chicago, gives the following definition: “The meaning of turnpiking is, ploughing up the soil from the sides of the road and throwing it, or `hagging` to the center to drain the water off, then as it is only hardened by time the road consequently remains bad for some time”; Webster, in the second edition of the New International Dictionary of the English Language, reads: “to throw into a rounded form, as the path of a road.” [187]

Tuttle, James B.  arrived from Massachusetts in 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; on May 28, 1834, he and William H. Brown announced in the Chicago Democrat that they had opened a grocery store on Dearborn Street, one door S of Messrs. Newberry & Dole, a partnership they dissolved on June 21; James continued, advertising a “New Store” with the same goods, at the same location on July 2. Groceries included “Muscavado, Havana, loaf and lump Sugar; Sultana Raisins; Maderia, Brazil and fiber Nuts; Snuff; Champaine, Claret and Porter”—items similar to those stocked by other grocers. On July 16 he added a variety of West India fruit preserves. [351, 733] [319]

Twogood, Emily  see Satterlee, Merrit L.

Tympanuchus phasianellus   sharp-tailed grouse; see grouse.

Tyne, Emily  see Haliburton, William.