Encyclopedia letter P

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Pa-pa-ma-ta-be  meaning `swift walker`, a name by which the Indians called [see] Gurdon Saltonstall Hubbard.

Pachequetachai, Margaret  see La Claire, Pierre.

packet boat  originally identified as the carrier of the mail, later a vessel that routinely traveled a particular route, carrying freight and passengers. In 1832, H.S. Tanner published View of the Valley of the Mississippi, or the Emmigrant`s and Traveler`s Guide to the West that noted “[a] line of packets is established between this place and Detroit and Buffalo.” J.D. Caton writes that [see] David Carver owned a schooner, better known as The Chicago Packet, or simply the Packet; yet only in the July 30, 1834, Chicago Democrat did Captain Howe advertise the schooner [see] Phillips as the Packet, plying regularly between Chicago and St. Joseph. On May 25, 1835, Carver introduced a new schooner [see] Llewellyn as the “Chicago & St. Joseph Packet” that plied regularly that summer.

Page, F.M.  from New Hampshire, arrived in 1834 and soon moved to Elk Grove Township, later to Arlington Heights; married Selina Noyes in 1836; eight children, of whom seven survived: John, Sarah, Helen, Hannah, Hiram, Frederick, Martha, and George; F.M.`s father, John Page, served as governor of New Hampshire in 1838-39. [278]

Pagé, Joseph Prisque  (1717-1764) brother of Pierre Pagé.

Pagé, Pierre  (1717-1752) early French trader, and likely contender for the honor of having the [see] Du Page River named after him; he was primarily based in Kaskaskia, but probably had a post on the Du Page, facilitating his frequent business travels between Kaskaskia and Michilimackinac via Chicagou. [648]

Paine, Christopher  also Payne; arrived in April 1831, settling his wife and six children near the Hobsons, along the Du Page River; built a simple dam on the W branch for the Naper brothers` sawmill and then a crude gristmill with grinding stones hewn from boulders – each settler grinding grain by a team of oxen or horses throughout the severe winter; the family sought safety at Fort Dearborn during the Black Hawk scare in May 1832, while Paine served as private in Captain Boardman`s voluntary county militia and later Captain Napier`s company; an uncollected letter is listed in the Apr. 1, 1834, Chicago Democrat. [12, 415, 692b] [351]

Paine, Seth  also Payne; arrived penniless from Vermont in the summer of 1834, the boat passage on the schooner Commerce having taken his last dollars; was a member of the fire engine company No.1 in December 1835; married Mrs. Francis Jones in 1836; initially had hired out with the firm Taylor, Breeze & Co., but soon teamed up with Theron Norton to run a dry goods store; 1839 City Directory: Paine & Norton, 117 Lake; farmed a while in Lake County; in later years became established as a banker and editor, and developed into a fanatical socialist and abolitionist. [12] [243]

Palmer, Dr. George W.  naval doctor; announced his Georgetown marriage to Jane R. O`Neil on June 22, 1834, in the July 2 Chicago Democrat; a claim for wharfing privileges was submitted under Palmer & George on Nov. 21, 1835, for which a deposition was filed on November 24 with David Gibson`s supporting affidavit; but the claim [lot 2 block 16] by George Palmer was certificated later that year by the town surveyor [Talcott]. [28]

Palmer, Isaac K.  arrived from New Hampshire in 1833 and on August 19 met his NH friend, [see] Colbee C. Benton, in front of the post office; served on the South District cholera vigilance committee in 1834, enforcing a regulation against throwing refuse into the town sewers; in October 1835 he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; in the Jan. 21, 1835, Chicago Democrat David Carver announced the dissolution of his partnership in David Carver & Co., with Palmer; married Almira Clement on June 2, 1836; 1839 City Directory: City wood inspector; listed as living in the second ward in 1840; later moved to Ohio. [53, 351] [12]

Pam, Edward  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Panama  schooner from Buffalo under Captain Chandler, called at Chicago with merchandise on July 2, 1834.

panis  an American Indian slave, as opposed to a black slave; the word was common in the 18th century, and is derived from the fact that the Illinois had enslaved an extraordinary number of Pawnee and then made them available to the French settlers. This bondage prevailed throughout New France and Louisiana, beginning almost with the first settlements in Illinois, and was authorized by an edict of the then-intendant of New France at Quebec, Jacques Raudot, on Apr. 13, 1709. The word is existent in early French-Canadian Catholic birth and baptism records.

panther  early Illinois settlers usually meant Felix concolor, the [see] mountain lion, when they talked of panthers.

Parc aux Vaches  also Parc Vache or Cowpens; see St. Joseph.

Pariolet, Caesar  placed the following notice in the Sept. 10, 1834, Chicago Democrat: “Whereas my wife Hannah, has voluntarily left my bed and board, without any just cause or provocation, this is to forbid all persons harboring or trusting her on my account, as I shall pay no debts of her contracting.”

parishes    see religion.

Park, F.D.  arrived from Maine in 1831 and still lived in Chicago in 1879. [733]

Parkman, Francis    (1823-1893) American historian who contributed much information to our knowledge of the early Northwest; see Bibliography.

Parks, Jane  see Moore, Peter.

Parsell, Aaron  the first settler on the banks of Salt Creek in Section 29, Proviso Township (now Westchester). In 1833 the [see] Thomas Reed Covell family settled about a mile from Parsell`s cabin; today their original homesteads would lie on the N side of 31st Street and E of Mannheim/LaGrange Road. [280a, 259a, 692b] [13]

Parson, H.C.  arrived in 1834; served in the first engine company of the voluntary fire brigade in 1835. [351]

Parsons, Edward  second manager of the Green Tree Inn [built and owned by James Kinzie in 1833], succeeding David Clock; 1839 City Directory: Parsons & Holden [Charles N.], grocery & provisions, corner of Lake and So. Water.

Parsons, Theron E.  served as a corporal in the Chicago militia company under Captain Napier during the Black Hawk War in 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319, 660, 714] [12]

passenger pigeon  Ectopistes migratorius; once very abundant in Illinois, these large doves became extinct near the end of the 19th century as a result of overhunting; the last reported sighting was from River Forest in May 1923. Bossu observed in 1768: “When one approaches the country of Illinois, one sees during the day, clouds of doves, a kind of wood or wild pigeon. A thing that may perhaps appear incredible is that the sun is obscured by them. … sometimes as many as 80 of them are killed with one shot.” John Calhoun reports that in 1832 he “stood on the tops [of dunes at the beach of the Kinzie Addition] and shot pigeons as they passed below me when they were flying.” [64]

patent medicine    see drug trade.

Patterson, Erastus    arrived in 1835 from Woodstock, VT, with his wife and five children and moved N of the Ouilmette Reservation (Wilmette), where he opened a tavern on the seldom traveled road to Root River; after his death in 1837, his widow kept the tavern for some years.

Patterson, Jacob G.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Patterson, John  arrived from Scotland in 1835; later moved to St. Louis, MO; possibly identical with J.W Patterson who, according to Andreas, was editor for the paper Young America in 1854.

Patterson, Mary Charity  see Herrington, James C., Jr.

Patterson, Sarah  see Turner, John.

Pattinson, Hugh  brother and partner of [see] Richard Pattinson, British traders based at Detroit. [393c]

Pattinson, Richard  also Pattison; brother of [see] Hugh. British trader who established a trading post on the St. Joseph River in 1803 near that of William Burnett. He also visited John Kinzie at his St. Joseph trading post on October 13 that year, and came from Detroit to Chicago on Aug. 13, 1808, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. Sometime in 1805 the concern of [see] Kinzie & Forsyth & Co. possessed fur packs for a trader who owed money to both William Burnett and the Pattinsons; Kinzie chose to send all the packs to the Pattinsons, and afterward only favored their trade goods and credit. [393c, 404] [692g]

Paul, Col. René  born in Santo Domingo, son of Eustache Paul who was a lieutenant-governor of the island; educated at the École Militaire Polytechnique in Paris and served as an officer and engineer in the French army under Napoleon; with his brother Gabriel joined his mother and sisters at St. Louis in 1809; in 1816 he married Marie Thérèse Eulalie, daughter of [see] Auguste Chouteau; became St. Louis`s first engineer, surveying and mapping the city in 1823, also making surveys of the Indian Territory. Paul was employed by the initial canal commission in 1824 to have the canal lands surveyed and a cost estimate prepared; worked with Col. Justus Post on the project, together creating a map: “Map of the proposed Illinois and Michigan Canal” (see Maps, 1824, Col. Justus Post and Col. René Paul). [12, 470a, 681] [682]

Paul, James K.  teamster, arrived in 1831 from Lafayette, IN. [351]

Paul, Lucy  see Morrison, Orsemus.

Paw Paw  also Paupau, Pau Pau, or Papaw; a small tree, Asimina triloba [asimina being also the Algonquin name], of the custard-apple family, having an oblong edible fruit with many seeds; (the name Paw Paw also became attached to a grove near Naper`s Settlement which attracted early settlers who included [see] George and William Laird; George announced continued business at his store in the Chicago Democrat in July 1834, and by October was noted as the postmaster of the Paw Paw post office, providing lists of remaining letters to the Chicago Democrat until at least April 1836. On Mar. 1, 1836, a Naperville post office was established, with [see] Alexander Howard as its first postmaster. [415]

Payne, Capt. Morgan L.  see Fort Payne.

Payne, Rev. Adam    an itinerant preacher who came in May of 1832 and delivered an eloquent and well attended sermon just outside the walls of Fort Dearborn; two days later, traveling westward on horseback, he was killed by Indians, becoming one of the few white victims of the Black Hawk War.

Payne, William  (Dec. 22, 1806-1868) born in England; immigrated to the United States at age 20; first lived in Buffalo, NY, until arriving in Chicago in 1834; placed an ad in the Chicago Democrat of August 13 announcing a circuit court suit to recover “Mechanics claims, &c.; against specific houses owned by Charles H. Chapman.” In June that year, Payne had contracted with Captain Howe, master of the El-Lewellyn, to transport men and sawmill equipment to [see] Shipwagen, then partnered [see] Oliver C. Crocker in the enterprise, which failed after a year; the partnership was dissolved as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Oct. 28, 1835; 1839 City Directory: William Payne. He moved to Milwaukee and other parts of Wisconsin, but in 1858 he returned to Chicago and entered the wood and coal business; died in Chicago on Nov. 1, 1868. In 1885, a William H. Payne lived in Fremont Centre, IL. [12] [243]

Peacock, Elijah  (1820-) born in Huntington, England, son and grandson of jewelers; came to Chicago in 1836 and within a year opened a trade shop for jewelry and watch repair next to his older brother [see] Joseph; married Rebecka Haylock in 1838 and in October their first son Charles Daniel (1838-1903) was born and later Robert and Caroline; 1839 City Directory: Peacock, Elijah, watchmaker and jeweller, 155 Lake Street. In the 1844 City Directory he was listed as “watchmaker, 195 Lake st. h Madison st. b[etween] Lasalle and Wells sts.” The store was at 221 W. Randolph Street when son Charles entered the thriving family business and whose son, Robert Elijah, and younger generations have successfully maintained as C.D. Peacock, Inc. Sometime in the 1860s, long after Rebecka`s death, Elijah married Mary Kolze (Germany, 1836-); their children were Frank, Ella, and Edward. A member of the Old Settler`s Association, he attended the May 1879 reunion in Chicago, living then at 98 State Street; by 1880 he had retired. [12, 105a, 199a, 273, 351, 472] [506]

Peacock, Joseph  (Aug. 21, 1813–May 13, 1886) born in Cambridgshire, England; brother of [see] Elijah; first worked in Cleveland, then Albion, NY; arrived in the spring of 1836, and within months opened a gunsmith shop; 1839 City Directory: Peacock & Thatcher [David C.], gunsmiths, 153 Lake St.; in the 1844 City Directory the partnership was listed at 155 1/2 Lake St.; in 1842 married [see] Margaret Sobraro or Sobrano (Michigan, 1824-); the couple had six children: Maggie, Russel D., Alfred, George C., Alice M., and Florence; in 1850 he sold his business and soon after acquired Michigan timber land, transporting the lumber to his yard at the Twelfth Street bridge until 1864; a member of the Old Settler`s Association, he attended the May 1879 reunion in Chicago, living then at 196 Peoria Street; in the 1880 U.S. Census he was listed as a lumber dealer; living at home, Alfred was a bookkeeper and George was a cigar dealer. [12, 105a, 178, 199a, 243, 351] [506]

Peailleur, James Mitchell  subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833.

Pearson, Col. Hiram  (1811-1868) also Hyram; born in Hopkinton, NH, son of Parker and Mary (née Bartlett) Pearson; arrived in 1832 from Ohio; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and was one of the “Qualified Electors” who voted to incorporate the town [for a copy of that meeting`s report, see entry on incorporation]; was on the voting list for the first town board on Aug. 10, 1833; initially a house painter, he became a highly successful land speculator in the early 1830s, advertising “lots for sale” in the Chicago Democrat in Jan. 28, 1834, and in the Feb. 18 issue advertised “Storage and Commission, Merchant – lot and Storehouse on South Water Street”; in November 1835 became trustee of the Presbyterian church and filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 2, block 5; later in December acquired most of the NW quarter of Section 14 [now Summit]; served as city treasurer and west side alderman in 1837; 1839 City Directory: real estate dealer, North Dearborn Street. He failed to retain his wealth during the financial panic of 1837; 1843 City Directory: speculator, bds Tremont House; 1844 City Directory: res Tremont House. In 1850 he continued W to San Francisco, then a boom town as Chicago had been in 1832; there he succeeded in renewing his fortune; in c.1860 he and wife Ann C. Matthewson (RI 1825-Oct. 10, 1874) had a son Hiram Arthur (-July 7, 1889 Chicago); Hiram died in Almeda, CA, on Aug. 11, 1868; street name: Pearson Street (830 N). Also see Hiram Pearson, a lake schooner. [12, 28, 86, 319, 320, 417a] [351]

Pearsons, George T.  arrived from Ohio in 1832; years later when the Old Settlers` Society was formed on Oct. 22, 1855, he became the secretary; later moved to Springfield, where he died. [351]

Pearsons, Gustavus C.  arrived from Ohio in 1832; later moved to Valejo, CA. [351]

Pecie, Peter    see Lamset, Pierre.

Peck, Ebenezer  (1805-1881) native of Portland, ME; studied law in Montreal; married Caroline I. Walker of Vermont in c.1826; arrived as a lawyer from Canada in 1835, and was briefly associated with John D. Caton; member of the volunteer fire department; worked as town board clerk in 1836 and during the year helped organize the Galena & Chicago Union Railroad; was elected state senator in 1838 to fill the unexpired seat of Peter Pruyne, serving until 1840; 1839 City Directory: attorney and internal improvement, canal board; in 1844 he wrote editorials for the Chicago Democratic Advocate and Commercial Advertizer; later became judge on the U.S. Court of Claims and a close friend of Abraham Lincoln; died on March 25, 1881. His descriptive letters of the early town are preserved at the Chicago History Museum. [12, 243] [707]

Peck, Philip Ferdinand Wheeler  (1809-Oct. 23, 1871) from Providence, RI; arrived with a small stock of goods for the western market from Buffalo, NY, in July 15, 1831, on Capt. Joseph Napier`s schooner Telegraph; initially lived in and sold goods, including some then popular household medicinals, from a small log store that he built near the fort, NW of J.B. Beaubien`s home, then moved to the Napier settlement and began a partnership with the Napier brothers in retail sales; in 1832, following the Black Hawk scare, during which he served under Captain Napier in the militia, he returned, acquiring three lots on South Water Street in block 18 [see Maps, 184, John S. Wright]; maintained a store in the old Miller`s Tavern, after Miller had left the state, but in the autumn erected, with lumber from James Walker`s sawmill and with the help of John S. Wright, a two-story frame building in which he then kept a store at the SE corner of South Water and LaSalle [Caton places it on Wells Street] streets; in May of 1833 Rev. Jeremiah Porter rented the second floor as his living quarters and for initial Sunday school and religious services; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; on November 6 filed a petition for wharfing privileges; advertised in the December 3 issue of the Chicago Democrat the availability of dry goods and hardware. On June 25, 1835, he married Mary Kent Wythe (Nov. 15, 1811-Sept. 23, 1899; daughter of Mrs. Keziah Wythe, who lived with the family until her death; niece of Dr. J.T. Temple and cousin of Lenora Maria Temple Hoyne [Chicago Chronicle Sept. 24, 1899]), a teacher who was born and raised in Philadelphia from where she had moved to Chicago in 1833; the couple would raise eight children, four of which died in infancy, one, as a child, and three grew up to become leading citizens of Chicago: Walter L., Clarence I., and Ferdinand Wythe Peck. In the fall of 1835, Peck sold his store and became a successful real estate investor; in October signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; on December 4 filed a petition [lot 4, block 18] for wharfing privileges; built – Chicago`s 1st – brick residence in 1836 at the corner of South Water and LaSalle streets; 1839 City Directory: real estate speculator, 242 Clark St.; 1843 City Directory: capitalist, res 248 Clark, n.-w. cor Jackson; died from an injury sustained in the Great Fire of 1871; in 1885 his widow lived at 2254 Michigan Ave. Mary died of heart disease in the family summer home at Oconomowoc, WI. Ferdinand W. Peck School, 3826 W 58th St. [28, 168a, 221, 243, 319, 351, 498] [12]

Peck, Rev. John Mason  (1789-1858) Baptist missionary who first came W in 1817 and whose job-related extensive traveling, gift of observation, and publication of guidebooks made him a recognized authority on the Midwest; in 1831 he published A Guide for Emigrants, containing Sketches of Illinois, Missouri and the Adjacent Parts; in 1834, A Gazetteer of Illinois, advertising both in the Chicago Democrat. He thus helped facilitate the phenomenal population growth by immigration to Illinois and Chicago in the early 1830s; in a February 1834 letter Peck describes Chicago and showed his prophetic vision: “Chicago will eventually become the greatest place for business and commerce in all the north west.” [527-9 ]

Peek, Edmund    was a member of the fire engine company No. 1 in December 1835 [see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, entry on firefighting].

Peesotum  name meaning `to take umbrage`; minor Potawatomi chief, also known as Big Man; at the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812 he killed Captain Wells, scalped him, and ate his heart. [226, 327] [456b]

Peet, Lester  from Vermont; settled in Dupage town in 1831, within the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; was the first teacher at the Naper settlement, paid $12 monthly by contract with 12 subscribers, in proportion to students enrolled; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; later was an active supporter at anti-slavery, temperance, and Bible meetings in Joliet. [734] [319]

pelican  Pelicanus erythrorynchos, the American white pelican; still found in Illinois, usually in small numbers; according to Bohlen, six birds were sighted in the Calumet region in 1977. David McKee, who lived in Chicago from 1823 to 1832, shared his memory of the Chicago River: “Excellent fish abounded in it, and over it hovered wild geese, ducks and sandhill cranes in vast flocks, and pelicans and swans were sometimes seen.” [64]

Pelletier, Eulalie Marie    see Pelletier, Jean Baptiste; also see Point de Sable, Suzanne.

Pelletier, Jean Baptiste  French trader, probably of an ancient Kaskaskia-Cahokia family; married Suzanne, Jean Baptiste Point de Sable`s daughter, in 1790, for which purpose the family traveled to Cahokia; thereafter they appear to have lived with Point de Sable in Chicago. A daughter, Eulalie Marie, was born on Oct. 8, 1796, the second métis child born at Chicago. She was baptized on Oct. 7, 1799, at St. Louis; significantly, neither of her grandparents was present. In June, 1796 he acted as Point de Sable’s agent in a sale of some furs at Chicago to the St. Charles trader François Duquette while Point de Sable was delivering nearly 100 bales of furs to William Burnett at St. Joseph, Michigan. In 1800 de Sable sold his Chicago property and moved to St. Charles, Missouri. There is no evidence that the young Pelletier family joined in the move, or was even in existence in 1800 or later. A man purported to be Pelletier signed a probably fictitious 1807 memorial to Congress regarding land claims at Peoria, and another probable imposter acted as a witness in the 1815 land claim proceedings on this subject, but unaccountably did not testify in behalf of Nicolas Jarrot’s probably spurious claim for land allegedly occupied by Point de Sable, which recent research suggests was really at Mauvaise Terre Creek in Scott County, near present Naples, Illinois. [649]

Peltier, John S.  a carpenter, born at Detroit, Michigan Territory; enlisted under Lt. [James L.] Thompson for three years in the Fifth Infantry at Fort Dearborn at age 21 on January 19, 1835; as listed in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American he was one of 15 deserters from the Garrison between January 1 and July 28, prior to the withdrawal of all troops on December 29 that year. He deserted on June 8 and a reward of $450 was offered for his apprehension. (Chicago Genealogy Club, v. 2, no. 1, September 1969)

Peltier, Therese  see LaFramboise, Joseph.

Pemeton, David  arrived in 1831 and was a member of the Chicago company during the Black Hawk War of 1832 under Capt. Gholson Kercheval. [12] [714]

Pemwotam  Kickapoo chief of village at N end of Peoria Lake in 1812; his Kickapoo name pemootam means `to carry it across or along on one`s back`; hostile to United States; name often confused with [see] Pimiteoui and Peoria. [456b]

Pennsylvania  395-ton steamboat, built along Lake Erie in 1832, making runs from Buffalo to Green Bay and Chicago in 1835; [see] J. Young Scammons arrived on the Pennsylvania when it called at Chicago on Sept. 20, 1835, under Captain Allen.

Penoyer, Augustus    subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833.

Penrose, Lt. James Wilkinson  born in Maryland; with the Second Infantry stationed at Sackett`s Harbor in 1832, then sent W for the Black Hawk War where he served as brevet second lieutenant at Fort Dearborn from June 17, 1832, to May 31, 1833, under Capt. William Whistler; died in 1849 of disease contracted in the Mexican War; see also Mary A. Penrose, his wife. [12]

Penrose, Mary Ann  (Dec. 20, 1812-Nov. 10, 1895) born in New York; daughter of Col. William and Catherine (née Driscoll) Hoffman, Sixth Regiment, U.S.A.; wife of Lt. James W. Penrose with whom she came, bringing their infant son William, to Chicago during the Black Hawk War and stayed 18 months. With Fort Dearborn crowded by soldiers who had contracted cholera, was one of many dependent civilians who had to find makeshift housing in the small community; the following is an excerpt from her reminscences in 1879.
In the year 1832, probably in May, my husband … was ordered from Sackett`s Harbor to Chicago, with several other companies of the same regiment, under Colonel Whistler. At what point we took the sailing vessel I do not remember, but it was probably at Buffalo. On arriving at Chicago, the troops were first landed in little boats. Then the officers` families were sent on shore. A storm having arisen, it was three days before Colonel Whistler`s family and the wife of Major Kingsbury were able to land. … There were in Chicago at that time about twelve houses. I think that all of these were made of logs. Our quarters were in the fort. The troops took possession of the fort, relieving a company of militia from Michigan. About six weeks after our arrival, our little company was increased by the arrival, on a steamer[Shelden Thompson], of General Scott, with several other companies. These had been sent to Chicago to proceed to Rock Island to fight the Indians there. … The boat brought not only the troops but also the cholera. At twelve o`clock A.M., Lieutenant Summer (afterwards General Summer of the War of the Rebellion) came to the fort and ordered all the families in the fort to leave before sunrise, stating that at that time the troops down with the cholera would be moved into the fortification. … I had then a little babe who is now Brevet Brigadier-General William H. Penrose of the 3rd Infantry U.S.A. … I remember the names of the following families: Colonel Whistler, Major Kingsbury, Captain Johnson, Lieutenant Day, Lieutenant Long, and my own. In my own family was, besides the before-mentioned babe, my husband`s mother and two sisters. Four of these families, finding the house of Mark Beaubien vacant (his owner having left an hour before, without taking anything with him), with joy went into that building. Mrs. Johnson and I, with my family were, however, not so fortunate, for even the four-roomed house of Mr. Beaubien could only hold four families. Going on about one mile we came to the house of a butcher, containing but one room. Exhausted, I threw myself on my mattress, which the soldiers had carried down from the fort, and there I laid during the night. … The next morning in vain did we seek for a house. A rail fence was, however, in sight. Into one corner I moved. A few boards made the floor. A carpet kept off the wind from our heads and backs. Other boards formed a far from waterproof roof. Here we remained three days and three nights, cooking on the ground. My companions in misery were Mrs. Johnson and family. … After three days Captain Johnson and my husband secured a lot of green lumber. In site of our fence stood the frame of a house. To this the green boards were soon nailed and a temporary partition put in. Here our two families moved. Mr. Penrose`s mother and sister nightly crawled up a ladder to their beds. … General Scott, who from the steamer had gone to the hotel at the Point[Wolf Point Tavern], after five days made his appearance. Everyday he would ride up to our house and, looking up to the open end of the frame, would talk with the ladies, invariably dwelling upon the fact that they were in more comfortable quarters than Mrs. Scott, who was then at West Point. Our cooking had to be done in the open air. Generally we got more sand than salt in our food. … After remaining in these quarters, the house of the Indian Agent, Colonel Owen, having been vacated through fear of the afore-mentioned disease, we obtained permission to move into it, on the condition of permitting the Colonel to remain with us. The house stood on the North Side, and contained four or five rooms on a floor. The family of the Colonel had left even their dishes, and had gone to Springfield. … I remained in the house of the Indian Agent, until Colonel Owen`s family returned. I then had to seek for other quarters. My sister and myself got into a log canoe and, paddling across the Chicago River, called on the officer in charge (Colonel Whistler) and requested from him permission to again take up our abode in the fort. After a little perseverance we succeeded in obtaining two rooms. About six weeks afterward the troops that had been in Rock Island returned to Chicago and from thence were sent to the posts from which they had been collected. In all I remained in Chicago about eighteen months. [12]

Peoria  one of the five native tribes of the Illinois confederacy encountered along the western Mississippi River bank by Jolliet and Father Marquette in 1673; their native name was peewaareewa [Pe8are8a], meaning `dreamer`, an allusion to the traditional manitou vision quest practiced by young Indian males (for additional detail see entry on Peoria, IL); street name in Chicago: Peoria Street (900 W). [464j] [456b]

Peoria County, Illinois  Chicago never belonged geographically to Peoria County, but when the settlement became part of Putnam County on Jan. 13, 1825, Peoria County continued its county administrative functions for Putnam County. In 1825, county authorities levied a property tax and collected the following amounts from Chicago residents: $50 from the American Fur Company, $10 from J.B. Beaubien, $6.25 from Jonas Clybourne, $5.72 from D. Wolcott, $5 from John Kinzie, $4 from A. Ouilmette, and $1 from F. LaFramboise; on July 28, 1825, John Kinzie was sworn in as justice of the peace for Peoria County. On Jan. 15, 1831, Chicago became part of Cook County, both geographically and administratively. For details, see Chicago jurisdiction. Also see entry for Peoria, IL. [389b, 436a, 469] [544]

Peoria, IL  a city in central Illinois on the Illinois River, where its course widens to form Peoria Lake [early name, Lac Pimitéoui], and county seat of Peoria County. According to Michael McCafferty, the name of the city of Peoria is a French language rendering of the name of a subtribe of the Illinois Indians whose summer village was located on Lake Peoria. This ethnonym was first recorded by the French Jesuit missionary/explorer Father Jacques Marquette during his 1673 voyage down the Mississippi. The name figures on his holograph map from that year in the form [PE8ARE8A], where the symbol 8 represents the sound w. [PE8ARE8A] is the spelling that represents the oldest known form of this tribe`s name. It is also found in the Jesuits’ Illinois-French dictionary of the first decade of the 18th century. McCafferty further points out that the previously assumed meaning of the word Peoria as ‘he comes carrying a pack on his back’ can no longer be sustained; the actual meaning is ‘dream with the help of a [see] manitou’.
Early on Peoria was often called La Ville de Maillet after the settler Jean Baptiste Maillet; here La Salle had built [see] Fort de Crevecoeur in 1680, and United States troops later built [see] Fort Clark in 1813. Several early Chicagoans had strong connections with Peoria, and many historians have uncritically accepted the theory that one of them was Jean Baptiste Point de Sable, the “father of modern Chicago,” who is said to have purchased land in Peoria in 1773 and lived there some time before resettling on the Chicago River. However, it has recently been established by John F. Swenson that the legend was started by unscrupulous land-jobbers who submitted manufactured documents to U.S. government commissions for the purpose of obtaining land grants. For detail, see the essay on Peoria`s early history by Swenson. During the summer of 1796, [see] Gen. Victor Collot visited “the village of Pioria” and noted: “it is inhabited by fifteen Canadian families, who till the land and trade with the Indians. There is an old fort situated at the southern extremity of a considerable lake, called the Illinois lake. … The ruins of the block house that formed the fort are still seen.” Chicago was administrated from Peoria during the period when Chicago officially belonged to Putnam County (Jan. 13, 1825, to Jan. 15, 1831) and residents had to travel south for official business before the courts, or to get married. On Oct. 5, 1829, the Galena Advertizer reported: “He who travels by land, after leaving the little village of Peoria on the Illinois River, passing alternately forests and prairies for the distance of 170 miles, sees no trace of civilization; all is rude and wild and uncultivated, just as nature fashioned it.” Alexander Doyle was the justice of the peace at that time and keen to enforce the liquor laws: in 1829 he cited James Kinzie for selling one pint of whiskey. Licenses to open taverns or to run a ferry were issued only in Peoria; therefore the Peoria County archives are an invaluable source of information for these years. Also see entry for Peoria County, IL. [155a, 210a, 220, 259, 544, 464j] [33]

Pepin, Joseph   voted on Aug. 7, 1826, and on July 24, 1830 [see Chronology]; was present at the 1827 estate sale of W.H. Wallace.

Pepper  Negro slave owned by John Kinzie in Chicago; believed to have been killed during the 1812 massacre. [226]

Pepper, A.C.  S.A.R.P.; signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

Pepper, Janette Willemenav  see Stolp, Frederick.

Peresh    see LeClerc, Peresh; [correctly, Pieriche, a diminutive for Pierre].

Perin, Lucy  see Gary, William.

periodicals  while no such literature was published in Chicago until long after 1835, publications were advertised in the daily newspapers and were ordered by mail from the East and from Europe by surprisingly many; among available titles were the New York FarmerMechanics` Magazine and Register of Inventions and ImprovementsApprentice`s CompanionQuarterly Journal of AgricultureMechanics, and ManufacturesRegister of Debates in CongressPennsylvania Gazette CasketAtkinson`s CasketNovelist`s MagazineThe Athenian Literary GazetteThe Youth`s CompanionNational Intelligencer; also see entry for Royal Stewart.

Periolat, Veronica  see Belz, John.

Perkey, Joseph  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Perkins, Maj. Isaac  public administrator for the Peoria court who came to Chicago to conduct the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on April 27, 1827; at that sale he bid on a horse for $34, and won. [220]

Perkins, T.  arrived from Massachusetts in 1834; served in the first engine company of the voluntary fire brigade in 1835. [351, 733]

perogue  see pirogue.

Perrin, Julius  also Perren; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; in 1832 or 1833, together with [see] John Schadiger, he built a rude log shanty on the N branch of the Chicago River in Dutchman`s Grove, which is now within the limits of Niles Township; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; remained until his death, 1873. [319] [13]

Perrot, Nicolas  (c.1644-1717) French military officer, born in France; came to New France in the 1660s; explorer of the Great Lakes and the Wisconsin Fox River area during the years 1670-1690; rendered valuable services as French agent to consolidate alliances with the Indians of Wisconsin and Illinois in the struggle with the Iroquois and the English who had interrupted French trade in the west; Charlevoix writes that Perrot came by canoe and with an escort of Potawatomi to Chicago where the Miami were then encamped (1671), but the historian Shea concludes the likelihood was only by inference, and is “not borne out by the manuscript of Perrot, to which he refers.” Through contact with the Miami in the early 1690s, discovered the lead mines along the Mississippi, noted on Louvigny`s map in 1697 (see Maps, 1697, Louis de la Porte de Louvigny). [12, 37] [718]

Perry, Albert  arrived from New York in 1835. [351]

Perry, Nelson Peter  early member of the Catholic congregation, and the only Negro; in April 1833 his name was on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Jan. 7, 1834: “at all times ready to furnish musik, Man of Color.” For a description of this musician in action, see Wabano. [319]

Peter Pruyne & Company  the second drugstore in Chicago, owned by Dr. Kimberly, a practicing physician, and managed by Peter Pruyne; opened in the fall of 1832 on South Water Street, between Clark and Dearborn; the firm built the first privately owned shipping dock on the river across the street from the store. [221]

Peterson, Frederick  also Petersen; U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on June 1, 1808; killed in action at the massacre of 1812. [226, 708]

Petit Fort  (1) a little known French structure of modest size built c.1752 just off the Lake Shore trail, near Dune Creek [Indiana Dunes State Park]; the only local site identified with military activities between British and United States troops during the Revolutionary War, when a skirmish between St. Joseph-based British troops and a St. Louis-based raiding party composed of Spanish and American settlers occurred [1780]; still standing in 1811, where General Hull camped enroute to Chicago; may have been a fur cache with minimal creature comforts that continued to be used by St. Joseph fur traders and others like Alexander Robinson, Billy Caldwell, and Joseph Bailly. The exact location remains uncertain; Scharf and others have assumed various sites somewhat farther inland than the location of the marker just E of the main parking lot; if any remnant of the fort survived into the 1830s it may have been destroyed by the 1838 fire that levelled the short-lived dunes community of City West. (2) There was also a Petit Fort de Milouaki in 1779 at Milwaukee, not at Waukegan, as commonly supposed; see Little Fort. [649]

Petit Lac  see Mud Lake.

petitions    petitions listing early settlers constitute valuable historical resources, although the names are often misspelled; one such list may be found with the entry Saint Cyr; another one with firefighting.

Pettell, Louis  the real name was Louis Pilet, but also found as Pettle, Pelette, and Pilette; one of three French Canadian Pilet brothers (Michel, Charles) listed in the 1787 census of Cahokia; soon after 1800, but certainly by the time the first Fort Dearborn was built, Louis lived with his wife Angelique (her father was François Ouellet of Peoria) and son, Michael, in Chicago near the Forks in one of four log houses (among Ouilmette, Le Mai, and Lalime) along the north bank of the Chicago River, but also maintained a house in Peoria; in Dr. Cooper’s recollections he is described as “a small farmer who supplied the officers [of Fort Dearborn] with butter and eggs”; is noted in John Kinzie`s Chicago account book first in 1804 soon after Kinzie`s arrival, and was a regular customer through July 21, 1812; both father and son joined the Chicago militia and were reported killed during the massacre. On July 27, 1819, Domitille Pettelle of “Chicagow” [a daughter?] married Jean Evangelist Sicard of St. Joseph at the church of St. Francis of Assissi, Portage de Sioux, MO. In 1821 a Louis P. Pilette was listed among property claimants in the new village of La Ville de Maillet at Peoria, as reported by [see] Edward Coles. For more information on the Pilet family, see entry “La Compt, Madam.” [12, 226, 259, 267, 722] [404]

Pettijohn, George  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; served as private in Captain Seission`s company during the Black Hawk War of 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; settled in Palos Township in 1834. [278, 319] [714]

Pettijohn, Jacob  also John; settled within the Hickory Creek precinct in Lockport Township [Will County] in 1831; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [734] [319]

Pettit, Charles M.  also Petit; arrived from New Jersey in 1834 and served as town treasurer in 1835, succeeding J.S.C. Hogan; with Lt. J. Allen and Henry Moore began the Chicago Reading Room Association in July that year, and later on Dec. 12 was elected treasurer of the Lyceum. [12, 351] [733]

Peyton, Francis  attorney; arrived from Virginia in 1835; partner of James Grant in 1836; lawyer for John B. Beaubien before the U.S. Supreme Court in the Fort Dearborn claim in 1839; 1839 City Directory: Lake Street [12] [243]

Peyton, Lucien  attorney; arrived from Virginia in 1835; from March 1836 to 1838 operated under a partnership arrangement, constituting the firm Grant [James] & Peyton; 1839 City Directory: West Lake Street, near North Canal. [243] [351]

Phelps, J.H.  received $350 in payment for a claim at the 1833 Chicago Treaty; as agent for [see] Edwards & Bosworth, advertised ” GOOD LIVING ” in the Oct. 28, 1835, Chicago Democrat , “5 Tons of Cheese from Chautauge N. York said to be a better article than was ever offered (of the kind) in Chicago. 1500 lbs good Butter. Also a genteel assortment of DRY GOODS ” that could “be found in the East half of the building known of late as the Mansion House.” [319]

Phelps, Noah  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Phelps, Samuel M.  dissolved his copartnership with S.S. Hitchcock on Aug. 8, 1835, as noted in the August 15 Chicago American; continued alone, but the business was not identified; reported in the November 11 Chicago Democrat that a “Camlet Cloak” had been found on October 27.

Phillips, Ezekiel  listed prior to 1836 as owner of 80 acres of Chicago land in Section 28, Township 39, as seen in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Phillips, H.  attended the Indian Treaty of Chicago in 1821 as paymaster of the U.S. Army.

Phillips, Harry  from Vermont; settled in [see] Maine Township in 1834, but soon sold his claim and returned to VT; subsequently he returned and bought the farm of [see] Eban Conant. [13]

Phillips  lake schooner that sailed up the river on July 14, 1834, two days after the Illinois, which had been the first ship to enter the new harbor and sail beyond Dearborn Street bridge; announcements of the weekly run between Chicago and St. Joseph (also Michigan City and Milwaukee) as a packet boat, always landing at the Newberry & Dole wharf, began in the Chicago Democrat on July 30; carried passengers and merchandise, usually under the command of Captain Howe, later Capts. Drouland, Drureau, and Andrews; made 18 calls at Chicago in 1834, 10 in 1835.

physicians  of early Chicago and Fort Dearborn, or traveling through, in chronological order of arrival [For details, see individual entries.] [65, 66, 137, 172, 181, 184, 188, 213, 359, 630]
Father Marquette`s “Surgeon” [possibly Jean Roussel]—1675; Jean Michel—1682; William C. Smith—1803 (Fort Dearborn); John Cooper—1808 (Fort Dearborn); Isaac Van Voorhies—1811 (Fort Dearborn); John Gale—1816 (Fort Dearborn); J. Ponte Coulant McMahon—1818 (Fort Dearborn); Alexander Wolcott—1818; William S. Madison—1820 (Fort Dearborn); M.H.T. Hall—1821 (Fort Dearborn); Thomas P. Hall—1821 (Fort Dearborn); Clement A. Finley—1828 (Fort Dearborn); Charles H. Duck—1829; Elijah D. Harmon—1830 (Fort Dearborn, town); E.G. Wight—1831; Samuel Grandin Johnston Decamp—1832 (Fort Dearborn); Abraham H. Edwards—1832 (Fort Dearborn, temporary); Erastus Winslow—1832 (Fort Dearborn, temporary); Edmund S. Kimberly—1832; James Augustus Marshall—1832; Phillip Maxwell—1833 (Fort Dearborn, town); George F. Turner—1833 (Fort Dearborn); John T. Temple—1833; Valentine A. Boyer—1833 (as medical student, graduated in 1836); William Bradshaw Egan—1833; Henry B. Clarke—1833; Frederick T. Minor—1833; William Clarke—1833; Henry Van der Bogart—1834; Peter Temple—1834; William G. Austin—1834; Charles V. Dyer—1835; James Anson Dunn—1835; J.H. Barnard—1835; H. Spring—1835; John Herbert Foster—1835; George W. Palmer—1835; Daniel Brainard—1835; S.Z. Haven—1835; James Anson Dunn—1835. [12] [738]

Piasa  Miami-Illinois term, payiihsa, referring to a generally malevolent supernatural being associated with rivers; also piasa bird; Indian pictographs along the Mississippi River. Jolliet, Father Marquette, and later travelers on the Mississippi told of two large paintings on high bluffs of the east bank near [Alton, IL], said to represent fabulous animals of Indian mythology, one of them often referred to as a “thunderbird.” Abbé St. Cosme remarked in 1699 that they were “almost effaced”; they have since completely disappeared. Claims in recent years that the piasa image might be of Chinese origin, with the implication that Chinese explorers reached America before Columbus did, are refuted by most serious experts. The following is Father Marquette`s description of the images, translated by Shea. [19, 38, 46, 245a, 456b, 464c]
As we coasted along rocks [near Alton], frightful for their height and length, we saw two monsters painted on one of these rocks, which startled us at first, and on which the boldest Indian dare not gaze long. They are as large as a calf, with horns on the head like a deer, a fearful look, red eyes, bearded like a tiger, the face somewhat like a man`s, the body covered with scales, and the tail so long that it twice makes the turn of the body, passing over the head and down between the legs, and ending at last in a fish tail. Green, red, and a kind of black, are the colors employed. On the whole, these two monsters are so well painted, that we could not believe any Indian to have been the designer, as good painters in France would find it hard to get conveniently at them to paint them. This is pretty nearly the figure of these monsters, as I drew it off.

Piche, Peter    see Lampset, Peter.

Pickering, Augustus  captain of the schooner (see) Illinois.

piece d’Inde  a black slave; the term was used during the French rule of Illinois. [233a]

Pierce & Abbott  see Pierce, Asahel.

Pierce & French    Asahel Pierce readvertised his blacksmith shop on June 25, 1834, implying a new partnership.

Pierce, Asa  arrived from New Hampshire in 1835. [351] [733]

Pierce, Asahel  born c.1812 in East Calais, VT; arrived on Oct. 8, 1833; early blacksmith and pioneer of agricultural implements who built a smithy on the west bank (Lake and Canal streets) with lumber he hauled 40 miles from Plainfield and with old blacksmith tools purchased from Reverend William See, and began to manufacture the [see] bull plow in early spring, 1834. The firm Pierce & Abbott [see Abbott, Titus H.] announced in the Dec. 10, 1833, issue of the Chicago Democrat their blacksmith shop as being located “nearly opposite the Chicago Hotel” (Green Tree Tavern), and announced dissolution of the firm – but continuation of business at the same location – in the May 7, 1834 issue, readvertising as Pierce & French on June 25; in 1835 he brought his bride, Persis B. Abbott of Vermont to Chicago; their children were: Aurora S., Abbe A., Francis S., George H., and William S.; 1839 City Directory: plow- and wagonmaker, 18 Market St.; served as village board member in 1836 and as alderman in 1837, and in 1842 on the school board; in 1885 lived at 732 Bowen Ave; street name: Pierce Avenue (1532 N). [243, 351] [12]

Pierce, Elizabeth  see Butterfield, Justin.

Pierce, Elizabeth  see McNeil, Lt. John.

Pierce, Samuel  listed prior to 1836 as owner of 80 acres of Chicago land in Section 28, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113. [12]

Pierce, Smith D.  arrived from New Hampshire in 1833; 1839 City Directory: ship chandler on North Water Street; announced bankruptcy [then in Du Page County] in the Chicago American of April 20, 1842; later moved to Belmont, IA, where he still lived in 1885. [12, 243, 351] [733]

Pignabel, Jean  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Pike County, Illinois  from Jan. 31, 1821, when Pike County was created, to Jan. 28, 1823, Chicago was part of Pike County, then became part of Fulton County; for details, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. The settlement at Chicago was recognized politically in 1821 with the appointment of [see] John Kinzie as justice of the peace by the county`s commissioners. Pike County is shown on Fielding Lucas`s 1823 map (see Maps; also see attached map by Michael L. Hébert) and consisted largely of the Bounty Lands between the Mississippi and the Illinois rivers, from which a panhandle extended northeast to Chicago. This corridor comprised the land acquired by the federal government from the Indians through the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis, land through which construction of a canal between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River system was contemplated. Pike County was named after Capt. Zebulon Montgomery Pike, former commander of Fort Massac on the Ohio River, who explored the headwaters of the Mississippi River and other western and southwestern territories during the years 1805 to 1808. Lewis Caleb Beck, in Gazetteer of the States of Illinois and Missouri, 1823, describes Chicago as follows: Chicago, a village in Pike county, situated on Lake Michigan, at the mouth of Chicago creek. It contains 12 or 15 houses, and about 60 or 70 inhabitants. From this place to Greenbay, by the way of the Lake, the distance is 275 miles, and 400 to the island of Michillimackinac. On the south side of the creek stands Fort Dearborn. [44, 335a, 389b, 436a] [544]

Pilburn, John S.    purchased from the canal commissioners on Sept. 4, 1830, lot 4 in block 35.

Pilet, Louis  see Pettell, Louis.

Pilot  lake schooner, built in 1821 at Cleveland; visited Chicago from Detroit under Captain Keith in September 1825, with 72 barrels of trade goods for the trader William H. Wallace. [220]

Pimitéoui, Lac de  Illinois term, pimiteewi, meaning `it burns past`, `it goes past burning`, composed of the preverb pim- and pem- `past`, the inanimate intransitive final -itee `by heat` and -wi, the requisite verb suffix; first recognized by the early Swiss linguist Albert Gatschet, who learned the term. He was told by his Miami-Illinois-speaking informants that the name refers to prairie fires; see Peoria, IL. [168b, 464c]

Pimiteoui, etymology  [This entry was written by John F. Swenson in 2009; all rights are reserved.]
Pimiteoui was understood by La Salle to be a place name, although it may have been only descriptive of a characteristic of the place. From his letter of 1680 describing his initial expedition to the Illinois country it was clearly a location on the Illinois River about one league [2.422 miles] below the southern end of Peoria Lake, near present Wesley in Tazewell County. This word, commonly found in French documents and maps, surprisingly is not found in early linguistic documents. The most important such document is the manuscript written mostly by Jacques Largillier, a Jesuit lay brother or donné, who had first traveled the Illinois River with Jolliet and Marquette in 1673. This comprehensive dictionary of the Miami-Illinois language with French equivalents consists of nearly 600 large pages. It was initially compiled by Jesuit missionaries at or near Pimiteoui from c.1692 to 1700 or later, which has led to undocumented speculation about the meaning of this word. La Salle just says on authority of an interpreter that it was their name for the location detailed above, giving no etymology. Fr. Aloysius Membré, who was with La Salle, understood it to refer to the presence of fat beasts, a meaning he learned from natives while studying their language. Pierre de Liette, who lived there for seven years, was fluent in the language and may be considered a good authority. Liette says it means lac à la graisse, lake where there is grease. The attested meaning of pimi in many Largillier entries was de la graisse, grease or rendered animal fat. Grease, usually from bear fat, was the basic cooking oil of natives and French alike. Fatty tissue of animals is usually ouirounoui, before it is rendered into grease. The element –teoui– carries the sense of something being present, so Pimiteoui means something like “grease is there.” Pimiteoui is not “burned past,” an unattested hypothetical reconstruction, totally unlike entries in Largillier, such as chabouacouateoui and chabountetoui, meaning “it burned across.” Nor does it mean “fat/wide lake,” a careless translation of graisse, because “wide lake” would be metchigamioui, the native name of Lake Michigan. It may well be that Pimiteoui is a reference to the practice of the natives to render animal fat into grease at this place for further use in cooking. [101, 448, 456a]

[For a different interpretation of the word Pimitéoui see the following entry by the ethnolinguist Michael McCafferty; ed.]

Pimitéoui” is a good French spelling of the verb pimiteewi, which means “it burns by, fire passes by” in the Miami-Illinois language. In simplified English phonics, the term is pronounced “pea-me-TAAY-we.” Pimiteewi is composed of the initial element pim- meaning “by,” the verb stem –itee meaning “fire” and –wi, the third-person singular inanimate intransitive verb suffix indicating a condition of or an action by an inanimate subject.
The Miami-Illinois verb pimiteewi, meaning “fire passes by,” is not a reconstructed form. It is indeed an attested verb found in the field notes of the Swiss linguist Albert Gatschet, who worked for the U.S. Bureau of Ethnology in the 1800s recording extensively the speech of native speakers of the Miami-Illinois language. Gatschet’s work is as important to our knowledge of the Miami-Illinois language as that of any of the French Jesuits missionaries’ Miami-Illinois language dictionaries, and especially regarding place names, which the Jesuits largely ignored or simply took for granted.
Despite beliefs to the contrary, there is no other possible grammatical or morphological analysis for the French spelling “Pimitéoui.” All historic or modern interpretations of the term suggesting that it means “fat” are simply folkloric, popular analyses, i.e., mistaken folk interpretations such as those perpetrated in all languages across time by both native speakers and second-language speakers alike regardless of their intelligence or level of fluency. Believing that the “Pimi-” of “Pimitéoui” represents the Miami-Illinois noun pimi meaning “fat,” as some have proposed over the years, is exactly like saying that the “f-a-t” of “fatuous” refers to fat. It is no different from that kind of mistake.
It should be noted, too, that the notion that the Miami-Illinois verb forms in the Largillier dictionary written chabouacouateoui and chabounteteoui mean “it burns across” is mistaken. The initial part of these verbs, here written by the French in the spelling “chabou-,” has to do with the idea of “through,” not “across”. The French Jesuit recording chabouacouateoui, which literally means “it burns through,” is written today in modern phonemic spelling šaapwahkoteewi. This word is composed of the initial element šaapw– ‘through’, the verb stem –ahkotee ‘by fire’ and –wi, the third-person singular inanimate intransitive verb marker. Chabouacouateouišaapwahkoteewi is what you would say to describe a hot coal burning through your shoes because you left them too near the camp fire all night; or a hot iron burning through a cotton shirt when you got distracted by the phone ringing and left the iron sitting on the material. The meaning “through” is what this well attested term written chabou– by the French signifies. The same term is seen, for example, in such verbs as šaapwaalakantamwa ‘he bites holes through it’ and šaapwaalakatwi ‘it has holes through it’. It is also naturally seen in expressions having to do with thin paper, windows, glass, and in fact occurs in the term meaning “transparent,” šaapwaapantaniwi ‘it is transparent, it is seen through’. The verbs chabouacouateoui and chabounteteoui have nothing to do with prairie fires burning by and into the distances.
Pimitéoui is exactly how we expect a Frenchman in the 17th century to write the Miami-Illinois verb pimiteewi ‘fire burns by’. Moreover, Pimitéouicould not represent any other phrase in the language, and it certainly does not mean “fat is there,” as has been proposed. Such a construction is grammatically and morphologically impossible in the language.
The name recorded by the French in the form Pimitéoui is related to the fact that during the time of the French, prairie fires commonly devastated the Illinois prairie. North of Lake Peoria, prairie fires burned right down to the river’s edge. However, starting near Lake Peoria and moving southward, there was a great increased shift in the vegetation bordering the river, and there was consequently less susceptibility to fire. The name pimiteewi was used by the Illinois Indians to indicate the area where the prairie “fires burned by”. That said, there is no evidence that this name was applied to Lake Peoria itself until the French did so. [464l]

Pineda, Alonzo de    Spanish conquistador who, in 1519, explored the Gulf of Mexico; he became the first European to reach the mouth of the Mississippi River, but did not pursue its relevance; this important entrance to the North American continent remained unused for nearly two more centuries; the Spaniards turned their attention to Central and South America, where they found greater riches.

Pinery  see Fort St. Clair; see Jean Baptiste Point de Sable; Chinguagon in Ojibwa, but more exactly rendered as jingwakoki-wan. [456b]

Pinet, Père Pierre François, S.J.  (1660-Aug. 1, 1702) family name is pronounced with the final [t] (as in Jolliet); also spelled Pinette; born in Périgueux, France; entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1682; came to Canada in 1692 and was first sent to Michilimackinac; served two years at Mission de Saint-Ignace; in 1696 he and his associate Père Julien Bineteau opened the Mission de l`Ange Gardien des Miami à Chicagoua, becoming – Chicago`s first – clergymen, serving two local Wea summer villages as well as French fur traders who arrived with the mission or soon after. The exact location of the mission is not known; it is now thought to have stood where the Chicago Merchandise Mart is located, but an earlier memorial plaque was located at the corner of La Salle Street and Wacker Drive, and another one on the north branch of the Chicago River at Foster Avenue bridge [see Guardian Angel Mission in the Monuments section]. Father Pinet resigned from the Chicago mission in 1700 and was succeeded by Père Jean Mermet, who stayed until early 1702, when the mission closed. While in Chicago, Father Pinet had begun writing a French/Miami-Illinois dictionary, thus becoming – Chicago`s first – writer of a book. The original 672-page manuscript, with many entries in the Miami dialect, presumably Wea, was discovered in 1999 by the linguist Michael McCafferty at the Jesuit archive in St. Jérôme, Québec. Father Pinet worked on the dictionary until the year of his death; Fathers Gabriel Marest and Jean Mermet and also [see] Frère Donné Jacques Largillier added words to the manuscript after his death. Father Pinet usually spent the winter months—when the Indians left to hunt—further south on the Illinois River, where he had begun the Mission de Sainte Famille de Caoquias among the Tamaroa; in June 1702, Father Pinet began work among the Kaskaskia at a site where now is the city of St. Louis, but died there on the first day of August. [269a, 464h, 665] [290]

Pinney, Catherine Louise  see Beaubien, Jean Baptiste.

Pint Tavern  the earliest name for Wolf Point Tavern, as shared by [see] Edwin O. Gale in Reminiscences of Early Chicago and Vicinity, recalling a story overheard by the landlord of Green Tree Tavern where his family first stayed in May 1835. His text, accompanying the illustration to the right, reads: … Yer see at fust twuz er small one room affair, made of logs, clay chinked, and as Jim [Kinzie] hankered ter keep store, nuthin ed do but they mus splice her, so they posted off to Walker`s mill out ter Plainfield, nigh onter 40 mile southwest er here, whar is ther nighes saw mill, and got ther lumber. Thur aint no pine groin roun here, so they had ter use hard wood lumber ter put up ther imitation two story addition. [Imitation ?] Jist what I say. That`s all `tis. That air secon story, where ther gallery is, is all sham. Thur aint no rooms behin it. It just gin ther boys a place ter sat down in front, an see thur wil ducks an Injuns paddlin roun in ther creek. They soon got allfired tired of ther job, tho, so Caldwell pulled out an lef, an on New Year`s day `30, Old Geese tuk her fur boardin thur Kinzies. ….” [266]

Pioneer  an early fire brigade, formed by volunteers Oct. 7, 1835, in anticipation of the creation of the Chicago Fire Department on November 4; an announcement in the November 11 Chicago Democrat names the members of a Hook and Ladder Company (the entire Pioneer brigade and Thomas S. Eells) who had been selected by the town board of trustees; also see firefighting.

Pioneer  230-ton steamboat built at Black Rock, OH, in 1825 [according to another source {199a}, it was a 100-ton steamboat under Captain Miles, built at Buffalo in 1827/28, although this may have been a different boat with the same name; eds.]; on Jan. 21, 1834, a Chicago Democratadvertisement noted that it would “ply between St. Joe and Chicago” that year, mostly for passenger traffic, and did so, beginning June 2 under Captain Wight; all 12 subsequent calls were under Captain Spires, the last on July 9; upon departure she was wrecked “in a very severe blow, on the bar at the mouth of the St. Joseph River”; passengers bound for Chicago had just boarded and were all rescued (Chicago Democrat, July 16). [48]

pipe  a large cask for wine, oil, &c.;, having a capacity of about two hogsheads, or 126 gallons.

pipe  a large cask for wine, oil, &c.;, having a capacity of about two hogsheads, or 126 gallons.

pirogue  also perogue; a dug-out canoe, made from a single tree trunk; once commonly used by Indians of the Americas, especially the Caribs, and still made by them in the Amazon basin. North of Illinois, where paper birch trees grow, birch bark canoes were preferred over piroguesPirogues are durable but heavy, impractical for portaging; manned by six to seven hands, able to carry up to three tons, depending on size. In 1680, Tonti saw pirogues 50 feet long. [456b]

pisikious  native term for [see] bison, where the etymology of the word is detailed. [456b]

Plainfield, IL    see Walker’s Grove.

Planck, Elizabeth  see Ebinger, John.

Planck, Johann  also John Plank; born at Hesse-Darmstadt in 1808; after immigration spent a year in Detroit, then came to Chicago in 1832 with the [see] Ebinger brothers, and in 1834 moved to and built a house at Dutchman`s Point [Niles], just N of the claim of Christian Ebinger; farmed there and kept a tavern with whiskey for sale to travelers and Indians; on July 1, 1839, a legal notice (attachment) appeared in the Chicago American involving Plank; later he became a preacher of the Methodist Episcopalian Church, in which capacity he spent four more years in Chicago; was married to Elizabeth Ebinger, while his sister Elizabeth married John Ebinger. [342]

plank roads  an early version, usually referred to as corduroy roads and described by travelers as “soul trying,” was used on swampy portions of access roads to Chicago by 1832; the “corduroy” consisted of tightly placed small-caliber logs. A systematic effort at improving street conditions in and near Chicago by using planks, flattened on top, did not begin until the year 1849. Its history is beyond the scope of this book, but did begin with Lake Street, covered three miles of road, cost the city $31,000, and was quickly abandoned as impractical. Ogden Avenue became a major southwestern plank road, built in 1850; a toll was due from those who used it, and [see] Mark Beaubien, who kept a tavern on this road in Lisle, collected the toll from 1851 to 1857. [12]

Plantade, Louisa  see Taylor, Francis H.

Plante, Isabelle  see Lucier, Charles.

plants    of Chicago and Illinois, see vegetation.

Plattier, Jean  one of five voyageurs who accompanied Jolliet and Father Marquette in 1673 to the Mississippi and the Chicago site.

Plympton, Capt. & Bvt. Maj. Joseph    (1787-1860) Fifth Infantry; born in Sudbury, MA; married Eliza Mathilda Livingston of New York City in 1824; commandant at Fort Dearborn from Aug. 1, 1836, to May 1837; died in New York.

Plympton, Lauretta  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Poindexter, Thomas  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Sept. 3, 1810; taken prisoner by Indians as one of the sick soldiers on the wagon at the massacre of 1812; tortured to death the same day. [12, 708] [226]

Point    short for [see] Wolf Point.

Point de Sable, Catherine  wife of (see) Jean Baptiste Point de Sable.

Point de Sable, Jean Baptiste  (by John F. Swenson, J.D. © 2006, all rights reserved. The more detailed 1999 account in the Essay section titled JEAN BAPTISTE POINT DE SABLE · THE FOUNDER OF MODERN CHICAGO is currently under revision.)

Jean Baptiste Point de Sable (c.1740–Aug. 28, 1818) was the founder of modern Chicago. His house was about where the Tribune Tower is now, and he was living, farming and trading there by December, 1782. His prosperous farm was the cornerstone of the production economy of the future city, which began to replace the old fur trade. He was far from being the first non-native settler in Chicago, which had French inhabitants and missionaries starting in 1684. He was buried under this name on August 29, 1818 in the cemetery of the Catholic church of St. Charles Borromeo in St. Charles, Missouri, which he had attended since moving there in 1800. He had sold [transferred] his extensive and well-equipped Chicago place to William Burnett, since 1782 the principal trader at St. Joseph, Michigan. All of the surviving documents created in his lifetime give his surname as Point de Sable or Point Sable; he was only misnamed Du Sable long after his death. The word Point, a common misspelling for the proper French Pointe, was never omitted because it was part of his surname and not a middle name. He traded European goods to the native people for their furs around the southern end of Lake Michigan, and the recently discovered accounts of Burnett show that he was a major trader. In a five-year period there are dozens of entries for him, John Kinzie and Jean Lalime, and others important in the early history of Chicago.

He was probably born about 1740 at Cahokia, the son of a slave mother of Haitian ancestry named Catherine who was freed along with her son Jean in 1746 by her owners, Jean Brunet dit Bourbonnois and his wife Elisabeth Deshaies. He married a native woman, also named Catherine, about 1773 and established a farm near the site of an old Peoria Indian winter village on the lower Illinois River along the Mauvaise Terre Creek south of present Naples, Illinois. Because the Peoria people lived in the area during half of the year, the place was often called Peoria, but this must not be confused with the site of the present Peoria, which had no European settlers during most of the 18th century. Point de Sable never lived at New Peoria, but he must have traded there often, after the organization of Knox County of the Northwest Territory in 1790 stimulated Europeans to settle there. It would be helpful to call this area at Mauvaise Terre Old Peoria. He was one of a small group of non-native settlers at this ancient site, which is not far north of the important archaeological site at Kampsville. Their two children, Jean Baptiste fils (junior) and Suzanne were probably born there. Another important resident was the French trader and Indian diplomat Jean Baptiste Mallet, a descendant of the great Illinois chief Rouensa. According to a 1781 letter he wrote to the Spanish commander at St. Louis, Mallet and his brother-in-law Augustin Roque actually lived at Mauvaise Terre during the time when, according to dubious claims made to the U.S. official hearing land claims at New Peoria in 1820, they were misrepresented as living at the latter village. The fact that Mauvaise Terre Creek was also known as the Negro River as late as 1812 is confirmation of the presence of people of African ancestry, perhaps including former slaves whose freedom had been purchased by Point de Sable, a prosperous trader. A major east-west Indian trail crossed the Illinois River near here, and may have been used by some of the people who settled the integrated community of New Philadelphia, 15 miles due west. The extensive river bottom fields were ideal for growing food crops. East of these prairies were hills and bluffs with timber and wild game. There were important deposits of flint nearby along the west bank of the river which would have attracted native people to the area for many centuries. Being married to a native woman, Point de Sable would have been an important and respected member of the Indian community in the region.

Like most black people born in French Illinois during the 18th century, he had no surname. In the early records (1768 to 1775) of the British-administered Indian trade based in Montreal, he appears as Jean, nègre, or Batist, nègre. It is likely that Cahokia was his business headquarters, for there is a 1778 account of a black man named Jean Baptiste. He probably took the surname Point de Sable, meaning Sand Point, from the sandy peninsula at the mouth of the Rivière du Chemin (Trail Creek) where it enters Lake Michigan. He had a seasonal trading post here from 1775 to 1800, when he moved to the St. Louis area. He and his partners, operating under a trade license issued at Montreal in 1775 and renewed in 1777, were financed by the wealthiest man in Montreal at the time, Jean Orillat, a longtime trader with Illinois. Point de Sable was arrested shortly after his arrival from Old Peoria at his post about a mile upstream from Lake Michigan in August 1779 by British troops which were in the area to intercept a rumored attack on Detroit by George Rogers Clark. Goods worth about $1,500 belonging to him and his partners, Pierre Durand of Kaskaskia and Michel Belleau of Cahokia, were confiscated by these troops. In August 1780, after working at Mackinac for the British commander there, this official, Lt. Gov. Patrick Sinclair, hired him to run a sawmill near Detroit, the Pinery at present St. Clair, Michigan, that produced lumber and timbers for the British fort. He and his family lived there in a very fine log house built by British workmen at the end of 1779. He must have become alienated from the British about this time, since his business had been destroyed by the acts of this army group, which confiscated a canoe, food and 82 gallons of liquor. He began living at Chicago in 1782, where he established his new family home, farm and trading post. His family probably joined him there in 1784. He had a second home at St. Joseph, Michigan near the establishment of Burnett. By 1796 he was a prosperous major trader and also a U.S. Indian agent helping the United States deal with the Indians in the region. He sold [transferred] his Chicago property in 1800 for $1,000 cash which Burnett raised by mortgaging it. He left with a large load of trade goods he had bought from Burnett.

He moved in 1800 to Spanish Upper Louisiana, present Missouri, attracted by cheap land. He bought city lots in St. Charles and some farm land nearby. His wife, daughter, son-in-law Jean Baptiste Pelletier and granddaughter Eulalie Pelletier had probably died by this time, as there is no record of them after 1799. His son was killed in 1813 while trading on the Missouri River. Point de Sable’s old ties to the area around St. Louis are shown by the solemnization of his marriage to Catherine at Cahokia in 1788, the marriage of their daughter there in 1790, and the baptism of their granddaughter in St. Louis in 1799. He probably also spent part of his time at his Old Peoria place on the Illinois River. Tragically, by 1813 this proud, honorable trader was ill, incapacitated, impoverished and in debt. He gave all his property in an elaborate trust deed to his young neighbor Eulalie Barada, who has been unfortunately misidentified as his granddaughter, also named Eulalie. This 25-year old married woman promised to care for him and his property until his death, and to have him buried in the parish cemetery of St. Charles Borromeo. His burial as Jean Baptiste Point de Sable, nègre, was recorded by his parish priest, Fr. Jean Baptiste Acquaroni, on August 29, 1818, but his unmarked grave has not been found. He richly deserves to be honored as the founder (but not the first non-native settler) of modern Chicago. He must be remembered by his true name, Point de Sable, and the real story of his life, traced in many obscure documents, should be published far and wide.
No original portrait of Jean Baptiste exists; all portraits or busts created are imaginary. The photograph shown here is of a bust located at the northeast end of the Michigan Avenue Bridge which has been renamed Jean-Baptiste Pointe DuSable Bridge in 2009. [Photograph by Ulrich Danckers, 2010]
Also see Philip E. Vierling`s “Where was the Du Sable farm of 1790” in the Essays section. [649]

Point de Sable, Suzanne  see previous entry; also Susanne; married Jean Baptiste Pelletier in 1790, for which they had to travel from Chicago to Cahokia; the Pelletiers lived in the Chicago house of Jean Baptiste Point de Sable until it was sold in 1800. On Oct. 8, 1796, they had a daughter named Eulalie Marie Pelletier, Chicago`s second recorded birth of an early settler`s child [for the first, see Amiot, Louis]; they traveled to St. Louis with the Le Mai family to have the children baptized on Oct. 7, 1799; Suzanne was also baptized at the same occasion. [267]

Point of Oaks  also Point aux Chênes; an oak grove on the Tolleston Beach Ridge, just S of the southern arm of the western end of Mud Lake, accompanying a portion of the Chicago portage. The grove defines the early French appellation of the portage, Portage aux chênes (Portage of the Oaks) that Jacques Bellin noted between the north branch of the “Checago” river and the Des Plaines on his 1744 map. A French settlement is believed to have existed at the Point of Oaks in the 1740s and subsequent decades, near where [see] Louis Amiot may have been born.
The location was yet noteworthy mid 1790 when the Surveyor of and Secretary of Northwest Territory [see] Winthrop Sargent interviewed Jean Baptiste Maillet regarding the northern course of the Illinois River: “… 4 Leagues above Masons [Mazon] River the Illinois forks & looses [sic] its Name – the Right Hand stream being called Theakiki [Kankakee] & the other Chicago about 300 yards in width. going up the Chicago in 12 Leagues on the Left is River Plein [Des Plaines] a considerable Stream. from this in [page four] low water it is one League to the Oak Point carrying – across the carrying Place to the head of the Spring is about three Leagues, there is almost always a considerable [illegible] or Face to the Spring making it necessary to unload in Part but sometimes it is otherwise & they pass without discharging anything. from the Spring to the Lake 2 Leagues a narrow passage but good Depth of Water. ….” [Ohio Historical Society, Box 3 folder 9; 413, 649] [526]

Pointe de Sable farm  also the Du Sable farm. The Chicagou trading house was the personal property of [see] William Burnett, the claim made in his letter dated Aug. 24, 1798, written to Parker, Gerrard & Ogilvy, merchants at Montreal. In partnership agreement with Burnett Jean Baptiste Pointe de Sable was living, farming and trading there by December 1782. The extent of farming, as noted by the small tracts of land cleared of timber on the borders of the Chicago River, is evident on a [see] detail of “A Map of Chicago in 1830,” within the first volume of Andreas` History of Chicago, From the Earliest Period to the Present Time. See Philip E. Vierling`s “Where was the Du Sable farm of 1790” in the Essays section. [12, Vierling, Philip E. “More on the Du Sable Farm of 1790.” Chicago Portage Ledger Vol. 14, No. 1 January/April 2013]

Pointe St. Ignace  on the northern mainland of the strait of Mackinac; the chapel at the Mission de Saint-Ignace became the final resting place for the bones of Father Marquette.

Pokagon  also Pokegan, Pokagun [pokagon means `rib` and is pronounced /pih-KAY-g`n/, from Potawatomi/Ojibwa word opigegan, `his rib`]; a subgroup of midwestern Indians within the larger tribe of the Potawatomi, living in the St. Joseph River valley in the early 19th century.

Pokagon, Leopold  (c.1775-c.1841) born a Chippewa, enslaved by the Pokagon Potawatomi until proved, then adopted by the tribe; married the daughter of Potawatomi Chief Topenebe`s brother (Chief Saw-awk); was opposed to the 1812 Indian attack on Fort Dearborn; learned of the plan only 24 hours before the event, too late to use his influence to prevent it; rode overnight with Topenebe and Saw-awk to Chicago and arrived on the morning of the day of the attack; with Topenebe, took Capt. Heald and his wife safely to his Pokagon village on the St. Joseph River [near the present city of Niles] following the 1812 massacre, and later arranged for them to be taken to Mackinac Island; became the second principal chief of the St. Joseph Potawatomi; in 1830 he was baptized a Catholic and aquired the first name Leopold; was present at the Treaty of Chicago of 1833; in the fall of 1834, and in the company of Topenebe and Waubansee, he went to Washington City and protested against ratification of the treaty, claiming that Billy Caldwell, Alexander Robinson, and Joseph LaFramboise had not represented them well in the negotiations; died in 1841 at age 66. In 1899 his son, [see] Simon Pokagan, published an account of the Fort Dearborn massacre from the Native perspective in Harper`s Magazine. [456b] [728]

Pokagon, Simon  Indian Chief and son of [see] Chief Leopold Pokagon; in 1899 he published in Harper’s Magazine “The Massacre of Fort Dearborn at Chicago—Gathered from the Traditions of the Indian Tribes engaged in the Massacre, and from the published Accounts.” Simon was not present at the massacre and reports from hearsay many decades after the event, such that some of his statements do not conform to historical facts. But in the article he gives a valiant rebuttal to the notion that members of the “civilized” world behaved more ethical than the “savages” during the wars fought to expell the Indians from their native land. For quotations from his article, see below:
They who call themselves civilized cry out against the treachery and cruelty of savages, yet the English generals formed a league with Tecumseh and his warriors, at the beginning of the war of 1812, with a full understanding that they were to take the forts around the Great Lakes, regardless of consequences. The massacre of the Fort Dearborn garrison was but one link in the chain of civilized warfare, deliberately planned and executed. Disguise the fact as the pride of the white man may, when he joins hands with untutored savages in warfare he is a worse savage than they.
I find it recorded in history that the year after the Fort Dearborn battle, the Este-mus-ko-kee (the Creek Indians) in the State of Alabama, feeling themselves aggrieved by the white race, who were swarming into the country the government had assigned to the Indians, destroying with their superior weapons the buffalo, deer, and fur animals, arose in arms against the invaders, as they supposed they had a right to do. General Coffee was sent out by the United States with nine hundred warriors, and, like mousing cats, they sprang upon the Indian village Tal-lu-shat-che, and burned the town, leaving not a man, woman, or child alive. Then, by forced marches, surprised the Indian villages Tal-la-de-ga and Au-tos-seea, and they met a similar fate. In March following–, General Jackson with a large force stormed the breastworks of their last retreat, driving the half-starved savages into a river, where, huddled together, one thousand warriors, with their women and children, were put to death. The historian adds: “These battles completely conquered and subdued the Indians—almost exterminated them.” The Fort Dearborn battle has been denounced by the dominant race as a brutal massacre, regardless of its many individual acts of mercy and kindness. In this wholesale slaughter not one white man stretched out a hand to save a single soul.
Your own historians, true to their trust, have recorded the cruelty of their own race, that unborn millions might read it as a testimony against them. In the name of all that is sacred and dear to mankind, tell Pokagon, if you can, why less love, pity, or sympathy should be required of civilized and enlightened people than of untutored savages
. [546a]

Pokanoka  also P-kuk-no-qua; daughter of Chief Spotka; first wife of [see] Shabbona. [210]

Polemic Society of Chicago  a notice in the Jan. 28, 1834 issue of Chicago Democratread: “For debate: Has the Congress of the United States constitutional power to make internal improvements?”; the secretary was John Kinzie Clark; earlier on November 21 members had met at the Episcopal church and the question for debate was “Is a Monarchy more favorable to Literature than a Republic?,” Mitchell/Kennicott in affirmation against Spring/Wright. [544]

police  not until Jan. 31, 1835, was Chicago authorized by the State of Illinois to establish its own police force; prior to that date, limited law enforcement was provided by military authorities and by the U.S. Indian agent at Fort Dearborn. When Chicago became, successively, part of several territorial or state counties, law enforcement was the responsibility of the county sheriff; James Kinzie, for example, became the first sheriff of Cook County, and Stephen R. Forbes served as such in 1832. In 1833 the carpenter James W. Reed served as constable [although without authorization from Springfield], delivering warrants for Justice Heacock or guarding an occasional prisoner. Two years following the town`s incorporation of 1833, the third village board, on Aug. 15, 1835, appointed O. Morrison as – Chicago`s 1st – “Police Constable.” [12] [249]

Polk, Edmund, Jr.  (1776-1859) born in Pennsylvania; served in the War of 1812 under General Harrison; came from Jefferson County, KY, and Indiana with his wife, Margaret (née Brown), and family in 1833 to homestead in Lyons Township, acquiring land in Section 21; an uncollected letter for Mary is listed in the April 1, 1834, Chicago Democrat. The couple`s children included Henry H., James, William, Wesley, Wilson, John, Samuel, Margaret, and Mary. [13, 51, 51a] [278]

Pontiac  (1720-1769) his name is said to mean `falls-river`; a great Ottawa chief who, in 1763, organized a major uprising of Indian tribes (Ottawa, Potawatomi, Ojibwa) of the Old Northwest against the British. During “Pontiac`s War” Fort St. Joseph, with a garrison of 15, was overrun on May 25, 1763. Pontiac`s effort to take Detroit, however, a key element in his goal “to drive the dogs which wear red clothing into the sea” did not succeed, and by 1764 the confederacy that he had formed fell apart. In 1769 he was killed by a Peoria Indian at Cahokia; street name: Pontiac Avenue (8332 W). [12, 37, 456b] [572]

Pool, Jasper W.  (c.1803-1883) born in Philadelphia, PA; came in October 1831; resided on North Water Street and was listed as a captain; in 1879 lived at 149 W Washington St., and died Jan. 24, 1884. [12] [351]

Poor, Jonathan H.  arrived in 1832 and became a charter member of Chicago`s first Presbyterian church when it was organized on June 26, 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [12, 319] [351]

Pope, Captain  a surveyor for the board of canal commissioners who, together with the chief engineer of the project, James M. Bucklin, lived in the Wolf Point Tavern during the second half of 1830 to map the canal route. [704]

Pope, Nathaniel  secretary of the Territory of Illinois under Governor Edwards, a cousin of the governor, and delegate to the U.S. Congress from the territory from 1815 to 1818; judge in the federal district court established in Illinois in 1819; in April 1818, when a bill for an enabling act to provide statehood for Illinois was being considered in the U.S. House of Representatives, Pope convinced the assembly that the new state of Illinois should have its northern border moved N by an additional 61 miles, deviating from the stipulation of the ordinance, in order for the state to gain access to Lake Michigan. Thus Chicago became part of the state of Illinois, and Illinois became more closely allied to the northern states, else possibly siding with southern slave states during a civil war yet to come. Pope was first judge to hold federal court in Chicago in 1837, the session taking place over Meeker`s store on Lake Street, between State and Dearborn. Nathaniel Pope School, 1852 S Albany Ave. [12]

Popple, Henry  mapmaker and secretary to England`s Queen Anne; on his 1733 mapA Map of the British Empire in America with the French and Spanish Settlements Adjacent Thereto, he spells Chicago as “Chigagou,” shows the portage and Mud Lake, places a Fort Miamis at the mouth of the Chicago River, omits the north branch, and gives the Des Plaines River a fictional shape. [682]

population figures  when Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet first came through Chicago in 1673, they found no Indian settlements. In c.1696, however, two large villages of Miami existed, one on the main part of the river, the other on the south branch, and they soon attracted French traders, missionaries and soldiers. By 1700, a population of close to 4,000 was estimated by de Liette, who then ran a trading post at Chicago. There is reason to believe that a few Frenchmen formed family units with Indian women in the Chicago area, beginning with the establishment of Father Pinet`s Jesuit mission in 1696 and continuing throughout the 18th century. Population figures are not existent for these early years. In the 1800 census of the Indiana Territory, to which Chicago then belonged, there were “100 souls” at Peoria, but Chicago was not mentioned.
All figures quoted for later years should be regarded with caution. For various reasons, there is no way of accurately determining the number of residents in Chicago for any given year prior to 1835. Many of the white newcomers were unregistered migrants, temporary workers, and others who would sooner or later move further west. To quote H.R. Hamilton: “To be sure it was not difficult to establish a status as resident; any person who stopped in Chicago long enough to pay a week`s board was considered a resident and if he bought a lot or hung up a sign of some kind he became an old inhabitant.” Most figures found in earlier literature refer only to male residents with voting privileges, or only to whites, omitting Indians or even métis, without specific acknowledgment. During the early boom period the population could triple within a single calender year, and therefore totals quoted for such years vary greatly, often by several hundred percent, depending on the month the count was made. The figures listed below have been proffered by various early visitors and commentators, among them de Liette, Schoolcraft, Colbert, Andreas, Beck, Hurlbut, Currey, and Lindell. For some years multiple divergent figures were obtained; in these instances the range is shown by presenting the lowest and highest figure for a given year. [12, 44, 154, 178, 262a, 350, 357, 373, 435]

1700 residents: 3,000-4,000 (mostly Indians)

1800 families: 2 or 3

1803 families: 4

1812 residents: c.40

1820 residents: c.60 houses: 10-12

1821 residents: 60-70

1825 residents: 75-100 homes: 14; voters: 35

1829 residents: 30 families: 8

1830 residents: 40-100 houses: 12-20

1831 residents: 60 houses: 12

1832 residents: 100-600 houses: 30

1833 residents: 200-4,000 buildings: 43-180

1834 residents: 800-2,000

1835 residents: 1,500-4,000 (+1,500 transients)

1836 residents: 3,500-4,000

1837 residents: 4,179 (census year)

1838 residents: 4,000

1839 residents: 4,200

1840 residents: 4,470-4,853

porcupine  Erethizon dorsatum; according to Hoffmeister, there are no reliable reports of porcupines occurring in Illinois during historic times, but the animal is mentioned in early French accounts as porc-epic, and as having been observed along the banks of the Illinois River. [342]

portage  in Potawatomi language: wbajawdon, a transitive word; any place or route over which boats and supplies are carried or transported overland between navigable bodies of water. Of major importance to Chicago and its development was the Chicago Portage, which links the Great Lakes with the Mississippi River system; specifically, it links the south branch of the Chicago River (called Portage Rivière by Father Marquette) with Mud Lake, which drains into the Des Plaines River-Illinois River-Mississippi chain. For additional details, see entries on Mud Lake and on Chicago Portage.
Indians and early explorers used many other portages to cross the continental divide between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River. Even in the Chicago area, there existed secondary portage routes, as between the north branch of the Chicago River and the Des Plaines River, of which present day Portage Park [bordered by Central, Berteau and Long avenues, as well as Irving Park Blvd., the latter marking the course of the old Indian portage trail] is a reminder; another lesser portage occasionally used was located further N at the level of Euclid Avenue, also between the Chicago River and the Des Plaines River; maps of the Des Plaines Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District indicate the western end of the portage. Yet another is the [see] Calumet portage. Additional old portages of importance to the Lake Michigan trade made use of the proximity between the St. Joseph and Kankakee rivers [see Kankakee–St. Joseph portage], the Calumet and various tributaries of the Kankakee River, the Milwaukee and Fox rivers, the Root River and the Fox River, and the Fox and Wisconsin rivers; the latter portage of two mile length having been used by Jolliet and Father Marquette when they discovered the Mississippi in 1673. The following is from de Liette’s memoirs, describing his Chicago portaging experience c.1688, and the particular difficulties caused by the shallowness of much of the Des Plaines River. [97a, 355, 640, 692g]
Excerpt from Liette’s memoirs:
The Illinois country is undeniably the most beautiful that is known anywhere between the mouth of the St. Lawrence River and that of the Mississippi, which are a thousand leagues apart. You begin to see its fertility at Chicago which is 140 leagues from Michillimackinac, at the end of Lake Michigan. The Chicago is a little stream only two leagues long bordered by prairies of equal dimensions in width. This is a route usually taken to go to this country. At this river a portage is made, of a quarter of a league in low water and of an arpent in high water. One finds a streamlet for half a league which comes from two little lakes that extend a league and a half, at the end of which, on the rising ground at this point, is made a short portage simply of one`s baggage. When the water is favorable one reembarks at once, but when it is low it is necessary to go a league. This is called the Portage of the Oaks; and it costs considerable effort to get the boat into this streamlet, which empties into the river[Des Plaines] which the French call the Illinois. However, this is not the Illinois, as we only come to that stream twenty leagues farther on. The passage is very difficult on account of the low waters which virtually render this river impracticable, because one ordinarily reaches this region only in summer or autumn. There are ten places where for half a league it is necessary to take out half of the baggage, and very often to remove it entirely, until the deep water is reached. It is necessary also sometimes to carry the canoe. There is a place even, called Mount Joliet, where there are four leagues of rapids, and where this must nearly always be done.
For another description of the portage, this one at high water in 1789, see entry on Armstrong, Lt. John. [12]

Portage Creek  small creek which drained Mud Lake into the Des Plaines River, located halfway between Riverside and Summit at 49th Street; was part of the Chicago Portage route; varied in length depending on the seasonal change in size of Mud Lake; figures given vary from 250 [Vierling] to 800 feet [Knight & Zeuch]. [413, 692d]

Portage des Chênes  also Portage aux chênes; French, Portage of the Oaks, an alternative name for the Chicago portage; see Point of Oaks. On Bellin’s 1744 map of the Great Lakes the Portage aux chênes is erroneously shown to arise from the north branch of the Chicago River, instead of the south branch.

Portage des Perches  French, Portage of the Poles; see Calumet portage.

Portage House  see Rector, William.

Portage Lake  see Mud Lake.

Portage Park  see Portage; Portage Park School, 5330 W Berteau Ave.

Portage River  according to Gurdon Hubbard, old name of the south branch of the Chicago River, used by local traders and trappers before 1800.

Portage Trail  also known as North Portage Trail, Old Portage Trail, and Long Portage Road; one of the major trails of early Chicago, parts of which are still traceable in the modern street pattern. From the Forks, the trail roughly followed but stayed N and W of the south branch; when it reached Mud Lake, the trail followed its northern shore [there was also a lesser known South Portage Trail]; as to the modern street pattern, it ran from Cicero Avenue and 34th Street to Madison and Stewart streets, keeping fairly parallel to but S of Ogden Avenue. Note map of the eastern ends of the Chicago portage trails, their connections to other trails, and their relation to the fords across the Des Plaines River. [The Water Way West, “Design Study for Chicago Portage.” William Rose & Associates, 1975]

Porter, Andrew  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

Porter, David Rittenhouse  (Oct. 31, 1788-Aug. 6, 1867) born in Norristown, PA; son of Lt. Col. Andrew and Elizabeth (née Parker) Porter; older brother of [see] George Bryan Porter; on September 28, the twelfth day of the 1833 Chicago Treaty, was chosen “to serve as purchaser and appraiser of horses for the use of Indians” jointly with Benjamin B. Kercheval and Pierre Menard by the Board of Commissioners. He died at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. [319]

Porter, George Bryan  (Feb. 9, 1791-1834) born in Norristown, PA; son of Lt. Col. Andrew and Elizabeth (née Parker) Porter; secretary of war in 1828, when he argued the need to regarrison Fort Dearborn because of the restlessness of Indian tribes in northern Illinois; became governor of Michigan Territory, appointed Aug. 6, 1831 by President Jackson, succeeding Governor Cass; one of three commissioners chosen by then Secretary of War Cass negotiating the land cession treaty with the local Indian tribes at Chicago in September 1833; died of cholera at Detroit on July 6, 1834. [319] [12]

Porter, Hibbard  (1806-1879) born in Jefferson County, NY; arrived in September 1833; a note in the Chicago Democrat of Dec. 31, 1833, indicates that his wife, Mary S. (née Shull), died in Watertown, NY, after an illness of four days; 1839 City Directory: Bristol (Robert C.) & Porter [forward/commission concern, agents for C.M. Reed], corner of State and South Water streets; died on May 30, 1879. [243, 351] [12]

Porter, Rev. Jeremiah  (Dec. 27, 1804-1893) Congregational minister, born in Hadley, MA, arrived on May 11, 1833, on the schooner Mayflower with Captain Fowle, Major Wilcox, and two companies of soldiers from Fort Brady (Sault Ste. Marie), where he had been serving as chaplain to the troops as a member of the American Home Mission Society; he came ashore on May 13; preached – Chicago’s 1st – sermon on Sunday morning, May 19, in the carpenter shop of Fort Dearborn, and on the same afternoon was invited to give another service in Father Walker’s log schoolhouse at Wolf Point; found quarters above Philip Peck’s store on the SE corner of South Water and LaSalle streets. On June 26, he organized the first Presbyterian church with nine settlers and 17 people from the fort; was an ardent moralist and enemy of alcohol, see below a quotation from a letter he wrote to a fellow preacher in 1833; often baptized believers in the river or at the beach, and frequently visited neighboring settlements on the DuPage, Desplaines, and Fox rivers; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. On June 15, 1835, he married the schoolteacher [see] Eliza Chappel; that year the church had its own building and the congregation was self-supporting, and he removed to Peoria; lived at Detroit in 1885; his grave site is located at Rosehill Cemetery. Also see Presbyterian congregation; Presbyterian church. [13, 237a, 319, 549, 550, 707]
Excerpt, Aug. 27, 1833 letter to Reverend Hovey, Indiana: … The Sabbath by multitudes is most shamefully abused; twenty stores & groceries are dealing out liquid death, while there are but two real temperance stores in the place and those kept by members of my church. In addition to these evils profaneness prevails to an extent such as I never witnessed before. The teams from the Wabash that visit us daily, seem to come loaded with cursing and bitterness. Their drivers appear almost as degraded as the miserable heathen around us. But profaneness does not stop with them. Many who call themselves gentlemen & move in the highest circle of society are embellishing, or polluting, almost every sentence they utter with some oath or curse. … [12]

Porter, Samuel Humes  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

Porter, William  of Vandalia; secretary of the board of canal commissioners, and member of the surveying party for the Illinois & Michigan Canal that visited Chicago in 1830 under James M. Bucklin, chief engineer. [704]

Porteret, Pierre  one of five voyageurs with Father Marquette and Jolliet on their historic expedition from St. Ignace mission on May 17, 1673, and again with Father Marquette on the latter’s 1674-75 trip to the Illinois region.

Porthier, Joseph  see Pothier, Joseph.

Post Boy  one of the first schooners, piloted by Captain Hixon from Michigan City and St. Joseph, that delivered oats and lumber to David Carver at Chicago on April 16 and 20, 1834; grounded near Michigan City later that month.

Post, Col. Justus  born in Addison, VT, graduated from West Point in 1812; trained engineer; served in the 1812 war. In 1823, employed by the initial canal commission, he surveyed the proposed path of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, together with René Paul creating a map: “Map of the proposed Illinois and Michigan Canal” (see Maps); street name: Post Place (228 W). [Of interest may be the fact that Chicago’s first and second post offices, under Postmaster Hogan, were located less than a block away from the short street named Post Place; could the street actually have been named for the post offices, rather than for Justus Post, as Hayner and McNamee believe? Eds.] [307a, 320] [12]

Post, T.M.  professor at the Illinois College, visited Chicago in the company of [see] Jonathan Baldwin Turner during the summer of 1833.

postal service  until 1820 the postal system of the federal government did not reach as far west as Chicago, and sending or receiving mail was a matter of individual initiative. An example of such is the -possibly – first letter ever sent from Fort Dearborn, written by Captain Whistler in 1803 and sent to [see] Samuel Abbott at Mackinac. – Chicago’s 1st – postmaster was [see] Jonathan N. Bailey, appointed by William T. Barry, Postmaster General under President Jackson, on Mar. 31, 1831; he initially worked out of the old Kinzie House, where he resided at the time of his appointment, and shortly thereafter out of a log cabin on the NE corner of Lake and South Water streets, 20-by-45 feet and built by [see] John Stephen Coats Hogan; only half of it was used for postal services, the other half serving as a store. [The structure is shown on the left of the accompanying illustration and is wrongly identified as “Chicago`s first post office,” but is actually the second {the first was the old Kinzie House}; the distant building in the center is the Wolf Point Tavern, and the one on the right is Miller`s Tavern]. Bailey hired Hogan as – Chicago’s 1st – postal clerk; he succeeded Bailey as postmaster on Nov. 2, 1832, and hired as postal clerks John Bates (1833) and John L. Wilson (1834); also in 1834, probably in July, Hogan moved the post office to a blacksmith shop that he rented from the blacksmith, Mathias Mason, on the SW corner of Franklin and South Water streets, where Thomas Watkins became postal assistant; Sidney Abell succeeded him as postmaster on Mar. 3, 1837. Postal business was slow prior to 1832, when mails would arrive from Detroit once a week by horseback from Niles, MI Territory; during 1832 mails, still weekly, required a one-horse wagon and later the same year one with two-horses, tri-weekly between Tecumseh and Niles (midwinter, mounted riders were used from Tecumseh to Chicago). Throughout 1833 daily Detroit-Tecumseh-Niles stages carried the mails; contracts from the postmaster general were granted to Oliver Breeze & Co. for delivery between Danville and Chicago once every two weeks for $600; weekly Route No. 83 extended from Decatur-Ottawa-Du Page-Chicago, made by Luther Stevens for $700; contractor Robert Oliver left Chicago by Romeo and Iroquois for Danville on Route No. 84 for $600. Dr. Temple secured a contract for carrying the mails between Chicago and Ottawa, had a post-carriage shipped by boat from Detroit and on Jan. 1, 1834, made the first coach trip to Ottawa, via Walker’s Grove [Plainfield]. In 1835 postal service between Chicago and other settlements was still exasperatingly slow and variable, as is made clear by the comment of an editor of the Chicago American in the October 3 edition, who states that the newspaper receives letters from Rochester, NY, in nine days, while Rochester subscribers complain that they receive the Chicago American 20 days after mailing; in 1836 direct mail routes were established from Chicago to Galena and Springfield. Arriving mail was not carried out, and had to be picked up at the post office. Notices would appear periodically in the Chicago Democrat, listing remaining letters; if not claimed, they would be regarded as dead letters. For movement of mails prior to April 1831, see entry under mail carriers. [389b, 722] [12]

postal service – early locations of post offices  

Potawatomi  possible meaning: `keeper of the fire`; truncated and dubbed Poux [`lice`] by the French; called canoe people by the Illinois, because waterways were their primary avenues of travel in birch bark canoes; an Algonquian tribe that occupied the southern shore of Lake Superior and the region about the Sault Ste. Marie when missionaries first came to New France; from there they relocated to Green Bay and along the western shore of Lake Michigan. By 1750, they had spread S to the Chicago and the St. Joseph region and beyond, displacing the Miami from Chicagoland and the Illinois from the Illinois River valley. At the beginning of the 19th century their homeland was northern Illinois, and they were the major Indian tribe to interact with the European immigrants in the Chicago region. Their alliances differed from village to village: the band under Black Bird, at the mouth of the Milwaukee River, was pro-American; Black Partridge’s people, at the mouth of the Chicago, and those of Windigo, at Lake Peoria, were neutral; Topenebe’s people, at St. Joseph, and those of Main Poche, on the Kankakee River, were pro-British. In 1835, the Chicago Potawatomi were relocated by the federal government to lands W of the Mississippi; street name: Potawatomie Street (8630 W). [120, 148, 229, 456b, 509] [35]

Potawatomi war dance  for an eyewitness description of the great war dance in Chicago on Aug. 18, 1835, see Chronology under that date; also see Hoyne, Leonora Maria Temple. [357] [120]

Pothier, Joseph  also Jean, also Porthier; arrived 1821 or 1822; French Catholic blacksmith and striker for David McKee; built his house in 1825 on the N side of the Chicago River, just W of McKee’s house; voted in the elections of Aug. 7, 1826, and of July 24, 1830 (see elections); on May 24 [Nov. 5?], 1828, he married [see] Victoire Mirandeau [note portrait], J.B. Beaubien officiating as justice of the peace; they had three children, of whom Marie and Helene were baptized by Father Badin on Sept. 26, 1831; later on October 5 he signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary PetitionIn the 1829 treaty at Prairie de Chien, Victoire received 1 1/2 section of land as a reservation on the Chicago River, between land granted to her sister Jane Mirandeau on the S and Billy Caldwell’s reservation on the N; some of her land is now part of the North Branch Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District. Pothier was an early member of the Catholic congregation, signing for a family of five on the 1833 petition to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to Chicago; was listed as Jean among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August that year; received $200 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty later in September, and Victoire received $700 for herself and her children; the family moved to Milwaukee in 1835, where he died in 1875. [319] [12]

Pothier, Victoire  née Mirandeau; married [see] Joseph Pothier in 1828. [13] [12]

Poulx, Jean Baptiste  see Proulx, Jean Baptiste.

Poux  early French for Potawatomi.

Powell, George N.  arrived in 1833, and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; 1839 City Directory: tavern-keeper, Milwaukee Avenue, known as “Powell’s Tavern”; a notice in the Chicago Democrat of Sept. 25, 1839, involves him in a pending court case; died prior to 1852. [319] [351]

Powers, William G.  born c.1813 in Auburn, NY; came in May 1835; 1839 City Directory: general merchant, boarded at the Lake House; in 1885 a William C. Powers was listed as living at 198 LaSalle Ave., but according to Adolphus Hubbard, William G. had died by 1879. [351] [12]

prairie  according to Beecher, the French used the word to designate the grassy fields of l’Ile de France around Paris, and then the French voyageurs transferred the appellation to the more extensive grasslands of the New World, the dominant type of landscape in Illinois before the arrival of the American farmer. The Grand Prairie extended from near the shore of Lake Michigan to the Mississippi, from Vincennes, IN, to the Wisconsin border, interrupted only by the occasional groves of trees, described by early visitors as resembling “islands of blue in a sea of green.” Botanical scholars distinguish between the eastern “tall grass prairie,” on the eastern edge of which Chicagoland was located, and areas of short grass and mixed grass distributed between the tall grass prairie and the Rocky Mountains. When cultivated, the prairie soil was so rich and deep that it did not require fertilizer for 100 years; but breaking the sod required gang plowing with four to eight yoke of oxen. Prior to destruction by settlers of the woods near the lake, the prairie reached the lakeshore only along a four-mile stretch between Oak Woods [now Hyde Park] and the main Chicago River. While there were low lying areas of “wet prairie,” across which travel was impossible during periods of rain, most of the prairie soil was well drained, dark, and rich, and thickly covered with Indian grass, bluejoint turkeyfoot (big bluestem), prairie beard grass (little bluestem), bluejoint, and many wildflowers, among them wild sunflowers. Also see eastern woodland, prairie fire; street name: Prairie Avenue (300 E), originally part of an old trail linking Fort Dearborn with Fort Wayne in Indiana. See descriptions of the prairie below by Jolliet, Hubbard, Walker, Benton, and Bigelow. Also see Hall, James, as well as entries under prairie fire; under entry on Bucklin, James M., for his description of traveling through the prairie; under entry on Father Hennepin. [47, 692a]
[Jolliet, 1673] At first, when we were told of these treeless lands, I imagined that it was a country ravaged by fire, where the soil was so poor that it could produce nothing. But we have certainly observed the contrary; and no better soil can be found, either for corn, for vines, or for any other fruit whatever. … There are prairies three, six teen, and twenty leagues in length, and three in width, surrounded by forests of the same extent; beyond these, the prairies begin again, so that there is as much of one sort of land than of the other. Sometimes we saw the grass very short, and, at other times, five or six feet high; hemp, which grows naturally there, reaches a height of eight feet. … A settler would not spend ten years in cutting down and burning the trees; on the very day of his arrival, he could put his plow into the ground.

[Gurdon S. Hubbard, 1818] Arriving in Douglas Grove, where the prairie could be seen through the oak woods, I landed, and climbing a tree, I gazed in admiration on the first prairie I had ever seen. The waving grass, intermingled with a rich profusion of wild flowers, was the most beautiful sight I had ever gazed upon. In the distance the grove of Blue Island loomed up, beyond it the timber on the Desplaines River, while to give animation to the scene, a herd of wild deer appeared, and a pair of red foxes emerged from the grass within gunshot of me.

[Henry S. Tanner, in 1832] The prospect of passing through these prairies in the spring season is delightful. … Often isolated clumps of trees stand like an island in the midst of the prairie. … The scene is forever changing, always picturesque, and beautiful. … The prairies are generally undulating, seldom exactly level, often slightly concave, so that in some cases, they have stagnant waters over their surface in the spring. Their soil is various but fertile. From May to October they are covered with tall grass and flower-producing weeds. In June and July, these prairies seem like an ocean of flowers, of various hues, and waving to the breezes which sweep over them. The heliotrope or sunflower, and other splendid vegetables which grow luxuriantly over these plains present a striking and delightful appearance. … The prairies are difficult to plow, on account of the firm grassy sward which covers them. But when subdued, they become fine arable lands.

[Capt. A. Walker, from his ship, 1832] There was no harbour accessible to any craft drawing more than two feet of water, hardly sufficient to admit the bateau in which the troops were landed. But little else was seen besides the broad expanse of prairie, with its gentle undulating surface, covered with grass and variegated flowers, stretching out far in the distance, resembling a great carpet interwoven with green, purple and gold; in one direction bounded only by the blue horizon, with no intervening woodland to obstruct the vision. The view in looking through the spy-glass from the upper deck of our steamer, while laying in the offing, was a most picturesque one, presenting a landscape with small groves of underwood, making the picture complete; combining the grand and beautiful in nature, far beyond anything I had before seen.

[Colbee C. Benton, 1833] The country about Chicago, for the distance of twelve miles from the lake, is mostly a low prairie covered with grass and beautiful flowers. Southwest from the town there is not one tree to be seen; the horizon rests upon the prairie. North, on the lake, is sandy hills and barren. Between there and the north branch is a swampy, marshy place, and there is a marshy place on the south branch. The town stands on the highest part of the prairie, and in the wet part of the season the water is so deep that it is necessary to wade from the town for some miles to gain the dry prairie. Notwithstanding the water standing on the prairie and the low, marshy places, and the dead-looking river, it is considered a healthy place. It has almost a continual lake breeze, which will explain in a measure the healthiness of the place. And another reason is the cleansing of the river water by the winds driving the pure lake water into and then running out again.

[Ellen Bigelow, 1835] In all my life, I never saw or dreamt of so beautiful a sight as the rolling prairies. … Nothing can equal the surpassing beauty of the rounded swells and the sunny hollows. The brilliant green of the grass, the numberless varieties and splendid hues of multitudes of flowers, I gazed in admiration too strong for words. We were at times in the midst of this vast expanse of plain, where not a tree was visible. Far as the eye could reach, nothing could be seen but “airy undulations” and smooth savannas. We occasionally found a grove, beautiful as can be imagined, entirely free from underbrush and made up of a great variety of the finest forest trees, some peculiar to this section of the country, as the cottonwood, coffeetree, hackberry and many others. Black walmut grows to an immense size and is very abundant. [121]

prairie chicken  Tympanuchus cupido; the greater prairie-chickens were an integral part of the tall grass prairie and vanished with it; today they survive in Illinois only in small remnant flocks on managed sanctuaries. They were hunted extensively by the pioneers and hated by the early farmers as pests who ferreted out and ate the newly planted grains; everyone was enlisted in the war against them, and sometimes fields had to be planted two or three times a season to replace the “varmint-snitched” seeds. Among early Chicagoans, many liked to hunt prairie chickens for pleasure and food; to quote Edwin O. Gale: “I have frequently seen him [Capt. L.C. Hugunin] and Richard L. Wilson, likewise an excellent shot, return from a day’s sport with their buggy well loaded with prairie chickens they had shot within the present city limits.” [64]

Prairie du Chien  an early Wisconsin pioneer community on the Mississippi, believed to have been founded by Pierre Antaya and first settled by French traders in the 18th century; later, even though it was in the U.S. Territory, British traders stockpiled arms and ammunition there for use in recapturing the area; in c.1800 the U.S. government set up an Indian Agency there under Nicolas Boilvin to undermine British trading influence; during the 1812 war a United States expeditionary force from St. Louis took possession of Prairie du Chien and built Fort Shelby in 1814, but the fort soon surrendered to the British; in 1816 United States troops occupied Prairie du Chien and built Fort Crawford which, like Fort Dearborn, was intermittently garrisoned until regarrisoned after the Winnebago War; for treaties of Prairie du Chien of 1825 and 1829 and their significance for Chicago, see those entries. [664a]

prairie fire  periodic fires occurred on a regular basis, usually in the fall, and appear to have been a factor in spreading the prairie eastward into the woodlands and limiting the growth of trees and bushes to the vicinity of rivers and ponds. Barce described them as follows: “…giant conflagrations, feeding on the tall, dry grass of the autumn savannas, and fanned into a fiery hurricane by the western winds, at night time illuminated the whole heavens, and sweeping onward with the speed of the wild horse, left nothing behind them but the blackened and smoking plains.” One such spectacular prairie fire about Chicago occurred in October 1834, and a recently erected building of Capt. Robert Hugunin, located two miles out into the prairie, was lost. For another description of the aftermath of a prairie fire near Chicago in 1830, see the entry for Bucklin, James M., for an excerpt of his report.

prairie fly  see green-headed fly.

prairie schooner  a name given to heavy wooden carts, a successor to the [see] Conestoga wagon, for use with five or six yoke of oxen, used for long-distance hauling across the prairie to and from Chicago, and elsewhere in the west; most Chicago-bound wagons came from the Wabash country and brought lumber, with the trip taking several days, and the crew taking provisions along and camping out at night; after selling their cargo and some of their oxen at Chicago, they would purchase salt, groceries, or dry goods, and “sail” home again; early Chicago merchants, such as J.K. Botsford and Thomas Church, and others on Market and South Water streets, benefited much from the prairie schooner trade that began with the boom period of the early 1830s.

praline  parched corn pounded and mixed with maple sugar, a small bagged provision carried within a saddlebag that, in the absence of other food, formed a traveler`s “piece de resistance“; see Godfrey, Col. Gabriel. [679a]

Pratt, Oscar  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; printer working for J. Calhoun’s Chicago Democrat in late autumn, together with Beckford. [319] [13]

Pre-Emption House  name of a tavern in the Greek Revival style which [see] George W. Laird built at the Naper settlement in 1834; county elections were held here; located on the corner of Water and Main streets, it was still standing in 1928. [415] [314a]

preachers and missionaries  the first missionaries in New France, in the Illinois region, and in Chicago were French Roman Catholic, and they accompanied early French explorers. A secular priest, Messieur Jessé Flêché, was in 1610 the first active missionary in New France. Then followed members of essentially one of two orders—Jesuits, founded by Loyola, or Récollets, founded by St. Francis. The first Jesuits arrived in 1611, Frs. Pierre Biard and Ennemond Massé, and the first Récollets in 1615, Frs. Denis Jamay, Jean d’Olbeau [Dolbeau?], and Joseph le Caron. The first Illinois mission was founded by the Jesuit Father Marquette in 1675, serving the Kaskaskia along the Illinois River, and the first Chicago mission in 1696 by Frs. Pierre François Pinet and Julien Bineteau. Best known of the Récollets in Illinois is probably Father Hennepin, who accompanied La Salle on his early travels. Beginning in 1764, the Jesuits were suppressed by the French authorities and had to abandon their missions and activities in Illinois and elsewhere. For information on individual missionaries and preachers, relevant either by their actual presence in the Chicago region or because they prepared the way for others, see the following separate entries: Claude Dablon (Catholic, 1655); Claude Allouez (Catholic, 1677); Jacques Marquette (Catholic, 1673); Louis Hennepin (Catholic, 1679); Zinobius Membré (Catholic, 1682); Claude Aveneau (Catholic, 1690); Julien Bineteau (Catholic, 1693); Pierre François Pinet (Catholic, 1696); Jean François Buisson de St. Cosme (Catholic, 1699); François Jolliet de Montigny (Catholic, 1699); Thaumur de la Source (Catholic, 1699); Antoine Davion (Catholic, 1699); Brother Alexandre (Catholic, 1699); Stephen D. Badin (Catholic, 1796); Isaac McCoy (Baptist, 1826); Jesse Walker (Methodist, 1826); Isaac Scarritt (Methodist, 1828); William See (Methodist, 1830); Stephen R. Beggs (Methodist, 1831); Adam Payne (1832); Jude Perrin Gary (Methodist, 1832); Joseph Rosati (Catholic, 1833); John Mary Irenaeus St. Cyr (Catholic, 1833); Jeremiah Porter (Presbyterian, 1833); Flavel Bascom (Presbyterian, 1833); Allen B. Freeman (Baptist, 1833); Henry Whitehead (Methodist, 1833); John T. Mitchell (Methodist, 1834); Palmer Dyer (Episcopalian, 1834); Isaac W. Hallam (Episcopalian, 1834); Isaac Taylor Hinton (Baptist, 1835); and Friedrich Buchholz (Lutheran, 1835).

preemption laws  by preemption right is understood the right of a settler, who occupied a parcel of land before the area had been surveyed by the federal government, to purchase it at the minimum price of $1.25 per acre, once the government began to sell the land. The right would shield him from having to bid competitively against others, especially land speculators. To secure a claim, a structure had to be built on the land. In 1841, Congress passed the general preemption law, but in earlier years, even before 1830, it had already granted preemption rights in response to local demands. From May 28 to June 30, 1835, the Government Land Office in Chicago sold land to bona fide settlers who had made their claims earlier under the preemption laws and now came to secure their titles.

Presbyterian congregation  was first organized on June 26, 1833, by [see] Rev. Jeremiah Porter, with 25 original members, 16 of them soldiers and officers from Fort Dearborn, among them the commandant Maj. DeLafayette Wilcox and Maj. John Fowle; the nine civilian members were Stephen Wright, John S. Wright, Philo Carpenter, Rufus Brown, Mrs. Elizabeth Brown, J.H. Poor, Mary Taylor (Mrs. Charles A. Taylor), Elizabeth Clark, and Mrs. Cynthia Brown. In the congregation’s first year, the membership increased to 66, and one of the active promoters was John S. Wright. In 1833 a library was started for the Sunday School [Chicago`s second library; for the first, see Jamieson, Lt. Louis T., Fort Dearborn]. Initially services were held in the carpenter shop of the fort, sometimes at Reverend Walker’s log cabin and schoolhouse at Wolf Point. The first communion was held on Sunday, July 7, 1833. Mr. Wright used to bring the “church library from Sabbath to Sabbath in a pocket handkerchief from his log store near the fort” [block 17, on Lake Street] until their own meeting house had been built by Joseph Meeker at a cost of $600 in an open field, the location later becoming the SW corner of Lake and Clark streets, and then dedicated on Jan. 4, 1834. Access was initially difficult because the its lot was “surrounded by sloughs and bogs.” In the Aug. 19, 1835, Chicago Democrat a notice invites townspeople to attend a sale of the Presbyterian Juvenile Society’s work on the next Saturday at Mrs. C. Taylor’s house. On Nov. 24, 1835, the congregation formally assumed the name “The First Presbyterian Church and Society of Chicago”; afterward Reverend Porter moved to Peoria, and not until July 1837 did the congregation find another pastor (Rev. John Blatchford); during the interval the pulpit was partly graced by Rev. Isaac T. Hinton, pastor of the first Baptist church, and others. The Chicago Harmonic Society gave a public concert on Dec. 11, 1835, at the Presbyterian church, – Chicago’s second. Between 1835 and 1837, the structure doubled as courthouse, in which hundreds of cases were tried, including the case involving J.B. Beaubien’s claim of the Fort Dearborn reservation. Under Reverend Blatchford the church had to be moved to Clark Street, S of Washington Street, because the title to the original plot had not been secured. In 1842, a Second Presbyterian Church organized itself in Chicago. See below Edwin O. Gale’s comments on the first prayer house of the Presbyterian congregation: “Considering that it was not designed for the Baptists it should have been placed nearer the future sidewalks as the long planks leading to the door could scarcely be distinguished from the water in the evening and bewildered Christians were occasionally immersed without the aid of clergy. It was not a very prepossessing structure and when one of our citizens with considerable local pride was showing it to a new arrival he felt deeply chagrined as his friend remarked: `I have often heard of God’s house, but I never saw his barn before.` ” [67a, 237a, 498, 514, 544, 550, 585b] [12]

Prescott, Eli Sherbourne  (1809-1879) born in Epsom, NH; later lived in Sackett`s Harbor, NY, where he married Nancy Bowen. From there the couple came to Chicago in 1833, where they purchased a lot and built a house on Lake Street between LaSalle and Wells streets; later built and lived in a brick home at the corner of Cass [Wabash] and Illinois streets, and on the Lake Street lot erected a large warehouse. In 1835 he likely partnered Illinois & Michigan Canal engineer [see] E.B. Talcott in [see] Talcott & Prescott. In 1839, under President Van Buren, Prescott became the receiver of the United States Land Office in Chicago, which office he held for two years (City Directory: 175 Lake); later served in the engineering department of the Illinois Michigan Canal construction; listed in the 1844 Directory: h[ouse] cor Ill. and Cass, nearly opp Episcopal Church. In 1855 his wife Nancy died; there were two children: Frank M. and Edward. In 1857 Eli married Amanda Crandall of New York; from 1872 on lived in Waugekan, WI, where he died. [498] [692h]

Prescott`s Island  a 20 acre island that existed in the Des Plaines River from c.1830 to 1883. Its northern end was at a level halfway between the present 45th Place and 46th Street in Lyons, IL, and its southern end halfway between 48th and 49th Streets of Chicago, if extended. It was named after [see] Eli Sherbourne Prescott, who also claimed much additional acreage along the W side of the river. The island ceased to exist in 1893 when the Sanitary District of Chicago had the flow through the eastern channel blocked as part of a project to prevent water from the Des Plaines River to spill by way of Mud Lake into the Chicago River during the annual spring floods. The attached excerpt from the 1865 map by A.J. Mathewson shows the former island well. Near its southern end flowed Portage Creek, coming from the east and intermittently draining water from Mud Lake into the Des Plaines. Near its northern end, also on the east, Mathewson’s map shows the presumed location of Laughton’s Trading Post during the late 1820s. This is the place where an inscribed but now heavily corroded granite boulder can be found in memory of the Laughton brothers` pioneering effort [see Laughton’s Trading Post in the Monument section]. However, a careful review of historical data by Philip Vierling and others shows that the trading post and the associated “Lawton’s” ford across the river was more likely located almost 1.75 miles upstream, where Barry Point Road now crosses the Des Plaines. [692h]

President  schooner from Buffalo under Captain Sweet, built at Black River, OH, in 1829; used for merchandise and passenger traffic; made three calls at Chicago in 1834 (April 20, June 12, Aug. 13) and two in 1835 (June 19 [delivering “supplies in Drugs, Perfumery, Oils, Paints, and Dye stuffs” to Frederick Thomas’ apothecary], Sept. 9); capsized on Lake Erie in 1836. [48]

Price, Jeremiah  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; returned from New York in 1835; purchased from John Noble and P.F.W. Peck lots 4 and 6 in block 18 and additional land in block 19 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; ran for assessor in 1837; 1839 City Directory: firewarden, South Water Street, near Wells Street; died in 1851. [319, 351] [12]

Price, Robert  first advertised in the Nov. 28, 1835, Chicago American as R. & W. Price, “London and New York Fashionable Tailors” in a store on Lake Street within one block of the Tremont House, “prepared to execute, in the neatest manner, and at the shortest notice, all work entrusted to them”; 1839 City Directory: tailor and clothier, 153 Lake St.

Prickett, William  also Prickitt; U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on June 6, 1806, and reenlisted in 1811; according to Eckert, he was one of the three soldiers killed in the volley fired after surrender at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [226, 708]

Prince Eugene  104-ton Canadian steamer, built in 1832; from Buffalo under Captain Patterson, called at Chicago on July 12, 1834, with merchandise; wrecked at St. Joseph in 1835. [48]

printing  see John Calhoun and Thomas O. Davis.

prison  Chicago’s 1st, a small log building, containing a single oaken cell, was erected on the LaSalle and Randolph corner of the public square in the autumn of 1833.

Procès Verbal  an official notarial French account or affidavit; for example, the report of the taking possession of Louisiane by La Salle in the name of the king of France in 1682. [46]

Procter, Maj. Gen. Henry A.  British commander during the 1812 war; disclaimed responsibility for the Fort Dearborn massacre; ordered Fort Dearborn captives ransomed from the Indians; pardoned Captain Heald. [109]

Procyon lotor  see raccoon.

Prophet, The  Tenskwatawa [meaning `open door`]; a Shawnee chief, trusted advisor, and mystic philosopher of great influence among the tribes of the Midwest in the early 19th century. Together with his half brother Tecumseh, he started a movement for confederated Indian regeneration and resistance to the advance of the American white settlers, but their effort met with disaster in the battle of Tippecanoe in 1811, and in subsequent developments in the War of 1812, which ended British influence in the Midwest and deprived the Shawnee of British support they had formerly enjoyed; ordered the arrest of Chicagoan John Kinzie for treason because, as an officer of the British Indian Department in 1813, he was attempting to win Tecumseh’s Indians to the American side. Also see Prophetstown; see Tenskwatawa for more etymological detail of The Prophet`s native name. [285a, 456b, 609, 643b] [212]

Prophetstown  Shawnee Indian village established by Tecumseh and his brother, The Prophet, early in 1805 near the remains of Fort Greene Ville and abandoned in 1808. The location was chosen to demonstrate their dissent from the stipulations of the 1795 Treaty of Greene Ville which ceded the land to the U.S. and which they had not signed. From this base the two leaders worked to build an Indian alliance that included many of the tribes E of the Mississippi and W of the Allegheny mountains. Recent archaeological work at the site of Prophetstown unearthed a silver trade brooch with the mark JK, believed to have been made by [see] John Kinzie between 1780 and 1808. [643b] [285a]

prostitution  appears to have become a publicly acknowledged Chicago problem for the first time in 1835, when the town council decreed a $25 fine for anyone convicted of keeping a brothel.

Proulx, Jean Baptiste  also Proux, Poulx; acquired one nail hammer for 25 cents and 147 gunflints for 35 cents at the W.H. Wallace estate sale on May 10, 1827; early member of the Catholic community, in April 1833 his name was on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. In 1781, a Canadian trade license was issued to a Bazile Proulx to trade at the Grand Calumet, near present Gary, IN. [220a, 319] [649]

Prouville, Alexandre, marquis de Tracy  see de Prouville, Alexandre, marqis de Tracy.

Prudhomme, Pierre  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. Prudhomme was the armorer for the group who wandered off into the woods near present Memphis, got lost, and caused a delay of several days while the party searched for him. [486a]

Pruyne, Peter  a young man with business acumen who arrived early in 1833 with the family of Dr. Kimberly; they promptly opened up a drugstore on South Water Street, W of Dearborn Street, next to the Kimball & Porter store; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; an ad for “P. Pruyne & Co.” is in the December 3 issue of the Chicago Democrat. On Aug. 26, 1835, he married Rebecca, only daughter of Silas W. Sherman, Reverend Hallam officiating; they had one child. On November 21 of that year, he submitted a claim for wharfing privileges; in December became a director of the Chicago branch of the Illinois State Bank. Served as state senator, but his term was cut short by death in November 1838. In November 1839, Rebecca married [see] Thomas Church, who also had lost his spouse earlier that year. [28, 221, 319, 544, 653] [12]

Pruyne, Rebecca Sherman  see Church, Thomas.

Puants, Bay of  early name for [see] Green Bay, Stinking Waters; actually, the original meaning of the term referred to the fact that the Winnebago, who lived there, were erroneously thought to have come from eastern coastal regions, where water carries an oceanic smell.

Puants  French for `to stink`; early French (Puans à la Baie) and British colonial term for member of the [see] Winnebago tribe. In the Jesuit Relations of 1647, writing from the Mission Sainte MariePère Ragueneau explained why the Winnebago were so called: “On [Lake Michigan] dwell other nations whose language is unknown, —that is, it is neither Algonkin nor Huron. These peoples are called the Puants, not because of any bad odor that is peculiar to them; but, because they say that they come from the shores of a far distant sea toward the North, the water of which is salt, they are called ’the people of the stinking water.` ” The Puants [Winnebago] inhabited the land surrounding Green Bay.

public building  – Chicago’s 1st – see estray pen; public square.

public square  first designated by James Thompson on his plat of August 1830, bounded by Clark, Washington, LaSalle, and Randolph streets (see Maps). The first public building erected with public funds on the SW corner of the square was the estray pen, a roofless corral for loose cattle, followed by the first courthouse, built on the NE corner in the fall of 1835.

public well  – Chicago’s 1st such well was dug and lined with stones in the Kinzie Addition (corner of Cass [Wabash] and Michigan streets) at a cost of $95.50, completed on Nov. 10, 1834, the first community effort to provide villagers with pure water.

Pugh, Jonathan H.  born in Kentucky; second lawyer to become established in Springfield (1823 or earlier); as a circuit rider, he represented Deborah Watkins in her divorce from [see] Morrison Watkins—the first recorded divorce; was canal commissioner in 1830, visiting Chicago in that capacity that summer, and on Sept. 4, purchased lot 1 in block 18 for $24 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; in 1835 this choice lot on South Water Street belonged to Isaac D. Harmon]; died in 1833. [220] [37]

Pugsley, Augustus  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Pukes  nickname for Missouri natives or residents, common in early Illinois. [55a]

puncheons  the halves of a split log, with the faces smoothed by an ax or adze; the stockade of Fort Dearborn was made of puncheons, as were the floors of log cabins and much of the furniture.

punk  tinder, such as dry fungus or dry rotten wood, used to ignite a fire in conjunction with sparks from steel and flint.

Puthuff, Maj. William Henry  born in Virginia; served in the Adjutant Ohio Volunteers in 1812 and 1813; became a major in the 2nd rifle regiment in 1814, employed at Detroit; honorably discharged, he was made Indian agent and stationed at Mackinac from early autumn 1815 to 1824; became president of the village in 1817; in September 1821, “1 pr. Cart Wheels,” worth $16.85, was shipped under his name to Chicago from Michilimackinac on the schooner Ann, likely to be collected there by the major; died at Detroit July 16, 1824. [262a, 326, 571a] [10aa]

Putnam County, Illinois  Chicago became part of Putnam County on Jan. 13, 1825, but county administrative functions were handled by adjacent Peoria County. On Jan. 15, 1831, Cook County was created out of the part of Putnam County that included Chicago. For details, see jurisdiction. [335a, 544] [436a]