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J.C. Spencer  86-ton schooner from Buffalo, NY, under Captain Walker, built at Black River, OH, in 1834; called at Chicago with passengers and merchandise on June 20, 1835, and again on Aug. 7 and Nov. 13; lost on Lake Michigan in 1843. [48]

Jackson, Andrew  native of SC; seventh U.S. president, serving from 1829-1837; during his two terms, although he was vehemently opposed to internal improvements such as the Chicago harbor and the Illinois & Michigan Canal, Chicago rapidly developed from a sleepy settlement into a vibrant city. Jackson’s Tennessee home was The Hermitage, E of Nashville; he was buried on the grounds of this estate; street names: Jackson Boulevard, Jackson Drive (both at 300 S); Hermitage Avenue (1732 W).

Jackson, Carding  arrived from New York in 1835; in later years, served as deputy grand master of the Masons; 1839 City Directory: farmer, Vincennes Avenue.

Jackson, Charles  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; during that summer he furnished 500 logs, at $3.75 a log, for the Chicago harbor project under contract with Major Bender; each log was 30 feet long, 14 inches in diameter, and hewn on two sides. [319]

Jackson, Charles  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; during that summer he furnished 500 logs, at $3.75 a log, for the Chicago harbor project under contract with Major Bender; each log was 30 feet long, 14 inches in diameter, and hewn on two sides. [319]

Jackson, Samuel T.  (1800-1849) born in Connecticut; employed on the public works of the Buffalo harbor [had worked under William Jones there]; recommended to and appointed by the federal government to build the public works of Chicago; said to have arrived from Buffalo by schooner in May 1833 with his wife Lucinda [née Davis, married Nov. 21, 1822], but others report him to have been the building contractor who erected the first Chicago lighthouse in 1832 that collapsed before the end of the year (for details, see entry for lighthouse); he and his wife were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; that summer was construction foreman in charge of the pile driver at the harbor site under Maj. Geo. Bender. In 1837 he served as alderman of the fifth ward while also working as a foreman of harbor improvements; 1839 Chicago Directory: Government works, near Garrison; 1844 Chicago Directory: overseer of harbor, res Fort Dearborn. ” S. E. Jackson” is also listed in the 1844 Chicago Directory: res at Samuel Jackson`s – possibly his son. Samuel was responsible for all government property in Chicago until his death by cholera. [12, 13, 319]

Jackson  a schooner that called at Chicago on Oct. 29, 1819; John Kinzie requested to send goods to Mackinac.

Jacox, Abijah  or James Jacocks. According to [see] J.D. Bonnell, a Mr. Jackeax organized a dancing school once a week at the New York House during the winter of 1835-36, “which called out the elite of the city”; the name was one of several which Bonnell did not remember exactly. Within the voting registers in the Territorial Papers of the United States, Vol. 11, pp. 874-75, are found the names of James Jacocks and Abijah Jacox, two residents at Monguagon, Wayne County; Jacox is a taxpayer there in 1825. Possibly a member of either family was the dance instructor that winter. [649]

jail  – Chicago’s 1st – jail was built in the fall of 1833 on the NW corner of the public square; existent until 1853.

Jamboe, Paul  voted on Aug. 7, 1828 [see Chronology].

Jamison, Capt. Louis Thornton  Fifth Infantry; from Virginia, came from Fort Brady to serve at Fort Dearborn when regarrisoned, from May 14, 1833, to December 1936; – Chicago’s 1st – librarian, in charge of the library at the fort to “encourage reading among its inmates”; was a charter member of the first Presbyterian church in June that year; later signed as witness on the September 1833 Indian Treaty of Chicago, and in November was on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat; signed as witness on the September 1833 Indian Treaty of Chicago, and his wife Nancy and their child received $800; became a successful real estate dealer during the speculative fever that gripped the town in the mid 1830s; during 1835 he supervised harbor construction and in November became a vice president of the Chicago Bible Society and president of the Lyceum the following month; wife Nancy died in February 1837, and in May, he became the last military occupant of Fort Dearborn after Captain Plympton and Sgt. Joseph Adams left; later married Mary E. McClure; 1839 City Directory: Capt. Louis T. Jamison, Garrison; died in 1858 in Texas. [237a] [12]

Janis, A.  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Aug. 27, 1809, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Jarret, Jacques  fur trader with a mobile trading post. In the summer of 1814 he entered the Illinois River by way of the Chicago Portage with a batteau loaded with trade goods. With him were three boatsmen, one of them an Englishman named John Ford. Stopping at various places along the river, they traded with the Indians. [692c]

Jayne, Gershom  physician and druggist of Springfield; one of the first three commissioners for the development of the Illinois & Michigan Canal who visited Chicago in the summer of 1830, and may have acquired five lots in block 4. [704]

Jay`s Treaty  see treaties, 1794.

Jefferson Barracks  near St. Louis; western headquarters of the U.S. Army during the Fort Dearborn era.

Jefferson, Joseph  born in 1828 at Philadelphia; youngest of a family of comedians, father and grandfather with identical names; the family gave several guest performances in Chicago in the summer of 1838 at the [see] Rialto, where Joseph’s uncle Alexander McKenzie was manager and promoter; they moved on to Galena, Dubuque, Springfield, and farther south. While beyond the time frame set for this book, the editors include Joseph’s unique impression left by the journey and the fledgling town on the mind of a bright child visitor; 1839 City Directory: (Joe) comedian Chicago Theatre. [12, 243, 367]

In the year 1838 the new town of Chicago had just turned from an Indian village into a thriving little place, and my uncle [Alexander McKenzie] had written to my father urging him to join in the management of the new theatre which was then being built there. … He had scarcely finished the letter when he declared that our fortunes were made, so we turned our faces toward the setting sun. … As I remember it, our journey was long, but not tedious. We traveled part of the way in a fast-sailing packet-boat on the Erie Canal, the only smoke issuing from the caboose stove-pipe. I can remember our party admiring this craft with the same enthusiasm that we now express in looking at a fine ocean steamer. She was painted white and green and enlivened with blue window blinds, and a broad red stripe running from bow to stern. Her name was the Pioneer, which was to us most suggestive, as our little band was among the early dramatic emigrants to the far West. The boat resembled Noah`s ark with a flat roof, and my father, like the patriarch of old, took his entire family on board, with this difference, however — he was required to pay his passage, it being understood between him and the captain that he should stop a night in Utica and one in Syracuse, give a theatrical entertainment in each place, and hand over the receipts in payment of our fare. … In a few days we steamed up the beautiful lakes of Huron, Erie, and Michigan. The boat would stop some times for hours at one of the stations to take in wood, or a stray passenger, and then the Indians would paddle out to us in their canoes offering their beadwork and moccasins for sale. Sometimes we would go ashore and walk on the beach gathering pebbles, carnelians, and agates. I thought them of immense value, and kept my treasures for years afterwards. … So day by day passed, till one night a light is espied in the distance, then another, and then many more dance and reflect themselves in the water. It is too late to go ashore, so we drop anchor. At sunrise we are all on deck, looking at the haven of our destination, and there in the morning light, on the shores of Lake Michigan, stands the little town of Chicago, containing two thousand inhabitants. … The captain said he had enjoyed a splendid trip, such fun, such musik and singing and dancing. “Well, good-bye all,” “Good luck”; and off we go ashore and walk through the busy little town, busy even then, people hurrying to and fro, frame buildings going up, board sidewalks going down, new hotels, new churches, new theatres, everything new. Saw and hammer, — saw, saw, bang, bang, — look out for the drays!— bright and muddy streets, — gaudy-colored calicos, — blue and red flannel and striped ticking hanging outside the dry-goods stores, — bar-rooms, — real-estate offices, — attorneys-at-law—oceans of them. ” `And now for the new theatre [Rialto], newly painted canvas, tack-hammer at work on stuffed seats in the dress-circle, planing boards in the pit, new drop-curtain let down for inspection, beautiful …! With what delight the actors looked forward to the opening of a new theatre in a new town, where dramatic entertainments were still unknown — repairing their wardrobes, studying their new parts, and speculating on the laurels that were to be won! ‘ ” After a short season in Chicago, with the varying success which in those days always attended the drama, the company went to Galena for a short season, traveling in open wagons over the prairie. Our seats were the trunks that contained the wardrobe … these smooth hair trunks … so one may imagine the difficulty we had in holding on while jolting over a rough prairie. [482]

Jefferson, Joseph  father of the boy in the previous entry; following their 1838 performance, partnered his brother-in-law, Alexander McKenzie, in the management of the Chicago Theatre on Dearborn Street; Jefferson & McKenzie.

Jefferson, Thomas  native of Virginia; third U.S. president, serving from 1801-1809; principal author of the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson had a life-long interest in ethnology in general and in United States relations with the Indians in particular; all lands west, [see] Western Territory, had also long been of great concern to him, and information was acquired wherever possible, i.e. [see] tornado. In 1803 he nearly doubled the size of the United States and assured its dominance in North America by spearheading the acquisition of La Louisianne from France. Subsequently, he commissioned the 4,000-mile expedition led by [see] Lewis and Clark to explore the unknown territories of the West. Under Henry Dearborn, Jefferson’s secretary of war, the first Fort Dearborn was built on the bank of the Chicago River. On Aug. 10, 1833, the town board defined Jefferson Street as the town’s western limit. Thomas Jefferson School, 1522 W Fillmore St.; street name: Jefferson Street (600 W).

Jefferson, Thomas, Sr.  settled in Dutchman’s Grove [now within the limits of Niles Township] in 1834, where his son Thomas still lived in the old homestead in 1884. [13]

Jefferson  lake schooner, called at Chicago on Nov. 19, 1834, from French Creek, NY, with Capt. Robert Hugunin; piloted by Archibald Caldwell from Green Bay to Chicago; called again on Sept. 14, 1835, under Captain Briggs; lost on Lake Michigan in 1844. [48]

Jeneaux, Pierre  also Junio, Junier; worked as a “hireling” for W.H. Wallace at $20 a month from July 1, 1826 to May 5, 1827, and had a balance of $62.75 due from the Wallace estate, as testified by John Kinzie and Claude LaFramboise on May 12, 1827; voted on Aug. 7, 1826 [see Chronology]. [220a]

Jenkins, Elizabeth  see Whitehead, Rev. Henry.

Jenkins, Thomas  operated a general store on South Water Street in 1835 between Dearborn and Clark, first in a partnership with William Hissey (dissolution July 19), then with Joseph Atkinson, advertising as Jenkins & Atkinson in the Chicago American [see adjacent ad]; this partnership terminated on November 27; in October Thomas signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, a voluntary fire brigade; in January 1836 he formed a partnership with the druggist next door, Frederick Thomas, and within months succeeded as sole owner of the entire business, continuing as a combination drug and variety store under the name Chicago New Drug and Medicine Store; 1839 City Directory: dry goods, &c.;, Lake Street near Clark. [12]

Jenkins, –  a Fort Deaborn soldier who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 28, 1817, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Jesse Smith  schooner, built at Clayton, Lake Ontario, in 1832; came from Oswego, NY, when it first called at Chicago on June 13, 1834, under Captain Boothe with passengers and merchandise, then specialized in lumber transport from Green Bay; there were six more calls in 1834, and eight in 1835, first under Captain Drurian, then Captain Brooks– returning from [see] Sheboygen on October 17, as per notice in the Chicago Democrat. [48]

Jesuit Drops  a patent medicine compounded of brandy and laudanum; addictive; appearently enjoyed by members of the British Indian Department during the war of 1812, among them Billy Caldwell. [149a]

Jesuit Relations  documents published annually by Sébastien Cramoisy in Paris from 1632 to 1673, consisting of the regular relations (reports) sent by North American missionaries to their Jesuit superiors; they have become an important source of historic, geographic, and ethnographic information on 17th-century New France, including the Chicago area. In 1858, the Canadian government reissued the Cramoisy series in Quebec; from 1896 to 1901, under the editorial guidance of the historian Reuben Gold Thwaites, then secretary of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, not only the Jesuit Relations but numerous additional related documents—spanning a period from 1610 to 1791—were translated into English from the original French, Latin, and Italian and were published together by the Burrows Brothers Co. in Cleveland, OH, under the title Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents [73 volumes]; see Bibliography. In 1925, Edna Kenton published in a single volume a selection of the most important Relations, thereby making this essential historical material available to a broad readership. The accompanying title page of the Jesuit Relations was issued for the years 1642/1643. [208, 399] [665]

Jesuits  members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic order founded in 1540 by St. Ignatius of Loyola [see image on medallion] under Pope Paul III, which, from 1611 to 1763, played a major role in establishing New France; as missionaries the Jesuits sought to convert Indians to Catholicism, an effort that led them deep into the North American continent, including the future site of Chicago [see Marquette, Père Jacques]. Through their [see] Jesuit Relations, allied documents, and map-making efforts they described and interpreted the New World to a seventeenth century Europe watching with fascination. Historians of subsequent centuries have much to thank them for; Edna Kenton [see Bibliography] wrote as follows: “… the records of the Jesuits speak for themselves as authentic documents and for their writers as scholars, most of them; as statesmen, some of them; but for all of them, above all else, as brave men. To them we owe, and we will owe always the best we have of our early history, written on the spot and in the hour of its making.” The first Jesuit missionaries to arrive in New France were Father Pierre Biard and Father Ennemond Massé (1611). Missionary work among the Indians demanded great sacrifices; for a 1697 report from Father François De Crepeuil, S.J., detailing some of the daily problems confronting him during his 26 years of service in the wilderness, see below. The Society of Jesus was abolished by French secular order in 1763 (Pope Clement XIV), but was reestablished in 1814 by Pope Pius VII.

Father François’ report, taken unedited from The Jesuit Relations and Allied Documents, lxv, Doc. clxx: THE LIFE OF A MONTAGNAIX MISSIONARY, PRESENTED TO HIS SUCCESSORS IN THE MONTAGNAIX MISSION FOR THEIR INSTRUCTION AND GREATER CONSOLATION. By Father François De crepeuil, Jesuit, and an unprofitable servant of the Missions on canada from 1671 to 1697,—which completes the 26th wintering of The Service of The Tadoussak Mission, and the 4th at The Mission of st. Xavier,—at chegoutimy, April 21, 1697.

The life of a Montagnaix Missionary is a Long and slow Martyrdom:
Is an almost continual practice of patience and of Mortification:
Is a truly penitential and Humiliating life, especially in the cabins, and on journies with the Savages.
1 The cabin is made of poles and Birch-bark; and Fir-Branches are placed around it to cover the Snow and The frozen Ground.
2 During nearly all the day, The Missionary remaines in a sitting or kneeling position, exposed to an almost continual smoke during The Winter.
3 Sometimes he perspires in the day-time and most frequently is cold during The Night. He sleeps in his clothes upon The frozen Ground, and sometimes on the Snow covered with Fir-Branches, which are very hard.
4 He eats from an ouragan (dish) that is very seldom clean or washed, and in most cases is wiped with a greasy piece of skin, or is Licked by The dogs. He eats when there is anything to eat, and when some is offered to him. Sometimes the meat is only half-cooked; Sometimes it is very tough, especially when Smoked (dried in the smoke). As a rule, they have a good meal only once—or, when provisions are abundant twice; but it does not last long.
5 The savage Shoes, or the dogs’ hairy skins, serve him as napkins, as the hair of the Savage men and women serves them.
6 His usual Beverage is water from the Streams or from some pond—sometimes melted snow, in an ouragan that is usually quite greasy.
7 He often scorches his clothes, or his blanket, or his stockings during the Night—especially when the cabin is small or narrow. He cannot stretch himself, but he corles himself up, and his head rests upon the snow covered with fir-branches; this chilles his brain, and gives him toothache, &c.;
8 He always sleeps with his clothes on, and takes off his cassock and his Stockings only to protect himself against vermin, which always swarm on the Savages, especially the Children.
9 Usually when he wakes he finds himself surrounded by dogs. I have sometimes had 6, 8, or 10 around me.
10 The smoke is sometimes so strong that it makes his eyes weep; and when he sleeps he feels as if some one had thrown salt into his eyes; when he Awakes, he has much difficulty in opening them.
11 When the Snow Thaws, while he is walking upon Lakes or long Rivers, he is so dazzled for 4 or 5 days by the water that drops continually from his eyes that he cannot read his Breviary. Sometimes he has to be led by the hand. This has happened to father Silvy, to father Dalmas, and to myself; while on the march I could not see further than the edge of my Snowshoes.
12 He is often annoyed by little Children, by their cries, their weeping, &c.; and sometimes he is made ill by the stench of those who have Scrofula, with whom he even Drinks out of the same kettle. I have spent more than 8 days in the cabin of Kawitaskawat, the chief man among the Mystassins, and have slept near his son, who was troubled with that disease; and the stench from him often caused me nausea, both by day and night. I have also eaten and drank from his ouragan. 

13 He is sometimes reduced to drinking only water obtained from melted snow, which smells of smoke and is very dirty. For 3 Weeks I have drank nothing else, while I was with Strangers in the Region of Peokwagamy. I have never seen Savages dirtier than these, as regards eating, drinking and sleeping. Among them the meat was often covered with moose-hairs or Sand. An old women, with her long nails, gathered up handfuls of grease in the Kettle into which Snow had been thrown, and then offered it to us to eat, in a very dirty ouragan: and all drank broth out of the same Kettle.
14 In the summer-time, while Traveling, especially on the Saguenay and on the great River, he often drinks the very dirty water obtained from Ponds. During 3 days, while detained by contrary winds, we drank no other water. Sometimes the Wind compels him to take refuge in Places where there is none at all. This has happened to me more than once—indeed, more than 3 times. I have even been obliged to drink from Ponds in which I Saw toads, &c.;
15 In most cases during the winter, while on long and difficult journeys, he does not find a drop of water wherewith to quench his thirst, although exhausted with toils and fatigues.
16 He suffers greatly from cold and from smoke, before the Cabin is finished, for 2 or 3 hours when the Weather is very severe in winter. His shirt, which is whet with perspiration, and his soaked stockings, render him Benumbed with cold; he suffers also from Hunger, because in most cases he has had nothing but a piece of dried meat, eaten before the camp was struck.
17 Suffering and hardship are the appanages of these holy but arduous Missions. Facit Deus ut iis diu immoretur et immoriatur Servus Inutilis Missionum Franciscus, S.J
. (God grant that in them may long remain and die the Useless Servant of the Missions, François, S.J.) [12, 205 208, 219a, 399] [518]

Jeuture, John  a trader who sold “one Negro wench by indenture” to John Kinzie on Apr. 25, 1809; Kinzie immediately resold her to François Bourbonnais, Sr., as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Jewett, William P.  voted on July 24 and Nov. 25, 1830 (see elections); on the first day of government land sales in 1830, he purchased lots 5 and 6 in block 28 [see Maps section, 1834, John S. Wright], but by 1832 these lots were listed in the name of Lemuel Brown; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

jikag  also jigak; Chippewa word for skunk; this has given rise to a theory that the original name “Chicago” means skunk rather than wild garlic; for more details see entry under Chicago name.

Joefroy, Barie  also listed as Toeffrey, Basil; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Nov. 1, 1804 and on Oct. 28, 1805, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

John Grant  93-ton schooner from Buffalo, NY; arrived under Captain Nelson at Chicago with passengers and merchandise on June 15, 1835, and later on September 30 and November 18; capsized on Lake Erie in 1845. [48]

John Grant Jr.  schooner under Captain Rogers; called from Buffalo, NY, with merchandise on July 9, 1834.

John Kinzie  brig, built in 1833; piloted by Captain Bristol in 1834, under Captain Grove in 1835; first called at Chicago from Detroit on May 25, 1834, calling five more times that year, twice in 1835; carried merchandise, lumber, and passengers. [48]

Johnson, Adon A.  a laborer, born at Grand Isle, VT; enlisted in the army for three years at age 22 at South Harbor, NY, on April 26, 1833; as listed in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American he was one of 15 deserters from the Fort Dearborn Garrison between January 1 and July 28, prior to the withdrawal of all troops on December 29 that year. He deserted on February 23 and a reward of $450 was offered for his apprehension. (Chicago Genealogy Club, v. 2, no. 1, September 1969)

Johnson, Capt. Seth  Second Infantry; served at Fort Dearborn from June 17, 1832, to May 15, 1833, under Maj. William Whistler; his wife (née Spence, sister of [see] Agnes and James Spence), active in organizing the library of the Presbyterian church, lived with him at the fort; conducted religious services at the fort during the winter of 1832-33, with villagers invited and attending; in c.1832 he purchased from J.B. Beaubien, together with Robert Stewart [Robert Stuart?], lot 3 in block 36 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; Seth and his wife were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; in 1834 returned to Chicago as a civilian; 1839 City Directory: north branch, W side; Seth, Jr., is also listed as a student with Dr. J. Jay Stuart; in 1843, became collector of revenue for the Chicago port. Also see McClure, Josiah E., for a possible daughter of Captain and Mrs. Johnson. [319, 432] [12]

Johnson, Clementine  see Graves, Henry.

Johnson, David  name in the customer account book of the printer John Calhoun under the date of Aug. 22, 1834; a Norwegian sailor. [389a] [12]

Johnson, George  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Johnson, Harriet  see McClure, Josiah E.

Johnson, John  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 26, July 26 and Aug. 20, 1805, and again on April 26, 1819, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. In July 1811 Johnson was the U.S. Factor at Fort Wayne to whom [see] Jean Baptiste Lalime wrote to recount Potawatomi depredations against settlers; received $100 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12, 319] [404]

Johnson, Lathrop  (1802-1881) from Cazenovia, NY; came in September 1834 [1832 according to Gale]; builder and co-owner of New York House with George Stevens; the hotel was built on the N side of Lake Street in 1834 and opened in 1835; a notice in the Chicago American on June 15, 1835, announced the dissolution of a livery partnership with J.N. Stuart; the partnership with Stevens was dissolved on Sept. 1 though they worked together through December, when he alone announced the hotel would be “kept as heretofore”; late that year filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 4, block 19; in the spring of 1836 organized the first stage to Milwaukee on the Green Bay Road; 1839 City Directory: [Johnston] boarded at New York House; left for Lake Superior in 1846. [544]

Johnson, Maria Louisa  see Gray, Charles M.

Johnson, Peter  arrived from Maryland in 1833 and was, with his wife Maglen E., in the group of first communicants of St. James Episcopal Church, together with Dr. Maxwell and members of the John H. Kinzie family. [733] [12]

Johnson, Richard  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Johnson, Sanford  a builder from Virginia, arrived in 1833; served in the voluntary fire brigade in 1835; 1839 City Directory: [Johnston] carpenter, boarded at Chicago Hotel.

Johnson, William  member of the Fort Dearborn garrison that had arrived from Fort Brady in the spring of 1833, together with Reverend Porter; became a charter member of the first Presbyterian church when it organized on June 26, 1833; purchased in c.1833 from Robert A. Kinzie lots 5 and 8 on W Water Road in block 44 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. In 1839 a William Johnson is listed with a haircutting and shaving saloon [sic] on Clark Street. [319] [12]

Johnston, Charles  a corporal who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 14, June 15, June 16 and on July 4 of 1804, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Johnston, Samuel  voted on Aug. 7, 1826 and May 11, 1828 [see Chronology section]; was present at the sale of the W.H. Wallace estate on April 27, 1827, and acquired “one light casimere [sic] vest.” [220a]

Johnston, William  traveled to Chicago from Fort Wayne in 1809, wrote a detailed account of his experience, and observed that Fort Dearborn was “the neatest and the best wooden garrison in the United States”; more of his notes follow.

… The road still keeps along the beach of the lake—and twelve miles further is the mouth of the Grand Calumic [Calumet]. Here the sand mountain ends. Twenty miles farther is the mouth of the Little Calumic [Calumet]. These two rivers are of the greatest consequence to the traders on the lake. They are both about twenty yards wide at their mouths and very deep. One, however, is considerably longer than the other. There is a communication between these two streams, which in case of a storm on the lake, the traders can run up one for several miles, and then cross into the other, and return down it again into the lake. It is twelve miles from the little Calumic to the mouth of the Chicago river. Here the United States have erected a garrison for the protection of trade in this country. This garrison does great honor to Capt. John Whistler, who planned and built it. It is the neatest and best wooden garrison in the United States. This place guards the entrance of the Chicago river. Between this stream and the Illinois, there is a direct communication by water. This river Des Plain [sicwhich is one of the main forks of the Illinois, has its source near the bank of the lake. Nine miles from Fort Dearbourn it bears off to the west. At this bend there is a long pond communicates with it. This pond runs about four miles eastward towards the lake, where it terminates in a small creek, which flows into the Chicago river. This creek is about two miles long, and in the spring of the year any kind of craft may sail out of the lake into the Mississippi without being unloaded. The United States Factor at Fort Dearbourn measured the elevation of land between the lake and the river Des Plains, and found it to be four feet on the Lake side, and five on the other. Thus by digging a canal of nine feet deep, a passage could be had at any season in the year, from the falls of Niagara to the mouth of the Mississippi, without a single foot of land carriage. This canal would be about six miles long, through a beautiful prairie. There is a quarry of limestone near this place, which would make excellent casing for the canal. · While at Fort Dearbourn, I was informed that there were several boats at the Portage which would cross the next day. I accordingly went in company with Mr. Varnum and Capt. Whistler’s son to the portage to see them pass over. The water at this time was low, it being about the twentieth of June. The boats could not pass loaded; but I had the pleasure of seeing them sail out of the river Des Plains into the Pond—thence thro` the creek before mentioned into the Chicago river. The loading was carried over the portage in wagons, and again put into the boats at the head of the Chicago. There is a custom house kept at Fort Dearbourn, where all traders are obliged to make an entry of their goods. · The public officers stationed here are Maj. Charles Jewitt [Jouett], agent for Indian affairs; W. Geo. [Joseph] B. Varnum, Factor and Commissary; Capt. John Whistler, Commandant; Lieutenants Hamilton and Thompson. There are about sixty soldiers in this garrison, and so healthy has been the place that Capt. Whistler informed me he had not lost but six men in nearly eight years. And he has the same men now that who built the Fort—although their time of service expired, they all again enlisted—an evidence that he is a good officer and worthy of his trust. · Fort Dearbourn is beautifully situated on the bank of the Lake. It is bounded on the land side by an extensive Prairie, interspersed with groves of trees, which gives it a delightful and picturesque appearance. This lake abounds abounds with fish of an excellent quality. The White fish are caught here in great abundance. These are probably the best fresh water fish in the American waters. The surge of the lake beating always against the shore, frequently throws out large fish on the sand. I took up several Perch and Pickerel that would weigh ten pounds—some of them alive; but the beach is frequented by flocks of crows, buzzards, gulls, &c.;, which soon devour them as fast as they are thrown upon the shore. [378]

Joliet, IL  a city on the Illinois River, named in honor of the explorer [see Louis Jolliet] but spelled differently from its original namesake.

Jolliet, Louis  (1645-1700) [the final ‘t’ of the family name is pronounced; eds.] Canadian explorer; son of Jean and Marie (née Abancour) Jolliet of Beaupré, baptized at Quebec city on September 21, 1645; educated at the Jesuit College of Quebec together with his older brother Adrien [who was born c.1641 and died in 1669 of a febrile illness]; Louis was headquartered as trader and explorer at Sault Ste. Marie from 1669 on; after 1673 he became the official Canadian cartographer. With Father Marquette, Jolliet was one of the first Europeans recorded to have passed through the Chicago River; passage took place in September 1673, when they were eastbound and returning from a 2,500 mile trip, commissioned by Governor Frontenac, that took them from the Mission of St. François Xavier by way of Prairie du Chien to the Mississippi, S to the Arkansas River, and back through the Illinois River, Des Plaines River, Chicago Portage, Chicago River, and Lake Michigan. In his report Jolliet commented on the advantage for trade were the Chicago Portage replaced with a canal [as recorded by Father Dablon in his letter of Aug. 1, 1674]: “We could go with facility to Florida in a bark, and by very easy navigation. It would only be necessary to make a canal by cutting through but half a league of prairie, to pass from the foot of the Lake of the Illinois to the St. Louis [Illinois] River, which empties into the Mississippi.” A mapCarte de la descouverte du Sr Jolliet ou l’on voit la communication du Fleuve St Laurens avec les Lacs Frontenac, Erié, Lac des Hurons, et Illinois …. [Service historique de la Marine, Vincennes], was recreated in 1674 [see Maps section] to replace the original map that Jolliet lost in a canoe accident at Lachine while returning to Montreal to report the details of his and Father Marquette’s journey. During 1674, Jolliet returned to the Chicago area and became more familiar with the terrain; married Claire F. Bissot Oct. 7, 1675; or his services to France he was given the seigneuriage of the island of Anticosti in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, where he lived with his family until members of the British fleet invaded and destroyed his property in 1690; subsequently he explored Labrador, made numerous maps, and studied the life and culture of the Eskimo; was appointed maître d’hydrographie of Canada in 1697. Jolliet died in the summer of 1700, but neither the exact date of his death nor the location of his grave are known. A portion of Jolliet’s 1673 report follows below. In 1674 he sent a map he made of the territory through which he and Marquette had traveled to Governor Frontenac, together with another report [for the complete text, see Frontenac, Louis de Buade, comte de]. The bronze bust of “Joliett” – above the entrance door to Joliet Central High School, Joliet, IL – was found and photographed by Alan Gornik; Will La Favor, sculptor. For another beautiful bronze statue of Jolliet see the Monuments section. [12, 195, 198, 199, 209c, 263, 280a, 282, 286, 417a, 464c, 464i, 633, 681, 682]

The river we named for St. Louis rises near the lower end of the lake—most beautiful, most suitable for settlement. Where we entered the lake is a harbor, sheltered from the wind, abounding in catfish and sturgeon. Abundant game there—oxen, cows, stags, does, and turkey. Sometimes we saw the grass there very short, and at other times, five or six feet high; hemp, which grows naturally there, reaches as high as eight feet. Nothing would be wanting there, no better soil can be found either for corn, for vines, or for any other fruit whatever.
Jolliet also described the [see] prairie. [718]

Jombo, Jock  mail carrier between Chicago and Green Bay (once a week) during the years 1834-35, as reported by [see] Oliver C. Crocker; the correct spelling is probably Jacques Jambeau, possibly a brother of Paul, [see] Jamboe, Paul.

Jones & King  hardware store on South Water Street between Clark and Dearborn; see Jones, William and King, Byram. Beginning in November 1834, John Calhoun printed the Chicago Democrat in the loft above the store; 1839 City Directory: [Jones, King & Co.] wholesale hardware merchants, South Water Street.

Jones, Benjamin  arrived in 1833 and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; “grocery, provision store, storage, forwarding and commission” advertisement can be found in the first issue of the Chicago Democrat, Nov. 26, 1833; in the third issue, Jones announces more specifically that he can arrange for shipping to and from New York on the Erie canal; selected – Chicago’s 1st – firewarden, responsible monthly for the inspection of each building; on Dec. 7, 1833, was appointed – Chicago’s 1st – street commissioner by the village council, but resigned shortly thereafter and was succeeded by Silas Sherman and Oremus Morrison; 1839 City Directory: grocer on South Water Street; 1844 City Directory: of B. J. & Co. house Rand[olph], b[etween] Clark and Dearb[orn]; also listed in 1844: Jones, B. & Co. dry goods and groceries, S. Water, b Clark and Dearborn (see card listing with William Jones, his brother); died in 1881. [12, 319]

Jones, Clark & Co.  a firm identified by Andreas as competitive in the lumber trade in 1835. [13]

Jones, Emily  see King, Byram.

Jones, Fernando  (May 26, 1820-1911) born at Forestville, Chautauqua County, NY; son of [see] William and Anna Jones, joining his father in Chicago in 1835 at age 15; began work at the U.S. Land Office as an office boy under James M. Strode, as well as at his father’s hardware store; 1839 City Directory: clerk, Thomas Church; on July 7, 1853, married Jane Graham of Northern Ireland, who died in 1905; the couple had a daughter Genevieve (Mrs. George R. Grant) and a son Graham. Later Fernando became a successful real estate investor; he spent all his life in Chicago, except for lengthy family vacations in Europe during the 1890s; in March 1900, he and his wife resided with granddaughter Leslie Grant at 1834 Prairie Avenue. At age 83 Fernando recalled one of the first accidental deaths occurring in the community; his story follows. [498, 728]
It was about daylight one morning in the fall of 1835 that I was awakened by some one pounding on the door of the store in South Water street where I was sleeping. It was my father`s hardware store, and it stood … between Clark and Dearborn. I got up and found Alex Beaubien there, all excited, telling me there was a man lying in a mudhole over in the prairie, and that the fellow would die there if he were not picked up. … I dressed and hurried over toward the place, picking up a Frenchman as I followed the boy to the spot. When we got there we found a man sunk to his waist in the mud and water, and in this position he had fallen over on his face. Evidently he had been drinking or he would have avoided the hole, which was well marked and known by every teamster. … The man was a Frenchman and had been dead several hours. We got his body out of the mire and called a wagon, taking him over to the house of the sheriff [Orsemus Morrison, Chicago`s first constable and coroner; eds.]. An inquest was held, finding his death to have been accidental. … Today [1903] the point of chief interest in the story is in the fact that the hole in which the man was drowned in water and mud was just … at Clark street and Jackson boulevard. … [12]

Jones, Julia B.  see Brookes, Samuel M.

Jones, King & Co.  the “company” in the firm’s name was Henry B. Clark; advertisements—’ Rotary engines, Arery’s patent” (manufactured in Buffalo), dry hides, Timothy seed, winter apples, and souse—appeared under this name throughout the summer and fall of 1835 in the Chicago Democrat, as an iron foundry was erected near the south branch bank at Polk Street; on November 20 Jones and King submitted an application for wharfing privileges; by December the first lot of castings had been produced; the foundry was built by William H. Stow and David Bradley of Syracuse, NY; within a few years Chicago’s first steam engines were made.

Jones, Mrs. Francis  see Paine, Seth.

Jones, Rhodias  U.S. Army corporal at Fort Dearborn; enlisted as private on Dec. 9, 1807; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Feb. 18, 1807 , as shown in Kinzie’s account books; was killed in action at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [404, 708] [226]

Jones, Robert   a New York City speculator who bought a large tract of land a mile S of Brush Hill in June 1835, Indian land acquired in the [see] 1816 Treaty by the government and only then made available for purchase. [415]

Jones, Thomas   visited John Kinzie’s trading post in Chicago on Dec. 25, 1807, on Nov. 1, 1809, and on July 21, 1812, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. He later visited Kinzie in Detroit on Sep. 21, 1812, and during Feb. 1813. [404] [404]

Jones, Willard  (Sept. 16, 1799-May 4, 1872) born in Franklin County, NY; carpenter on the Erie Canal, arrived in 1833 and purchased lots at $200 each; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; was a founding member of the first Baptist church at its first meeting on October 19; in November he plastered John Calhoun’s printing office, together with Martin Harmon; owned several plots of land at Clark and Monroe streets [see Monuments, Cow Path]; on Oct. 1, 1835, married [see] Mrs. Marcia Delia Farnsworth of Blue Island and moved to Lake County to homestead north of Independence Grove [now Libertyville]; was a justice of the peace in Lake County by 1839; oldest of nine children, son DeWitt L. served in the Civil War, became an attorney and later a judge for Lake County. [304, 319, 387a, 547, 597a, 733] [12]

Jones, William  (1789-1868) native of Massachusetts; a chief of police and a superintendent of workers on the Buffalo harbor; in the summer of 1831, traveled by steamer from Buffalo, NY, and arrived at Chicago on horseback from Elkhart; observed the settlement’s “promise and potency” and returned in February 1832, to buy lots 2 and 7 in block 17 from J.B. Beaubien, one on Lake Street and one on South Water Street, for $100 each [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]. In 1833, at the school sale, he bought block 133 in the school section (on Clark and Twelfth streets) for $152; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August that year; in the spring of 1834 he established a stove and hardware store [in partnership with his future son-in-law Byram King, “Jones & King”; jointly they applied for wharf privileges] at the South Water Street location; Jones and King were also co-owners of the first [see] foundry in Chicago; in November 1834 the loft above the store was rented to John Calhoun for his print shop. Wife Anna (née Gregory, married 1824, died 1854) and their children Louis, [see] Fernando, Kyler K., James, Mariah, Emily (married King in 1836), Albert (died in 1836), would join him in May, 1835; became First Assistant Engineer of the fire engine company No.1 (“Fire Kings”) in December 1835; 1839 City Directory: justice of the peace, Dearborn Street, corner of Randolph. In 1840 he began serving as chairman of the new board of school inspectors; 1844 City Directory: of B. [Benjamin] Jones & Co. house cor Randolph and Dearborn [Benjamin Jones and William Jones were brothers; eds.]; the B. Jones & Co. card listed: General Dealers in Dry-Goods, Groceries, Lumber and PRODUCE, South Water street, between Clark and Dearborn streets, CHICAGO. Cash paid for Wheat; buried at Oakwood Cemetery. William Jones Schools, 606 S State St. [273, 319, 498, 728] [12]

Jones, William   a soldier who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on June 27 and Aug. 20, 1805, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Jones, —  see Whitlock, James.

Jordan, Walter  U.S. Army corporal from Pennsylvania; stationed in 1812 at the Fort Wayne garrison; his family (wife Elizabeth “Betcy” Wort) remained in Pennsylvania; accompanied Captain Wells and a contingent of Miami to Fort Dearborn where they arrived on Aug. 13, 1812, in order to lend protection for the planned evacuation of the fort on August 15; he survived the massacre, escaped his Indian captors, and arrived back at Fort Wayne on August 27; on the next day, the Indians attacked the fort and did not abandon their siege until General Harrison brought relief on September 16. Jordan is one of few survivors of the massacre who later gave an eyewitness account of the event in writing; below are quoted excerpts from one of Jordan`s letters. [226]

[Oct. 12,1812] Betcy I now lift my pen to inform you that I am In a good State of health after a long and [word missing] Journy threw the Indian Cunty I Started [word missing] fort wayn on the 1 of august With Cao Wells and [word missing] to goe to fort dearborn on lake michigan wich is 200 miles from fort wain…. [Referring to the massacre] tha first Shot the fether out of my Cap the nex shot the appolet of my Shoulder and the 3 Broke the handle of my Sword I had to Surrender My Self to 4 Dame yallow indians tha Marche up to whar Wells lay and one of them Spok English and Said Jordan I now you you gave me some toBacco at fort wain you Shant be kild but See What I will doe with your Captain He then Cut of his head and Stuck it on a pol while another tuck out his hart and divided it among the Chieffs and tha Eate it up raw …. [36]

Josette  Indian woman for whom Archibald Caldwell, then of Chicago, abandoned his wife Emily in 1830; Emily divorced him in the same year; Josette and Archibald moved to the Wisconsin wilderness in 1830, had several children, and lived Indian style.

Joste, Bernard  a notice in the June 17, 1835, Chicago Democrat identifies a “packet of papers, bills, notes, &c.;” found in the woods N of town, belonging to the “German pedlar.”

Jouett, Charles (a)  (c.1766-May 28, 1834) also Jowett; son of Capt. John and Mourning Glenn (née Harris) Jouett; born in Charlottesville, VA, as the eighth of nine children of a prominent family, friends and neighbors of Thomas Jefferson; studied law and initially practiced in Charlottesville; served as U.S. Indian agent at Detroit from 1802 to 1804; married Eliza Dodemead (born in Albermarle County, VA) there on Jan. 22, 1803; became – Chicago’s 1st – lawyer in residence when assigned as Indian agent at Fort Dearborn in the fall of 1804 and given the charge of maintaining relations with the Potawatomi, Sauk, Fox, Chippewa, Ottawa, and Miami by periodically distributing presents and holding councils with the chiefs; while in Chicago, Jouett visited John Kinzie’s trading post on multiple occasions as recorded in Kinzie’s account books: in 1805 on July 31 and Aug. 5, in 1806 on Aug. 4, Aug. 9, Sep. 3, Sep. 13, Sep. 14 and Dec. 10, and then on July 22, 1807, July 10, 1808, and Jan. 26, 1810; initially Jouett and his wife lived in the Agency house that the soldiers had built immediately W of the fort; Elizabeth died within two years and was buried near the fort garden, survived by a young daughter; around 1808 he built a house on the N side of the river, near the Kinzies, and brought a bride from Fayette County, KY (Susan Randolph Allen, married Jan. 15, 1809), a Negro slave (Joe Battles, whom the Indians called “Black Meat”), and an indentured métis servant girl (Madaline Alscum or Olscum); a son named Charles Lalime was born in 1809 but died the next year; serving until 1811, Jouett then resigned and settled in Mercer, KY, thereby escaping the destructive events at the fort in 1812, and where daughter Susan M. was born in 1813. He served a second term at Fort Dearborn, from 1816 to 1818, bringing his wife Susan and, by then, three daughters to Chicago and, according to Andreas, lived in the old Burns House; additional documented visits to John Kinzie’s trading post took place in 1817 on Jan. 11 and Feb. 14, when Charles is listed as Major Jouett; he was known among the Indians as the “White Otter” and was highly esteemed by them; in 1818 Dr. Alexander Wolcott assumed the office of agent. In 1819 Jouett was appointed Superior Court Judge of the Arkansas Territory by President Monroe; he was in the territory, present to enact its first laws, but soon left, never sitting on the bench for a full term of court. The grand jury issued a presentment against him, noted in the Arkansas Gazetteon July 15, 1820; later on September 30, the paper listed a left letter under his name. Jouett died in Tripp County, Kentucky. [12, 404, 413] [74]

Jouett, Charles (b)    the Indian Agent`s signature. [13]

Jouett, Charles Lalime  (1809-1810) son of Charles Jouett, Indian agent, and his second wife Susan; was born Oct. 26, 1809, and died on Aug. 9, 1810, at the age of 11 months; named after Jean Baptiste Lalime, a good friend of Jouett, who was killed by Kinzie in 1812; he is among the first children of white settlers born in Chicago.

Journal des Jésuites  see Laval de Montmorency, Mgr. François.

Joutel, Henri  La Salle’s confidential deputy; naturalist, survivor, and historian of La Salle’s ill-fated 1684-87 sailing expedition from France to Texas. Traveling north and overland with five companions (Père Anastase Douay, Abbé Jean Cavelier (La Salle’s brother), Jean Baptiste Cavelier (no relation), a pilot named Tessier, and a young Parisian named Barthelemy), he reached <emon Sept. 14, 1687, then spent time in Chicagou from Sept. 25 to Oct. 3, 1687, while waiting in vain for bad weather to clear for the trip to Canada; was forced to return to Fort St. Louis for the winter, and was again at Chicagou from March 29 to April 5, 1688, after which he continued to Quebec. In his 1688 journal, Joutel gave sufficient information about the wild garlic plant he found in the area woods to allow the historian-botanist John F. Swenson to trace the name Chicago to the plant Allium tricoccum nearly 200 years later [see Swenson’s essay]. An excerpt of Joutel’s journal, as it pertains to his Chicagou experience, follows. [12, 384, 385]

At length we set out, the 21st of March, from Fort St. Louis. The Sieur Boisrondet [Francois de Boisrondel, La Salle’s trusted storekeeper at Fort St. Louis], who was desirous to return to France, joined us. We embarked on the river, which had then become navigable, and before we had advanced five leagues, met with a rapid stream, which obliged us to go ashore, and then again into the water, to draw along our canoe. I had the misfortune to hurt one of my feet against a rock which lay under the water, which troubled me very much for a long time. We arrived in Chicagou on the 29th of March, and our first care was to seek what we had concealed at our former voyage, having—buried our luggage and provisions. We found it had been opened, and some furs and linnen taken away, almost all of which belonged to me. This had been done by a Frenchman, whom M. Tonty had sent from the fort during the winter season to know whether there were any conoes at Chicagou, and whom he had directed to see whether anybody had meddled with what he had concealed; and he made use of that advise to rob us. The bad weather obliged us to stay at that place until April. This time of rest was advantagous for the healing of my foot; and there being but very little game in that place, we had nothing but our meal, or Indian wheat, to feed on; still we discovered a kind of manna, which was a great help to us. It was a sort of tree, resembling our maple, in which we made incisions, whence flowed a sweet liquor, and in it we boiled our Indian wheat, which made it delicious, sweet, and of a very agreeable relish. There being no sugar canes in that country, those trees supplied that liquor, which being boiled up and evaporated, turned into a kind of sugar, somewhat brownish but very good. In the woods we found a sort of garlic, not so strong as ours, and small onions very like ours in taste, and some charvel of the same relish as that we have, but different in leaf. The weather being somewhat mended, we embarked again, and entered upon the lake on the 5th of April, keeping to the north side, to shun the Iroquois. [519]

Joyce, Sally  see Reed, Charles.

Juliett  schooner under Captain Shooks, built at Black River, OH, in 1834; carried merchandise and passengers between Buffalo, Detroit, and Chicago; first called at Chicago on July 1, 1834, returning three times that year, four in 1835; sank on Lake Erie in 1871. [48]

Juneau, Laurent Solomon  (1793-1856) also Juno; French Canadian; left the seminary in Montreal to enter the fur trade and at Michilimackinac he was hired as voyageur by [see] Jacques Vieau, Sr., traveling a lot and eventually becoming clerk at Vieau`s fur trading post in Milwaukee in 1818 at the age of 21 years, already married to Josette, his second wife, Vieau`s daughter; the next year he acquired the post and became the local agent of the American Fur Company. Juneau visited Chicago many times, one of the better documented visits occurring in June 1832 during the Black Hawk crisis; in 1833, he purchased from J.B. Beaubien lot 1 in block 18 on South Water Street [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]. Father St. Cyr reports that on June 5, 1833, he baptized Juneau’s daughter Marguerite and later on June 28 gave communion to Mme Juneau Solomon [sic] in St. Mary’s Church; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August that year. Juneau received $2100 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty later in September; an Angelique Juno, possibly his first wife’s name, received $300, while his second wife, Josette, and her children, received $1000. Juneau was on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November of 1833; in the July 2, 1834, Chicago Democrat he offered land to lease along South Water Street. Always involved in the community, Juneau served as Milwaukee`s first postmaster, first village president, and was elected the first mayor in 1846; moved to Dodge County, WI, in 1852. [12, 85a, 319, Wisconsin Historical Collections 15 {1900} 458-460] [714]

jurisdiction  A Civil Jurisdictional Chronology of Chicago

1494 June 7 SPAIN seat of government: Spanish Royal Court
1497 June 24 ENGLAND capital: London
1536 May 3 FRANCE capital: Versailles
1565 August 28 SPAIN Florida capital: St. Augustine
1609 ENGLAND Virginia Company of London capital: London
1662 April 23 ENGLAND Connecticut capital: London
1671 June 14 FRANCE capital: Versailles
1672 FRANCE Province of Nouvelle France provisional government: Quebec
1682 April 9 FRANCE [Louisiane *] provisional government: [New Orleans]
1763 February 10 ENGLAND capital: London
1774 June 22 ENGLAND Province of Quebec provisional government: Quebec [see map]
1778 December 9 VIRGINIA Illinois County state government: Williamsburg
1783 September 23 U.S. seat of government: Philadelphia [provisional]
1787 July 13 U.S. Northwest Territory seat of government: Philadelphia [provisional]
1790 June 20 U.S. Northwest Territory Knox County county seat: Vincennes
1796 August 15 U.S. Northwest Territory Wayne County county seat: Detroit
1800 July 4 U.S. Territory of Indiana St. Clair County seat of gov.: Washington City
1801 February 3 U.S. Territory of Indiana St. Clair County county seat: Cahokia
1803 March 1 U.S. Territory of Indiana Wayne County county seat: Detroit
1805 June 30 U.S. Territory of Indiana St. Clair County county seat: Cahokia
1809 March 1 U.S. Territory of Illinois St. Clair County county seat: Kaskaskia
1812 September 14 U.S. Territory of Illinois Madison County county seat: house of Thomas Kirkpatrick
1814 November 28 U.S. Territory of Illinois Edwards County county seat: Palmyra
1816 December 31 U.S. Territory of Illinois Crawford County county seat: house of Edward N. Cullom
1818 April 8 U.S. State of Illinois Crawford County county seat: Palestine
1819 March 22 U.S. State of Illinois Clark County county seat: Aurora
1820 December U.S. State of Illinois Clark County county seat: Vandalia
1821 January 31 U.S. State of Illinois Pike County county seat: Cole`s Grove
1823 January 28 U.S. State of Illinois Fulton County county seat: house of Ossian M. Ross
1825 January 13 U.S. State of Illinois Putnam/Peoria Co. county seat: Peoria
1831 January 15 U.S. State of Illinois Cook County county seat: Kaskaskia
1837 March 4 U.S. State of Illinois Cook County county seat: Springfield

Notes to A Civil Jurisdictional Chronology of Chicago · From 1497 to 1795, the territorial claims that included Chicago were overlapping and contested.
1494 June 7 With the Treaty of Tordesillas, Pope Alexander IV sanctions Spain`s claim to territory that subsequently will include the entire North American continent.
1497 June 24 Giovanni Caboto reaches northern Maine or Nova Scotia, and takes possession of the new land for Henry VI and England.
1536 May 3 In the name of the French crown, Jacques Cartier, from a point near Quebec, annexes the entire drainage basin of the St. Lawrence River.
1565 Phillip II, king of Spain, proclaims himself monarch of North America. On August 28, St. Augustine is founded by Pedro Menéndes de Aviles. No attempt is then made by the Spanish crown to control the country that extends northward.
1606 King James I of England grants a charter to the Virginia Company of London allowing the extension of its western border west and northwest [at a 45 degree angle] “from Sea to Sea,” which claim is maintained by the state of Virginia until 1784.
1662 April 23 England`s crown grants a charter to Connecticut allowing the extension of its western border “to the South Sea on the west,” which claim is maintained by Connecticut until Sept. 13, 1796.
1671 June 14 Simon St. Lusson, at Saulte Ste. Marie, formally takes possession of all the interior of North America for France, as an extension of New France.
1672 The French crown declares Nouvelle France a royal province of France.
1682 April 9 La Salle takes possession of the valley of the Mississippi and its tributaries for King Louis XIV. Chicagoland thus straddles the watershed between this new French claim * (Louisiane) and the earlier one of 1536 (Canada). The exact administrative border between the two provinces is disputed to this day. De facto, Chicago was always ruled from Canada as long as it was under the French crown, while southern Illinois was ruled from Louisiana.
1763 February 10 The Treaty of Paris ends the French and Indian War. France relinquishes to England all claims to continental North America, except for Louisiane.
1774 June 22 The Quebec Act provides civil government to the English province of Quebec, including Chicago.
1778 December 9 Under Patrick Henry, as governor and by action of both houses of the Virginia legislature, civil jurisdiction is extended westward into what was designated the County of Illinois. The claim is based on the charter granted by James I and the conquest by Virginian forces under George Rogers Clark in 1778-79. On Mar. 31, 1783, Virginia cedes this claim to the United States.
1783 September 23 On this date the deed of cession is signed by the United States and Britain, transferring the power of government to the United States.
1825 January 13 Both Peoria County and Putnam County are created by an act of the Illinois legislature. Chicago is located in Putnam County, but is administrated by Peoria County officials.

justice of the peace  the first Chicagoan to hold this office was John Kinzie, who was commissioned on July 28, 1825, when Chicago was in Peoria County [Kinzie had twice before been recommended for the office, namely in 1821 under Pike County jurisdiction, and in 1823 under Fulton County jurisdiction, but there is no record that he was commissioned on these occasions.] Alexander Wolcott and J.B. Beaubien were commissioned on Sept. 10, 1825; John L. Bogardus of Peoria was appointed on Jan. 15, 1826; Billy Caldwell and James Walker of Plainfield on Apr. 18, 1826; John S.C. Hogan was elected justice on July 24 and commissioned on Oct. 9, 1830; Steven Forbes was elected on Nov. 25, 1830. The remainder fall into the Cook County period: Russel Heacock on Sept. 10, 1831; Archibald Clybourne and William See, commissioned on May 2, 1832; Isaac Harmon, elected June 4, 1832; John Dean Caton elected July 12, 1834; E.W. Casey, Sidney Abell, and Edward H. Hunter elected Aug. 9, 1835. [12]