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Iberville, Pierre Le Moyne, seigneur d’Ardillières et d’  (1661-1706) see Le Moyne family.

ice age  in this summary of the history of glaciation of the earth the editors distinguish between glacial ages, each measured in many millions of years and separated from each other by very long warm periods, and ice ages, which are measured in thousands of years, fall within the glacial ages, and are separated from each other by warming periods of comparable length. During the last billion years, there have occurred three glacial ages: the first lasting from 800 to 600 million years ago, the second from 480 to 350 million years ago, and the third one, which began 10 million years ago and is considered still in progress. The last three distinct ice ages of this third glacial age began 280 thousand, 180 thousand, and 40 thousand years ago, respectively. A warming trend, possibly of short duration in geologic terms, began 15,000 years ago and has lasted until now; repeated glaciation of northern Illinois during this last ice age has had such a profound impact on Chicagoland’s geography that the history of its organic life can only be fully understood in relation to these early events; references to the ice ages and their effects, as well as to other important geological events, will therefore be found throughout this volume; also see Lake Chicago. [261, 312, 361] [720]

ice age in Chicago  while the accompanying photograph was actually taken by one of the authors on the Antarctic Peninsula in December 2004, it brings to mind what Chicagoland probably looked like 16,000 years ago. At that time the last ice age was in retreat, the Wisconsin Glacier which had covered almost all of Illinois was retracting, and its melt waters formed Lake Chicago, the precurser of Lake Michigan.

Idie, Christopher  purchased lot 1 in block 43 from Joseph LaFramboise in c.1832 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Ile de la Cache  see Isle a la Cache.

Illini  Anglicized reduction of the native term: see Illinois. [Footnote by Carl Masthay {456a}: “Why did you even include this corrupt form? It pops up only in Hough, 1883, and Brinton {Hilini}, 1885, and is best left to the sports team to let be usurped elsewhere, but to make a full explanation using it as a lemma {head word} is a linguistic travesty. It is not the native term!”; eds.]

Illinois  (1) originally a French word for the Ilinwe tribe, the native term for an Algonquian confederacy of five tribes, consisting of the Peoria, Cahokia, Kaskaskia, Tamarais [Tamaroa, Tamarois], and Mitchagamie [Michigamea]. The plural form of the word ireni8a (meaning `man,` `original man`) used by the Indians was Ireniouaki, but David Costa [168b] finds that irenweewa means `he speaks in the ordinary way,` plural irenweewaki, derived not from the Illinois but from their neighbors speaking of the Illinois. At Green Bay in 1634, Nicollet learned of the Iliniouekpeople to the south; the French transliterated the word as Illinois. In 1673 Father Marquette still found the Ilinwe living SW of Lake Michigan and along the banks of the Illinois River, but from 1722 on they came under attack by Fox Indians and were soon brought close to extinction by invading tribes during the next several decades. An Ilinwe Indian of the Peoria tribe murdered the Ottawa chief Pontiac in 1769, but contrary to legend, there is no record that this provoked massive retaliation against the few remaining Illinois; the 1722 seige that gave Starved Rock its name was an episode in the Fox wars. Many Ilinwe, having retreated to the Rock of St. Joseph of La Salle fame, were starved into submission and then massacred by the Ottawas and Potawatomis in 1769, a legendary event that gave the locale its name Stared Rock; in 1837 the remaining survivors sold their title to the land and removed to a Kansas reservation. Also see entry for Starved Rock. James Gray in The Illinois gives a good description of the appearance and customs of the Ilinwe, gleaned from early eyewitness accounts; (2) state of the U.S. since 1818, named after the Ilinwe tribe; street name: Illinois Street (500 N). See Illinois State. [45, 284, 456a, 456b] [649]

Illinois & Michigan Canal  envisioned as early as 1673 by Jolliet, and in the 1680s by Joutel, as a means to connect navigation on the Great Lakes with that on the Mississippi River system, was proposed by then Secretary of the Treasury Albert Galatin in a report to Congress in 1808; recommended for construction by President James Madison in 1814; in 1816, Maj. Stephen Long of the Corps of Topographical Engineers was sent to explore the practicability of the project and made a highly favorable report to the acting secretary of war, George Graham: “… a canal uniting the waters of the Illinois with those of Lake Michigan, may be considered of the first importance of any in this quarter of the country”; also in 1816 the Indian Treaty of St. Louis secured the necessary land consisting of a tract 20 x 70 miles that extended from Lake Michigan to the Illinois River and included the Chicago Portage and the Chicago River from its mouth to Mud Lake [see Indian boundary line]; in January 1819, Secretary of War John C. Calhoun submitted a report to Congress urging the construction of the canal as a national effort; federal authorization for the project was given by Congress with the ordinance of Mar. 30, 1822; this led to the creation by Governor Cole and the Illinois legislature of an initial commission on Feb. 14, 1823, charged to survey the canal lands and estimate the cost of canal construction; the commissioners were: Thomas Sloo, Jr., of Hamilton County; Theophilus W. Smith, later of Chicago; Emanuel J. West; Erastus Brown; and Samuel Alexander. The commissioners visited Chicago in 1823 and later employed two civil engineers, Col. Justus Post, of Missouri, and Col. René Paul, of St. Louis, to perform the task in 1824 and 1825; on Mar. 2, 1827, by an act of Congress, signed by President Andrew Jackson on May 21, 1830, the federal government granted to the State of Illinois alternate sections, six miles wide, of public land along both sides of a proposed route for the Illinois & Michigan Canal, to be sold and the proceeds to be used to meet the canal construction cost; on Jan. 22, 1829, the Illinois legislature created the Canal Commission, with powers to undertake the task; the first three Canal Commissioners were Dr. Gershom Jayne, a druggist and physician of Springfield, Edmund Roberts of Kaskaskia, and Charles Dunn; the Commission had the towns of Ottawa and Chicago – at either end of the proposed route – platted, and in September 1830 the lots were offered to the public at auction; in September 1829 Dr. William Howard of Baltimore, MD, a civil engineer in the employ of the U.S. Corps of Engineers, had been given the charge to again survey the proposed canal route; assistant engineers F. Harrison, Jr., William B. Guyon, and Henry Belin were assigned to him, and all became involved in the survey effort of 1830 and 1831. Construction of the Chicago harbor with elimination of the obstructing sandbar at the river mouth, a precondition for the future canal, began in July 1833 and by July 12, 1834, the first merchant vessel entered the river mouth [see Chicago harbor]. Construction of the canal was delayed until enough bonds could be sold to finance the project, estimated at $4,043,000; the editorial of the Jan. 16, 1836 Chicago American begins: “Illinois and Michigan Canal Bill Has Passed ! ! !”; a new board of Canal Commissioners was then appointed, consisting of Gurdon S. Hubbard, William F. Thornton, and William B. Archer, and subsequently J.B. Fry, and construction began on July 4, 1836, under Chief Engineer [see] William Gooding with the festive groundbreaking ceremony, amid a frenzy of real estate speculation. Work was interrupted by the 1837 economic downturn and 12 years would pass before the canal opened to barge traffic on Apr. 26, 1848. [Readers interested in the canal traffic following the 1848 opening may wish to consult a paper written by John M. Lamb; eds. {421a}] The canal contributed vitally to the city’s early growth, but its importance was soon overshadowed by that of the railroads; furthermore, it proved incapable of securing consistent reversal of flow direction of the Chicago River, needed to prevent Chicago`s sewage from reaching Lake Michigan, even after the canal`s depth was increased at the summit level in 1871; only the completion of the “Drainage Canal” [Chicago Sanitation and Ship Canal] in 1900, parallel to the Illinois & Michigan Canal, solved the problem. Within Chicago proper virtually all traces of the Illinois & Michigan Canal have disappeared, but much of the canal remains southwest of Chicago and is now being carefully preserved by governmental effort and is made accessible to the public; street names: Canal Street (500W); Lock Street (1500 W), adjacent to where the Bridgeport lock of the canal once was. See Illinois and Michigan Canal National Heritage Corridor in Monuments section. [152, 319, 337a, 348, 421a, 557, 575, 704, 626, 661] [76]

Illinois country  an appellation used in early oral and written communication, before political subdivision had established sharply defined borders, designating the land where the [see] Illinois lived and largely, but not entirely, coinciding with the valley of the Illinois River. Its strategic importance as an essential link between Canada in the north and Louisiana in the south was recognized as early as 1673 by its first visitor, Louis Jolliet, and became increasingly apparent to later travelers, such as the French Jesuit Father Vivier who, in an excerpt from a 1750 letter, expressed his sentiments as follows:
Among the Illinois, Nov. 17, 1750. … For the rest, this country is of far greater importance than is imagined. Through its position alone, it deserves that France should spare nothing to retain it. It is true, that it has not still enriched the King’s coffers, and that convoys to and fro are costly; but it is nonetheless true that the tranquillity of Canada and the safety of the entire lower part of the Colony depend on it. Assuredly, without this post there can be no communication by land between Louisiana and Canada. There is another consideration: several regions of the same Canada and all those on the lower part of the river would be deprived of the provisions they obtain from the Illinois, which are often a great resource to them. By founding a solid establishment here, prepared to meet all these troubles, the King would secure the possession of the most extensive and the finest country in north America. To be convinced of this one has but to glance at the well-known map of Louisiana, and to consider the situation of the Illinois country and the multitude of Nations against whom the post usually serves as a barrier. …

Illinois Exchange  see Exchange Coffee House. [8]

Illinois River  the first white men to discover and travel on the river (Aug. 25, 1673) were Jolliet and Father Marquette, who noted on his hand-drawn map only the name of the one Indian village along the river, Kachkaska [Kaskaskia, now Utica, IL]; though Jolliet lost his map before reaching Montreal, he named the river Rivère de St. Louis (quoted later by Father Dablon); early names used by others include: Seignlai (La Salle), Seignelay (Frs. Hennepin and Membre) [with the Jesuit `8` possibly being misread as `g` in an effort to recast the words from the native language; eds.], and R. de St. Louis (Father Dablon, quoting Jolliet). Together with one of its tributaries, the Des Plaines River, the river forms part of the Chicago Portage route between the the Great Lakes and the Mississippi. [163, 284] [456b]

Illinois State  statehood was granted on Aug. 24, 1818; the area covered by the new state was composed of the Illinois Territory but the northern border of the territory was extended 41 miles to include Chicago and the contemplated canal; the capital was located in Kaskaskia from 1818 until moved to Vandalia in 1820, and again relocated to Springfield in 1840. For additional details see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. [44, 59, 63, 78, 81, 85, 89, 144, 230, 233, 252, 271, 340, 347, 360, 366, 379, 456, 492, 511, 523, 548, 584] [644]

Illinois state roads  see entry on streets and roads.

Illinois Territory  created by separation from the Indiana Territory by the ordinance of Feb. 9, 1809; “that from and after the first day of March next, all that part of the Indiana Territory which lies west of the Wabash River and a direct line drawn from the Post Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the U.S. and Canada, shall for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a separate territory and be called ‘Illinois’; effective March 1, 1809 and lasting until statehood was gained on Aug. 24, 1818; capital: Kaskaskia; governor: Ninian Edwards. For additional detail, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. [80, 109] [253]

Illinois, County of Virginia  created on Dec. 9, 1778, by Virginia without specifying exact county boundaries of the land claimed, such that only the northern border, below the Chicago region, is sharply defined by the 41st parallel; Virginia never exercised or claimed any control over Chicago; it ceded the county to the United States in 1784; for details, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. Also see entries “Virginia, its claim to Illinois land (a+b),” associated with two early maps. [8]

Illinois  a 100-ton [see] canaller schooner, built and operated by Capt. Augustus Pickering at Sacket’s Harbor, NY, in the winter of 1833-34; called at Chicago six times in 1834 [first visit on June 10], four times in 1835; the first large sailing ship to enter the mouth of the Chicago River under Captain Pickering through the newly completed breach of the sandbar that until then (July 12, 1834) had always blocked access to the river; after stopping at the wharf of Newberry & Dole, the Illinois passed through the open Dearborn Street drawbridge to Ingersoll’s wharf in front of the Western Stage House, Wolf Point. The sailing was a much celebrated event, the Chicago Democrat reporting that “the banks of the river were crowded with a delighted crowd” that “hailed with loud and repeated cheers,” and once the Illinois docked, “[h]er decks were immediately crowded by the citizens.” [118, 389a]

Illinois  a 21-ton brig under Captain Wagstaff, calling at Chicago from Buffalo, NY, on Sept. 9, 1834 with 100 passengers; in 1835 it returned three times, bringing merchandise in addition to passengers. In May 1835, [see] Ellen Bigelow took passage on the Illinois and described the overloaded ship and the journey to Chicago in a letter to a relative back home. [58a]

Illinois  lake steamer built in 1837 for Oliver Newberry, designed for the Chicago trade; on its forward deck was mounted a brass cannon from the first Fort Dearborn, accidentally recovered from the river by dredging in 1833, and acquired by Newberry to be used for several years to announce the ship’s arrival in port.

incorporation  of the town of Chicago, on or close to Aug. 3, 1833; the approximate date on which the leading citizens [“Qualified Electors”] of the village chose a president and a clerk, and decided by majority vote to incorporate the village as a town in accordance with the law of the state. The exact date is not known with certainty because it was omitted on the official handwritten report filed by the clerk on Sept. 5, 1833; for an unedited typed copy of the report see below. Legislative approval, making incorporation official, followed in due course; also see Chronology entry of Aug. 10, 1833; the vote for incorporation of the city took place on March 4, 1837.
At a Meeting of the Citizens of Chicago convened pursuant to publick notice given according to the Stature for Incorporating Towns, Th. J.V. Owen was chosen President & E.S. Kimberly was chosen clerk. The Oaths were then administered by Russel E. Hickok a Justice of the Peace for Cook County. When the following vote was taken on the propriety of incorporating the Town of Chicago, County of Cook, State of Illinois

For Incorporation: C.A. Ballard, John S.C. Hogan, G.W. Snow, R.J. Hamilton, J.T. Temple, John Wright, G.W. Dole, Hiram Pearsons, Alanson Sweet, E.S. Kimberly, T.J.V. Owen, Mark Beaubien
Against Incorporation: Russel E. Heacock
For Incorporation 12
Against Incorporation 1
We certify the above poll to be correct Th.J.V. Owen, President Ed.S. Kimberly, Clerk

Indian agent  see United States Office of Indian Affairs.

Indian annuities  periodic payments of money (annuities) to Indian tribes or individuals were made in accordance with various treaty agreements over the years; other distributions were made in the form of merchandise useful to Indians; payments were part of the compensation Indians would receive for ceding ancestral homelands to the U.S. government, which in turn would make most of the land available to white settlers. The payments were made by the Agent of Indian Affairs, and began at Fort Dearborn as early as 1808 under Agent Charles Jouett, for annuities due from Treaties of Detroit and Greenville, and as late as 1834. See Chronology, November 1834, for an eyewitness account of an annuity distribution. [12]

Indian Army Trail  Indian trail that led from the Indian village at Chicago to the Winnebago village [now Beloit] in Wisconsin; followed by General Scott and his men in the Black Hawk War of 1832; a portion is now Army Trail Road (see Monuments), which extends from Addison to the Fox River, N of St. Charles, IL. Approximately 2.5 miles N of the western end of this road, and W of the Fox River, is the Black Hawk Preserve.

Indian boundary line  northern and southern borderlines of the 20 mile wide corridor ceded by the Fox and Sauk to the United States on Aug. 24, 1816, at the Treaty of St. Louis; running SW from the shore of Lake Michigan to the Fox River and its midline coinciding with the outlet of the Chicago River, this strip included the portage route, and its acquisition prepared the way for the later construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal; outside the corridor, the land was still owned by Potawatomi, Ottawa, and Chippewa tribes until the Chicago Treaty of 1833. The lines bounding the purchase were surveyed in the winter of 1818-19 by John C. Sullivan and his assistant, James M. Duncan; the land between them was surveyed in 1821 and immediately thrown open to preemption and homestead claims. The northern boundary line is still recognizable in the Chicago street pattern, marked by diagonal streets that defy the checkerboard pattern: nearest the lakeshore, by the four sections of the interrupted Rogers Avenue; further SW, by Forest Preserve Avenue between Plainfield Avenue and Narragansett Avenue; by additional scattered remnants in the suburbs, such as the Indian Boundary Road in River Grove, and the Indian Boundary Drive in Melrose Park; by diagonal portions of the border between Melrose Park and Stone Park; and, lastly, by the NW border of the triangular Randolph Park in Hillside. The southern line is marked within Chicago only by the short section of Harbor Avenue between Green Bay Avenue and Avenue O, while in the SW suburbs it follows I-57 in its diagonal course (see Maps section, 1819, Capt. John C. Sullivan). [538a]

Indian corn  Zea mays L.; also Indian wheat; staple food of the Indians; extensively grown by the Potawatomi in the valleys of the Des Plaines and Fox Rivers for their own use and for trade; brought to the early western trading posts in bark-woven sacks on the backs of ponies. In 1809, Alexander Robinson came by boat to Chicago and purchased from the Indians 100 bushels of corn to transport back to St. Joseph, an occurrence that provides some sense of a trade and its volume rarely noted.

Indian Council · 1833  see treaties.

Indian Creek  in LaSalle County, IL; site of the massacre of May 20, 1832, where Sauk Indians killed 14 members of three settler families (Hall, Davis, Pettigrew), abducted two of the Hall daughters, and burned down several houses during the early part of the Black Hawk War; the girls were ransomed by the U.S. government after six months and had been well treated; the massacre immediately caused a large number of settlers elsewhere to seek temporary shelter at Fort Dearborn.

Indian Department  see U.S. Office of Indian Affairs.

Indian marker trees  also called: Indian trail trees; Native Americans are known to have used trees with deformed trunks as pointers to mark a trail, a territorial border, or indicate the direction to a spring, ford, village, etc. To create such a guidepost, a young tree with still flexible trunk was bent to a right angle a couple of feet above ground level, then the now horizontal portion was bent again skyward at a similar distance, and was allowed to harden and mature in this shape to a ripe old age. Surviving Indian marker trees can still be found in many parts of North America, but it is rarely possible to ascertain that a given tree, thus deformed, was indeed the work of Indians, rather than having been produced as an imitation by Europeans or as a fluke by natural events. A good example of a presumptive Indian marker tree can be found on the grounds of the Ridgemoor Country Club in Chicago [see illustration, drawn in 1910 by George E. Colby {93a}]. This burr oak is still alive and healthy [2005], but the horizontal portion of its trunk is now partially buried by later construction of an earthen berm near it. The tree is located close to the northern [see] Indian boundary line and points eastward toward Lake Michigan. For additional information and illustrations of Indian marker trees see the following websites: www.trailtree.com, www.southernmuse.com/history/histtree.htm, and www.trailtree.com/tree_photos.htm.

Indian prehistory  Indians first entered Illinois as small mobile bands during the late phase of the last ice age approximately 12,000 years ago, hunting large Pleistocene animals. Indian prehistory (prior to the arrival of Europeans) is divided into four periods: (1) The Paleoindian Period [to 8000 B.C.], when the climate was colder than now, a mixed tundra and open spruce forests occupied the land, and large game was still plentiful. The beginning of the Paleoindian Period remains to be established. On Nov. 17, 2004 Dr. Albert Goodyear of the University of South Carolina announced that he has dug below the 13,000-year Clovis level and found pre-clovis stone tools in a 50,000 year old Pleistocene layer at the Topper site along the Savannah River in South Carolina. If confirmed, this would indicate arrival of humans on the American continents prior to the last ice age. (2) The Archaic Period [8000-500 B.C.], when the climate had come to resemble that of today; large game had disappeared but smaller animals were plentiful and wild plant food was gathered; campsites from this period have been found in many Illinois locations, including Starved Rock; in addition to distinctive stone tools, the Indians left knives and points hammered out of [see] copper nuggets. (3) The Woodland Period [500 B.C.-A.D. 1000], marked by the introduction of primitive pottery and the development and use of domesticated plants; villages grew larger and became more permanent, and the dead were buried beneath mounds; trading networks were established; within this period is the existence of the [see] Hopewell Culture [300 B.C.-A.D. 400]. (4) The Mississippian Period [A.D. 100-1673], a development marked by large permanent villages with substantial partly sunken earth lodges and nearby cemeteries in the upper Illinois River valley. Maize (Indian corn) and the common bean were introduced from Mexico and were extensively cultivated, together with Mexican squash, because the local native version was inedible. The period found its highest expression along Cahokia Creek in southern Illinois, where in the 12th century a settlement of approximately 30,000 inhabitants surrounded a series of man-made truncated pyramids, used for ceremonial purposes. The largest form covered 16 acres and is still visible in the landscape, and is now known as Monks’ Mound because Trappist monks lived there in the early 1800s and tilled its surface, long after the original people had disappeared. [201a]

Indian removal  U.S. policy first conceived by Thomas Jefferson in 1803 for the systematic removal of Indians en masse to reservations W of the Mississippi; became law under President Jackson with passage of the Indian Removal Act of 1830. Fulfilling the terms of the 1833 treaty at Chicago, Congress approved an appropriation of $9,453 on March 3, 1835, to cover the expenses of an exploring party of 50 Potawatomi from the Chicago agency for the purpose of Indian resettlement. The party of Indians and several white men, led by Capt. William Gordon of the U.S. Army, left after June 6, traveling as far as Fort Leavenworth before returning to Chicago in early August. From the Chicago area most Indians were moved later in September 1835, first to a reservation in Clay County, MO, near Fort Leavenworth, but two years later, because of hostile Missouri settlers, were transported to Council Bluffs, IA. Later, a third removal took them to a reservation in Kansas. Following the initial removal in 1835, additional efforts became necessary, because some of the Indians had stayed behind, and others had returned, having been dissatisfied with their newly assigned lands. In 1839, there were still some Potawatomi residing near Chicago. For additional details, see entries on Christian B. Dobson, who received the contract to furnish transportation in 1835 and 1837, and Capt. John B.F. Russell, who was the disbursing agent in 1835. [655]

Indian sugar  see maple sugar.

Indian surface burial  a traditional burial method practiced by the Potawatomi to honor their warriors in Illinois and elsewhere. One of the last known instances occurred in 1834 at Rock Creek, in what is now Shawnee National Forest, when Chief Shawanasee died. Vic Johnson quotes eyewitness reports when describing the practice in Kankakee`s The Sunday Journal of May 14, 2000, as follows: “The body is placed in a sitting position on the ground and closed in a shelter made of poles or [split] logs laid up so that each course is drawn in until they meet in a single log at the top,” resulting in a structure measuring three feet by three feet. An interesting sideline, also reported by Johnson, is that Shawanasee`s bones were removed from this sepulcher in the 1840s by unknown parties, either buried on the Potawatomi reservation in Kansas or possibly transferred to the possession of [see] Dr. Daniel Brainard at Rush Medical College in Chicago, who was interested in the diseases and injuries of bones and kept a small museum at the college. [377a]

Indian trade  see fur trade.

Indian trail trees  see Indian marker trees.

Indian trails  the major ancient Indian trails in and around Chicago, as well as additional trails that developed before 1830, are still visible on modern road maps, often as diagonal streets: Lincoln Avenue, Clark Street, Ogden Avenue, Archer Avenue, and Vincennes Avenue. With the coming of Europeans, the trails first became bridle paths, then roads for wagons, then stage and mail routes. For information on individual major trails in the area, see entries under Sauk (Sac) Trail, Vincennes Trail, Hubbard Trace, Calumet-Tolleston Beach Trail, Trail Creek Trail, Lake Shore Trail, Green Bay Trail, Portage Trail, Lake Trail, Cottage Grove Trail, Archer Trail (Old Chicago Trail), Barry Point Trail, and the Fort Dearborn-Detroit Road. The accompanying drawing is by George Catlin from his book Souvenir of the North American Indians, published in London in 1852. [610]

Indian treaties  see treaties with the Indians.

Indian tribes  attempts to divide the North American Indian population into clearly defined tribes has been most difficult. To quote historian Reuben Gold Thwaites: “The migration of some of the Indian tribes were frequent, and they occupied overlapping territories, so that it is impossible to fix the tribal boundaries with any degree of exactness. … The tribes were so merged by intermarriage, by affliliation, by consolidation, by the fact that there were numerous polyglot villages of renegades, by similarities in manner, habits, and appearance, that it is difficult even to separate the savages into families. It is only on philological grounds that these divisons can be made at all.” However, if one were to list in sequence the various tribes encountered by the early French explorers and missionaries on their gradual advance from the Gulf of St. Lawrence to the Chicago River, the following can be distinguished with relative assurance: (1) member tribes of the Algonquin language family were the first Indians encountered by the explorers, specifically the Montagnai of the St. Lawrence River region; progressing farther S and W, they met like tribes of the upper Great Lakes – the Ottawa, Chippewa, Kickapoo, Mascouten, Sauk, Fox, Potawawtomi, Miami, and Illinois; (2) a second language family was the Iroquois with five tribes – the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca, usually secured within palisaded villages S and E of Lakes Erie and Ontario, but their ferocious raids as far W as the Mississippi terrorized all other native groups and eventually the French; related to, but often at war with the Iroquois, were the Huron of Canada, among whom the Jesuits established their earliest missions; (3) members of the Southern Indians, another language family, among them the Seminole and Cherokee, would not have been encountered by the New France missionaries and explorers, except on journeys down the Mississippi to visit French Louisiana; (4) the fourth family, the Dakotah or Sioux, occupied the most western country beyond the Mississippi and were a nomadic and war-prone people; at the time of the French arrival, one of their peripheral tribes, the Winnebago, lived near Green Bay, at peace with the Algonquian groups who surrounded them. For those tribes relevant to the Chicago locale, see individual enries for additional detail.The basic reference work is Volume 15 of the Smithsonian`s Handbook of North American Indians. [57, 62, 68, 114, 116, 117, 120, 200, 254, 300, 402]

Indiana  schooner from Buffalo, NY, piloted by Capt. W. Whitaker; arrived at Chicago on Sept. 26, 1834; on Oct. 1, 20 passengers collectively thanked him in the Chicago Democrat, recommending to the public “a superior vessel both for safe speed and safety”; returned five more times in 1835 under Captain McQueen.

Indiana  brig from Buffalo, NY; arrived in Chicago under Captain McKinstry on Oct. 22, 1834; returned four times in 1835.

Indiana Territory  created in 1800, with its capital at Vincennes; formerly part of the Northwest Territory; included Illinois from 1800 to 1809, as well as Wisconsin; William Henry Harrison, later the U.S. president, was appointed the first governor. For additional detail, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. [513]

Indians  specifically and officially American Indians, now often referred to as Native Americans. Those members of the human race who were the exclusive inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the Europeans in 1492. The first people encountered were called Indians in the mistaken belief by early westbound explorers that they had reached Asia, when in reality they had reached America. Native Americans are believed to be the descendants of nomadic Siberian hunters who crossed from Asia to North America in successive waves, beginning c.30,000 years ago, over dry land bridges that existed during the last ice age. They advanced to the Chicago area c.10,000 years ago. Before the arrival of the Europeans, the Indian population was thought to number several million. Through disease and interaction, hostile and not, with the newcomers their numbers have been greatly reduced, and much of their culture has vanished. In 1819 a careful census of American Indians in Chicagoland was performed by Chicago Indian Agents and gave the following numbers: males 854, females 825, children 823; total: 2502. The [see] Indian Removal project of 1835 eliminated almost all of them from Chicago. See Monuments. [57, 62, 68, 114, 116, 117, 120, 200, 254, 300, 402, 408, 459, 475, 552, 591, 601-3, 610, 642, 643, 651, 655, 681, 682, 697, 703] [728]

Infant School  in September 1833 Miss Eliza Chappel, later the wife of Reverend J. Porter, opened a school by this name in a log house that had been the first store of John S. Wright at the SE corner of Lake and Market streets; the community response was favorable, involving active participation by Dr. Temple and Henry Handy; in the summer of 1834, better accommodations were found at the first Presbyterian church [SW corner of Lake and Clark streets]; the first school that received an appropriation from the school fund of the town in 1834, and thereby became – Chicago’s 1st – public school; later accepted older students, and eventually became a boarding school. Miss Chappel resigned in the winter of 1834-35, and Miss Leavenworth took charge, followed later by Mrs. Joseph Harmon.

Ingalls, Augustus  (1805-1889) arrived in 1834 from Belchertown, MA, and settled in Addison Township. [314a]

Ingals, Henry and Charles Francis  from Connecticut; in late spring 1834, traveled to Michigan City with siblings and $1,000 in silver within a trunk; the brothers walked but shipped the trunk as freight to Chicago, then took a stage to Ottawa, eventually settling near Beardstown. Charles remembered the Chicago prairie as “a continual scene of sloughs and mud holes.” The account may be found in the Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 26.

Ingersol, Sarah  see Smith, William V.

Ingersoll, Chester  (1789-1850) from Vermont; married Mary Burdick (also Lucretia, Jan. 14, 1794-1819) in 1814; the couple had two sons, Lorin (NY Mar. 30, 1815-1889) and Alonzo A. (VT c.1819-Mar. 29, 1847 IL); came with his younger son to Walker`s Grove (now Plainfield) in the early 1830s; served as sergeant during the Black Hawk War in Capt. James Walker’s company in the summer of 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; moved to Chicago and became landlord of Wolf Tavern, replacing William Wattles in late fall, renaming the tavern Traveler’s Home and later, the Western Stage House; on December 12 that year married Phoebe (Nov. 1, 1812-), daughter of Benjamin and Phoebe (née Paddock) Weaver from New York, the Hon. R.J. Hamilton officiating; in the Aug. 27, 1834, City Directory he advertised the sale of town lots at the newly platted town [Plainfield] NE of Walker’s Grove to where he had removed, 40 miles from Chicago; Alonzo A. married Phoebe`s younger sister Barbara Weaver (NY 1820-Oct. 5, 1861) on Oct. 8, 1838. Mrs. Ingersoll is listed as an actress and teacher of dancing in the 1839 City Directory, boarding at the Lake House; farmed seven years, then settled near Lockport. The couple had four sons: Chester, Benjamin F., Josiah, and James K.P.; in 1847, the family left for San Francisco, CA, where Chester died in September 1850. Phoebe returned with the family to Will County; in July 1851, she married Benjamin F. Russell. [319, 351, 734] [12]

Ingraham, Isaac  was listed as a charter member of the first Presbyterian church in June 1833, in the Fort Dearborn garrison; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319] [237a]

intendant  in New France during the period from 1665 to 1760, the highest-ranking administrator in charge of the affairs of the colony. While the governor represented the French king, the intendant made and supervised all major administrative decisions; both officials were appointed by the king and were answerable to him personally. Prior to 1665, only governors were appointed and were expected to fulfill both functions. Listed below in chronological order of their service are all intendants of New France; those marked [*] have a separate entry for additional information.
*Jean Talon, 1665-1668
Claude de Bouteroue, 1668-1669
Jean Talon, 1669-1675
Jacques Du Chesneau, 1675-1682
Jacques de Meulles, 1682-1686
Jean Bochart de Champigny, 1686-1702
*François de Beauharnais, 1702-1705
Jacques (père) and Antoine Denis (fils) Raudot, 1705-1710
Jacques Raudot, alone, 1710-1711
Claude Michel Bègon, 1712-1726
Claude Thomas Dupuy, 1726-1728
Gilles Hocquart, 1728-1748
François Bigot, 1748-1760 [665]

Ironside, George  British trader; friend of John Kinzie since the 1789-90 period when both lived at Miami Town [Fort Wayne, IN]; lived in Fort Malden in 1795 as ranking member of the British Indian Agency; paid a clandestine visit to John Kinzie at Chicago on Jan. 13, 1811 (entry in Kinzie’s account books for a purchase of 16 oz. of silver); headed the British Indian Agency after the 1812 war. [404] [649]

Iroquois  a confederated group of five Indian tribes or nations (Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca) of the Huron-Iroquois linguistic stock that existed S of the St. Lawrence River and Lake Ontario and struggled against the Huron for control of the fur trade between 1630 and 1665. In general, the Iroquoi were allied with the British against the French; together with the Fox, they limited French access to the Illinois River valley and the upper Mississippi around 1700 by controlling the portages, including Chicago’s; the blockade lasted for approximately 75 years; they severely decimated both the Huron and the Illinois tribes, which were friendly toward the French.

Irving Park Road  the course of an early Indian portage trail from the north branch of the Chicago River to the Des Plaines River; located at 4000 N and passes Portage Park at Central Avenue; Irving Park, originally called Irvington, was an early settlement along this road, named after Washington Irving (1783-1859).

Irving, Antoine  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on July 9, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Irwin, Lt. J.R.  of the U.S. Army, recreated a map of the proposed Illinois & Michigan canal territory in 1834 which was printed as a government document and was named Map and Profile of the proposed Route for the Michigan and Illinois Canal. It was based on a survey by the civil engineers William B. Guyon, Frederick Harrison, Jr., and [see] Henry Belin which began in 1830. Lieutenant Irvin may never have visited Chicago. [342a]

Irwin, Matthew  third son of an Irish Philadelphia merchant; government factor at Fort Dearborn, succeeding Joseph B. Varnum; appointed in 1808 but began his duties at the fort in the summer of 1809. [The factory was the U.S. government store selling to Indians. Beginning Dec. 30, 1809, Irwin`s letters to William Eustis, the secretary of war, exposed the corruption, illegal trading, smuggling, threats, and British orientation of several officers at Fort Dearborn, John Kinzie, Billy Caldwell, and others; he expressed fear for his own life as a result of his exposé; the killing of Jean Baptiste Lalime suggests his fears were not groundless.] He visited John Kinzie’s trading post in 1810 on January 20, May 26, September 11, and October 26; in 1811 on June 26; in 1812 on July 21, as shown in the Kinzie account books [his name some times written as “Erwin”]; one of the transactions involved the purchase of raisins. Serving until July 5, 1812, Irwin did a total of $4,712.57 of agency business; leaving for Mackinac on a mission to find a replacement for the Indian interpreter Lalime, who had recently been killed by John Kinzie, and requesting that Dr. Van Voorhis cover the factory store, he boarded the sloop [see] Friends` Good-Will and thus escaped the Fort Dearborn massacre of August 15; arrived at Mackinac the next day and was captured by the British and Indians at the surrender of Fort Mackinac, but survived—with him were 99 packs of fur belonging to the Chicago factory which the British confiscated; in May 1813 he was appointed assistant commissary of purchases in the army, working until disbanded in June 1815; in 1816 served as factor at Fort Howard, Green Bay, until commissioned by Governor Cass in 1818 as the first chief justice and judge of probate of Brown County [then embracing the eastern half of Wisconsin, extending to the Fox-Wisconsin river portage]. He married Nancy Walker of Uniontown, PA, in 1816 and a son (William) was born in 1817; the couple had four more children, and in 1821 the family returned to Uniontown; died c.1845, aged 75 years. [“Fur Trade and Factory System at Green Bay · 1816-21.” Wisconsin Historical Collections 7, 1876; 12, 109, 206b, 226, 326, 404, 559, 649] [559a]

Isham, Giles S.  resident in 1835, when his name was on a school-related petition signed on September 19. [12]

Isle a la Cache  an island in the Des Plaines River near what is now Romeoville, IL; was an important camping and hiding place for Indians and pioneers. Known to the French fur traders at the time of Father Marquette’s second trip to Illinois; his report strongly suggests that [see] “the Surgeon” and Pierre Moreau stashed their goods on the island in 1674. On Thomas Hutchin`s 1778 map of the Chicago region it is referred to as “Hid Island” [see Hutchins, Thomas, in the Encyclopedia section]. The site was a convenient single day canoeing distance from Chicago on the way to the Indian villages along the Illinois River. A fine museum is now located on the island, the Isle a la Cache Museum; see Monuments section.