Encyclopedia letter N

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N. Norton  schooner from Buffalo, NY; called at Chicago under Captain Oliver on Aug. 21, 1834; ran ashore on Lake Michigan in 1842. [48]

N.C. Baldwin  145-ton schooner from Buffalo, NY; called twice at Chicago with passengers and merchandise under Captain Sweet in 1835, on June 20 and October 22. [48]

Nadeau, Monique  see Beaubien, Mark.

Nanaloibi  Potawatomi chief, living temporarily at Chicago in the late 1770s when the village had been abandoned by French settlers and traders during the Revolutionary War; both Nanaloibi and Mechkigi, a fellow chief, were much courted at the time by both British and American agents.

Nancy Dousman  130-ton schooner built at Black River, OH, in 1833; in 1834 called at Chicago four times under Captain Saunderson [Sanderson?] with lumber and passengers, bringing, among others, Dr. James A. Marshall on August 15; returned once in 1835 under Captain Shooks on August 16, coming from Detroit. [48]

Naperville, Illinois  earlier also Napiersville and Napierville, and initially Napier`s or Naper`s Settlement and Napersville; see Napier, Joseph. This settlement was larger than Chicago in the early 1830s, yet in Cook County; now in DuPage County, initially its county seat. In the July 23, 1834, Chicago Democrat a notice reads: A meeting of the settlers in Naper`s Settlement, is requested to be holden at the house of Joseph Napier, on the second day of August next, at 3 o`clock, P.M. for the purpose of ascertaining the minds of the settlers about subscribing to resolutions that we will not crowd upon any settler`s claim, nor countenance it in others, and we will not bid upon improvements or claims, nor countenance that, and to appoint a committee to examine claims when they are reported as being unreasonable. A Settler. Napier`s Settlement, July 11, 1834.

On July 7, Morris Sleight had written to a friend that the settlers around the settlement had agreed “… they will not bid against each other; anything to the contrary they have declared Club law, and are determined to put it in force.” [171, 586] [677]

Napier, Amy  see Murray, John.

Napier, John  later Naper; brother of [see] Joseph Napier; arrived with wife, Betsy, and two children from Ohio on July 15, 1831; steamer sailor on Lake Erie from 1828 to 1830; captain of a steamer between Buffalo and Detroit; commanded the Telegraph to Chicago; settled W along the Du Page River [Naperville]; a corporal in the Cook County volunteer militia under his brother during the Black Hawk scare in 1832. [12, 586] [677]

Napier, Joseph  (1788-1862) later Naper; of Scottish descent, Napier being the original Scottish spelling; from Vermont, elder brother of John; sailor and captain of sailing vessels on Lake Erie until 1830; built the schooner Telegraph on the bank of the Ashtabula River, then sailed to Chicago with his wife, Almeda, their two children, his brother and sister, Amy Murray, their families and acquaintances, arriving on July 15, 1831 to deliver the vessel to its new owner; soon after the families journeyed W to a claim previously made on the west bank of the Du Page River (becoming a neighbor of Stephen J. Scott, who in late spring had sown crops in anticipation) and established the settlement Naperville; opened a store among the new log structures, for about a year in partnership with P.F.W. Peck who had arrived with the brothers on the Telegraph; brought hardware for a grist- and sawmill, built and run by [see] Bailey Hobson; in September 1831, organized a local school district and hired a teacher, sending six of his own children to the school; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December. From July 19 to Aug. 15, 1832, during the Black Hawk War, Joseph, in the rank of captain, organized and commanded the militia company of mounted volunteers of that part of Cook County [For the complete list of militia members who served under Napier, see Andreas, vol. 1:271.]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and received $71 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September. In 1837, he served as representative to the Illinois House of Representatives for Cook County, working on a committee with Stephen A. Douglas; later platted the town of Naperville; street name: Naper Avenue (6600 W). [12, 199a, 319, 586] [677]

Napieralski, Capt. Joseph  born in c.1800 at Kaliszy, Poland; said to have been the first Polish immigrant to Chicago, arriving in 1834; served as captain in the Polish army during the disastrous 1831 war with Russia, fleeing to the United States by way of Prussia and Norway; other members of his company followed him to the United States in subsequent years; remained in Chicago until his death, his story being reported by one of his descendants, Emilia Napieralska. [576, 544]

Napoleon  107-ton lake schooner, built in 1828 at Detroit for Oliver Newberry; called at Chicago frequently during the 1830s; dispatched from Detroit in May 1831 to help with the evacuation of the Fort Dearborn garrison, then under Lt. David Hunter as acting commandant in the absence of Major Fowle. On April 17, 1833, the Napoleon left the port of Chicago with the first shipment of western produce for eastern markets, carrying beef, tallow, hides, and beeswax belonging to merchant George W. Dole; John Stewart was then the master. In 1834, the ship called at Chicago seven times under Captain Stuart with passengers and merchandise, mostly from Buffalo, NY; in 1835 called three times under Captain Chase [Case?]. [12]

Nash, Isaac  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

Nash, Jeffrey  a Negro slave purchased at Detroit on Sept. 5, 1803, by John Kinzie and Thomas Forsyth, apparently first taken to Chicago and later to Peoria, where he worked for several years in the business his masters owned jointly, before he ran away, making his way to St. Louis and eventually to New Orleans, where he is said to have had a wife and child. Forsyth and Kinzie initiated a suit to recover him but were denied ownership by the Louisiana Supreme Court, based on the Ordinance of 1787. [556]

Nation du Feu  `nation of fire`, erroneous French term for a group of Great Lakes Indians that included the Mascoutens, also known as the Prairie Band of the Potawatomi, and the Chippewa or Ojibwa. The native word Mascouten means `prairie`, not `fire`.

Natta, J.V.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Naunongee  also Nan-non-gee [probable meaning: `many times`]; Potawatomi chief of a large Indian village at the mouth of the Calumet River; was severely wounded at the 1812 massacre at Fort Dearborn by Sgt. Otho Hayes with a bayonet thrust, who at the same time lost his life from a tomahawk blow to his head; the only Indian chief known to have died [later at his village] because of the massacre; father of Chopo, wife of [see] François Pierre Chevalier. [226, 275a, 456b]

Navigator  schooner from Buffalo, NY; called at Chicago under Captain Rice on Nov. 5, 1834.

Naw-Kaw  meaning `Wood`; name of a Winnebago chief, c.1735-1833. [456b]

Neads, John  also Needs; from Virginia; U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on July 5, 1808; taken prisoner with his wife, Sarah, and child by the Indians after the massacre of 1812; all three died in captivity, John between Jan. 15 and 20, 1813; the four year old son had died of exposure when tied to a tree and left behind by the Indians; the mother died soon after from hunger and cold. [708] [226]

Neff & Co.  placed an ad in the Aug. 22, 1835 Chicago American asking for “8 or 10 first rate journeymen carpenters, who will be paid from $1.75 to $2.00 per day.” [243]

Nelson, —  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, originally from Maryland, enlisted in May 1809; following the massacre of 1812, he died of exposure during the following winter while in Indian captivity. [226]

Neptune  brig from Buffalo, NY; called at Chicago under Captain Wilkesson twice in 1834 with potatoes and bacon, on July 2 and on October 20.

Nescotnemeg  (-1816) also Nuscotnemeg, known as Wild Sturgeon; Potawatomi; lived at the Wasuskuk village on the S side of the Kankakee River, upstream of Waldron; planned the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812 as one of the principal chiefs involved; was severely wounded in the chest then, but survived. He fought also in the battle of the Thames River, when Tecumseh was killed; then moved his forces to the upper reaches of the Yellow River in Indiana where he died in the spring of 1816, a victim of alcoholism. [226, 692g]

New Connecticut  schooner from Buffalo, NY; called at Chicago under Captain Baxter on Sept. 27, 1834, under Captain Kennedy on July 22, 1835.

New France  see also Canada; early name for the original French possessions in northeastern North America, initially extending from the St. Lawrence River and its basin, including the Great Lakes, and S through the Mississippi River basin to the Gulf of Mexico; thanks to the faithfully drawn and kept records of the Jesuit missionaries, few periods in history have been so well illuminated as the French regime in North America; in 1717 the southern portion became the province of Louisiane. The area now occupied by Chicago straddles what was the border between New France and Louisiana Province; the border followed the divide between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi drainage systems. Also see Louisiana Province, as well as jurisdiction. [128, 129, 217, 222, 362, 368, 396, 666] [680]

New Lenox, IL  site of a 1994 archeological discovery possibly related to La Salle`s 1683 activities in the greater Chicago area; this Hickory Creek site was excavated and mapped by archaeologists in 1994, and promptly reburied because it is part of a municipal golf course owned by the New Lennox Park District; for details, see John F. Swenson`s essay. Also see Chronology section, year 1683.

New Orleans  location first sighted in 1699 by de Bienville and d`Iberville as an Indian portage from the lower Mississippi to Lake Pontchartrain and the Gulf of Mexico; founded as a French settlement in 1718 by de Bienville, it became the capital of Louisiana Province in 1722, and was named in honor of the Duke of Orleans, French regent at the time. From 1717 to 1763, the Chicago area was formally a part of this province and was under the jurisdiction of New Orleans. For additional details, see jurisdiction.

New York Exchange    see Exchange Coffee House.

New York House  hotel built in 1834 on the N side of Lake Street and opened in 1835; the initial owners and managers were Lathrop Johnson and George Stevens, then Johnson alone until 1839, when L.M. Osterhould took over.

New York  80-ton schooner, called at Chicago on Aug. 5, 1834, coming from Cleveland, and again on Nov. 5, 1834, coming from Buffalo; called once in 1835, on July 31 from Buffalo.

Newberry & Dole  Detroit merchant house, forwarding, commission, and retail, opened a Chicago branch in 1829 through J.S.C. Hogan, whom the firm sent from Detroit; a flour and provision store in one of the first three frame buildings on the corner of South Water and Dearborn streets, opposite Beaubien`s store, owned jointly by Oliver Newberry and George W. Dole. On Jan. 14, 1834, they advertised “highly finished Shot Guns, double and single barrels, by the first English makers” for sale, in the Chicago Democrat. During the same year the firm entered the meat packing business in grand style; see below the text of – Chicago`s 1st – bill of lading for beef; the partners applied for wharfing privileges on Nov. 21, 1835. The account books (1831-38) of this storage, forwarding, and commission business are preserved in the Chicago History Museum.
Text of Newberry & Dole`s Bill of Lading:
Shipped in good order and well conditioned by Newberry & Dole on board of the schooner called Napoleon, whereof is master for the present voyage John Stewart, now lying in the port of Chicago, and bound for Detroit, to say: O. Newberry, Detroit. –87 bbls. [barrels] beef; 14 bbls. tallow; 2 bbls. beeswax; 152 dry hides, weighing 4,695 lbs. Being marked and numbered as in the margin and to be delivered at the port of Detroit in like good order (the dangers of the lakes and rivers excepted) unto consignees, or to their assignees—he or they paying freight at—per bbl. bulk. In witness whereof the master of said vessel hath affirmed to two bills of lading, all of this tener and date, one of which to be accomplished, the other to stand void, Chicago, April 17, 1834. John Stewart. [12]

Newberry Addition    the Walter L. Newberry Addition to Chicago, comprising 40 acres; it occupied the eastern half of the western half of the NE quarter of Section 9, the land loosely enclosed by Kinzie, Franklin, Chicago, and LaSalle streets, adjacent to the W side of the Wolcott Addition; purchased in 1833 for $1,062, estimated value in 1864 at $750,000.

Newberry, Oliver  a native of East Windsor, CT, older brother of Walter L.; lived in Detroit from 1820 until 1862, the year of his death; in c.1825 he became active in lake shipping, and within a few years owned a fleet of vessels in addition to docks, stores, warehouses, and offices at various points around the Lake Erie shore; in 1829 sent J.S.C. Hogan from Detroit to Chicago to build and operate a store for him; purchased in 1830 from the government lot 4 in block 16 and subsequently from G.W. Dole lot 4 in block 17 on South Water Street [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], where Hogan, in 1831, developed the business into the “principal store in town” under the name Newberry & Dole, “licensed to sell goods,” located on the corner of South Water and Dearborn streets, with its own dock on the river. On April 3, 1832, Newberry purchased eight choice lots in Sections 16 and 17 for a total of $238, and secured the appointment as official sutler to Fort Dearborn. Of the many sailing ships he owned, the Napoleon, the Savage, the Austerlitz, and the Marshall Ney made visits to the Chicago harbor; his Michigan was the first steamer to pass the new Dearborn Street drawbridge in 1834, and on July 12 the Illinois, the first large commercial sailing vessel, landed at the wharf of N & D; 1839 City Directory: forwarding commission merchant, North Water Street corner with Rush. [12, 118] [243]

Newberry, Walter Loomis  (1804-1868) born in East Windsor, CT, younger brother of Oliver Newberry; early leading citizen of Chicago who, during an early visit in 1830, had bought a 40 acre plot just N of the river in Section 9, reaching from Kinzie Street to Chicago Avenue, and who returned in 1833 to make his fortune; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. He was one of the few successful land speculators able to retain his wealth during the panic of 1837 and the depression from 1839 to 1842; 1839 City Directory: attorney and real estate, office Newberry & Dole; 1843 City Directory: Newberry & Burch [Isaac Howe {bds City Hotel}], bankers and exchange brokers, 97 Lake; 1844 City Directory: of N. & Burch, h Illinois, b Rush and Pine. In 1841, while organizing and serving as first president of the Young Men`s Association of Chicago, he already envisioned a public library for the young town, and declared: “We must encourage everything that tends to enlighten and polish the human mind …. We purpose to lay the foundation of a library which we hope to see go on increasing until it becomes the pride and boast of our city.” In his will he left half his fortune – $2.1 million – to provide for the establishment of a library which, as Newberry Library, became reality in 1887, and developed into a world renowned research and reference institution long after his death. Walter Newberry married Julia Butler Clapp on Nov. 22, 1842; served as alderman in 1851. Walter L. Newberry School, 700 W Willow St.; street name: Newberry Avenue (828 W). Also see his bust in the Monuments section. [12, 319] [243]

newspapers  for Chicago`s first newspapers, see Chicago Democrat (Nov. 26, 1833); Chicago American (June 8, 1835).

Newton, Hollis  owned a 48 acre plot where he ran a roadside hotel and tavern three miles S of Chicago in 1835; died on Aug. 25, 1835. [12]

Niagara formation  a thick layer of solid limestone underlying large parts of the Great Lakes region, derived from sediments of shallow warm seas that existed during the Silurian period 400 million years ago. In the Chicago area the rock is usually found at a depth of 50 to 75 feet, underneath the silt, sand, and gravel left by the Wisconsin glacier, but it comes to the surface in many locations, such as at Stony Island, Stony Ford, and Riverside Ford. Chicago`s skyscrapers depend on the limestone foundation for a solid footing, and much of Chicago`s building material, such as [see] lannon stone, is so derived.

Niagara  steamboat that came to Chicago in 1835 from Michigan; one noteworthy passenger debarking was Margaret Sobraro who would marry [see] Joseph Peacock in 1842.

Nichols, E.C.  arrived from New York in 1832. [351]

Nichols, Luther  (1805-1881) born in Gilbertsville, NY; enlisted in the U.S. Army in 1828; arrived for the Black Hawk War from Fort Niagara, with his wife, Ellen, and one daughter, Adeline A.; as corporal under the immediate charge of Maj. William Whistler in June 1832, he helped bury the cholera victims of General Scott`s army, was honorably discharged late in 1833; elected constable on Aug. 5, 1835; 1839 City Directory: drayman, 50 Dearborn St.; in 1855, as the Chicago police captain under Mayor Levi Boone, he confronted the rebels during the “Lager Beer Riots”; died on May 2, 1881. Adeline later married Abram Heartt; her early recollections are preserved in the Chicago History Museum. [12, 243, 351, 708] [544]

Nickols, Patterson  advertised “Ohio Flour and Butter, for sale at J. Kinzie`s Ware House” in the Dec. 12, 1835, Chicago American; 1839 City Directory: livery stable keeper, Kinzie Street near North State. [243]

Nicollet, Jean  (1598-1642) also Nicolet; born in Cherbourg, France, immigrated to Quebec in 1618; lived several years among the Algonquins along the Ottawa River and learned their language; as an agent of Champlain, the governor of New France, was sent west in 1634 to explore unknown territory, seeking the “men of the sea” [see Green Bay]; traveled with seven Huron Indians through the Straights of Mackinac and westward, becoming the first European to see Lake Michigan and to set foot on the territory that later became Wisconsin; possibly on the shores of Green Bay he met the Winnebago, for whom he dressed in embroidered colorful Chinese damask, believing he had reached Cathay; if ascending farther up the Fox River in Wisconsin he would have encountered the Mascouten; for a description of Nicollet`s momentous encounter see the passage from Du Creux`s Historia Canadensis below. Nicollet was married to Marguerite Couillart; was frequently consulted on Indian matters until his untimely drowning near Quebec in 1642; street name: Nicolet Avenue (7044 W). [12, 100, 205, 383, 464c]
Excerpt from Du Creux`s History Canadenses:
When he [Nicollet] was two days distant [from the Winnebago], he sent forward one of his own company to make known to the nation to which they were going that a European embassador was approaching with gifts, who, in behalf of the Huron, desired to secure their friendship. The embassy was received with applause, and young men were immediately sent to meet him, who were to carry the baggage and the equipment of the Manitouiriniou [manit8irini8, `wonderful man`] and escort him with honor. Nicolet was clad in a Chinese robe of silk, skillfully ornamented with birds and flowers of many colors; he carried in each hand a small pistol. When he had discharged these, the more timid persons, boys and women, betook themselves to flight, to escape as quickly as possible from a man who, they said, carried the thunder in both hands. But the rumor of his coming having spread far and wide, the chiefs, with their followers, assembled directly to the number of four or five thousand persons; and the matter having been discussed and considered in a general council, a treaty was made in due form. Afterward each of the chiefs gave a banquet after their fashion; and at one of these, strange to say, a hundert and twenty beavers were eaten. [456b] [464f]

Niles, IL    see Dutchman’s Grove.

Niles, MI  historic town 92 miles E of Chicago; site of 17th century Jesuit mission and 18th century St. Joseph post; located on the St. Joseph River, 25 miles from its mouth, and was accessible to small steamboats from the lake by 1837. By 1831, Niles had its own post office, one year after White Pigeon, 35 miles E of Niles. Early Chicago mail went first through White Pigeon, then through Niles by horseback; beginning in September 1833 there was stagecoach service between Niles and Chicago. [357] [618]

Nine Mile Prairie    term used by early settlers for the stretch of prairie between the Chicago settlement and the ferry on the Des Plaines River. For a description, see entry on Harriet Martineau.

Ninson, William  arrived in the fall of 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and then voted in the first town election on August 10. [319] [12]

Noble, John  (c.1802-1885) son of [see] Mark Noble, Sr., and brother of Mark, Jr.; born in Yorkshire, England; butcher, arrived in June 1831; raised cattle with his brother on the S side; the cattle were slaughtered at Madison Street and Michigan Avenue, and packed at G.W. Dole`s warehouse at Dearborn and South Water streets; some remember that during the Black Hawk War of 1832 the brothers made available 152 steers to the soldiers at the fort and to the refugees from the countryside, alleviating famine. The brothers bought from the government and private sellers a lot of real estate in blocks 8, 10, 18, 19, 23, 28, and 56 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], selling much again within a few years. Sometime in 1833, John built with Mark, Jr., and sister Mary a log cabin on the north branch [at Belmont Avenue], yet he also lived in – Chicago`s 1st – brick house, built for him by Alanson Sweet and William Worthington on Kinzie Street near Lake and Rush; together with his brother Mark, were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; also with Mark he received $180 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; on Aug. 13, 1834, the firm “Wesencraft & Noble” advertised in the Chicago Democrat for a “first rate sawyer” for their steam sawmill; 1839 City Directory: real estate, resided at Dutchman`s Point; died on Jan. 13, 1885; street name: Noble Street (1400 W). [12, 243, 319] [351]

Noble, Mark, Jr.  (1811-July 1863) son of [see] Mark Noble, Sr., and younger brother of [see] John Noble; arrived from England with his family in June 1831; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; early in 1832 he built a steam sawmill on the E side of the north branch of the Chicago River, just S of Division Street, at the mouth of a contributorstream, known as the Noble Steam Mill; the mill burned in 1834, but was rebuilt in 1835 by its new owner Gurdon S. Hubbard, who leased it to Capt. Bensley Huntoon, and it became known as the Huntoon Mill; in 1833, Noble partnered with George Bickerdyke and together they erected a steam sawmill where Lake Street crossed the Des Plaines River in what is now River Forest; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; together with his brother John, Mark Jr. received $180 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; married Charlotte Wesencraft (1812-) of Buffalo, NY, on Nov. 29, 1833, the Hon. R.J. Hamilton officiating at a joint ceremony, also the marriage of George Bickerdyke and Mary Noble; Mark and Charlotte had five children: Margaret (1835-), Maria J. (1836-), John W. (1839-), Albert E. (1842-) and Charles (WI 1846-); partnered his brother raising and butchering cattle, and in buying and selling land; 1839 City Directory: real estate, Dutchman`s Point. By 1843 Mark, Jr. left with his family for Kenosha City, Wisconsin Territory, living there until 1850; with difficulty north they removed to Port Lavaca, Calhoun County, TX, where he died in July 1863. Charlotte died in Victoria on Aug. 10, 1901 [Victoria Advocate, page six. Complements of Christina Stanga; Victoria Public Library, Victoria County, TX]. [12, 243, 319, 692b] [351]

Noble, Mark, Sr.  (c.1765-1839) English butcher who arrived in August 1831 with his family, among them the adult children John; Mark, Jr.; Elizabeth; and Mary (see separate entries); sometimes referred to as “Father Noble,” for he was a fervent Methodist Episcopalian and often organized prayer meetings in his home and elsewhere before a pastor was regularly available; occupied the old Kinzie House on the N side of the river where he organized prayer meetings, replaced with a small cabin he built at corner of State and South Water streets; once the northern pier construction of the river mouth in 1832 resulted in accretion of additional beach sand, he entered a claim for 29 acres of the new beach property with the U.S. Land Office; daughters Elizabeth and Mary helped organize the first Sunday school with Philo Carpenter on Aug. 19, 1832; 1839 City Directory: farmer, Dutchman`s Point; as per notice in the Daily American, died Nov. 25, 1839. The farmhouse Mark built in 1833 on a prairie ridge was sold by his widow, Margret, in 1846, and still exists as the southern wing of the Noble-Seymour-Crippen House at 5622 N. Newark Ave. in Norwood Park.

Noble, Mary  see Bickerdyke, George.

Nokenoqua  see Lalime, Jean Baptiste; see Burnett, John.

Nolan, Michael    on Aug. 29, 1835, married Mary Green, Father St. Cyr officiating.

Noles, Joseph  also Knowles; U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Sept. 8, 1810; taken prisoner by Indians at the massacre of 1812 and later ransomed. [708] [226]

Nonimoa  Indian name of [see] John Kinzie Clark. The word is said to mean `Prairie Wolf` according to the 1868 Gailland Potawatomi grammar dictionary; species name Canis latrans, commonly called `small wolf, coyote`; Gailland (using French orthography) spelled it nennimowe(/nennee-mo-way/); nenni- means `original, real, customary, common, true, traditional,` and mowe is `wolf` (cf. Kaskaskia Illinois mawewa), thus `common-wolf` (as opposed to the larger grey wolf or timber wolf, Canis lupus, which also occurred in Illinois). [341] [456b]

Norman, Joseph and John  sons of John and Anna (née Pence) Norman; Joseph (Champaign, OH March 1802- ) married Martha Coons (Culpeper, VA c.1805- ) in IN, 1826; is listed on the 1830 Federal Census for Peoria County with his wife, son John (Johnson, IN Mar. 6, 1828-May 2, 1882), and brother John; during the Black Hawk War was a private in Capt. Holder Sission`s Company of mounted volunteers between July 23 and Aug. 15, 1832; daughter Elizabeth was born in 1832 in Will County where in 1833/34 he built a sawmill on Hickory Creek about 1.25 miles downstream from what is now New Lennox. John (Vinton, OH c.1817-1838) built a gristmill in 1833/34 on Norman Island in the Des Plaines River at [now] Joliet; married Roxsena Jane [Anna], daughter of Zepheniah and Mary (née Collins) Holcomb, in 1837; the couple had a daughter Mary Ann (July 19, 1838-Mar. 15, 1854; Mrs. Harper); another child was born following John`s death in 1838, the year the mill was closed and the small island cleared during the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. [692b] [734]

Norris, J.W.  placed an ad in the Dec. 16, 1835, Chicago Democrat announcing that “A FEW GENTEEL BOARDERS can be accommodated at the long House between the Methodist and Episcopal Meeting House, just across the Draw Bridge.” In 1848 he offered building owners to notify them of their addresses on the City Directory he was about to prepare; this, in turn, prompted the city council to number all buildings on Chicago streets. [233”] [243]

Norris, Joseph E.  though listed also as Morris, actually Joseph Thomasson; indicted in Cook County for the 1835 murder of a man [Felix Legree] on the road to Ottawa, between Laughtons` Tavern and the house of Elijah Wentworth, Jr. [Flag Creek]; James Grant was the prosecuting attorney, Henry Moore the public defender; during an attempt to escape, the prisoner injured an innocent bystander, the jeweler Edward Mulford. Because of a change of venue, the trial was held in Iroquois County and led to the execution of Norris by hanging on June 10, 1836. [13] [707]

North Branch Addition    also known as the [see] Russell & Mather Addition.

North Water Street  (400 N); running parallel to and immediately N of the main part of the Chicago River, so named by James Thompson in his original plat of Chicago, 1830.

North West Army    during the Black Hawk War, the Wolf Point Tavern [Rat Castle] in Chicago became the headquarters of the North West Army of the United States while General Scott was in the settlement.

North West Company  (1783-1821) independent during the 1770s, varied Montreal-based and Mackinac peltry wholesalers coalesced in 1783 to found the company, one of three major rival British fur trading companies in the Canadian north, competing with the Hudson Bay Co. and the XY Co. during the era of fur trade. Headquartered at Grand Portage Bay, its agents shipped and transported furs through Quebec to Europe, its independent traders only occasionally penetrating as far S as Chicago. In 1803 the company removed from French to British territory, dominating the Mackinac trade between 1800 to 1812, eventually fusing with the Hudson Bay Co., which lasted until 1823. [642a]

North, August  private at Fort Dearborn under Captain Heald; taken prisoner by Indians at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and killed later. [226]

Northam, Lucy F.  see Osborn, Andrew L.

Northrop, F.B.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Northwest Ordinance  an “Act to Provide for the Government of the Territory North West of the River Ohio,” passed by the Continental Congress in 1787, and ratified by the U.S. Congress in 1789; created the mechanism by which future states, including Illinois, would be formed and governed. [571]

Northwest Territory  officially “the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio”; created by the Continental Congress, when it passed the Northwest Ordinance; Chicago was part of the Northwest Territory of the United States from July 13, 1787, to May 7, 1800; on the latter date, Chicago became part of the Indiana Territory. See jurisdiction. [59, 152, 512, 544] [571]

Norton, Henry  first appeared in the 1839 Chicago Directory as “merchant, Wabash ave.” In the 1843 Chicago Directory he listed as “(Loyd, Blakesley & Co.), res 81 State, bet Randolph and Washington”; 1844 Chicago Directory: “Norton, H. of Lloyd, Blakesley & Co. h State b Rand. and Wash.” Henry died on the Isthmus of Panama, en route to California in 1849.

Norton, Nelson R.  born in Hampton, NY, in 1807; carpenter and shipwright who was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; in the spring of 1834 he built the Dearborn Street drawbridge, Chicago`s 1st – 16 feet wide, 300 feet long, and with an opening of 60 feet; with the carpenter brothers Polemus D. and Thomas E. Hamilton in the spring of 1835, built the first commercial sailing vessel in Chicago, the sloop Clarissa, which was owned by the three carpenters and which was launched on May 12, 1836; late in 1835 he filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 3, block 2; 1839 City Directory: bridge-builder, NW corner of State and Indiana [Grand] streets; removed to Aldon, MN, in 1839 and still lived there in 1885. [12, 243, 319] [351]

Norton, W.A.  became a fire warden in December 1835. [12] [28]

Norton, Walter  captain of the sloop [see] Erie which visited Chicago in July of 1812. [206b]

Nouvelle France  also Nova Francia [Latin], Canada; French term meaning `New France,` as on [see] Du Val`s mapNouvelle France began with the exploration of the St. Lawrence Gulf and River in 1534 by Jacques Cartier, followed by his annexation of the entire St. Lawrence drainage system in 1536 in the name of François I, king of France; it became an official province of France in 1672, and remained French territory until 1763. Chicagou was part of Nouvelle France .

Noyes, Selia  see Page, F.M.

Noyesville    name of an early community in the area that is now Oak Park; a Noyesville Post Office was opened on Aug. 10, 1846, and remained so named until 1871, when it became the Oak Park Post Office.

Nuscotnemeg    see Nescotnemeg.