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Babcock, Charles  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833.

Babcock, Morgan and Ralph  brothers; Morgan (1806-c.1870) was born in Scott, NY, and Ralph (Dec. 1, 1810-Sept. 19, 1897) was born at Tully, the sons of Solomon and Amy (née Morgan) Babcock; they arrived in 1833 and moved on to [now] Lombard where they claimed land along the Du Page River and farmed; it was first named Babcock`s Grove after them. In 1849 Ralph married Azubah (Mar. 14, 1818-1901), daughter of William and Matilda (née Lyon) Dodge of Glen Ellyn, niece of [see] Mercy Dodge Churchill. Ralph died at Elroy, WI. [288a]

Baboeuf, André  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south.

Bachelors` Grove  large wooded area in the SW Chicagoland area where an early settlement began following the acquisition of land tracts in 1832 by four bachelors [see Rexford brothers]; it is now mostly part of the Tinley Creek division of the Cook County Forest Preserves District. Tinley Creek`s early name was Bachelors Grove Creek. There is also a Bachelors’ Grove Cemetery, located on the edge of the Rubio Woods Forest Preserve. Its tombstones are now [2009] covered by weeds, and the cemetery is surrounded by a chain-link fence [also see: bachelorsgrove.com]

Badin, Father Stephen Theodore  also Baden; from Ahoille, France; first Catholic priest ordained in the United States (Baltimore, 1793); missionary in Kentucky for over 35 years when chosen in 1830 by [see] Abbé Gabriel Richard as head of the St. Joseph Mission and Indian

school among the Potawatomi on the St. Joseph River near Niles [MI]; came to Chicago in October that year to baptize many young children within the Catholic community, among whom were Helene and Susanne, daughters of Billy and Nanette Caldwell; in July 1831 the Father met Indian agent Owen at the St. Joseph Mission and agreed to establish a “seminary of learning” in the Chicago region, resulting in the [see] Badin-Owen Petition and the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in early October at Chicago; signed the second petition on October 5. In the 1830s he built a small log chapel on St. Mary`s Lake, N of South Bend, IN (its replica would later be erected on the University of Notre Dame campus). The territory assigned to him as missionary extended from St. Mary`s Lake S to Bardstown, KY, encompassing Cincinnati and obligating him to frequent lengthy travel; substituted occasionally for Father Cyr in Chicago, when the latter had to be absent. [268, 319, 544]

Badin-Owen Petition  during late September 1831 when the United Tribes gathered at Chicago for payment of their annuities, Chiefs Billy Caldwell and Alexander Robinson, together with Indian Agent Thomas J.V. Owen, Father Stephen T. Badin and Probate Judge Richard J. Hamilton, secured from the Indians a grant of four sections of land upon which to create a “seminary of learning.” The petition states:
“We the undersigned, Sau-ka-nash and Che-ge-pin-quay, chiefs chosen at the epoch of the Treaty of Prairie du Chien by the Chipways, Ottaous and Poutaoutomies Indians, of the waters of the Illinois, Millewake, and Manitouak rivers—having been authorized by the above Tribes of Indians to locate a quantity, not to exceed four sections, of their lands, on the Northwestern boundary line between the United States and Indian lands, running from Lake Michigan to Rock River, where the line crosses the Chicago or Aux-Plaines River, as surveyed by Lucius Lyon— In order to make an useful religious and school establishment of a Roman Catholic clergyman, for the purpose of education in general, and instruction and civilization especially for themselves and their children; to erect on said land the necessary buildings, and to procure suitable teachers— Provided the President of the United States and Senate will authorize us, the above Chiefs, to make a survey and conveyance of said lands, for the purposes above recited.—
“Therefore, We the Chiefs above named, pray His Excellency the President of the United States and the Senate to authorize us, the chiefs aforesaid, to make the survey and conveyance aforesaid for the purposes aforesaid, and as in duty bound will ever pray &c.;
“Done at Chicago, Illinois; this third day of October, 1831.
“We, the undersigned, certify that the above named Sau-ka-nash and Che-ge-pin-quay are chiefs of the Chipways, Ottaous and Poutaoutomies Indians, of the waters of the Illinois, Millewake, and Manitouak rivers—and further do heartily concur in the above petition.”
Signers to the petition were Th. J.V. Owen, Indian Agent, Chas. Dunn, J.B. Beaubien, Nichls. Boilvin, and James F. Kinzie. The document is in the handwriting of Father Badin. On the reverse side is the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition, in the handwriting of Probate Judge Richard J. Hamilton.

Bagley, Eliza  see Salisbury, Stephen M.

Bailey, Amos  arrived in 1834 from Vermont; a carpenter by trade, became county surveyor in 1836; in the winter of 1836-37 he commissioned [see] Asa Bradley to create a real estate map of Chicago that included all new subdivisions; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and surveyor; in 1885 lived in Pacheco, Contra Costa County, California. [164, 351, 733]

Bailey, Anna Maria  see Hogan, John S.C.

Bailey, Bennett  (1811-Nov. 7, 1881) arrived from Havre-de-Grace, MD, in August 1834; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and builder; 1843 City Directory: carpenter, Dearborn, bds John Gray; 1844 City Directory: carpenter, Dearborn street, residence J. Gray`s; active in Chicago until his death. [Linda Lamberty, 12]

Bailey, C.F.W.  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833.

Bailey, Jonathan Nash  from Vermont; probate judge and postmaster at Mackinac between 1825 and 1829, and village president in 1826; arrived at Chicago not later than February 1830 and moved into the old Kinzie house (as shown on the Harrison & Howard [see] map of February 24 of that year); he is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; voted in the August 2 election; bought real estate on the north bank of the river in block 2, which he soon sold to James W. Lee [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; became sutler to Fort Dearborn in 1830 (according to James Bucklin, who visited Chicago in that year); was appointed – Chicago`s 1st – postmaster by William T. Barry,

postmaster general, under President Jackson, on March 31, 1831; still lived in the old Kinzie house at the time of his appointment, for which he paid rent of $50 on January 20 that year, to the estate of John Kinzie; initially, postal business was conducted by Bailey at this residence, making the Kinzie house – Chicago`s 1st – post office; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on October 5. Bailey also maintained a garden at [see] Grosse Pointe, and at times brought vegetables to Chicago for sale or distribution; not present enough to regularly tend to the postal business, he hired J.S.C. Hogan as his postal clerk and deputy, who served in this capacity until the appointment of postmaster was officially transferred from Bailey to Hogan [Nov. 2, 1832]; in the spring of 1832 another post office was established in a new log cabin at the Forks (NE corner of Franklin and South Water streets and often referred to as “Chicago`s first post office”) built by Hogan.
Bailey and his family left Chicago for St. Louis in May or June of 1832. Anna Maria, Bailey`s eldest daughter, subsequently married Hogan on Apr. 27, 1834, near Lewistown and returned to Chicago. [220a, 319, 421a, 704, 733]

Bailey, Maj. David  of Tazewell County; with 12 privates voluntarily escorted Chicago horsemen returning from Ottawa with news of Indian unrest; remained to command `Bailey`s Odd Battalion` of four companies of voluntary Cook County militia (led by Capt. H. Boardman, Capt. J.S.C. Hogan, Capt. Holden Seissons, and Capt. James Walker) from May 24 until mid June 1832, stationed at Fort Dearborn during the Black Hawk War; the battalion disbanded June 11 when Maj. Gen. John R. Williams of Michigan Territory arrived with nearly 100 territorial militiamen. Bailey received $50 for a claim at the Chicago treaty of September 1833. [12]

Bailley, Ester Mary  see Whistler, John Harrison.

Bailleytown    see Bailly, Joseph.

Bailly, Joseph  (Apr. 7, 1774-Dec. 21, 1835) also found in records as Joe Baies, Bayeux; born at Sainte-Anne de Varennes, Quebec; name anglicized from baptismal name Honoré-Gratien-Baillé de Messein; second son of Michel Bailly de Messein; his maternal grandfather was Ignace Aubert de Gaspe; college educated in Montreal until 1792, then worked as a clerk for the North West Company at Mackinac; became an independent fur trader in 1796, with his winter residence being a trading post at the Maple River rapids in Michigan until 1810. In c.1797 he married his first wife, Angelique McGuilpin, daughter of trader Patrick McGulpin and an Odawa woman; they had six children [see detail below]; the marriage ended in divorce c.1810. Around the turn of the century, Bailly developed an extensive trading network with additional posts on the Muskegon River (MI), Grand River (MI), St. Joseph’s River (MI), Kankakee River (IL), and the Wabash (IN), partly in cooperation with the American Fur Co.; was licensed to trade in American territory, although his sympathy was with the British; visited John Kinzie at his earlier trading post near current South Bend, IN, on Nov. 26, 1803, again on Feb. 19, 1804, and then in Chicago on Aug. 28, 1807, and on June 11, 1808, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. In 1810 at the Mackinac parish church of Ste. Anne he met and married Marie, known as Monee (1783-September 1866), daughter of Rivière Raisin [Monroe, MI] Catholic trader Antoine (-1791) and Neengay LeFevre, a French-Odawa woman divorced from Le Roy de la Vigne, whose two children [see below] were adopted by Bailly. They then had five children together.
Bailly worked out of St. Joseph. During the 1812 war he was arrested by American troops for recruiting Indian warriors for the British, was detained for three months, then released on parole; before the close of the war he commanded a party of Indians in three engagements against the Americans. By Aug. 10, 1821, he is known “for trade on Lake Michigan, &c.;” on his own account and risk, as listed on American Fur Co. invoices. Bailly moved with his family to the Calumet River in June 1822 [1824, according to another report; eds.] and built a log home on the Sauk Trail branch [near Chesterton, IN], becoming the first white settler in the Calumet region and “the only Catholic household between Detroit and Chicago”; several log structures eventually accommodated the family, and the homestead became known to occasional travelers as Baillytown, a platted town in 1834. Jerry Church visited the Baillys in 1830, Roland Tinkham in 1831 and early in 1833, and Valentine Boyer`s family spent an overnight with the Baillys in 1833 [their recollections of Bailly hospitality follow below]. Bailly received $4000 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833, his children from the first marriage received $1000, and those from his second marriage $500. Joseph Bailly died at Baillytown, aged 61. The landmark log house and other buildings still stand [see accompanying photograph]. Monee later lived in Chicago briefly, but returned to the homestead. Bailly had 13 children, all of which were provided with a good education, and the entire family used the extensive library that Joseph had accumulated, which included works of history, fiction, and poetry.
The first six children were from his c.1797 marriage to Angelique McGuilpin: (1) Frances Bailly (1795-1887) remained among the Indians and became a medicine woman, moving west with the Odawa in the 1830s; (2) Alexis Bailly (1798-1851) went to school in Montreal and later became a fur trader for the the American Fur Company at Mendota, MN, remaining in Minnesota until 1858 when he was elected to the state’s first territorial legislature; (3) Joseph Bailly, Jr. (years of birth and death unknown) became a printer; (4) Mitchell Bailly (years of birth and death unknown) became a sculpter; (5) Philip Bailly (years of birth and death unknown) became an engraver; (6) Sophia Bailly (born 1807) became a teacher, her married name Graveraet.
When Joseph Bailly married Monee LeFevre in 1810, he adopted the two children of her earlier marriage: (7) Agatha de la Vigne (1797-) married Edward Biddle of Philadelphia, who was engaged in business on Mackinac; (8) Therese de la Vigne (1803-), whose married name was Nadeau, probably died during childbirth. Bailly had the following five children with M0nee: (9) Esther Bailly (1811-1842) married [see] John Harrison Whister in Chicago on Jan. 23, 1834, the Hon. R.J. Hamilton officiating; she died during childbirth on Jan 29, 1842, leaving her husband with five young children: William, Mary, John H., Joseph B., and Leo; (10) Rose Bailly (1813-1891) married Francis Hower, a clerk at the Chicago branch of the Illinois State Bank, in 1841, and they had two children: Frances, who wrote and published The Story of a French Homestead in the Old Northwest, died in 1918, and Rose [Jr.], an artist; Francis, the father, died in 1856, after which Rose moved back to the family homestead in Indiana where she died at the age of 40; (11) Eleanor Bailly (1815-1898) took the veil in 1841 and by 1856 was Mother Superior at St. Mary-of-the-Woods in Terre Haute, IN; (12) Robert Bailly (1817-1827) died of typhoid fever while attending the Cary Mission School and was buried in the family cemetery S of Highway 12, said cemetery being created as a consequence of his death; (13) Hortense Bailly (1819-) married Joel H. Wicker, a merchant of nearby Deep River, IN; she may have died during childbirth. [10aa, 12, 141, 205a, 270a, 349, 404, 604b, 642, 642a, 697, 710a]

Jerry Church`s visit with the Baillys in 1830:
… We then prepared to leave [Ottawa], and hired a man with a yoke of black oxen and a wagon, to take us to Chicago, distant eighty miles, which we traveled in two days and a-half – two nights camped out. At last we arrived in front of a hotel, in the city of Chicago, (which at that time contained about half a dozen houses, and the balance Indian wig-wams) with our ox stage. We stayed there a week or two with the French and Indians, and enjoyed ourselves very well. We then took passage in a wagon that was going to Michigan, through the Indian country, without any road. We followed round the beach of the Lake; camped out the first night and slept on a bed of sand. The next morning we came to an old Frenchman`s house [Joseph Bailly], who had a squaw for a wife. They had three daughters, and beautiful girls they were, and entertained us very well. My brother almost fell in love with one of the old fellow`s girls, and I had hard work to persuade him along any farther. He told me that he thought he felt a good deal like `an Ingen`, and if he had an `Ingen gal` for his wife, he thought he could be one. However, I persuaded him to travel on. … We went on through the Pottawatamie nation, until we came to a place called the door-prairie. There we stopped and tried to buy a piece of land, for the purpose of laying out a town at that place. We could not get any title but an Indian one, and we concluded that would not do, so we traveled on, ….

Roland Tinkham`s visit with the Baillys in the summer of 1831:
… and just at sunset arrived at Bailey`s or Bayee`s, trading post. I never was weary nor hungry or had my feet sore before. We had walked 27 miles. The old trader was not home, but his daughters were. Fine girls, indeed, for this or any other country, tho` their father is an ugly, illiterate man, and their mother a full blooded Ottawa, yet he is rich and has given three of his daughters a good English education. They speak English, French and Indian with correctness and fluency; dress in the English fashion, and are quite accomplished and genteel in their manner. Henry said they are the first girls that ever made an impression on him, and as each of them has a section of prime land reserved in the treaties with U.S. by virtue of their Indian mother, he thinks he shall take at least two of them. We fared sumptuously; some mosquitoes, too.

Dr. Valentine A. Boyer`s visit with the Baillys in 1833:
… Departing from Laport the only place of note before we reached the Lake shore was a French Trader`s location on the Grand Calumet, consisting of six or more log shanties, for storage purposes, together with the house in which his family resided, and a stable for his cattle and horses. When we arrived there Old Mr. Baillie, for that was his name, received us very kindly and offered us one of his storage shanties, in which we found a chimney, for our accommodation. … When applied to for entertainment, Mr. B. informed us he had none to provide us with, consoling us by saying, he kept no house of entertainment, but extended to us the privelage of occupying one of his `Block houses.` Taking possession of the one pointed out, we found therein, several bunks in which was spread a bear skin or two and several deer skins. Being provided with a skillet, pans and a coffee pot, Mother and Sister [Maria] soon prepared one of the most palatable meals we had had for some time. Venison we bought from Mr. Baillie, coffee and a few – Knicks – we had provided at Pigeon [White Pigeon], so upon the whole, the meal was made that was palatable and fully appeased the appetite of the inner man. … Feeling somewhat recuperated after the hearty meal we enjoyed, we began to look for our comfort, for our sleep, we found sleeping accommodations slim, Mr. Dean [Day Dean] and myself betook us to the bunk with the bear skins without divesting ourselves of any of our clothing but our coats – one of the luxuries of the expedition was an old fashioned Pennsylvania feather bed with which Mother would not part under any consideration, that was brought out of the wagon and a buffalo robe was spread on the floor, which was the bare ground, the feather bed was laid thereon and Mother and Sister were snugly and comfortably ensconsed therein. Father [John K. Boyer] and Jim [James A.] being supposed to be equally well taken care of, we all retired in anticipation of enjoying a good nights rest, as the journey from Mottville to Bailleytown had been made mostly on foot because the road led thro – a wet low swampy country a great part of the way. But alas, our anticipated enjoyment was soon blasted – and to our serious disappointment, the famished fleas and bugs who had been the only occupants of the place for some time set about feasting on us so voraciously that fatigued as I was, having fallen asleep nearly as soon as I touched the bear-skin, I was after a few hours sleep aroused from my slumber, springing out of the bunk I hurried out of doors with all dispatch possible where I found Mr. Dean, who had preceded me, fast asleep on the wagon tongue of his wagon with the end board of the wagon for a pillow apparently thankful that he had escaped alive from the tormenting pests. [692h]

Baines, M.    arrived in 1835 and became firewarden in 1836.

Baird, Elizabeth Thérèse Fisher  see Fisher, Elizabeth Thérèse.

Baker, Bvt. Maj. David  Third Infantry; commandant of Fort Dearborn II from May 1817 to June 1820; visited John Kinzie once each in June and July 1817, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; received his commission in 1799 and, before the war of 1812, served at Mackinac and Detroit; in 1823 he lost his wife and children in an epidemic at a post on the Saginaw River; became lieutenant colonel in 1829, and died at Detroit in 1836. [544] [404]

Baker, Henry George  a soldier at Fort Dearborn I; visited John Kinzie on June 16, 1804, on Nov. 30, 1806, and on May 24, 1808, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Baker, Hiram  The following information was recorded by Hiram Baker’s son, Horace Mann Baker, born at Clarksville, TX, on June 16, 1842, and published on a website: “My father, Hiram Baker, was born near Skowhegan, Maine. He helped to start Chicago during 1829 and 18.. . (now Calumet, South Chicago) He then removed to the Republic of Texas, and rendered service to the Republic in locating headright certificates for land. … Father went to California in 1852 and died there, in 1853.” [29b]

Baker, Lewis C.  as shown in John Kinzie’s account books, a sergeant by this name from Fort Dearborn II visited Kinzie in July 1817 and in April 1818. [404]

bakers  Johann Wellmacher (1830), Mathias Meyer (1831), William Adams (1833), Samuel C. George (1834), Josiah P. Cook (1834), Dexter Graves (1834), and Nicholas Boilvin (1835).

Balboa, Vasco Núñez de  (c.1475-1519) Spanish conquistador, who on Sept. 29, 1513, became the first European to reach the Pacific Ocean by crossing the land bridge of Panama. He confirmed what Columbus was only able to suspect, that America was not an extension of China.

Baldwin, John  visited John Kinzie on May 26, 1810, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; received $500 for a claim at the Chicago treaty of September 1833. [12] [404]

Baldwin, Russell  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Balestier, Joseph Neree  came late in 1835 from Brattleboro, VT; successful land speculator and lawyer who formed a partnership with [see] Thomas R. Hubbard, Hubbard & Balestier [Harriet Martineau wrote that in 1836, he realized $500 per day by merely making out titles to land]; 1839 City Directory: attorney and counsellor at law, 24 Clark St.; on Jan. 21, 1840, gave a lecture before the Chicago Lyceum on early Chicago, which in 1876 was printed as the first of the Fergus Historical Series pamphlets [see Bibliography]. On Sept. 21, 1841, he advertised on Wall Street in New York City ; by then he had met in Chicago and married Dr. Wolcott`s niece, Caroline Wolcott. [31, 351] [12]

Balfour, Capt. Henry    commandant of Fort Michilimackinac from Sept. 28 to Oct. 1, 1761; commander of a British expedition that came through the Chicago locale in November 1761 to survey former French territory and to map the coastline of Lake Michigan for the British Army under Gen. Jeffrey Amherst; the Balfour Expedition maps are within the Public Record Office, London.

Ballard, Charles A.   arrived in 1833 and purchased land from Mark Beaubien in block 31 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, then voted `yes` for [see] incorporation in the first town election of August 10; remained in town until 1836. [319] [12]

Ballard, Thomas  from Ireland , came in 1833 with his English wife, Ann (née Bennett); shoemakers who relocated in Long Grove.

Ballet, Henry  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; resident of Naperville. [319]

Ballet, Henry  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in 1831.

Ballingall, Patrick  from Scotland, arrived in 1834; student at the law office of Spring & Goodrich in 1836; 1839 City Directory: attorney at law, Lake St; married Philura M. Orcutt of Orleans County, NY, in 1844. [12]

balloon frame  method of wooden house construction invented in the early 1830s by either G.W. Snow or A.D. Taylor, depending on the source consulted, but others contend that the method was imported from France and that its English name “balloon” represents the distorted French word boulin, meaning beam. Duis identifies St. Mary`s Catholic Church, completed by Taylor in October 1833, as the first balloon frame structure in Chicago. The method soon spread across the prairie and became typical for most light timber buildings, later with clapboard siding. Balloon frame houses are less wasteful of timber, increasingly precious during the construction boom of those years; the balloon frame depends on good nailing technique for its stability, rather than on an abundance of wood mortised, tenoned, and pinned together with oaken dowels, as in earlier construction; a clapboard coat completes the job. Also see frame house. [245, 473, 505]

Baltimore  schooner belonging to the American Fur Co. in 1817; regularly delivered supplies to Fort Dearborn.

bank  see State Bank of Illinois.

Banks, Captain  was usually piloting the schooner [see] Westward Ho on its visits to Chicago in 1834 and 1835.

Banny, Augustine  see Bonnet, Augustin.

Banskey, Joseph  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Baptist congregation  Mrs. Rebecca Heald, who arrived with her husband at the fort in 1810, and Reverend Isaac McCoy, who visited in 1826 from the Carey Mission [Niles, MI] and gave a sermon, were the first Baptists in Chicago. When Dr. Temple arrived in 1833, he initially attended Presbyterian services at Fort Dearborn, but then arranged through correspondence with the American Home Baptist Society to have a pastor assigned to Chicago; later in the year [see] Rev. Allen B. Freeman arrived from Vermont and by October 19 organized the first Baptist church with fourteen members: Reverend Allen and Hannah Freeman, S.T. Jackson, Martin D. Harmon, Samantha Harmon, Peter Moore, Nathaniel Carpenter, John K. Sargents, Peter Warden, Willard Jones, Ebenezer and Betsy Crane, Susannah Rice, and Lucinda Jackson. Reverend Freeman died of typhoid fever in Chicago on Dec. 15, 1834 , and was succeeded by Rev. Isaac T. Hinton. Dr. Temple also promoted construction of the first Baptist meeting house, starting a subscription fund with $100; construction was completed in 1834 for about $900 at the SE corner of Franklin and South Water streets; known as the Temple Building, services were held on the lower floor and the [see] English and Classical School existed on the upper floor; Methodists and Presbyterians initially borrowed the space for their services. Not until 1844 did the congregation have a distinct brick church building, then at the SE corner of Washington and LaSalle; see Monuments for a commemorative s bronze plaque once present at Wacker and Michigan. [632]

Barada, Eulalie  born in St. Louis about 1788; neighbor of Jean Baptiste Point de Sable in St. Charles, MO; important because she has been carelessly confused with Point`s granddaughter Eulalie Pelletier (born in Chicago, 1796) — confusion arises from a 1813 document, recorded in the St. Charles Co. archives, by which Point gave Eulalie (then married to her third husband, Michel Roi) all of his property in return for her promise to care for him for the rest of his life, feed his hogs and chickens, repair his house, and arrange for his burial in the parish cemetery. Contrary to the conclusions of most historians, who say that Eulalie `inherited` his wealth, the document clearly shows that he was destitute, to the point of having to borrow household utensils from Eulalie. Whether Eulalie kept her promises is not known; she was not recorded as a witness to Point`s burial, although she outlived him; she does not appear in records of the title of Point`s house or farm; also see Point de Sable, Jean Baptiste. [649]

Barber, Elvira  see Rexford, Stephen.

Barbier, Gabriel  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a] [46]

barge  also patroon; the largest boat used on the Mississippi prior to the steamboat, powered by a crew of 40 to 50 men, including the captain; carried 50 to 100 tons, too large to pass through the Chicago portage, even under the best weather conditions.

Barkenbile, Christian G.  (-Sept. 11, 1856) a notice in the Aug. 5, 1835, Chicago American offers a $5 reward for the small gold breast-pin on a gold chain that he had lost. See ad for details. Christian is listed in the 1839 City Directory as Christian Henry Berkinbile, carpenter, Government works; 1843 City Directory: [Uncle Chris], carpenter.

Barker, Benjamin F.  by Sept. 6, 1832, was renting a cabin for $3 a month at Chicago and by letter to his brother in the East, reported that money was plentiful and requested salt and flour; by January 1833 he chopped wood to feed his family, the only work available and observed that the situation of the Indians was desperate, thousands were starving; in March he rented a farm eight miles N and asked for a strong wagon and barrels of salt; listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November; in February 1834 he hauled wood to town with a small wagon and oxen and requested a stock of groceries; by March had a shop in town and had built a house for his family, reporting in May that competition was great and liquor was in great demand; by the end of July he wrote from Juliet [Joliet] – money was scarce in Chicago where a grocery existed on every corner, and the country was delightful; letters to Jacob A. Barker are preserved at the Chicago History Museum.

Barker, Evelina  see Morris, Buckner S.

Barker, Jane  see Cleaver, Charles, Sr.

Barlett, Charles Herbert  came with his wife in 1834 from New Hampshire; moved to Libertyville Township in 1836 and became one of the first Lake County commissioners. [304] [13]

Barnard, Chauncey, Jr.  came to Chicago in the summer of 1831 as an assistent to the U.S. Assistant Engineer [see] Henry Belin to take soundings and measurements of the Chicago River in preparation for the construction of the Chicago harbor and the Illinois & Michigan Canal.

Barnard, J.H., M.D.  arrived 1835; physician who advertised his practice in the Chicago American on June 3, with an office in the New York House on Lake Street; in September he entered a partnership with Dr. J.C. Goodhue, with an office on Lake Street, three doors W of the Tremont House, advertising the practice of `Physic and Surgery` in the Chicago Democrat [see ad] throughout the autumn. [12]

Barnes, Hamilton  (c.1806-Feb. 22, 1862) arrived from New York in 1832; married to Anna M. Fitch; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November; 1839 City Directory: carpenter, West Madison street; became alderman in 1842; 1843 City Directory: carpenter, Randolph, bet Clark and LaSalle, res 72 W. Madison; 1844 City Directory: carpenter, Randolph street, between Clark and LaSalle street, house Madison street, West of Clark street. Hamilton died at 56 in Nashville, TN; in 1885 his widow lived at 152 S Sangamon Street. [319, 351] [12]

Barnes, Joseph A.  (1805-1881) came with the Eli B. Williams family from Wartsfield, VT, arriving April 14,1833; his wife E.W. (née Miner, married in 1829) followed overland in September with her brother, Dr. Frederick Miner, and his family; acquired a lot for $50 on Kinzie Street near Canal and built a house; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November; removed to Elk Grove Township in the spring of 1834 and farmed; of three daughters, Adaline and Amelia survived to adulthood, while Mary died at age six; died on Mar. 19, 1881. [12, 13, 319] [278]

Barney, J.R.  listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833.

Barnum, Truman  (-July 25, 1849) became street commissioner on Nov. 4, 1835; 1839 City Directory: teamster, North Dearborn street cor. Indiana [Grand] streets; 1843 City Directory: laborer, res N. Dearborn, bet Michigan and Illinois; 1844 City Directory: laborer, Dearborn st. b Michigan and Illinois. [28]

Barny, Sarah  see Scott, Willis.

Baron, Louis  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Barpon, Lories  visited John Kinzie on Nov. 6, 1804, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

barrens  a form of landscape found in early Illinois . H.S. Tanner [see separate entry] in 1832 described them as follows: “[t]hese are a species of country of a mixed character, uniting forest and prairie. They are covered with sparse, stinted oaks &c.; and grass. The fire sweeps over them in the fall, but is not powerful enough, from want of abundant fuel, to destroy the timber. They soon become covered with thick forests, when the fire is excluded. They are not poor land, as their title, given ignorantly by the early settlers, would seem to indicate. They are generally second-rate land, productive, healthy, more rolling than the prairies, and abounding in good springs.”

Barrows, Mary  also Burroughs; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; assistant teacher at Eliza Chappel`s normal school, with Elizabeth Beach, late in 1834; later became a missionary in Japan. [“Educational Chicago”, Chicago Genealogical Society Vol. 37 No.3:99-104, Spring 2005; 237a] [319]

Barry Point Trail  also Berry Point Trail. One of the major Indian trails of early Chicago, it left the Chicago settlement in a west-southwestern direction, passed the point – nine miles from Chicago – where in 1834 stood [see] Widow Barry’s lone tavern in what is now the town of Riverside, then crossed the Des Plaines River at the ford where in 1827 the Laughton brothers had built their trading post. The trail is still traceable in the modern street pattern: northward from present Roosevelt Road and Cicero Avenue to the Lake Trail, where Lake Street and Western Avenue intersect. [280a]

Barry Transcript  see Kinzie account books. [404]

Barry, Widow  see Widow Barry.

Bartlett, Moulton  born at Onondage, NY; enlisted in the army for three years at age 20 on July 1, 1835, at Rochester, NY; as listed in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American he was one of 15 deserters from the Fort Dearborn Garrison between January 1 and July 28, prior to the withdrawal of all troops on December 29 that year. He deserted on July 22 and a reward of $450 was offered for his apprehension. (Chicago Genealogy Club, v. 2, no. 1, September 1969)

Barton, Pagan  prior to 1836, owner of 80 acres of land in Section 30, Township 39, as shown in Andreas`s History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Bartrand, François  also Bartrend; visited John Kinzie in St. Joseph on Apr. 4, 1804, then later in Chicago on Dec. 13, 1806, and again on Jan. 12, 1817, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Bascom, Rev. Flavel  (1804-Aug. 6, 1890) also Bascome; Presbyterian minister from Lebanon, CT, who came with his bride Ellen P. [née Cleaveland] in July 1833, while on his honeymoon; accepted an invitation to give a sermon at the Presbyterian church in the absence of Reverend Porter; following Ellen`s death in 1837, he would marry Elizabeth B. Sparhawk of Connecticut. Not until 1839 did he return to Chicago to become the church`s pastor, succeeding Reverend J. Blatchford to serve for the next nine years; 1843 City Directory: 1st Presbyterian Church, res n.-e. cor. Clark and Washington; 1844 City Directory: clergyman 1st Presbyterian Church, house cor of Clark and Washington streets. Reverend Bascom still lived at Hinsdale in 1885; he died at Princeton, IL. [351, 707] [12]

Basil  known as “Kinzie’s man” – an employee of John Kinzie, visited him on unspecified business in December 1822 as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Bassard, Antoine  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Batchelors Grove Cemetery  an early pioneer cemetery located in SW Chicagoland; designated with burials in the early 1830s; now closed. [387a]

bateau  also batteau, Mackinaw boat; long, tapering boat with flat bottom and shallow draft, decked over at the stern, used by the French Canadians and dominated the Mississippi and Illinois river traffic during the French period; able to traverse the Chicago portage during high water conditions; 25 to 50 feet in length, eight to 12 feet wide, and three to four feet deep; could withstand heavy seas and was usually propelled by oars (four oarsmen and one steersman), but a mast and sail could be easily rigged. Trader Gurdon S. Hubbard characterized them as: “French boats – Mackinaw boats, carrying six to eight to ten tons – some larger, some smaller. They were the boats we brought our lake goods with, and returned in the summer with our furs and peltries – the same boats which formerly navigated the St. Lawrence.” In May 1834, Charles Cleaver observed that when the first schooner of the season “… lay half a mile from shore, [then] the three or four Mackinaw boats used for that purpose made trips to unload her. The boats used were made of birch bark, very light, and were the only ones that could cross the bar at the mouth of the river with any load.” As soon as the Chicago harbor opened, they disappeared. Also see Traders` Brigade. [145]

Bates, Aurilla Booth  from Newburgh, OH; wife of Noble Bates, mother of Elvira, who married Stephen R. Forbes in 1830, and Sophia, who married Bernardus Laughton in 1830. When Aurilla visited Chicago in 1834, staying with the Laughtons, she suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died; the Chicago Democrat of July 4 reported: “… was attacked with a severe paraletick [sic] shock, which terminated her existence.” [Fred C. Pierce, Chicago Tribune Aug. 28, 1890]

Bates, Elvira  see Forbes, Steven R.

Bates, Hon. George C.  (1812-Feb. 11, 1886) from Canadaigua, NY; a farm worker who by 1831 had graduated from Hobart College, Geneva, NY; found employment in law offices and was admitted to the bar in 1834; appointed by President Harrison as the district attorney of Michigan, becoming a prominent Detroit attorney, politician and later judge; married [see] Ellen Marion Kinzie in 1836, six years after the death of her first husband, Dr. Alexander Wolcott. The couple lived at Detroit and had one son, Kinzie, a major, who died c.1884 in Lansing, MI; after Ellen`s death, Bates practiced law in Chicago between 1861 and 1871, losing much property in the fire; named U.S. attorney for Utah by President Grant and served two years as counsellor of the Mormon Church, returning to Chicago in 1877 to practice; died in Denver, Colorado. [37a] [12]

Bates, John, Jr.  (1803-July 14, 1888) born in Fishkill, NY; arrived in May 1832; early in 1833 he was hired as postal clerk by Postmaster Hogan; together they introduced, and continued for over a year, the custom of firing a gun from the door on the N side of the post office log cabin every night at sunset, responding to the nightly gun salute from the flag-lowering ceremony at Fort Dearborn; both Bates and Hogan slept in the loft of the log cabin at Lake and South Water streets that was then the post office until Bates married; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. Harriet E. Gould Brown of Springfield, MA, married him on November 13, Hon. R.J. Hamilton officiating; a daughter, Harriet Ellen, died in August 1835 at 18 months. Bates became a licensed auctioneer – Chicago`s first – and in July 1834 built an auction store “on the street leading from the draw-bridge to the oak woods, and blue island,” on the W side of Dearborn, between Lake and South Water streets, a wooden structure that in 1838 became the “Rialto,” Chicago`s second theater house; 1839 City Directory: auctioneer, Lake street; 1844 City Directory: auction and commission merchant, 174 Lake street house South Water street; Bates`s skill as an auctioneer is well expressed by Edwin O. Gale: “Johnny Bates could sell anything from a canal lot to a lot of cracked pitchers, and sell his customers, too, if he really set about it, which he would sometimes do merely for the fun of the thing. He was a short man, but had the happy gift of being able to look over the head of a six-footer and catch the eye of a five foot chap behind him, in order to raise the giant`s bid.” On Nov. 13, 1883, he and Harriet celebrated their golden wedding anniversary, as announced in the Chicago Times; in 1885 lived at 275 State St.; died in a freak railroad accident when 80 years old. [13, 319, 351] [12]

Bates, Sophia  from Virginia, sister of Stephen Forbes`s wife; married Bernard H. Laughton on Nov. 7, 1830, Rev. William See officiating. [220a]

Bathelemy  a young man from Paris, and a member of the ill-fated 1684 La Salle expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River which, due to La Salle`s error, ended in Spanish Texas. After La Salle`s death, Bathelemy was one of the group of six who, led by Joutel, reached Chicago by overland route on Sept. 25, 1687, en route to Canada. [519] [611]

Battles, Joe  Negro slave of Charles Jouett, U.S. Indian Agent and his wife Susan; called “Black Meat” by the Indians; arrived with them in January 1809 from Kentucky, Susan`s home state.

Baugy, Chevalier de  also Baugis; an officer in Governor La Barre`s guards. In 1683 he was sent by La Barre to take charge of [see] Fort St. Louis du Rocher, because La Salle’s patent had expired; he arrived there in August under order to provide greater protection for the Miami and Illinois Indians who had begun to abandon the locale, overrun by the hostile Iroquois; Baugy remained there until May 1684, when Durantaye arrived with orders for Baugy and Tonti to return to Quebec. [Wisconsin Historical Collections 16:110-113, 377] [464c]

Baukett, François  visited John Kinzie on July 1, 1809, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Baumgarten, Catharine  see Müller, Jacob.

Baumgarten, Moritz  (-Nov. 1, 1858) later called himself [see] Morris Baumgarden; arrived from Germany in 1832; additional family members included Charles [died on Oct. 16, 1882, at Freeport, IL], Christopher, John, Peter (may have arrived in 1836) and Catharine; Moritz (ward five) and Peter (ward six) voted in the first mayoral election of 1837; Catharine married Jacob Müller at St. Mary`s Church on Apr. 4, 1836, Father St. Cyr officiating; 1839 City Directory: Morris, Morris, Jr., Charles, and Christopher, carpenters, Illinois Street near North State; also John, clerk, same address; 1843 City Directory: Illinois, bet N. Dearborn and Wolcott; John is then listed as a clerk with Arthur G. Burley & Co., boarding at home; John died in Michigan, c.1881. [243, 319, 342] [12]

Bauskey, Joseph  also Banskey; from France; purchased one lot of old kettles for 63 cents at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on April 27, 1827; voted on May 11, 1828, and Aug. 2, 1830 [see Chronology]; married Deborah Scott Watkins on Nov. 25, 1828, J.B. Beaubien, J.P. officiating; died of cholera in 1832. [220a] [12]

Baxley, Capt. J.M.  from Maryland; Fifth Infantry; member of the Fort Dearborn garrison from June 20, 1833, until April 1836, with wife Mary Robbins Baxley (from Baltimore, married Nov. 13, 1822) and five children, of whom two or three attended school under Miss Eliza Chappel; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and present during the Indian Treaty of Chicago in September, signing as witness on the document. The eldest son, 10-year-old John Charles Merryman, died of bilious fever at Fort Dearborn on Sept. 16, 1834. Mary, 32, died at the fort on the following November 16, leaving the bereaved husband and four children; after leaving the Army, remained in Chicago for only a few years. [319, 708] [12]

Baxter, Anne  see Lane, DeWitt.

Baxter, Levi C.  brother-in-law of [see] DeWitt Lane and [see] Willard Jones; came with the Lane family to the Morgan Park area in 1835 and acquired acreage within the old Indian Treaty lands adjacent and north of that of DeWitt`s, between 99th and 103rd streets and Western and California avenues; subsequently homesteaded in Lake County, acquiring the land adjacent to Willard Jones in 1844. [387a]

Baye de Putants, La  see Green Bay.

Bayer & Spence    Chicago area company which, under contract with Major Bender, furnished 2000 cubic yards of stone for the harbor project in the summer of 1833, at $1.90 per yard.

Bayne, Catherine  from Scotland; opened a boarding and day school for young ladies on June 30, 1834, on Randolph, between Clark and Dearborn streets, “nearly in the rear of the Presbyterian Church,” where she taught “Lessons in English Reading, Grammar, Geography with use of Globes, Writing, Needle work, Embroidery and Fancy Work, Oriental Drawing, Enamel Painting, Transfer Drawing and Velvet Painting.” On Sept. 15, 1835, she married William McCorristen; as late as 1840 the school was yet known in her name, but a new listing under her married name would appear in the Chicago American on March 2, 1841.

Beach, Elizabeth L.  assistant teacher at Eliza Chappel`s normal school in late 1834, together with Mary Barrows; in 1836 married Alford B. Hale. [“Educational Chicago”, Chicago Genealogical Society Vol. 37 No.3:99-104, Spring 2005; 237a]

Beach, John  (-Sept. 9, 1850) the jailer in 1835, responsible for the small log jail within a high plank palisade on the NW corner, at Randolph and LaSalle streets, according to E.O. Gale; 1839 City Directory: canal contractor, Randolph Street, E of Dearborn; 1843 City Directory: contractor, res 80 Randolph near State. [266]

Beach, O.S.    member of the fire engine company No.1 in 1835 [see entry on firefighting with petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835 ].

Beal, Joseph  visited John Kinzie on Nov. 4, 1806, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

bear  Ursus americanus, black bear; common in Illinois at the time of exploration by Europeans; Father Bineteau stated that for early explorers the ox [bison], bear, and deer were the main meats; Father Gravier in 1700 reported seeing more than 50 bears in one day along the Mississippi River between the present sites of St. Louis and Cairo; late in 1833 a bear was killed in the timber along the E side of the south branch of the Chicago River; it is reported that Sam George spotted and John Sweeney shot the last bear (400 pounds) in Chicago in the woods near Adams Street, between LaSalle Street and the river on Oct. 6, 1834; occasional sightings were reported near Chicago as late as 1837. All bears had disappeared from Illinois by 1860. [266]
Beaubien Cemetery  small cemetery on land set aside by Mark Beaubien on Ogden Avenue in Lisle; Mark spent his last years living with a daughter in Kankakee where he died and was buried. See Monuments for photograph, details and listing of occupants of the cemetery. [429]

Beaubien House  located on the former lakeshore, a short distance N of the old river mouth, between the Dean House (S) and the Leigh House (N). Jean Baptiste Beaubien built it for his family in 1817 and lived there until 1836; a bronze plaque on the east wall of the Cultural Center, at the SW corner of Randolph Street and Michigan Avenue indicates the location [see Monuments]. Beaubien successively owned and occupied many other houses in Chicago during his life.

Beaubien land case    see Beaubien, Jean Baptiste.

Beard, —  a visitor John Kinzie refers to as “Captain Beard” came to his office on July 6, 1810, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Beattie, Eliza J.  see Lowe, Samuel J.

Beaubien, Alexander  (1822-1907) born in Chicago on Jan. 28, 1822, to Jean Baptiste Beaubien and his wife Josette (LaFramboise); he was likely born on the premises of the military fort proper, prompting the local Indians to enthusiastically celebrate the event [see John Kelley`s following description from Tales, see Bibliography]. Alexander married Susan Miles of Canadaigua, NY, in 1850; worked for the Chicago Police Department in later life, and as a private detective; his grave [see Monuments] is in Graceland Cemetery.
… Five or six times had the stork visited Fort Dearborn before it brought little Alexander Beaubien, but on all previous visits it had left behind a full-blooded white child. The Indians manifested no interest in these children. But the Beaubien case was different. Word of the big event was passed from one tepee to another along the banks of the river, and the braves and sqaws came trooping over to the Fort wrapped in blankets and wearing their prettiest feathers. They brought presents fashioned from leather and beads for the mother and child. – That night bonfires were kindled on both banks of the river and the Pottawatomies danced as they never danced before, in honer of the first white-and-red papoose in Chicago. [42] [12]

Beaubien, Charles Henry  (1807-1858) eldest son of Jean Baptiste Beaubien and his second Ottawa wife, Maw-naw-bun-no-quah; brother of Madore Beaubien; he, with his family, came to Chicago in 1811, but removed to Milwaukee shortly before the 1812 massacre, returning in 1818; he had a daughter, Marie (born at Mackinac on March 22, 1822), with Marie, a Chippewa consort. In 1829 Charles taught a small family school near the fort, and had become known for his skill as violinist; received $300 for a claim at the Chicago treaty of September 1833 City Directory: violinist; died at [see] Grosse Pointe; see schools. [42] [12]

Beaubien, Emily  (1825-1920) born at Monroe, MI, on July 28, 1825, to Mark and Monique Beaubien and came with her family from Detroit in 1826; married Robert Le Beau [Lebeau], a saddler from Newark, in 1846; in 1875 left to live in Corpus Christi, TX, returning to Aurora in 1912 where she died on Nov. 4, 1920. Acquainted with her late in life, Quaife observed: “She was a refined and charming woman, and possessed a remarkable store of memories of the scenes of her early years”; some of these memories have been preserved through interviews she granted. She had learned the Potawatomi language before the age of 10 and retained the ability to speak it all her life. She was the last member of the family to be buried in the Beaubien Cemetery in Lisle [see Monuments section]. [42, 268] [41]

Beaubien, Jean Baptiste  (1787-Jan. 25, 1873) known as John Beaubien or Colonel Beaubien later in his life; born at Detroit to Jean Baptiste and Josette [née Bondy] Beaubien, who married in 1777; one among 10 children born within a large (15 other children from the father`s earlier marriage) well established French Canadian family (originally Cuillerier dit Beaubien [see dit entry] assumed in 1712, in honor of Sieur Michel De Beaubien, an ancestral family member); prior to 1800, Jean Baptiste served as an apprentice to Joseph Bailly at the St. Joseph River; in 1804, by which year he had traded in Milwaukee and Mackinac, he made his first visit to Chicago and moved there permanently in 1811; he is first listed as a visitor in John Kinzie’s account books under the name [sic] Beaubonien on July 6, 1810, then on Dec. 9, 1811 as J.B. Beaubien, then on Jan. 12, 1817 and in September 1820 in conjunction with John Crafts; he built his first house on the E side of the south branch, about a quarter mile S of the Forks; later he may have owned, at one time or another, every house at the lakeshore S of the Chicago River; in 1812, after the massacre, he bought the Leigh House (closest to the fort) from Leigh`s widow, although he had moved with his family to Milwaukee shortly before the massacre; he returned in 1818 to reside permanently in Chicago. In 1817, Beaubien bought for $1,000 the larger Dean house at the mouth of the river and began to build an even larger house between the two that became known as the Beaubien House. In the autumn of 1818, he was appointed American Fur Co. agent, but in 1822 John Crafts took over the agency and Beaubien worked under him as subagent; that year he is also listed with [see] James Kinzie “for trade at Milliwakie” on an American Fur Co. invoice of August 14; in July 1827, during the Winnebago scare, he organized a local company of militia; from 1827 to 1835 he held the Chicago area trade concession of the American Fur Co.; in 1828 Judge Norman Hyde of the Peoria probate court appointed Beaubien administrator of the estate of John Kinzie, in 1830 Judge Hyde appointed him administrator of the estate of François LaFramboise, Jr., and in the same year appointed him appraiser of the Wolcott estate. In 1830, he purchased from the government lots 1 and 2 in block 17, and additional land in blocks 18 and 36 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], but later sold part of the land to Madore Beaubien and William Jones (block 17), to Seth Johnson and Robert Stewart [Stuart?] (block 36) and to Solomon Juneau (block 18); voted in the August 2, 1830, election, serving as one of three judges; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830. Beaubien was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and signed the Chicago Treaty document as a witness, and received $250 for a claim at this treaty. In May 1835 he bought the Fort Dearborn reservation [75.69 acres] through the local government land agent for $94.61, but the purchase was later declared invalid by the U.S. Supreme Court (“Beaubien land case”), and the land became the Breese & Beaubien Addition to Chicago, Sidney Breese having been one of Beaubien`s attorneys and a party in the dispute with the federal government; late that year, filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 5, block 36. Between 1840 and 1858, he lived on his farm near Hardscrabble. His first Ottawa wife, name unknown, bore him a daughter, Marie; with his second Ottawa wife, Maw-naw-bun-no-quah (Mahnobunoqua), sister of Shabbona, he had Charles Henry and Madore; she died in 1811; in 1812, he married Josette, housemaid of the Kinzies and daughter of François LaFramboise; together they had George (died early), Susan, Monique, Julie, Alexander, Ellen [Helene Maria?], Philippe and Henry (twins), Marie Louise, Marguerite, Caroline, and William; Josette died in 1845; with his fourth wife, Catherine Louise Pinney (married in 1855), he had Isadore, Maurice, Pauline, and Claudia; his children totaled 19. Jean brought the first carriage to Chicago and, in 1834, shipped from Detroit Chicago`s second piano, for the benefit of his daughters who had been sent to Detroit to be educated [see Ashbel Steele for the first]. He served as public administrator for Cook County; was elected a colonel of the Sixtieth Regiment of the Illinois Militia on June 7, 1834, at the house of Stephen Forbes on the Des Plaines River; 1839 City Directory: John B., Michigan Avenue, between Lake and South Water streets; in 1850 he was commissioned to or adopted the title of “Brigadier General”; died at Lisle where he had lived since 1858, and there buried in the Beaubien Cemetery [see Monuments section]. Jean Baptiste Beaubien School, 5025 N Laramie Ave.; street name: Beaubien Court (120E, from 150 N to 186 N). [10aa, 28, 42, 131a, 159, 226, 243, 319, 357, 404, 421a, 429, 491, 585a] [12]

Beaubien, Josette LaFramboise  see LaFramboise, Josette.

Beaubien, Madore Benjamin  (1809-1883) first name variously spelled Medare, Medard, Medart; son of Jean Baptiste and his second Ottawa wife, Mahnobunoqua, and best known of his father`s 19 children; born on the Grand River [Michigan]; came to Chicago in 1811, but his family removed to Milwaukee shortly before the 1812 massacre, returning in 1818 for permanent residency; though from a Catholic family, he attended the Baptist Carey Mission [Niles, MI] in 1823 and 1824, and between 1825 and 1828 attended Hamilton College in New York. Madore was regarded as “the handsomest man in Chicago” and a great charmer; voted in the Aug. 2, 1830, election (also serving as clerk); was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and on the 10th was elected to the first Chicago Town Board of Trustees; received $300 and $440 in payments for claims at the Chicago Treaty in September. On Dec. 14, 1834, he married Maria, daughter of his business partner, John K. Boyer, Reverend J. Porter officiating; in December 1835, he was a member of the fire engine company No.1 [see firefighting entry for petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835]. His wife abandoned him in 1838 with their three children, Emma Elizabeth [Sawyer], George (baptized by Father St. Cyr on March 6, 1836) and Susan, and would file for divorce in 1843; his business enterprise, a store he had built in 1831 at the SW corner of Dearborn and South Water streets [1839 City Directory: merchant, South Water Street] in shambles, he left Chicago for good in 1840, joining the Potawatomi at Council Bluffs, IA, and later removed with them to their reserve in Kansas. He was married to an Indian woman, Keez-ko-quah[meaning “day-woman”], and in 1854, married his cousin, Therese LaFramboise; altogether, Madore fathered 10 children; died on Dec. 26, 1883. [13, 42, 43, 226, 319, 429, 456b, 535] [12]

Beaubien, Madore Benjamin  his signature.

Beaubien, Mark  (1800-Apr. 11, 1881) born in Detroit, younger brother of [see] Jean Baptiste; married Monique Nadeau (1800-1847), with whom he had 16 children, 14 of whom survived their mother; then married Elizabeth Mathieu, with whom he had seven. Mark came to Chicago in 1826 with Monique and children, among them [see] Emily, and purchased a small log cabin on the south bank near the Forks from James Kinzie; in 1829 he began to take in guests, calling his cabin the “Eagle Exchange Tavern.” A fun-loving fiddle player, he loved to entertain his guests at night, tempting one to believe stories about his knack for boyish mischief [see following excerpts from Hurlbut]; was licensed to keep a tavern on June 9, 1830; later voted on August 2; when the town plat was published that year, he found that his business was in the middle of a street and moved the structure to the SE corner of Market and Lake streets. He purchased from the government in 1830 lots 3 and 4 in block 31 on which his building stood, as well as the small block 30, later selling part of the land to Charles A. Ballard [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830. In 1831 he built on a two-story frame house and called the structure the “Sauganash Hotel” in honor of his friend Billy Caldwell, whose Indian name was Sauganash; on June 6 that year, at the new county seat (Chicago), was granted a license to sell goods in Cook County; with his son Mark, Jr., signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on October 5. In the late summer of 1832, he rented his original log cabin, adjacent to his tavern, to newly arrived Philo Carpenter for use as – Chicago`s 1st – drugstore; an ardent enemy of alcohol, Carpenter soon moved out. Mark next let the space to John S. Wright, and in 1833, the cabin became a school under Eliza Chappel`s direction. Mark and Mark, Jr. were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and Mark was one of the “Qualified Electors” who voted to incorporate the town [for a copy of that meeting`s original report, see incorporation] and on August 10 voted in the first town election; he received $500 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September. Mark became the first licensed ferry owner, and in 1834 he built his second hotel, the “Exchange Coffee House,” at the NW corner of Lake and Wells streets; placed an ad in the Dec. 21, 1835, Chicago Democrat that read: “I Mark Beaubien, do agree to pay 25 bushels of Oats if any man will agree to pay me the same number of bushels if I win against any man`s horse or mare in the town of Chicago, against Maj. R.A. Forsyth`s bay mare, Now in Town for three miles on the ice”; 1839 City Directory: hotel-keeper, Lake Street. In 1840, Mark removed to Lisle with his family where he acquired farmland from William Sweet S of Sweet`s Grove and also a cabin located immediately W of the [see] Beaubien Cemetery; the cabin soon became a tavern, while yet home to the residing family. Mark is also listed in the 1843 City Directory: U.-S. light-house keeper, res River street. From 1851 to 1857 he used the building as a toll station for the Southwest Plank Road, with his son collecting the toll; the structure, built in the 1830s, still exists though moved [see Monuments]. Later, during 1859 and 1860, he was again the lighthouse keeper in Chicago. His address in 1878 was Newark, Kendall County. During the last 10 years of his life, he was troubled by failing memory, much to his chagrin because he loved to tell stories of the past; he was happiest in the company of old friends. Mark died on April 11, 1881, in the home of his daughter Mary [born Sept. 30, 1848] and son-in-law, Georges Mathieu, at Kankakee and was buried with his second wife in St. Rose Cemetery, the oldest portion of Mound Grove. His fiddle is preserved at the Chicago History Museum. One of his sons, Napoleon, known as “Monkey,” was a close childhood friend of Edwin O. Gale; another son, Mark, Jr. (1819-1860), was living in Chicago in 1836, and later was in business at Rock Island. IL, and subsequently in Dubuque, IA, living there with his second wife Sarah Jane Wilson and daughter Alice Mary; street name: Beaubien Court (120 E from 150 N to 186 N), a short street in present downtown Chicago, named after Mark and Jean Baptiste Beaubien who together fathered 42 children with their Indian, French and English wives, vitally contributing to the population explosion of early Chicago. [13, 42, 131a, 160, 357, 266, 319, 357, 394`, 421a, 429]
[Chicago Antiquities, p.332] …We have read a statement in Smith`s History of Wisconsin to the purport that Col. Wm. J. Hamilton passed through Chicago in June, 1825 [if true, it must have been 1826; eds.], with a drove of some 700 head of cattle, procured in southern Illinois, which he had contracted to the government, for the use of the post at Green Bay. A brother of Colonel Beaubien, it is stated, assisted in getting the cattle across the Chicago River, but in rendering that service, managed to drown one of them purposely; so Beaubien told Hamilton some years afterward. He did it, he said, in order to buy the animal, knowing that he could not purchase it any other way, and he very greatly needed the beef. This “brother of Colonel Beaubien,” we must believe, was none other than our famed Mark.
[p. 333] … In the early days, while Mr. B. kept a tavern, possibly the old Sauganash, when emigration from the east began to pour forth the stream which has not yet subsided, Mark`s loft, capable of storing half a hundred men, for a night, if closely packed, was often filled to repletion. The furniture equipment, however, for a caravansary so well patronized, it is said, was exceedingly scant; that circumstance, however, only served to exhibit more clearly the eminent skill of the landlord. With the early shades of an autumn eve, the first to men arriving were given a bed on the floor of the staging or loft, and, covering them with two blankets, Mark bade them a hearty good-night. Fatigued with the day`s travel, they would soon be sound asleep, when two more would be placed by their side, and the aforesaid “two blankets” be drawn over these new comers. The first two were journeying too intently in the land of dreams to notice this sleight of hand feat of the jolly Mark, and as travelers, in those days, usually slept in their clothes, they generally passed the night without great discomfort. As others arrived, the last going to bed always had the blankets; and so it was, that forty dusty, hopeful, tired, and generally uncomplaining emigrants or adventurous explorers, who went up a ladder, two by two, to Mark Beaubien`s sleeping loft, were all covered with one pair of blankets. It is true, it was sometimes said, that in a frosty morning there were frequently charges of blanket-stealing, and grumbling was heard, coupled with rough words similar to those formerly used by the army in Flanders; but the great heart of Mark was sufficient for the occasion, for, at such times, he would only charge half price for lodging to those who were disposed to complain.

Frank G. Beaubien [1919] provides a valuable late episode:
Near the time of my father`s death – just before he died he asked for his violin. He played an old Indian tune, the words are, “Let me go to my home on the far distant shore white man, let me go.” He played it partly through but he was too weak to finish. He requested me to bring the violin and a picture of Hon. John Wentworth, taken when he was a young man and to hand them to John Wentworth. After his death I brought them to Hon. John Wentworth who was stopping at the Sherman House. I handed them to him and said that it was father`s request. He took my hand, the tears came to his eyes and he could not speak and he left me and I went out deeply impressed. Mr. Wentworth gave the violin to the Calumet Club, where the old pioneers used to meet once a year until they all passed away. [12]

Beauharnais  also Beauharnois; two members of this large and influential French family played major roles in New France and are often confused. The earlier official was François de Beauharnais, seigneur de la Chaussay- Beaumont; a royal councilor, he was appointed intendant of New France in April 1705 and served until 1707. His brother was Charles de la Boische, marquis de Beauharnais (c.1670-1749), who was appointed governor of Canada in 1726 and served until 1747. [665]

beaver  Castor canadensis; common in Illinois at the time European settlement began; relentlessly hunted by trappers and Indians alike, initially beaver pelts were the most highly prized and used as monetary units, the value of other goods being designated as so many pelts. In 1831, beaver pelts brought $2 per pound in Chicago; later in the 1830s muskrat pelts gradually replaced beaver pelts in the fur trade; the beaver became almost extinct in this state, though a comeback has been noted in recent years. [272a]

Beben, Joseph  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Beck, Lewis Caleb  author of Gazetteer of the States of Illinois and Missouri, published in Albany, NY in 1823; in it, Beck borrows from Schoolcraft when describing the Chicago locale: … The country around is the most fertile and beautiful that can be imagined. It consists of an intermixture of woods and prairies, diversified with gentle slopes, sometimes attaining the elevation of hills, irrigated with a number of clear streams and rivers, which throw their waters partly into Lake Michigan and partly into the Mississippi River. It is already the seat of several flourishing plantations.

Beckford, —  was so listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; printer working for Calhoun`s Chicago Democrat later in November, together with Oscar Pratt. [319]

Beckwith, Mary Anne  see Bucklin, James M.

Beebeau, —  see Bibeau, Louis.

Been, James  a soldier who visited John Kinzie on June 29 and on Aug. 12, 1805, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; Been was killed at the Aug. 15, 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. [404]

Beers, Anthony  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Beers, Cyrenus  (-Feb. 25, 1878) hardware merchant; arrived from Connecticut in 1835, signing up in September with the “Fire Kings,” an early volunteer fire brigade; married Mary Curtis of Connecticut on Nov. 21, 1838; an only infant son died in 1842; 1839 City Directory: [Jabez K.] Botsford & Beers (copper, tin and sheet iron at the corner of Lake and Dearborn streets); 1843 City Directory: (Botsford & B.), res 73 Wabash av, alderman 1st ward; 1844 City Directory: of Botsford & B. house Wabash st; died at age 64 in 1878. [351] [12]

Beeson, Jacob  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

Beggs, Rev. Stephen Ruddel  (1801-1895) Methodist preacher from Rockingham County, VA; on June 15, 1831, made a one-day visit to Chicago, where he conducted a religious service in the quarters of Dr. Harmon; married Elizabeth L. Heath on September 1, 1831, moving later that autumn to Chicago where his wife joined him the following May; they preceded Reverend Walker in their residence just N of Wolf Point, the reverend and his family arriving soon after, living together with the Beggs couple for a short while; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; Reverend Beggs`s description [ Early History of the West and Northwest] follows; after Elizabeth`s death in 1866, he married Mrs. Sarah Frost; died at Plainfield. A notebook of sermons that belonged to the minister is preserved at the Chicago History Museum. [50, 319, 351, 707]

…Jesse Walker was my successor in 1832. He moved his family up to Chicago as soon as possible and set to work. I attended his first quarterly meeting; it was held in an old log school-house, which served for a parsonage, parlor, kitchen, and audience-room. The furniture consisted of an old box stove, with one griddle, upon which we cooked. We boiled our tee-kettle, cooked what vegetable we could get, and fried our meat, each in its turn. Our table was an old wooden chest; and when dinner was served up, we surrounded the board and ate with a good appetite, asking no questions for conscience sake. [12]

Belanger, Ralph (Raphael?)  owned a farm (house, cattle and enclosure) in Chicago which he sold for 1000 livres to [see] William Burnett in 1800, with John Griffing arranging the sale and standing in as nominee for Burnett. The location of this farm is not known; it was probably near the Point de Sable and Pierre Lefebvre properties, which were also purchased by Burnett in the same year. Belanger seems to have moved thereafter to Peoria. [649] [95a]

Belcher, William  (-August, 1831) also Belcherm; active in the fur trade of the Northwest, wintering on the Ouisconson river during 1820-21, based at Detroit; later served as storekeeper employed by the sutlers of Fort Gratiot and at Fort Dearborn in 1829-1830. On Sept. 4, 1830, he purchased lots 5 and 6 in block 29 from the government [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]. He removed to Fort Winnebago in the autumn of 1830. In 1833 B.B. Kercheval was listed as owner of this land, but other early records show Robert A. Kinzie as proprietor.

Belin, Henry  U.S. assistant civil engineer under Dr. William Howard; came to Cook County in 1831 to take soundings and measurements of the Chicago River, work that had been initiated in the summer of 1830 by [see] Frederick Harrison, Jr. and William B. Guyon, all in preparation for the construction of the Chicago harbor and the Illinois & Michigan Canal. Belin was assisted in 1831 by Chauncey Barnard, Jr. Belin`s Map No. 1 of his May 20, 1832, report to Dr. Howard was reprinted in the Dec. 10, 1834, Chicago Democrat, and the report provides a graphic description of the river, which he identifies as a creek:
… The survey of the creek commences at its mouth, which is obstructed by a bar. At the time it was sounded, during the summer of 1831, there was two feet water, but it is constantly altering, and sometimes completely closed. From the bar the water of the lake gradually deepens, and, 445 yards from its mouth, there is 18 feet water. … This creek, from its mouth to Fort Dearborn, a distance of 467 yards, runs parallel to the lake, (course nearly north,) from which it is separated by a narrow sand bank, its average width 100 yards; the depth varies from 5 to 6 feet. From the fort of the village of Chicago, the course is west, distance 1,150 years [sic], average width 70 yards, and from 15 to 16 deep: at this point the stream forks. From the village, the main branch has a course east of south for 3,200 yards, average width 60 yards, depth 17 feet; thence, to the point where the line of levels commence, the course is south of west distance 5,230 yards, average width 44 yards, depth varying from 26 to 10 feet. The creek heads about 2,500 yards from the above mentioned point, in low, wet ground, which extends in a westerly direction for about four miles to Mud lake, which communicates with the river Des Plaines. …. [432, 681] [682]

Belknap, Ebenezer  from Connecticut; first factor at Fort Dearborn; served from early 1805 to Dec. 31, 1805; was succeeded by Thomas Hayward. [544] [559]

Bell, Wilson A.  purchased on Sept. 4, 1830, lots 4 and 5 in block 34 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] and within two years sold the land to Sullivan Blood; also purchased lot 5 in block 23 from William See [Lee?] and within two years sold it to George Stoner; enlisted as a private at Fort Dearborn on Oct. 10, 1833 and was discharged exactly three years later. William A. Bell was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Bellair, Louis  from France; present at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on May 10, 1827, acquiring an old tent for five dollars and receiving a balance of $22.31 due from the estate for work done; Mrs. Kinzie, in Wau-Ban, mentions him as one who beat his wife. [220a] [220]

Bellamy, Elizabeth C.  see Larrabee, William M.

Belle Fountain  the French name by which [see] Bourbon Spring was originally known; where David Laughton died on April 12, 1834.

Belleau, Michel  name later corrupted to Bureau, de Beuro and Beuro; Quebec trader active in Illinois between 1771 and 1780; in 1776 Belleau built a trading post on the west side of the Illinois River at the mouth of a creek in what later became Leepertown Township; the creek is now called Bureau Creek; at times Belleau worked in partnership with Pierre Durand and Jean Baptiste Point de Sable; his 1777 trade license was bonded by Jean Orillat; he took an oath of loyalty to Virginia in 1778 or 1779 after Clark`s conquest of Illinois, an act which served as his death warrant; met Durand at the Chicago Portage in 1779 with a large shipment of furs and 15 engagés from his post at the mouth of the Rivière au Bureau; was killed by Indians in the spring of 1780; his estate was administered at Cahokia that year. Bureau County in Illinois is named after Michel Belleau. [692c] [649]

Bellin, Jacques Nicolas  (1702-1772) French cartographer who, with access to official documents of earlier explorers, prepared a mapCarte des Lacs du Canada, that accompanied Charlevoix`s Journal d`un Voyage Fait par Ordre du Roi dans l`Amerique Septentrionale of 1744; the map shows the Portage aux chênes [Chicago Portage] starting ambiguously from the north branch of the Chicago River instead of the south branch, unless Bellin refers to one of two minor portages known to have indeed arisen from the north branch [see Chicago area map detail]; introduced on the map are five imaginary islands in Lake Superior, named after and apparently meant to please members of the French nobility; these islands were repeated on his mapPartie Occidentale de la Nouvelle France ou Canada in 1755 and copied by later mapmakers, resulting in misinformation as late as 1805 [John Cary, A New Map of Part of the United States of North America]. [605, 681] [682]

Bellows, Laura W.  see Handy, Henry S.

Belz John  resident by 1833, German Catholic immigrant; in 1837 was married to Veronica Periolat by Father St. Cyr. [342]

Bemis, Aaron  mail carrier between Fort Dearborn and Fort Wayne in 1823, whom Major Long met on his expedition to the source of the St. Peter`s River and detained as a guide; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319, 394] [12]

Bender, Maj. George  from Massachsetts; Fifth Infantry, commandant at Fort Dearborn from June 19 to Oct. 31, 1833, when he resigned; followed Major Fowle both as commandant and as construction superintendent for the harbor project; under him the construction work actually began [see Shapley, Capt. Morgan L.], with Henry Handy as his assistant and Abraham V. Knickerbocker as his clerk; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and signed as a witness on the Treaty of Chicago in September; died in Washington City on Aug. 21, 1865. [319] [12]

Benedict, Sarah  see Clybourne, Henley Henry.

Benedict, Sheldon  partnered [see] A.W. Chambers as Messrs. Chambers & Benedict late November 1835, buying J.M. Faulkner`s entire stock of goods and continuing at the old stand two doors W of the Land Office on Lake Street; an ad in the November 25 Chicago Democrat assured a “stock of Groceries probably as extensive as any west of the city of New York.”

Benedict, —  settler in 1829 on the Sauk trail (Detroit-Chicago Road ); in November 1827, acted as letter carrier for Dr. A. Wolcott.

Benie, Pierre  visited John Kinzie on Sept. 13, 1806, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Benjamin  [?] child of Captain and Mrs. Heald`s Negro slave, Cicely, born early in 1811 just prior to the Healds`s residence at Fort Dearborn; killed and beheaded at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [12, 226]

Benjamin Barton  lake schooner under Captain Ludlow; came from Buffalo, NY, calling at Chicago on Aug. 30 and Oct. 23, 1835.

Benjamin Franklin  lake schooner that came from Buffalo, NY, calling at Chicago on Oct. 1, 1835.

Bennett, Ann  see Ballard, Thomas.

Bennett, Henry S.  as H.C., was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; real estate speculator in 1834; 1839 City Directory: speculator, boarded at the Illinois Exchange [Exchange Coffee House]; a Henry Bennett in the 1843 City Directory is listed as a “whitewasher, alley bet Monroe and Adams.” [319]

Bennett, Hiram  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Bennett, Mary Brownell  (-Aug. 26, 1889) daughter of [see] Samuel Curtis Bennett; listed with him in 1839 as an assistant teacher; in the 1843 City Directory she is listed separately as Miss and as “teacher public school 2, district 1, bds S.C. Bennett”; Mary also died in LaSalle, IL.

Bennett, Samuel Curtis  (-1857) arrived from New York in 1835; 1839 City Directory: school teacher, corner of State and Madison streets; also 1839 City Directory: Mary Bennett, assistant S.C. Bennett; 1843 City Directory: teacher, res and school, 132 State. Samuel died in LaSalle, IL. [12]

Bennett, Thomas  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Bennett, William  early owner of land, prior to 1836, who with John Ludby acquired the SE quarter (160 acres) of Section 32, Township 40 N; and for his own account, 80 acres in the NE quarter, according to Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113, of Section 20, Township 39; 1839 City Directory: soap boiler.

Bentley, Nancy  see Walker, Charles

Benton, Addison P.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [12]

Benton, Col. Colbee Chaimberlain  (Jan. 23, 1805-Feb. 22, 1880) also Colby; born in Langdon, NH; third son of William and Cynthia (née Richardson) Benton; successful business man and frequent traveler of Lebanon, NH, who in 1833 visited Chicago and left a detailed journal of this trip [see excerpt below]; married Susan A. Wright on Aug. 17, 1841 in Norwich, VT; the couple had four children. Additional excerpts from his journal [see Bibliography] can be found in conjunction with the following entries: Chicago harbor; Mann, John; Ouilmette, Louis; prairie; and in Chronology, August 1833.
Also below, the reader will find an article titled “Young Chicago,” which was published in the Chicago Daily Tribune on May 24, 1875, signed only with a “C.”; the editors conclude this was written by Colonel Benton. [53, 280a]

(Sunday Aug 18) … Left Calemic River [Calumet River] for Chicago which is about fourteen miles distant. By the way, I would speak of the Calemic River. It is a fine deep river and navigable fifteen miles from its mouth. With a little expense a fine harbour could be made, even better than one could be made at Chicago. The river is wider and deeper than the Chicago River and can be navigated much farther into the country. The land is cold and marshy about the outlet of the river. There is a very good place to build a town on the lake and there will be one laid out before a great while, and it must be something of a place in time. Mr. Mann claims the best part of the land by a preëmption right. There is some doubt about his claim, and if he does not substantiate it, it will be sold when government bring their lands into market, which will probably be in a year or two. … For some time before we arrived at Chicago we could only see the lighthouse, but as we approached nearer we could see the Fort and one or two other buildings, and we could not see anything more until we left the beach of the lake and rose onto the prairie. There we had a grand view of an extensive prairie, and a very fine view of the town. The prairie was alive with cattle and horses and it looked very pleasant, and the principal street, which we passed through, looked lively and businesslike, altho` we afterwards found out that it was the Sabbath. There did not seem to be much attention paid to the Sabbath. I believe, however, that there was a meeting in a log dwelling or school house. I saw men about the streets as the New England people would be on a week day, and I saw some Indians drunk. They had been fighting and were covered with blood. … We arrived at Chicago about noon and took up our quarters at Mr. Kinzie`s new tavern, kept by Mr. Clark. …
I shall remain here tomorrow and perhaps longer.

YOUNG CHICAGO. A Trip Here from St. Louis in 1835. Hunting a Room at the Green Tree Tavern. Col. Beaubien and His Children.
… Forty years ago to-day, the writer, then quite a young man, arrived in this city from St. Louis, where he had lived three years, enjoying its society better than its institutions. The journey to St. Louis from the Atlantic seaboard was made on horseback during the month of May, and was very delightful to the young emigrant.
THE JOURNEY FROM ST. LOUIS was by steamer on the Illinois River, which then afforded a steady navigation until late in the summer as far as Peoria, and often to Ottawa, which, on this occasion, was our point of landing. There were about a dozen houses at that place in 1835, and there we took the coach of the new line of stages just established by Dr. John J. Temple [Frink, Bingham & Co.; eds.], who is still living, I believe, at St. Louis. The other occupants of the coach were Col. Richard S. [J.] Hamilton (who has held almost all the offices connected with the courts of Cook County) and his bride [Harriet Louise Hubbard], who were just returning from a wedding-trip to Kentucky, the Colonel`s former residence. Mr. P.F.W. Peck was also a passenger. He kept a general assortment of goods at the corner of South Water and LaSalle streets, in a building which stood there until a few years ago. He had been down into the country foraging for butter, which, as well as all other supplies, was then brought from Ohio, and he brought with him a large jar of that necessary commodity. There was also a rough-looking citizen on board, from the mines of Galena, who nursed a jug of whiskey with as much care as was bestowed upon the jar of butter. It was dark before we reached the high grounds this side of Ottawa, where the road was very bad and sloping. We all got out except the miner, and, in descending a hill, the coach overturned, throwing the driver into the brush on the side of the road. A groan issued from the coach, and I, who was the first one who reached it, expected to find its inmate a corpse. But I was soon reassured by a gurgling noise, and heard the miner soliloquize, “It will get broke next time—I`ll save it.” We went on very slowly through the swampy prairies, only being kept from sinking out of sight by the rank luxuriance of the grasses, which kept the wheels from cutting through. There were only about half-a-dozen houses at that time on the road between Ottawa and Chicago, the last of which was “THE WIDOW BARRY`S,” which was on the end of a ridge of pine land running out into the wet prairie north of Riverside, and about 9 miles from Chicago. We took breakfast there the second day about noon and then plunged into the wet prairie, which was covered with grass about 6 feet high and with water about 2 feet deep. Toward night we began to see the infant city, or rather an immense cottonwood-tree [see Chicago massacre tree; eds.], which was its landmark, and the masts of the vessels riding at anchor in the lake, for as yet the river, not being dredged out, was only practicable for small craft. There were a few scattering houses on the west side of the river, mostly of logs, but a few frame houses also. Among the most imposing of these was one which was standing until quite recently on the northwest corner of Canal and Lake streets. It then was known as THE GREEN TREE TAVERN, and here the stage stopped. The scanty accommodations of the town were over-filled by a horde of land speculators, who had come here to attend the public sale to take place in June, and the landlord, in reply to our application, said that he had not a space on the floor but which was engaged three deep! We crossed the river, then a clear, bright stream, b a rope ferry, and betook ourselves to the “Sauganash,” a newly opened hotel, which consisted of a log-cabin standing on the southeast corner of Market and Lake streets, with a large frame addition south of it. Here the refusal was still more decided, as the “gentlemanly proprietor” assured us that he could not give us a nail to hang ourselves on. Turning sorrowfully away, we had the good fortune to find a friend whom we had known at the East, and who was the fortunate possessor of a room, which kindly he shared.
LAKE STREET at that time had a few houses scattered along it—mostly small frame structures. At the corner of Wells street Mark Beaubien kept the “illinois Exchange,” as he expressed it, “like hell.” The sod on the street was yet unbroken, and sloughs from the river reached to it. The only building of importance in the city was a large brick warehouse kept by Gurdon S. Hubbard and his cousin Henry G. Hubbard, on the corner of LaSalle and Water streets, opposite the store before alluded to of Mr. Peck.
There were three stores that I remember on Lake street—Botsford & Beers` hardware and tin-shop, on the corner of Lake and Dearborn streets, opposite to the Tremont House, then kept by Starr Foot, and Thomas Church`s store on the south side of Lake street, about half-way from Clark to Dearborn street. Next to it was a low brick structure occupied as a clothing store by Tuthie King. Over Church`s store was the Land Office, at the corner of LaSalle and Lake. Solomon Lincoln, called the “prairie tailor,” had his shop. All east of State street and north of madison street was occupied by the UNITED STATES MILITARY RESERVATION and was cultivated as a garden by the troops of Fort Dearborn, which was under the command of Maj. Wilson, of the Fifth Infantry. Maj. Green, Capt. Bauley [Baxley], Lieuts. Jamison and Thompson, and Dr. Philip Maxwell, names well-known to our older citizens, were of the command. They were jovial sons of Mars, and enlivened the dullness of frontier life with deer and wolf hunts, and were very hospitable to the passing stranger. Col. John Baptiste Beaubien, who was married to a very respectable Indian woman, lived near the walls of the fort in a long, straggling collection of log buildings, which were filled by the numerous progeny of various shades. “How many children have you, Colonel?” I heard some one ask him. “How many children? Sacre nom de Dien, I cannot you tell in one minute. I think I have sixteen or eighteen, voyons.” Then he would begin to count them on his fingers, but he sometimes enumerated some who, his wife would remind him, had passed away. At the time I write of, it was supposed that he would obtain possession of the tract now Fort Dearborn Addition to Chicago, and consequently there were many young men who were aspirants for the hands of his daughters. I heard one young man ask him how much he would take for a “pre-emption” of his oldest girl for a year, when it was expected that his claim would be decided. The land-officers had issued to him a certificate of the land, and had taken his money for it, and he had a pretty strong case. He had strong influences at work in Washington, and would undoubtedly have received his patent (which, I have been informed, had been made out for him) had he not commenced a suit of ejectment against the officer in command of the fort. The President revoked the order for removing the troops which had been made, and the suit, after a year or two, was decided in the United States Supreme Court against him.
At this time SOUTH WATER STREET extended to the river, there being no lots on the river side. Those who laid out the town were from the southern part of the State, where the rise and fall of the water in the streams prevents the possibility of having “water-lots,” which, along a stream which does not change in height, are a great convenience.
The proprietors of Kinzie`s Addition had laid out such water-lots, and it was supposed that the warehouse business would be continued to that part of the river, and at an early day most of the steamboats did land at the warehouses on these lots.
In consequence, property in Kinzie`s Addition was at that time quite valuable, and in 1836 on Kinzie street it was worth $300 per foot, which price it has hardly yet attained.
There was quite a rivalry between the north and the south sides of the river, both commercially and socially. The population of the town was then stated to me to be 1,200, but this was thought to be a little strong.
The business was chiefly done on North Water street from State to Clark—there having not a dozen stores in other localities.
C. [53a]

Benton, Lewis  settled in the Calumet region in 1833, and may have been the first permanent resident, with a store on the W bank of the river 60 yards from its mouth; active in land speculation, advertising “Calumet Lots” for sale in the July 29, 1835 Chicago Democrat with Chicago agents George Dole and E.K. Hubbard; appointed postmaster of the first Calumet post office in September; built the first hotel in Calumet, known as “Calumet House” and constructed a bridge across the Grand Calumet River in 1836; 1839 City Directory: speculator.

Berand, François  an engagé of John Kinzie whose name is listed in Kinzie’s account books on Nov. 9, 1806, and on Jan. 15, 1807. [404]

Berg brothers  five brothers, German Catholic family that immigrated in 1834; members of St. Mary`s Church; in the first mayoral election Anton voted in the second ward and G. Berg in the fourth; Joseph later owned an inn on LaSalle Street; 1839 City Directory: Anton, teamster; Joseph, saddle and harness maker, Charles E. Peck [164 Lake St.]. [342] [12]

Berg, Magdalena  see Stein, Charles.

Bernard, Epolite J.  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Berry Point Trail  see Barry Point Trail.

Berry, Benjamin A.  arrived from Ohio in 1835; hardware merchant; he and his wife Lydia M. lost infant children in 1837 and 1840; 1839 City Directory: Berry, B.A. & Co., dry goods and grocery, South Water Street.

Berry, Elenora  see Hubbard, Gurdon S.

Berry, James W.  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

Berry, Redmond  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on July 2, 1806; visited John Kinzie on November 4 that year, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; was killed at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [404, 708] [12]

Berry, Thomas    arrived from Germany in 1835.

Berry, Widow  see Widow Barry.

Bersier, John Baptist  engagé from Detroit; worked for William H. Wallace at Hardscrabble in 1826 and until his death in April 1827.

Bertrand, B.H.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Bertrand, Joseph, Sr.  visited John Kinzie at his earlier trading post near South Bend, IN, on June 11, 1803 and on Apr. 4, 1804, then later in Chicago on May 26, 1810, and again in December 1812, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; in about 1808 he built a trading post in what is currently Niles Township, where in honor of his wife, the Madeline Bertrand Park, also known as Parc aux Vaches [“cow pasture”] now exists [see image of monument]; was associated with the American Fur Company by 1821, as noted on a Michilimackinac invoice dated August 22; trader at St. Joseph in the 1820s and 1830s near Potawatomi Chief Topenebee`s village; interacted with Chicago traders and advertised in the Chicago Democrat. Joseph, Sr., received $2000 in payment for a claim at the Treaty of September 1828, and $652 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833; with his Potawatomi wife Madelaine he had five children: Joseph, Jr. (who received $300 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833), Benjamin, Laurent, Theresa, and Amable; the children received land grants along the St. Joseph-Kankakee River portage; his family name became the name for a town [Bertrand, MI] on the Michigan/Illinois border, a few miles S of Niles, MI, where the earlier St. Joseph settlement was. [10aa, 12, 404, 692g, 531b, 729a] [220]

Bertrand, Marguerite  see Bourassa, Daniel.

Besom, Antoine  see Buisson, Antoine

Besson, Louis    see Bisson, Louis.

Besson, Mary  also Bisson; see Leigh, Charles.

Best, Henry  German; came in 1831; street name: Best Avenue (between 1436 Wrightwood Avenue and Diversey Avenue ). [728] [12]

Best, William  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; visited John Kinzie on June 26, 1805, on Dec. 11, 1805, on Apr. 26, 1806, and – the last time as sergeant – on Sept. 16, 1806, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; was discharged in 1810 as unfit for duty and left the Chicago area. [404] [12]

Beuro, Michael  see Belleau, Michael.

Bezion, Françoise  also Buisson; listed in the 1833 Chicago Treaty on Schedule B for repayment of $2500, “on claims admitted to be justly due, and directed to be paid”; believed to be identical with [see] Suzanne Françoise (Sheshi) Morin Buisson, then principal in the Peoria Opa Trading Post as wife of deceased trader [see] Louis Pierre Buisson, Sr., daughter of [see] François Pierre and Marianne Chevalier, and mother of [see] Archange Thérèse Morin Tremblé Mann who was listed on Schedule A as “Mrs. Mann (daughter of Antoine Ouilmet),” receipient of $200. [12, 13] [275a]

traders, he made annual passages through the Chicago portage. In John Kinzie`s account books Bibeau was noted on June 20, 1808; Apr. 28 and June 2, 1809; June 15 and 19, 1811; and last on July 21, 1812. On July 27, 1818, he was employed as an interpreter for one year on the Illinois River, where newly employed Gurdon Hubbard was assigned to him; listed with [see] Louis Buisson on an American Fur Co. invoice in August 1821, for trade on the Illinois River and its dependencies. [354, 404] [10aa]

Bickerdike & Noble  Chicago firm, built a steam sawmill on the E bank of the Des Plaines River in 1831, the only such mill for 20 miles; mill laborers who settled nearby began the communities of Oak Park and River Forest; also see Bickerdike, George; Noble, Mark, Jr.

Bickerdike, George B.  (1806-Nov. 24, 1880) also Bickerdyke; from Yorkshire, England; carpenter who arrived on horseback from Cincinnati in 1831; acquired 10 acres that included the SE corner of Lake and Dearborn streets on which he built a shop, selling the land soon after when its value increased; bought 80 acres along the Des Plaines River [in what is now River Forest] and erected a steam sawmill in partnership with Mark Noble, Jr., where Lake Street crosses the river; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November; married Noble`s second daughter, Mary, also from Yorkshire, on November 29, the Hon. R.J. Hamilton officiating at a double ceremony (with Mark Noble, Jr. and Charlotte Wesencraft); built a log cabin on the north branch near Elston Avenue; of five children three survived, including their first, George N., born on Oct. 2, 1834; 1839 City Directory: farmer, West Indiana [Grand] street; 1843 City Directory: carpenter, res Canal, bet Adams and Jackson. He died at Knaresborough, England. [319] [692b]

Bickerdike, Joseph  (c.1819-1903) came in 1831 from Yorkshire, England, brother of George; married Elizabeth A. Welden in 1849; later bred trotting horses; assessor and road commissioner in the 1850s; died Nov. 6, 1903.

Bickerdike, Richard, Jr.  owned 80 acres of land in Section 30, Township 39, prior to 1836, as shown in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Bickerdike, Richard, Sr.  also Bickerdyke; owned 80 acres of land in Section 30, Township 39, prior to 1836, as shown in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Bienville, Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne, seigneur de   (1680-1767) see Le Moyne family.

Big Foot  Mawgehset, Mangezit; Potawatomi chief whose village existed at Lake Geneva, formerly Big Foot Lake, now southern Wisconsin; some tribe members were affiliated through marriage with members of [see] Red Bird`s Winnebago tribe. In June 1827 Big Foot met secretly with Winnebago and Sioux chieftains who advocated war against the Americans; within a month Potawatomi tribes gathered at Chicago to receive annuities, then left, though members of Big Foot`s band lingered; overnight a violent storm occurred and lightning set fire to the vacated fort`s barracks and as settlers attempted to subdue the fire, appeals for help from the Indians watching were unmet and aroused suspicion. Later Shabonna traveled to Lake Geneva with others, but alone was accepted by the tribe to learn of favorable intentions which allayed fears of Chicagoans. [148, 559] [229]

Big Man    see Peesotum.

Big Woods  timberland along the Fox River, partially within Cook County prior to the creation of Du Page County in 1839. In the spring and summer of 1832, settlers feared that the Potawatomi who camped there would join Black Hawk and fled to Fort Dearborn.

Bigelow, Ellen  a young woman in her late teens who arrived at Chicago with her sister, Sarah, on the brig Illinois on May 24, 1835, fourteen days out of Buffalo; daughters of Lewis Bigelow, a lawyer from Petersham, MA, who had moved to Peoria several months earlier with other family members; the girls left the following day by stage, arriving two days later in Peoria. Within a month, Ellen detailed their arduous journey in a letter to an aunt, and that relevant to Chicago follows below. Ellen married the lawyer William Frisby at Peoria and their daughter, Louise, was born in 1839. For additional quotations from Ellen`s letter, see entries on Frink & Walker, Erie Canal, and prairie…. Chicago I don`t like at all.The town is low and dirty, though situated advantageously for commercial purposes. I saw only one place in which I would live if they would give me all they possess, and that was Fort Dearborn. I liked that. It is beautifully situated and the grounds and buildings are neat and handsome. A great land fever was raging when we were there, and I am told it has not yet abated. Property changes hands there daily, and it is thought no speculation at all if it doesn`t double in value by being retained one night. … I think they are all raving distracted, and if I mistake not, a few years, if not months, will reduce things to their proper level and restore them to their senses. … We left Chicago in the stage for Ottawa, a route of 80 miles across the prairies, and such traveling never did we behold before. The low prairie about Chicago was entirely flooded with water, and the creeks were swollen to rivers. Nothing in the shape of a bridge greeted our eyes. Streams, large and small, were all to be forded even at the risk of sticking fast in the middle of them. On the banks of the Des Plaines, about ten miles from Chicago, are found a multitude of Indians, gathering for the great council they have been holding…. [55a]

Bigelow`s Building  located on the E side of Clark Street, between Lake and South Water, to which the post office was moved in June 1837.

bilious fever  see malaria.

Bineteau, Père Julien  (Mar. 13, 1653-Dec. 24, 1699) also Binoteau, Binneteau; born in La Flèche, France and entered the Jesuit novitiate at Paris on Sept. 7, 1676, then taught at Rouen, Nevers, Amien and Caens between 1678-90, studying at Paris between 1685 and 1689; came to Canada in 1691, serving as a priest and missionary at Saint-François-de-Sales (Quebec) in 1693; served at Michillimackinac until 1696, then joined Father Pinet at the onset of the Mission de l`Ange Gardien at Chicagoua. In 1697 Père Bineteau joined Fathers Gravier, Pinet, and Marest at the Mission de la Conception in southern Illinois where he wrote an account of the Illinois country in 1699 and died in the same year of a febrile illness. [34a, 456a, 665] [12]

Bingham, Charles K.  arrived in 1835; first partner of a stage line, soon Frink & Walker; 1839 City Directory: Frink, Bingham & Co., 123 Lake St.

birch bark canoe  an Indian invention, light and strong, excellent for portaging; hot pine pitch was used to waterproof; not made in Illinois because the birch tree did not grow there.

Birchard, Matthew   see Fort Dearborn reservation.

Bird, Frederick  arrived from New York early in 1833 with members of the Daniel Warren family, and soon married Louisa Warren in Chicago on May 10; moved to Geneva and later to Rock River; they had seven children, all surviving; died c.1851.

birds  a number of game bird species were welcome food supplements as well as targets for sport hunting in the early days of the settlement, but many of these are no longer found today. They left their mark in the reports of pioneers and settlers and even in street names and monuments; among them were ducks, eagles, geese, grouse, passenger pigeons, prairie chickens, swans, teals, and wild turkey. For an impression of the abundance of waterfowl in Chicago in April 1829, see the report by Lt. J.G. Furman of Fort Dearborn, reprinted in Hurlbut`s Chicago Antiquitiesand excerpted below. For additional information on individual species and the records left about them by early pioneers, see individual entries. [357]… We passed up the left branch [south branch] of the Chicago to its source, and thence, in a heavy snowstorm during a night `as black as Erebus,` through `Lac Marais` [Mud Lake] into the riviere Aux Pleins. … The prairie between those streams is at all times swampy; but during the spring floods, a considerable lake is formed, the waters of which flow simultaneously through the Chicago, the Aux Pleins, and Illinois Rivers, into the great northern lakes, and into the Mississippi. Here, after the waters have subsided, vast quantities of aquatic fowl congregate to feed upon the wild-rice, insects, &c.; that abound in it. Swan, geese and brant, passing to and fro in clouds, keep an incessant cackling; ducks of every kind, from the mallard and canvas-back, down to the tiny water-witch and blue-winged teal, add their mite to the `discord dire,` while hundreds of gulls hover gracefully over, ever and anon plunging their snowy bosoms into the circling waters. In April, myriads of plover and snipe take the place of the aforementioned; still later, great quantities of woodcock grouse, and ortolans, make their appearance in its neighbourhood. …. [64]

Birkbeck, Morris  the most prominent settler in southern Illinois who arrived in 1817 from England with his family in Edwards County, founding the town of Wanborough on what was soon known as the `English Prairie.` Nearby Albion was founded by his neighbor, George Flowers; Albion is existent but Birkbeck`s town faded after his death in 1825. Urbs in Horto, the inscription on the Chicago seal meaning “city in a garden,” may be traced to a description in Birkbeck`s book, Notes on a Journey in America, from the Coast of Virginia to the Territory of Illinois[1818], in which he expresses his delight after traveling through the large dark forests of southern Indiana: “… prairies, so beautiful with their surrounding woods, as to seem like the creation of fancy; gardens of delight in a dreary wilderness ….” [250, 734a] [56]

Bisbee, Laura  see Rexford, Heber S.

Biseaus, Terrier  also Bistaus; a Frenchman, listed in John Kinzie’s account books in May 1818. [404]

Bishop, Anne  see Whistler, Capt. John

Bishop, James Edward  (c.1808-c.1880) born in Nova Scotia, arrived in 1836; partner of [see] Theophilus S. Greenwood; 1839 City Directory: canal contractor, Illinois street; married Sophia Elizabeth (née Greenwood, 1822-1848; known as Elizabeth) on Oct. 28, 1842, at St. James Church; they had three children: Edward Fitch, Mary Louisa (1845-1847), and Lizzy (1848, who died soon after birth with her mother); in the 1844 Directory is listed as a dry goods, groceries and hardware merchant at his residence, 131 Lake Street, with his brother-in-law Theophilus K.; in 1853 was a lumber dealer at Market and Jackson streets; that year on Mar. 27 in Albany, NY, he married Caroline Lush Wilson (Mar. 27, 1825, Westport, CT), sister of the [see] Wilson brothers; they had four children: Mary Ella, Charles Lush, Caroline Lush, and Anna Sophia; in 1856 the business became Holden [Isaac H.] & Bishop, Wagon and Cabinet Lumber Dealers; son Edward served in the Civil War, 1861-1863; by 1869 he and Edward were agriculture implements and commission merchants in Omaha, NE; a member of the Old Settler`s Association, James, then in Denver, CO, sent a letter regretting he was unable to attend the May 1879 reunion in Chicago; following James`s death Caroline returned to Omaha where she died on Oct. 1, 1894; both are buried in Rosehill Cemetery. [105a, 152a, 243, 506] [48b]

Bishop, Mary H.  see Clift, Benjamin H.

Bishop, Thomas  arrived from New York in 1835; 1839 City Directory: bookkeeper, Philo Carpenter. [351]

Traveling down the Kankakee River in December 1679, Father Hennepin observed: It seems this [the prairie] is the element and the country of the buffalo, herds of two or even of four hundred. The paths by which they have passed are beaten like our great roads. Very fine wool instead of hair, horns almost all black, thicker than cattle`s, head of monstrous size, neck short and very thick, sometimes six hands broad. Very fat in autumn, and very succulent. The Indians have this forecast not to drive these animals entirely from their countries, to pursue only those who are wounded, and the others that escape, they suffer to go at liberty without pursuing them further, in order not to alarm them too much. When the Indians have killed any cows, the little calves follow the hunters, and go and lick their hands or fingers; these Indians sometimes take them to their children and after they have played with them, they knock them on the head to eat them. The hoofs of all these little animals are dried and fastened to rods. In their dances they shake and rattle them. … The ordinary skins of these wild cattle weigh from one hundred to a hundred and twenty pounds. The Indians cut off the back and the neck part which is the thickest part of the skin, and they take only the thinnest part of the belly which they dress very neatly, with the brains of all kinds of animals, by means of which they render it as supple as our chamois skins dressed with oil. They paint it with different colors, trim it with white and red porcupine quills, and make robes of it to parade in their feasts. In winter they use them to cover themselves especially at night. Their robes which are full of curly wool have a very pleasing appearance …. Joseph Kellogg reports as follows from his 1711 visit to the Illinois River: About the head of the River Ilinois are fine large Savannahs or Meadows of forty Miles in length, Some of the Richest Land the World affords. … The Savannahs before mentioned are the noble pasture of thousands of Buffalo’s and wild Cattle and which [we] saw in great herds …. Uncontrolled hunting rapidly diminished the herds; severe winters with excessive snowfall, especially 1779/1780 and 1806/1808, in which bison are said to have perished by the tens of thousands, contributed to the decline; by 1830 all wild native bison had likely been exterminated in Illinois. Two bronze sculptures of the American buffalo exist at the E entrance of Humboldt Park (missing as of 2006); street name: Buffalo Avenue (3300E). [341, 464c, 735aa] [456b]

Bisson, Mary    also: Beeson, Besson; see Leigh, James.

Bisson, Pierre Sr.    see Buisson, Louis.

Bissot, Claire F.  see Jolliet, Louis.

Black Bird  also known as Siggenauk, Letourneau, Mukudapenais, or Mucketepennese; Potawatomi chief from the Milwaukee area, but originally from St. Joseph; pro-American in 1777, but led the attack that became the Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812, following the strategy set by Nescotnemeg; after the attack, negotiated with Captain Heald for surrender; for his services he received the British loyalty medal. [226]

black code    see slavery.

black gown    term used by the Indians when addressing or referring to any Jesuit missionary.

Black Hawk  (1767-1838) Ma-ka-tai-me-she-kia-kiak; anti-American leader of the Sauk Indians, and leader in the Black Hawk War of 1832; did not recognize the Treaty of St. Louis of 1804 under which his tribe was to move to the W bank of the Mississippi River; the desperate decision of this intelligent leader to defy the United States authorities and precipitate a war that would lead to destruction of most of his tribe can be understood only in the context of the emotional climate then prevalent among his people; as an illustration of this climate, see the following letter by a Fox chief [Apanose] to William Clark describing one of many rumors then circulating among the Indians; street name: Black Hawk Street (1500 N); a nature preserve, named after Black Hawk, is located immediately W of the Fox River, just N of St. Charles, Illinois. [211, 365, 520] [July 22, 1832] Father, — We will relate one of these fables: — We were told that the Americans were determined shortly to lay hands on all our males, both young and old, and deprive them of those parts which are said to be essential to courage; then, a horde of Negro men were to be brought from the South, to whom our wifes, sisters, and daughters were to be given, for the purpose of raising a stock of Slaves to supply the demand in this country, where Negroes are scarce. … We assure you, Father, that this, and many other similar stories have had a great influence on the minds of all, or at least of most, of that unfortunate band, which seems now abandoned from heaven and humanity. For the evidence of this fact, I will refer you to the enthusiastic madness with which our women urged their husbands to this desparate resort; & secondly, influenced by a belief of the above fables, they have uniformly treated the dead bodies of the unfortunate white men who have fallen into their hands, with the same indignities which they themselves so much dreaded. [634b]

Black Hawk War  on April 5, 1832, Chief Black Hawk led approximately 1,000 Sauk and Mesquakie warriors and their families eastward across the Mississippi into Illinois and Wisconsin between Fort Madison and Fort Armstrong to reclaim land he maintained was illegally signed over to the United States in 1804, territory thereafter forbidden to Indian habitation. Hostilities began in mid May [see Indian Creek] and ended September 30 with the complete rout of the Indians; of 1,000 warriors only 150 survived. The United States military, 850 strong, were led by Gen. Winfield Scott (also see Indian Army Trail); officers included Jefferson Davis, Albert Sidney Johnston, William Hamilton (son of Alexander Hamilton), Robert Anderson (of Fort Sumter fame), and Nathan Boone (son of Daniel Boone). Abraham Lincoln served in the Illinois militia company. For those too far south of Chicago, small fortifications were devised from Joliet to La Porte, all in anticipation of hostilities. Fear brought numerous frightened farming families to Fort Dearborn in search of protection and by May 10 about 700 people had crowded into the fort; 15 children were born in Chicago during this time. Seven militia companies were organized in Cook County and served under the company commanders, Capt. Gholson Kercheval (Chicago, May 3), Capt. Harry Boardman (May 24), Capt. J.S.C. Hogan (May 24), Capt. James Walker (Walker`s Grove, June 19), Capt. Joseph Napier (Napierville, July 19), Capt. Holden Seission (July 23), and Capt. Jesse B. Brown (no written record preserved). Colonel Owen, the Indian agent, initially commanded the fort and the local militia, assisted by Gholson Kercheval and Colonel Hamilton; Maj. William Whistler came with two companies of regulars from Fort Niagara and reoccupied the fort, expelling settlers into the settlement. The soldiers under General Scott arrived on July 10 and 18 from the east on the steamers Sheldon Thompson and William Penn, and brought cholera [for the ravages of the ensuing epidemic, see cholera]; with the arrival of the cholera, families hastened home; for an eyewitness account see Penrose, Mary A. The fort became a hospital and 200 cholera cases were admitted, 58 resulting in death. Warfare ended with the Treaty of Fort Armstrong that September, and its eviction of the Indians from Illinois and eastern Iowa. The manuscript map, drawn by Col. Edwin Rose who participated in the war, covers the extent of troop and Indian movements. The dotted line from Fort Dearborn to Rock Island indicates the August 1 to September 1 route the Chicago contingent of soldiers took under Lt. Col. Abraham Eustis. [12, 50, 211, 342a, 634b] Statement that Black Hawk gave after he was captured at the end of the war: My warriors fell around me. It began to look dismal. I saw my evil-day at hand. The sun rose clear on us in the morning; at night it sunk in a dark cloud, and looked like a ball of fire. This was the last sun that shone on Black Hawk. He is now a prisoner to the white man, but he can stand the torture. He is not afraid of death. He is no coward—Black Hawk is an Indian. He has done nothing of which an Indian need to be ashamed. He has fought the battles of his country against the white man, who came year after year to cheat his people and take away their lands. You know the cause of our making war. It is known to all white men. They ought to be ashamed of it. The white men despise the Indians, and drive them from their homes. But the Indians are not deceitful. Indians do not steal. Black Hawk is satisfied. He will go to the world of spirits contented. He has done his duty. His Father will meet and reward him. The white men do not scalp the heads, but they do worse—they poison the heart. It is no pure with them. His countrymen will not be scalped, but they will in a few years become like the white man, so that you can not hurt them; and there must be, as in the white settlements, as many officers as men, to take care of them and keep them in order. Farewell to my nation ! Farewell to Black Hawk ! [714]

Black Horn Tavern    see Wentworth, Elijah, Jr.

Black Jim  Black Jim also Black James, Black John, Black Jack; one of Kinzie`s Negro slaves, brought by him to Chicago in 1804; first listed simply as ‘Black’ in Kinzie`s account book on June 24, 1805; then as ‘John Black’ on Aug. 20, 1805, and subsequently variously named on Jan 29, 1806, on May 21, May 24, June 10, June 20, and July 22, 1808; at the time of the massacre of 1812 he was in the boat as a rower; was subsequently traded by Kinzie— together with slave Henry—to obtain Captain Heald from the Indians; died about 1832 or 1833. [12] [404] [404]

Black Meat    see Battles, Joe.

Black Partridge  also known as Mkedepoke or Muck-otey-pokee; elder brother of Waubansee; chief of the Illinois River Potawatomi whose village was on the S side of the Illinois River, opposite the head of Lake Peoria; neutral in 1776, but friendly to the Americans during the 1812 war; warned Captain Heald of danger prior to the Fort Dearborn massacre, but felt compelled to return to Captain Heald the “Peace and Friendship” medal [see image] he had received earlier from President Madison, because he could not avert the tragedy; was able, however, to rescue Margaret Helm and arrange for the release from Indian captivity of Mrs. Leigh and her infant after the massacre; worked as clerk and interpreter in Toronto, Canada, between 1846 and his death in 1863. [303]

black residents and visitors    prior to 1836 several individuals of African descent had come to Chicago; Jean Baptiste Point de Sable (1784); Jeffrey Nash (1803); Black Jim and Athena (1804); Joe Battles (1809); Cicely (1810); Pepper (1812); Henry (1812); George White (1833); Oliver C. Hanson (1834); and Nelson P. Perry (1834). See individual entries for details.

Blackburn, Mary E.  see Morris, Buckner Stith.

Blacke, J.  recorded in John Kinzie’s account books as having purchased 50 pounds of tobacco on Jan. 19, 1806. [404]

blacksmiths    an entry on Sept. 3, 1804, within John Kinzie’s account book lists a man named Roberts as Fort Dearborn’s blacksmith; also see Jean Baptiste Mirandeau (1811), James Kinzie (1821), Joseph Pothier (1822 or earlier), David McKee (1823), Archibald Caldwell (1827), William See (1830), Israel P. Blodgett (1832), Asahel Pierce (1833), Clemens Stose (1833), Lemuel Brown (1833), Mathias Mason (1833), James C. Hatch (Lisle 1833), Leander French (1834), and William Harman (1835).

Blackstone, John  announced in the Nov. 26, 1834 Chicago Democrat a public sale of the personal effects of Samuel Holland, deceased, on December 24, that included a horse and traveling trunk; received $100 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12]

Blair, George  arrived from New York in August 1835 with his partner Edward Manierre; in the September 5 Chicago American they placed an advertisement for their tailoring establishment, Manierre & Blair [see ad]; 1839 City Directory: tailor, (Manierre & Blair, 23 Clark St.) 260 State Street. [12]

Blake, Capt. Chesley  born in Maine; a boy sailor until the War of 1812; in 1813 he entered a regiment in the Ninth Infantry, becoming a second lieutenant and transferring to the Fifth Infantry in 1815; he resigned as a regimental quartermaster in May 1816; soon after he was employed by [see] Oliver Newberry and master of the schooner [see] Jackson, remaining in his service to pilot steamers, including the [see] Michigan to Chicago in 1835. He is listed in John Kinzie’s account books in November 1818; died at Milwaukee in 1852 of cholera. [37a, 326] [404]

Blake, Levi  on Dec. 30, 1835, submitted a proposal to the town board to build a fire engine house for $225, underbidding Dickinson & Sheppard; awarded the contract on January 23 and completed the job by the following autumn. [28] [12]

Blake, S. Sanford  arrived from Burlington, VT, on June 15, 1834, later moved to Racine, WI, where he was living in 1885. [351] [12]

Blakesley, Harvey A.  first appeared in the 1839 Chicago Directory as a bookkeeper for a “hardware and stove merchant, South Water st [L.W. Holmes]”; in the 1843 Chicago Directory he listed as “Blakesley, Harvey A. (Loyd, B. & Co.), bds Mrs. John K. Boyer” and the partnership was “Loyd, Blakesley & Co. (A. Loyd, H[arvey] A. Blakesley, and Henry Norton), dry goods and groceries, 101 Lake.” In the 1844 Chicago DirectoryHarvey listed as “of Loyd, B. & Co., residence Mrs. Boyer`s”; the company shared “Lloyd, Blakesley & Co. dry goods and gro, 101 Lake st ( See card): “Wholesaler and Retail Dealers in GROCERIES, NAILS, GLASS, SHOES, LEATHER, &C.; [same address and names] Cash paid for Wheat.”

Blanchard, Francis G.  from England, arrived in 1834; owner of 80 acres of land in Section 34, Township 39, prior to 1836, as shown in Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; advertised as house and land agent in the Chicago Democrat on May 14, 1834, with an office on Lake Street opposite Dr. Temple`s; 1839 City Directory: real estate dealer, Lake Street.

Blasy, Bernard  [Bernhard Blasey?] from Germany, arriving in 1835; 1839 City Directory: baker, Randolph Street; died in Chicago in 1883. [12]

Bleeker, James  auctioneer; his map of “73 Building Lots in Chicago to be sold at Auction by James Bleeker & Sons on Thursday, 22nd of October [1835]” was published by Peter Mesier in New York [map at the Newberry Library, Chicago; eds.]. [164]

Blisse, C.  a performer who entertained Chicagoans with a performance on June 19, 1834, postponed until then “owing to the badness of weather”; see entry for concert. [482]

blocks  (city blocks, numerical system) in 1830, when surveyor James Thompson plotted the intersecting streets of the original town, he numbered the resulting blocks one through 58 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; all are located in the southern half of Section nine, Township 39; later additions to the town have individual systems of block numbering, each beginning with number one.

Blodgett, Asiel Z.  also Avice; son of Israel, born at Fort Dearborn on Sept. 10, 1832, during the Black Hawk scare; raised at Downers Grove; later a railroad worker and captain in the Civil War. [319] [218a]

Blodgett, Caleb  from Monroe, OH; father of Tyler K.; placed a notice in the Chicago American, Oct. 17, 1835, requesting information concerning the disappearance of his son Selvy E., enroute to Buffalo in 1833; 1839 City Directory: brick maker, North Water Street near Wells.

Blodgett, Henry William  (1821-1905) from Amherst, MA; arrived by wagon team in 1830 with his parents, Avis and Israel Blodgett; in the following spring the family settled at Dupage town; 1839 City Directory: clerk, Philip F.W. Peck; later became a lawyer, served in both houses of the Illinois legislature, strongly opposed slavery, and was made a federal judge by President Grant in 1870. [61, 218a] [60]

Blodgett, Israel P.  (1797-1864) also Bladget; blacksmith from Amherst, MA, with his wife Avis (née Dodge) and son, Henry W.; farmer in 1831 near the Du Page forks, three miles S of the Naper settlement and forging the first cast-iron plow suitable for prairie use; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; during the 1832 Black Hawk War served as corporal in the militia company under Captain Napier. Israel and Avis [Avice] were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; in 1835 bought land and moved to Downers Grove; known as an ardent abolitionist. His memories were collected by his daughter Corac, and are preserved at the Downers Grove Historical Society. [60, 61, 218a, 314a, 319, 657a] [13]

Blodgett, Tyler K.  brickmaker; son of Caleb; arrived from Amherst, MA, in the spring of 1833 and built a kiln; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $50 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; in late 1834 used two acres of land adjoining the Noble Steam Mill as a brickyard; later employed the German immigrant brickmaker Heinrich Lampmann, and operated – Chicago`s 1st – brickyard on the north bank, between Clark and Dearborn streets; built his brick residence – Chicago`s 1st – on South Water Street, across the river from his brickyard, a structure 20 feet square, one and a half stories tall; late in 1835 filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lots 1 and 2, block 6; 1839 City Directory: tavern-keeper, Michigan Avenue. [28, 319, 692b] [12]

Blondine, Dorothy  wife of [see] Nathaniel Meyers.

Blood, Sullivan  purchased lot 4 in block 34 from William A. Bell, about 1832 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Bloomingdale    see Duncklee’s Grove.

Blow, Lewis  voted on July 24, 1830 [see Chronology].

Blue Earth  local Indian who always painted his face a “ghostly blue” and kept to himself during the years 1816-1818, witnessed and described by Mrs. Susan Callis. [74]

Blue Island  a wooded outcropping of pre-Glenwood moraine, nearly 12 miles S of Chicago center (between 87th and 130th streets, and E of the Calumet/Saganashkee portage), originally stretched 2 miles N to S and about 2 miles E to W, rising suddenly some 30 to 40 feet high, surrounded by swampy prairie; at the southern end were several fine springs. In an early Chicago Democrat editorial [1834], John Calhoun observed: `… when viewed from a distance, [it] appears shrouded in an azure mist or vapor, hence, we suppose, the appellation Blue Island.` Earlier, it was an island in glacial Lake Chicago that preceded Lake Michigan. Favored by Indians who hunted there until 1837, the locale remained unsettled by whites until 1833-34. The community of Blue Island that developed (at the southern edge of the ridge where the Vincennes Road crossed Stony Creek) was for years the largest town in southern Cook County; later a regional center for the wool, brewing, and brick industries; street name: Blue Island Avenue.

Blue Jacket    legendary Ohio Shawnee war chief; born Marmaduke Van Swearingen to a white frontier family, he grew up with a burning hatred of Americans; made plans in 1794 to move to ‘Chicagou on the Illinois River’ in British-controlled territory after Gen. Anthony Wayne’s defeat of British-backed Indian forces at Fallen Timbers, near present-day Toledo, but abandoned them because the defeated Indians were forced to cede a 6-mile-square tract at the mouth of the Chicago River to the United States.

Board of Health  formed on June 19, 1835, primarily in response to the 1832 cholera epidemic; its members were James Curtis, B.S. Morris, E. Peck, B. King, A.N. Fullerton, Dr. John T. Temple, J. Jackson, and H. Hugunin; preceded by the [see] Cholera Vigilante Committee of 1834. When the cholera failed to return (the next epidemic would not be until 1849), the board became inactive; in 1837 the new town charter provided for a permanent board of health, resulting in its revival. For the next two decades the board concerned itself primarily with creating a record of vital health statistics; not until 1867 did the board become an active force in public health. An Illinois State Board of Health was not created until May 25, 1877.

boarding houses    see taverns, hotels, and boarding houses.

Boardman, Adaline  see Freeman, Robert.

Boardman, C.  a member of the “Washington Volunteers,” a Chicago fire brigade existing prior to the incorporation of the town in 1833. [12]

Boardman, Capt. Harry  (1805-) born in Vermont; arrived at Chicago by schooner with the [see] Seission family in late July 1831; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; resident of the Scott Settlement, later Dupage town; during the Black Hawk War commanded, as captain, the third company of Cook County voluntary militia under Maj. David Bailey; stationed at Fort Dearborn, the unit began on May 24 and disbanded June 11, 1832; later on August 6 he was one of three election judges, with Joseph Naper and Stephen M. Salisbury, for the Du Page Precinct; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; with Bailey Hobson, built the first gristmill two miles S of [now] Naperville, along the Joliet Road and the W branch of the Du Page River in 1834; married Mrs. C. White in c.1845; farmed in Du Page Township [Will County]. [314a, 319, 415, 692b, 714] [734]

Boardman, Jonathan  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

boats  for the various types of boats used on rivers and lakes near Chicago prior to 1836, see keelboat, barge, batteaupirogue, northern canoe, birch bark canoe, Mackinaw boat; for the larger vessels on Lake Michigan, see entries under sloop, schooner, brig, sailing vessels, and steamships.

bobcat  Felix rufus; early Illinois settlers referred to them as wildcats or lynxes, rarely bobcats; frequent in counties with heavy timber stands; the species was thought to have disappeared from Illinois by 1900, but in 2003 the presence of several bobcats was confirmed by forest preserve biologists, one of them as close to Chicago as Du Page County, and are now in every IL county but one. The cats are elusive and nocturnal, usually subsisting on small game as rabbits or squirrels. Felix lynx, the Canada lynx, probably never existed in Illinois; its mention by early Illinois settlers must be attributed to naive terminology. [“A New Day for Old Predators,” Chicago Wilderness Fall 2008; 341] [732c]

Boeske, Heinrich  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1834. [342]

Bogardus, John L.  Peoria county assessor in 1825, whose list of assessments provides valuable evidence about Chicago residents of that year; see taxation. Bogardus lived in Peoria where he ran a ferry and owned a fish oil production enterprise utilizing Lake Peoria fish; became justice of the peace in 1826. [12]

Bohlander, Catherine  see Fuller, David.

Boilvin & Le Beau  “quite a large confectionary establishment” as described by Andrew J. Vieau; see Boilvin, Nicholas.

Boilvin, Nicholas  baker, arrived from New York in 1835 with wife Betsey; partner in a confectionary store, Boilvin & Le Beau on Clark and South Water streets; on Sept. 16, 1836, the Boilvins` 19-month-old only daughter, Helen Maria, died. [733]

Boilvin, Nicholas  American Indian agent at Prairie du Chien c.1800-1812, a difficult position in a British-leaning town. Boilvin was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $350 and his heirs received $1000 for claims at the Chicago Treaty in September. [12, 319] [7]

Boisbriant, Pierre Dugué, Sieur de  appointed the first governor of the “Illinois Country” in 1718 by the Compagnie d`Orient; built Fort de Chartres in 1720 and continued as commandant until 1725, when he became acting governor of Louisiane. [665] [12]

Boiseau, François  visited John Kinzie on June 28, 1817, as listed in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Boiseley, —  Canadian friend and travel companion of [see] John H. Fonda, who accompanied Fonda on a mail delivery errand from Fort Howard to Fort Dearborn in the winter of 1827-28. [251]

Boisrondet, François, Sieur de  La Salle`s trusted storekeeper at Fort St. Louis (Starved Rock); member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south; among the group with Henri Joutel that reached Chicago on Sept. 25, 1687, on the way from Texas to Canada. Boisrondet was one of the pioneer agriculturists of Illinois as shown in the following comment by Joutel: “That country [Illinois] is one of the most temperate in the world, and consequently whatsoever is sowed there whether herbs roots Indian and even European corn thrives very well as has been try’d by Sieur Boisrondet, who sow’d of all sorts, and had a plentiful crop, and we eat of the bread which was very good.” [596a] [486a]

Bole, William  acquired one castor hat for 25 cents at the W.H. Wallace estate sale on May 12, 1827. [220a]

Boliveu, Nicholas  was granted a license to sell goods in Cook County on June 6, 1831, at the county seat (Chicago).

Bolles, Nathan Howard  arrived from New York in 1835, likely Peter`s brother; one of the delegates who prepared the city charter in 1837; 1839 City Directory: county commissioner, overseer of the poor, Lake Street; in 1885 his widow (Sarah K.) lived in Cleveland, Ohio. [351] [12]

Bolles, Peter  (1790-1839) from New York; resident by November 1835, when he was elected trustee of the first Presbyterian and applied for wharfing privileges; married to Harriet Elizabeth (née Rogers); chosen alderman in the newly chartered city in 1837; 1839 City Directory: school inspector, Wells Street near Randolph; died in New York City during August 1839; Harriet died in childbirth early in 1840, infant Elizabeth survived. [12, 28, 351]

Bonasa umbellus  ruffed grouse; see grouse.

Bond, Ezra  arrived in 1832, and was a member of the Chicago company during the 1832 Black Hawk War; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; died before 1852. [319]

Bond, Heman  arrived from New Hampshire in 1833; lived in a log and sod cabin at the end of Monroe Street where mid-July he accommodated [see] Charles M. Gray and others overnight; 1839 City Directory: horse dealer, Adams Street near State; died in 1855. [243, 351, 733, 734] [12]

Bond, Shadrach  (1773-1832) farmer who lived near Kaskaskia before he became the first governor of the State of Illinois on Oct. 6, 1818, serving until 1822; earlier, had served as the first delegate from the Illinois Territory to Congress; street name: Bond Avenue (3134 E). [12]

Bond, William  arrived in 1832, and was a member of the Chicago company during the 1832 Black Hawk War; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; 1839 City Directory: laborer; later moved to Somanauk, DeKalb County, where he was still living in 1885. [243, 319] [12]

Bondy, Joseph  visited John Kinzie on Jan. 30, 1807; listed as a trader in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Bonin, Augustus  also Bonna; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; received $60 in payment for a claim at the 1833 Chicago Treaty; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took that same year; married Josette Franche before Judge Caton on Sept. 20, 1834; a subsequent notice in the Chicago Democrat, Sept. 22, 1935, announced: “Where as my wife Josette, has left my house without any reasonable cause, this is to caution all persons from crediting her on my account, as I will pay no debts of her contracting.” [319]

Bonlanger, François De Lisle  visited John Kinzie on Nov. 2, 1804, as listed in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Bonna, Augustus  see Bonin, Augustus

Bonnell, J.D.  visited Chicago, arriving on foot Aug. 25, 1835; later lived in Lake City, MN; in a 1879 letter [written to the Chicago Times, reprinted in Andreas], he described his experience:
… On arriving at Chicago I stopped overnight at the Mansion House. In the morning I commenced looking over the town and prospecting for a boarding-place, and to learn what I could find to do. The hotels were all pretty full, and their prices ranging too high for my finances, I walked across the street, where the first thing that attracted my attention was the sound of a violin. On entering a small wooden structure, there stood behind a rudely constructed counter Mr. Dalton, a recent arrival from Columbus, Ohio, a former tailor there, but who had now opened a liquor shop, and played the fiddle to attract customers. … Passing east, toward the mouth of the river, was the Lake House in course of construction, east of which was the residence of Dr. Kimball [actually Dr. Kimberly; eds.], who was a partner of Mr. Pruyne in a drug store on South Water Street. Mr. Pruyne was State Senator. Opposite Dr. Kimball`s was Hunter & Hinsdale`s warehouse. Adjoining on the west was Newberry & Dole`s warehouse, and on one part of the latter building was the hat store of McCormick & Moon, of Detroit, Mr. Moon being the partner of the Chicago store. In the back part of the store was Jesse Butler`s tailor shop. In turning the corner of Dr. Kimball`s residence, away to the northeast, among the sand-hills, close by the lake shore, stood a small yellow house, occupied by Parnick [Patrick] Kelsey as a boarding house, ostensibly run by Eve, Parnick`s wife, for Mr. Kelsey was a sub-contractor in removing stumps and grubs, preparatory to the grading of the street on the North Side, through the swamps and bogs, which at that time rendered traveling almost impossible. But as Mrs. Kelsey had all the borders she could accommodate, I was obliged to seek other quarters. … Dearborn Street at the time I write was the “lively” street, for Garrett`s auction-room was located there, on the west side of the street, close to Cox & Duncan`s clothing store, just opposite to which were Mr. Greenleaf`s auction-rooms. To the latter place I was want to go of evenings and bid off town and city lots, having the next day in which to secure a purchaser, and in case I failed to sell for an advance of my purchase I returned at night and paid Mr. Greenleaf [likely Theophilus Greenwood] a dollar and the property was offered again for sale. … The winter of 1835-1836 was a gay one for Chicago. Mr. Jackeax had a dancing-school at the New York House once a week, which called out the elite of the city. Lincoln`s coffee-house was the popular drinking place, situated, I think, on the corners of St. Clair and Wells streets. Mr. Lincoln had a favorite horse, an iron grey, and quite fleet on foot, particularly so when in pursuit of a prairie wolf. Many times in the winter of 1835-1836 I have seen Mr. Lincoln mount his horse when a wolf was in sight on the prairie toward Bridgeport, and within an hour`s time come in with the wolf, having run him down with his horse and taken his life with a hatchet or other weapon. …. [12]

Bonnet, Augustin  also Austin or Augtin Banny; bought a Scottish cap for 25 cents at the estate sale of W.H. Wallace on April 27, 1827; voted on Aug. 7, 1826, and on July 24, 1830 [see Chronology]; said to have been a traveling cattle dealer, supplying forts. [369a]

bookbinders    see Ariel Bowman, Hugh Ross.

Boone, Levi Day, M.D.  (Dec. 8, 1808-Jan. 24, 1882) born near Lexington, KY, son of Squire and Anna [née Grubbs] Boone, great-nephew of Daniel Boone; graduated from the medical department of the Transylvania University of Louisville, KY; in Illinois practicing at Hillsboro during the 1832 Black Hawk Campaign, on April 20 he was elected as captain of 49 mounted Illinois Militia volunteers, a company which six days later mustered into the 2nd Regiment, the 3rd Brigade of the 3rd Army on the Illinois River at Beardstown, Dr. Boone then acquiring the rank of Surgeon; in March 1833 Boone married Louisa Matilda Smith (NY June 25, 1814-Jun. 29, 1891), daughter of Judge Theophilus and Clarissa Harlowe (née Rathbone) Smith of the Supreme Court of Illinois; arrived in Chicago with his wife and son Daniel Levi in 1835 [according to Chicago Medical Society publications, or in 1836, according to A.N. Waterman], and in the following year helped organize the Cook County Medical Society and was elected secretary at its first meeting on Oct. 3, 1836. On Sept. 13, 1839, the couple lost their first daughter, Clarissa Ann, at the age of nine months; 1839 City Directory: physician, [49] State Street, corner of Washington Street; in partnership with Dr. Charles V. Dyer, although they held strongly differing views on slavery, Dyer being an ardent abolitionist, and Boone giving a series of lectures in support of the scriptural warrant for human slavery [see Bibliography, A.N. Waterman]. On Apr. 15, 1850, Boone was elected the first president of the newly formed Medical Society of Chicago. On Mar. 6, 1855, he became the 19th mayor of Chicago by beating Isaac Milliken; by March 26 he had raised liquor licenses of taverns from $50 to $300; then he began to enforce an old Sunday closing law of taverns, which set the stage for what became known as the “lager beer riot.” Citizens of Irish and German descent were incensed, and on Saturday, April 21, several hundred armed men were confronted by 270 police men just south of the Clark Street drawbridge; shooting began, and at least one civilian was killed, while a policeman lost one of his arms; Boone lost the 1856 election to Thomas Dyer, the next mayor; subsequently, Boone served as trustee of the University of Chicago and as an incorporator of Rosehill Cemetery. The couple had six surviving children: Daniel Levi (July 12, 1834-Mar. 10, 1898), Samuel Squire (1837-Feb. 15, 1892), Clara Anna (July 12, 1841-Nov. 23, 1906; Mrs. Silas Edward Faircloth), Louise Medora (Aug. 11, 1843-; Mrs. Claude John Adams), Lucy Adeline (Jan. 30, 1851-; Mrs. George Benedict Carpenter) and Mary Juliette (Feb. 1, 1853-; Mrs. Jabez Henry Cushman Gross). Dr. Boone died in Chicago in 1882; in 1885 his widow lived at 3029 Michigan Avenue. [66, 233”, 351, 435a, 714] [12]

Bordenois, Augustin  engagé from Detroit; worked for William H. Wallace at Hardscrabble in 1826 and until his death in April 1827.

Bosten, —  also Bostick; a sergeant from Fort Dearborn II, listed in John Kinzie’s account books in April 1818 and again on May 17, 1818. [404]

Boston  armed British schooner patrolling lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built at Navy Island in 1764. [48]

Bosworth, Increase  first advertised with [see] Alfred Edwards as Edwards & Bosworth in the Oct. 28, 1835, Chicago Democrat; early on their agent was [see] J.H. Phelps; 1839 City Directory: grocery and provision store, North Water Street; in 1839, Bosworth is still listed as proprietor of their store, now on South Water Street.

Botsford, Harriet R.  see Sherman, Joel Sterling

Botsford, Jabez Kent  also John Kent; born c.1812, arrived in 1833 from Connecticut; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; advertised in the Chicago Democrat on Feb. 18, 1834, that he had opened a store “next door to Graves` tavern”, and had for sale “dried peaches, butter, lard and loaf sugar” and tin ware from Detroit – “Double Patent reflecting Bakers, a first rate article” and coffee pots, milk pans, dish kettles, dippers, graters, &c.; on February 25 at his variety store on the corner of Dearborn and Lake streets; on April 22 he commenced a Tin, Sheet Iron and Stove Manufactory, but also sold pork at the same location, advertising as [Alexander] Fullerton & Botsford; was successful as a land speculator; yet maintaining the manufactory alone, announced in the September 30 Chicago Democrat that he had just returned from New York “with heavy stock of Tin Plate, Sheet Iron, Copper” and that he had “now on hand a large assortment of STOVES (of all descriptions) … &c.; &c.;”; on October 7 was among the first members of the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, a voluntary fire brigade; married Minerva Kimball at the Naper settlement on Nov. 4, 1835; 1839 City Directory: Botsford & [Cyrenus] Beers, copper, tin and sheet iron; in 1850, served on a committee that established Northwestern University; in 1885 lived at 1704 Michigan Avenue. [319, 351] [12]

Boucha, Henry  also Bouche; served during the 1832 Black Hawk War in the Chicago company under Capt. G. Kercheval; by 1833 he was a fur trader living on the Kankakee River; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319, 692g] [714]

Bouché, François  also Boucher, Bouchre dit La Malice; visited John Kinzie on Nov. 2, 1804, June 14, 1806, and on June 2, 1808, as listed in Kinzie’s account books; was a volunteer interpreter, with rank of lieutenant in the British Indian Service in June 1814-15, who joined an expedition against the Americans at Prairie du Chien. A Francis Boucher received $250 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [11, 12; “Pirraie du Chien Documents, 1814-15.” Wisconsin Historical Collections v. ix, 1882] [404]

Boulle, Antoine  visited John Kinzie on June 2, 1808, as listed in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

bounty lands    see Military Tract.

Bourassa, Daniel, Jr.  born 1780 into a prominent family at Mackinac; son of Daniel Bourassa, Sr. and Marguerite Bertrand [The wife of the St. Joseph trader Joseph Bertrand, Sr. was Madelaine Borasseau, possibly a different spelling of the same name; eds.], brother of Léon; trader and resident at Chicago in 1817; justice of the peace; married to an Indian, then later married Theotis Arnwaiskie (May 20, 1826), John Kinzie officiating; resided on the E side of the south branch of the river, not far from the Forks; his name appears on a poll list in 1826 and as voter on August 7; in April the following year, he attended the estate sale after W.H. Wallace`s death; at the Chicago Treaty of 1833 his many children received government stipends in addition to cash payments of $1100 and $600. Their names were: Joseph Napoleon, Mark, Jude, Thérèse, Stephen, Gabriel, Alexander, James, Elai, Jerome; M.D. Bourassa [Madam?] received $100. [12]

Bourassa, John B.   listed as a debtor to the W.H. Wallace estate for $18.74 for six plugs tobacco, one keg of whiskey and other articles purchased in October and November, 1825. [220a]

Bourassa, Joseph Napoleon  son of [see] Daniel; was present at the Treaty of Chicago of 1833. [12]

Bourassa, Léon  (1799- ) also Bourissa, Bouressa; son of Daniel Bourassa, Sr. and Marguerite Bertrand, brother of Daniel; between 1818 and 1819 worked for the American Fur Co. as a boatman on Lake Huron; received a licence to trade on the Kankakee River during the winter of 1824-1825; early resident of Chicago who assisted with the inventory of the W.H. Wallace estate on April 4-5, 1827; in 1829 he partnered with the Laughton brothers at their trading post at what is now Riverside, IL; lived immediately S of the Sauganash Hotel in 1830; in 1830, purchased canal lots 1 and 2 in block 44, and yet owner in 1833 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; listed as voter on July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830, and in April 1833; also that month, representing a family of three, his name was included on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati in St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; married to a Potawatomi woman named Marguerite, with whom he had a son named Joel; Father St. Cyr performed an ecclesiastical burial for an infant son, Jean Baptiste, in July 1835; the family lived in a cabin on land owned at Forest Park, where a monument [see Monuments] in the Forest Home Cemetery commemorates Bourassa and his Indian relations. [319, 692g] [12]

Bourassa, Madelaine  see Bertrand, Joseph.

Bourassa, Mark  son of [see] Daniel; married by Father St. Cyr to Josette Chevalier (daughter of François and Marianne Chevalier) in March 1835, as listed in Catholic church records. [275a]

Bourbon Springs  originally Belle Fountain, a term frequently used by early settlers for several natural springs in Illinois; in the Des Plaines River valley, the name was given to a spring on Stephen Forbes`s homestead at Riverside. When J.B. Beaubien was elected colonel of the state militia of Cook County on June 7, 1834, at Forbes`s home a celebration was held to mark this occasion, around which was created the improbable legend that the participants emptied kegs of Bourbon whiskey into the spring, a wasteful misuse of an expensive commodity; from then on it was known as Bourbon Springs.

Bourbonnais Grove  see Bourbonnais, François, Sr.

Bourbonnais, Antoine  also Antony, Anthony; son of [see] François Bourbonnais, Sr. and Catherine Larcheveque Chevalier; early in his trading career he visited John Kinzie on Nov. 7, 1804, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; was initially an independent Illinois River trader in 1818 at Peoria, competing with the American Fur Co. He owned land there in 1821 when the company employed him to consolidate its monopoly and assigned him to a post on the Kankakee River; later lived in a cabin on the South Canadian River near Shawnee, OK. In c.1860 he married Marie Anna Anderson (granddaughter of [see] Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé Mann); they built and lived in a cabin just S of the North Canadian River. [404] [275a]

Bourbonnais, François, Sr.  also Bourbonné (originally Brunet dit Bourbonnos [see dit entry]); an Indian trader from Montreal who on Apr. 25, 1809, bought “by indenture” from John Kinzie one “Negro wench” for 160 pounds, which he in turn had purchased from [see] John Jeuture, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; many additional business transactions are recorded, beginning on Oct. 8, 1803 and ending on Jan. 26, 1810. François Sr. is believed to have settled in Chicago in 1812, his house was built in 1811 or 1812 close to and SW of the fort; his wife was métisCatherine [Cattice, Catish] Larcheveque Chevalier. François, Sr. and Catish had four sons and two daughters: Antoine, François, Jr., Washington, Ozette, Peter, and Catherine; after the Fort Dearborn massacre he went to Detroit, then W of the Mississippi to trade with the Potawatomi; when the war ended he returned to trade at the Illinois River; during 1825-26, both François Sr. and Jr. kept a licensed tavern at the so called Opa post of the American Fur Company (where [see] Louis Buisson was the trader in charge at the time), located at Bourbonnais (Bulbona’s) Grove on the E side of the Illinois River three miles below Lake Peoria. On May 19, 1826, François, Jr. married Josette Alscomb, who later divorced him at Peoria. Son [see] Antoine was initially an independent Illinois River trader in 1818 at Peoria, competing with the American Fur Co. He owned land there by 1821 when the company employed him to consolidate its monopoly and assigned him to a post on the Kankakee River; members of the Bourbonnais family later were beneficiaries under the 1832 Treaty of Tippecanoe where they received four sections of land on the Kankakee River, and again at the Chicago Treaty of 1833, receiving one section at Soldiers’ Village [Kankakee]. In addition, François, Sr., received $500 for himself and $400 for his children at the Chicago Treaty. François¡, Jr., received another $300 for his own children at the 1833 treaty. Antoine is known to have lived at the Portage des Sioux, MO, in 1838. The earliest settlement on the Kankakee River was the town Bourbonnais, named in senior François’ honor by [see] Noel Le Vasseur, its founder. [12, 220a, 226, 275a, 404, 567, 692c] [697]

Bourdon, Jacques, Sieur d`Autray  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Bourdon, Jean  see Autray, Jean François Bourdon, Sieur de.

bourgeois  the bourgeois was the chief trader in the Northwest fur trade during the French period, the owner of the trading post, the master of the canoe brigade. Under him were the commis, or clerks, gentlemen`s sons in training for positions of a future bourgeois. The third and lowest stratum of the hierarchy was composed of the [see] voyageurs. [664a]

Bourn, —  a corporal from Fort Dearborn I who visited John Kinzie on Nov. 6, 1811, as recorded in Kinzie`s account books. [404]

Bourrec, Lewis  visited John Kinzie on Jan. 10, 1811, as recorded in Kinzie`s account books. [404]

Bowen, Erastus S.  (Dec. 3, 1798-Sept. 14, 1864) son of Samuel and Sarah (née Cole) Bowen, born in Shaftsbury, VT; arrived in Chicago with his wife Emeline (née Cross, 1805-1854; Hardwick, MA) in 1833 from New York; he and his wife lost a daughter, Safera Amelia, to scarlet fever at the Naper settlement [Chicago Democrat]; listed (with his brother Hiram) in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 1, 1834, as having an unclaimed letter at the post office; in 1835 his name was on a school-related petition signed on September 19; 1839 City Directory: city collector, corner of South Water Street and Michigan Avenue; still living in Chicago in 1878. [243, 351] [12]

Bowen, James  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted in January 1808, killed at the 1812 massacre. [226]

Bowen, Joseph  corporal at Fort Dearborn under Captain Heald; enlisted in April 1806; visited John Kinzie on Nov. 5, 1811, in April 1812, on June 1, 1812, and once again shortly before the Fort Dearborn massacre, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; survived the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, with a wound in his left upper arm; captured by the Indians and later ransomed. Thomas Forsyth and Antoine Le Clair, Sr., encountered him at Aux Sable Creek in April 1813, yet held captive among some Potawatomi and the only literate person able to read a recent British letter summoning the tribe`s warriors to Detroit. On Mar. 6, 1826, in Logan County, KY, Capt. Linai Helm testified on behalf of Bowen in regard to a pension, stating: “… sd. Bowen was wounded in the battle in the left arm above the elbow. the wound bled profusely & sd. Bowen requested him … to tie it up for him. [I] took his handkerchief out of his pocket and tied up his arm for him very tight and the bleeding ceased. … I have never seen Bowen since … [b]ut that a Joseph Bowen was there & wounded I have the clearest recollection.” [226, 404, 559, 559a, 561] [109]

Bowen, Nancy  see Prescott, Eli Sherbourne.

Bowers, Mr.  entertainer – Professeur de Tours Amusant – who came through town and advertised in the Chicago Democrat a performance [for 50 cents] on Monday, Feb. 24, 1834, at Dexter Graves`s boarding house; note a sampling of his innumerable feats within the accompanying advertisement. [482]

Bowles, James  from Peoria; came to the estate sale of François Le Mai in Chicago on May 10, 1828, and bought a silver watch for $6.50. [220]

Bowman, Ariel  (1786-1844) Montreal bookbinder, publisher and bookseller; had moved to Duncklee`s Grove by 1837, and to Chicago in 1840 – Chicago`s 1st – bookbinder.

Boyer, Cecilia  adopted daughter of John K. and Elizabeth (née Aurant) Boyer; married Joseph Matteson June 10, 1840, at Chicago. In the 1839 Chicago Directory Matteson listed as Gurnee [Walter Smith] & Matteson (a wholesale saddlery hardware, 106 Lake Street); in the 1843 and 1844 directories he listed as “Matteson, Jos. (Gurnee & M.), res State, bet Washington and Randolph”; he died on Jan. 8, 1852, 36 years old. Walter Smith Gurnee was the city treasurer in 1843 and became the 11th mayor of Chicago.

Boyer, Charles E.  merchant, arrived June 1833; 1839 City Directory: clerk on the canal; married Elizabeth Runyon on April 21, 1840; removed to Lockport . [243]

Boyer, James Aurant  son of [see] Boyer, John K.; 1843 Chicago Directory: ship-caulker, bds Mrs. Boyer.

Boyer, John K.  (c.1789-1843) arrived from Pennsylvania on May 26, 1833, with his wife Elizabeth (née Aurant), and three children: Valentine Aurant, James A., and Maria; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; became street commissioner later that year and supervisor of roads and bridges in 1834; provided the first rock to begin construction of the harbor piers; became a business partner of Madore Beaubien, who married Maria Dec. 4, 1834 [divorce proceedings were listed in Cook County, 1843]; a notice in the Sept. 3, 1834, Chicago Democrat announced his July 7 circuit court suit in which he sought payment for “12 pieces of cotton sheeting and about 30 lbs. of coffee” from five fellow townsmen; was one of three commissioners appointed by the ninth General Assembly of the State of Illinois on Jan. 20, 1835, “to view, survey, mark and locate a [state] road from Bloomington in M`Lean county, to the town of Chicago on lake Michigan” for two dollars per day throughout the time required; had a log cabin on South Water Street, near Newberry & Dole, where he filed a claim for wharfing privileges for the W half of lot 3, block 4 late in 1835; 1839 City Directory: coroner, South Water Street, near Clark; died March 12, 1843 at age 54. In the 1843 Chicago Directory wife Elizabeth listed as “Boyer [Snowhook], Mrs. Elizabeth, boarding house, 153 South Water, 4 doors west of Clark.” [W{illiam} B{ergen} Snowhook is listed as “grocer, Clark Street n S Water st. h Kinzie, 6th ward”; first listed in 1839 as a canal sub-contractor.] Elizabeth died on June 29, 1870, 78 years old. [28, 243, 319, 728] [12]

Boyer, Maria  see Boyer, John K. and Beaubien, Madore.

Boyer, Valentine Aurant, M.D.  (1814-1890) son of John K. and Elizabeth (née Aurant) Boyer, arrived with his parents and siblings from Pennsylvania on May 26, 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; at that time a medical student, after his first course, which he had attended at the University of Pennsylvania, from which he eventually graduated in 1836, listing as a doctor in the 1839 City Directory: South Water Street near Clark; became asst. surgeon of the City Guards, 16th Regiment of the Illinois Volunteers in 1840; served on the first board of trustees of the First German Lutheran Church. To facilitate his practice Boyer maintained a drugstore until its destruction by fire in 1871; in the 1843 he also listed as a “justice-of-the-peace, 55 Clark, bds Mrs. J.K. Boyer”; in the 1844 City Directory he listed as a justice with the addresses: “Clark st. opp P.O. res South Water st. 2nd ward” and with a card: “PHYSICIAN & SURGEON, Justice of the Peace, Office.- Clark St, nearly opposite the City Hotel”; served as justice of the peace until 1852, and as surveyor of the Chicago port under President Pierce; married Mary Catherine Specht on Oct. 30, 1847; retired in 1880. In 1885 Dr. Boyer`s address was 490 Fullerton Avenue; he died on May 11, 1890. A detailed letter, written in 1882 to a cousin, describes his family`s experiences on the road to and in the early village [see part of the account following entries on Bailly, Joseph and Mann, Arkash Sambli]. [243, 319, 351, 728] [12]

Brackett, E.C.  advertised a “New wholesale wine and liquor store” on Dearborn Street in the June 27, 1835, Chicago American; signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, a voluntary fire brigade, the following autumn.

Bradain, John B.    voted on Nov. 25, 1830 [see Chronology].

Bradford, Harriet  wife of William H. who served as a second lieutenant in Capt. H. Seission`s company July 23 to Aug. 15, 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833; unclaimed letter notices appeared on January 1 and on April 2, 1834 in the Chicago Democrat; also in the January 1 Chicago Democrat, a notice identified Harriet as administrator for her husband`s estate; a final notice appeared Sept. 17, 1834. [319]

Bradley, Asa F.  mechanic; in the winter of 1836-37 was commissioned by county surveyor Amos Bailey to create a real estate map (see Maps) of Chicago that included all new subdivisions; the map was printed by N. Currier in New York in 1837 [within the Chicago History Museum`s Collections, comparable to E.B. Talcott`s map of 1836 {see Maps} ]; 1839 City Directory: city surveyor, Morrison`s Row, Clark Street . [164]

Bradley, Cyrus P.  came in 1833; 1839 City Directory: check clerk, H. Norton & Co.`s warehouse; went north to Racine; returned in 1848 and became city collector. [243]

Bradley, David  (Nov. 8, 1811-Feb. 19, 1899) born in Groton, NY, son of Daniel and Patience (née Cooper) Bradley; at age 20 began work in a plow factory in Syracuse, NY, four years later leaving as an engineer for Chicago; arrived in October 1835, became employed by William H. Stow & Co., and immediately thereafter built, together with William H. Stow, – Chicago`s 1st – iron foundry for the firm Jones, King & Co. on the south branch bank at Polk Street, with a machine shop where plows were soon made; on Feb. 25, 1838 married Cynthia Abbott (1817-1895, Barre, VT); 1839 City Directory: plowmaker, Asahel Pierce; 1843 City Directory: plow maker, Asahel Pierce, blacksmith; began his own manufactory of Garden City Clipper plows, gradually adding all agricultural implements and moving to Kankakee, IL, the northern suburb of which is now called Bradley; later returned and made the first Chicago steam engines. He and his wife had three children: Mary Ellen (Mrs. George E. Morgan, 1842-1899), J. Harley, and B.C.; in 1885 lived at 63 N Desplaines Street. [Daily Inter Ocean, Feb. 20, 1899; 168a, 243, 351] [12]

Bradley, Elizabeth  see Adams, William Henry.

Bradley, J.C., M.D.  surgeon-dentist who advertised services in the Chicago American on June 20, 1835, and later partnered Dr. Kennicott.

Bradley, Maj. Hezekiah  Virginia native; as captain in the Third Infantry he led two companies in the construction of the second Fort Dearborn, arriving on July 4, 1816 with additional mechanics, pit sawyers, and architect [see] Lt. William S. Evileth; gathered then the bleached bones of the 1812 massacre victims yet scattered among the sand dunes and buried them; visited John Kinzie on Jan. 10, 1817 (recorded in Kinzie’s account books) and visited him again in February and August 1817, on Apr. 26, 1821, and lastly in June 1822; served as commander of the fort from June 1816 until May 1817, and again from June 1820 to January 1821; died in 1826 at the age of 40; street name: Bradley Place (3732 N). [404] [544]

Bradwell, James Bolesworth  (1828-1907) arrived with his parents from England in June 1834; would become a lawyer and eventually a probate judge and Illinois state legislator; founded and edited Chicago Legal News; married Myra Colby in 1852; still lived in the city in 1878. [12]

Bradwell, Thomas  from Loughborough, England; arrived from New York via Jacksonville with his wife Elizabeth and son in June 1834; settled at Wheeling.

Brady, Madame    see Sainte Ange, Pilette de.

Brady, Samuel P.  son of General H. Brady; settled and built a house on the Fort Dearborn reservation in 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $188 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat later in November; on Nov. 21, 1835, he petitioned for suspension of the sale of wharfing privileges; in the December 23 Chicago Democrat placed a request for “50 live Grouse,” for which he would pay a liberal price, to be delivered at his store. [12, 319] [28]

Brainard, Daniel, M.D.  (1812-1866) born in Whitesboro, NY; received his medical degree from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, where he had studied under Dr. Benjamin Rush; came on horseback in the autumn of either 1836 [according to Kinney and Ingals] or 1835 [according to Caton and Chicago Medical Society], and rented office space from the lawyer J.D. Caton on Dearborn Street, opposite the Tremont House; in 1837 he obtained a charter for Rush Medical College [now Rush-Presbyterian-St. Lukes Medical Center] that did not open until 1843, after his selection of qualified faculty members; also in 1837, was appointed – Chicago`s 1st – health officer of the city; in 1838 performed the second major surgical procedure in Chicago when amputating the crushed leg of a laborer injured at the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal [for the first major operation, see Harmon, Elijah D., M.D.]; for several years he served as editor of the Chicago Democrat; 1839 City Directory: 17 Dearborn St.; in 1839 he also traveled to Paris for postgraduate studies (returning in 1852 to lecture and perform laboratory experiments on wound healing; received honorary memberships in French and Swiss medical societies); 1844 City Directory: physician, Clark st. opp P.O. res City Hotel; married Evelyn Height on Feb. 6, 1845. In 1847 Brainard was instrumental in organizing – Chicago`s 1st – general hospital in Tippecanoe Hall and in 1850 he helped organize Mercy Hospital in the former [see] Lake House Hotel; served as vice president of the American Medical Association in 1850, and as president of the Illinois State Medical Society in 1854; died of the cholera at the Sherman House and was buried at Graceland Cemetery; street name: Brainard Avenue, a diagonal street, 2700 E to 3400 E. [150a, 363, 364, 403] [12]

Brandwell, Johann  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1834. [342]

Branta canadensis  see Canada goose.

Brassard, Antoine  engagé of La Salle; member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south; during the winter of 1682/83 he selected the site for La Salle`s post in the Chicagou area, probably on Hickory Creek. [486a] [649]

Bray, Dominick  one of Gurdon Hubbard`s reliable employees who traveled to Chicago in late May 1827 to report that the Iroquois River post had been pillaged by drunken Potawatomi; he later worked for Noel Le Vasseur; by 1833 he had settled on the Kankakee River. [692g] [354]

Breed, Art  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Breese & Beaubien Addition  to Chicago; see Breese, Sidney .

Breese & Sheppard  advertised “New Goods and New Store” in the Sept. 30, 1835, Chicago Democrat, located in a four story brick building opposite the Tremont House; some of the New York dry goods itemized, all of a superior quality, included: “Black, blue and fancy Cassimeres; Sattinetts; Beaverteens, moleskins, and Buffalo cloths; Vestings, Goat Hair Camblets; Calicoes and Ginghams, of every description; Black Italian Silks; Plain, figuered [ sic], and plaid Pou de Soir; Irish Linens and Lawns, Lamb`s woolshirts, woollen stockings, socks; Black and Colored Italian cravats.” Josiah S. Breese was likely one of the partners, who in 1839 partnered Col. Edmund D. Taylor in Taylor, Breese & Co., a dry goods store on Lake Street, near Clark. The other partner was possibly [see] Robert Sheppard.

Breese, Josiah S.    see next entry.

Breese, Sidney  member of the surveying party for the Illinois & Michigan Canal that visited Chicago in 1830 under James M. Bucklin, chief engineer; served as judge during the May 1835 term of the Circuit Court of Cook County, held at the Presbyterian church in Chicago. As a respected lawyer, Mr. Breese became a party in the legal proceedings that followed the purchase of the evacuated Fort Dearborn Reservation by Jean Baptiste Beaubien on May 28, 1835, in the case of The United States of America v John B. Beaubien, James Whitlock, Edmund D. Taylor, Sidney Breese, and James M. Strode. The case was lost by Beaubien et al., and the land became the Breese & Beaubien Addition to Chicago as shown on E.B. Talcott`s map [see Maps]. [357, 704] [13]

Breeze, Oliver  contracted with the postmaster general by 1833 to have his company deliver mails between Danville and Chicago, 130 miles, once every two weeks for $600. [389b]

Brehm, Lt. Dietrich  also Dederick Brehme; British military officer who in 1761 visited and mapped the “Chigago” village (see Maps) during his survey of the territory newly won from the French near the end of the French and Indian War [see Chicago area detail of the map]; he found several settlers there; his work contributed to the completion of [see] Thomas Hutchins` maps. [Michigan Pioneer and History Society Collections 20, 1892, pp. 150-51] [649]

Brevoort, Maj. Henry B.  (1775-1858) native of Long Island, NY; entered the U.S. army in 1797, serving on the Great Lakes and the Ohio and Mississippi rivers until stationed at Detroit in 1802; became first lieutenant in 1806, and as captain of the [see] Adams made multiple visits to Chicago from 1807 to 1810, his name [Broovert, Broovorte] noted in Kinzie`s account books as visiting the Chicago trading post on Aug. 29, 1809, and May 26, 1810. As army captain in 1811 he was taken prisoner the following year at the surrender of Detroit, and upon exchange served as captain of marines on Lake Erie under Commander Perry; promoted to major and retired at the war`s end in 1814; in 1821 was registrar of the land office at Detroit; was appointed Indian agent at Green Bay in December 1822, where he, his wife Catharine Navarre, and their children lived until 1829. The family then returned to Detroit and he became employed in the customs services; he died at Detroit. His daughter, Mrs. Mary Ann Brevoort Bristol, later wrote of her reminiscences in the Northwest, giving a lively account of her family`s ancestry and activity, as well as of early pioneer life. [71a, 262a] [404]

breweries  on June 13, 1835, an advertisement in the Chicago American seeks to buy a large amount of barley for what is called the Chicago Brewery; the ad is signed by J. & W. Crawford [see Crawford, James and William], presumably – Chicago`s 1st – brewers, who at that time lived at Fay`s boarding house on Lake Street; on Aug. 15, 1835, an article in the Chicago American lists one brewery among nearly 95 business enterprises in town, most likely the Crawford venture; the location of this first brewery remains undetermined; by December 9 John Calhoun listed 2 breweries as existent among the businesses in Chicago. For subsequent Chicago brewmasters, see entries on William Haas, William Lill, and Konrad Sulzer.

Brewster, Franklin  Detroit merchant; working with, and probable younger brother of, William Brewster. During 1825-27, the Brewsters furnished trade goods and personnel to W.H. Wallace in Chicago, and when Wallace unexpectedly died early in March 1827, William sent Franklin and [see] Maurice Lauzon on horseback from Detroit before the month`s end for the purpose of “attending to the concern of Wallace after his death.” [220]

Brewster, Hogan & Co.  was granted a license to sell goods in Cook County at the county seat ( Chicago) on June 6, 1831; received $343 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of 1833; was dissolved Feb. 20, 1834; see Brewster, William; see Hogan, J.S.C. [12]

Brewster, William  Detroit merchant; visited Chicago in 1818 for three or four weeks; returned for permanent residence in September 1833; he and his brother Franklin were assignees of Joseph Bertrand, Sr. at the 1833 Chicago Treaty, claiming and receiving $700 jointly; by December the firm Brewster, Hogan & Co. was advertising its forwarding and commission/dry goods business in the Chicago Democrat, in a store at the NE corner of Franklin and South Water streets; on Feb. 20, 1834, the firm was dissolved and Hogan operated the store alone; also see Hogan, John Stephen Coats. [12]

brick houses, Chicago’s first  there exist conflicting reports as to when and where the first brick house was built in this town that began as a log cabin and frame house community. See entries on Alanson Sweet and Dr. Robinson Tripp for detail.

bridges and ferries  [Also see maps in the Chronology section designating the locations of early ferries and bridges.] Prior to 1830, there was little need for bridges over the river and its branches, although it is known from Capt. John Whistler`s draft [see Maps] of Fort Dearborn and adjacent lands that there lived in 1808 at the Forks a man who provided Indian ferry service – Chicago`s 1st – documented ferry; locals and Fort Dearborn soldiers kept boats at various small piers, and most visitors and transients arrived in their own canoes, the predominant mode of travel. Antoine Ouilmette provided occasional ferry service near his cabin – built in 1790 – on the N side of the river. Early in 1829, Archibald Caldwell, who then ran the Wolf Point Tavern, stretched a rope across the north branch near the entrance to the tavern and left a canoe at both ends, as a welcome gesture to potential guests; it became known as the “grapeline ferry.” A second 1829 ferry was constructed in June at Lake Street by Archibald Clybourne and Samuel Miller under a license issued by the county commissioners. Additional ferries were established at Clark, State, and Rush streets. [For the text of the license issued to Clybourne and Miller, see taverns, hotels and boarding houses.]

In 1832, Sam Miller built – Chicago`s 1st – floating log bridge of “stringers” across the north branch, N of his tavern, located opposite Rev. Jesse Walker`s cabin, near Kinzie Street. Meant for foot traffic only, it replaced the grapeline ferry; by late 1833, the bridge had been strengthened to accept teams. A second bridge was built in 1832, crossing the south branch, just N of Randolph Street. Also floating, but of logs more substantial than those of its north branch counterpart, it was able to support heavy wagons, though always with difficulty. Floating log bridges could accommodate river traffic by being temporarily disconnected from shore on one or the other side. Built by Anson and Charles Taylor, the Randolph Street bridge was maintained until 1840.

In August 1833, the Dearborn Free Ferry was begun as a public service without charge, located at Dearborn Street or “Old Point,” as the location was called. The ferry preceded – Chicago`s 1st – drawbridge, constructed at the same site in the spring of 1834 by the shipwright Nelson R. Norton, in anticipation of the intended straightening of the eastern end of the river by a cut through the sand bar, to admit larger vessels. The bridge was 300 feet long, 16 feet wide, with a gallowlike frame at each end and a double cable draw creating an opening of 60 feet. On July 12, 1834, the day the cut through the sand bar was complete, the schooner Illinois entered the new harbor and was the first to pass the bridge. See Castelnau to note his drawing in 1838; the bridge lasted until 1839.

On Dec. 4, 1833, the town trustees created a committee responsible for ferries and bridges, all of which by then were in the public domain. The committee consisted of George Dole, Madore Beaubien, Edmund Kimberly, and John Miller, who were responsible for keeping everything in working order; another bridge would not be built until 1840, at Clark Street. The only other bridge to be found in the Chicago area before 1836 was built across an arm of the Saganashkee Swamp, to facilitate the Calumet-Sag south portage route, W of the mouth of Bachelors Grove Creek [Tinley Creek]; who built this log bridge or when, is uncertain; the bridge can be found only on a copy of the original survey drawings of 1832 [in the Chicago History Museum Collections]. The official record of the meeting of the Peoria County commissioners of June 2, 1829, relative to the license to keep a ferry across the Chicago River, reads as follows: Ordered: That Archibald Clybourn and Samuel Miller be authorized to keep a ferry across the Chicago River, at the lower forks, near Wolf`s Point, crossing the river below the Northeast Branch, and to land on either side of both branches, to suit the convenience of persons wishing to cross. And that said Clybourn and Miller pay a tax of two dollars, and execute a bond with security for one hundred dollars. The rate for ferriage to be one-half of the sum that John L. Bogardus gets at his ferry at Peoria. Ordered: That the following rates be, and they are hereby, allowed to be charged and received by the different ferries, by their respective owners, in this county, to wit: For each foot passenger, 6 1/4 cts.
man and horse, 12 1/2 cts.
Dearborn sulkey chair with spring, 50 cts.
one-horse wagon, 25 cts.
four-wheeled carriage, drawn by two oxen or horses, 37 1/2 cts. cart with two oxen, 37 1/2 cts.
head of neat cattle of mules, 10 cts.
hog, sheep, or goat, 3 cts.
hundred-weight of goods, wares, and merchandize, each bushel of grain, 6 1/4 cts.
And all other articles in equal and just proportions.

One early teamster describes crossing a log bridge as follows: The horses` front feet would settle the planks about 6 inches, the hind ones about a foot or 6 inches more, the forward wheel about a foot and a half, the hind ones about two feet in the water. It did not seem possible to cross safely on the concern. Every time a team crossed, every plank had to be replaced before the next one could cross.

Charles Cleaver arrived on Oct. 23, 1833 and walked about the town, recording his observations in 1882: “… Opposite [the Sauganash] was the bridge across the river. And such a bridge ! It was built of round logs, cut from the adjoining woods. Four logs, framed together, making a square, were called a bent, one end of which was sunk in the river, leaving the top of it about three feet above the surface of the water. There were two of these sunk in the middle of the stream, about thirty feet apart. Then straight, round logs were thrown from the bank of the river, from either side, on to these bents, others crossed from bent to bent, and small trees, about six inches in diameter and ten feet long, were laid transversely on the logs, making the roadway. These were thrown on loose—no spike or pin being used. There were no rails on the sides, and, as it shook and trembled under every team that crossed over, it was not surprising that, once in a while, a span of horses should jump into the river. I saw one myself that winter—a splendid team, just driven in from Detroit, and the best in the City—plunge into the river and drown before we could help them. The only wonder was that the four-horse stage-wagon managed to get safely over so many times … .” [145, p. 26-27]

Public notice of Feb. 13, 1836: The Trustees of the Town of Chicago will not hold themselves accountable for any damage which may arise to any person by reason of crossing the bridges over the Chicago River, or over the North or South Branches thereof, the said bridges being considered dangerous, and the said Trustees not having funds out of which to repair the said bridges.

Bridges, Sarah  see Carpenter, Philo.

Bridges, William  is said to have lived on the N side of the river in 1816; according to Mrs. Susan M. Callis, a visitor that year, his house was located between the Burns house and the Kinzie house. In his account books, John Kinzie records three visits by William Bridges, on Jan. 10 and Feb. 8, 1817, and on Feb. 19, 1819. [74, 404]

Bridget  schooner under Captain Ludlow; came from various lake ports (Buffalo, St. Joseph, Green Bay), carrying passengers as well as merchandise; called at Chicago twice in 1834, three times in 1835; lost on Lake Michigan late in 1835.

brig  two-masted ship with square sails; the brig Adams began to call at Fort Dearborn in 1804 with supplies, continuing through 1810; the Doverand the Ranger were both in Chicago on June 28, 1807, as evident from entries in John Kinzie’s account books; the May under Capt. James Rough is listed in the same records for 1804, 1806 and 1808 [see individual brigs for exact dates, where available]; on June 3, 1832, the Brig Austerlitz left Detroit to transport Maj. William Whistler`s regiment to Chicago, arriving June 17; the John Kinzie frequented Chicago in 1834 and 1835; among the brigs that called in 1835 were the Illinois, Indiana, Queen Charlotte, and Neptune. [714] [404]

Briggs & Humphrey    yet existent in 1839, see Briggs, Benjamin.

Briggs, Benjamin  listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833; advertised in the paper on May 27, 1834 (with James O. Humphrey), as a carriage- and sleighmaker on South Water Street, Briggs & Humphrey; 1839 City Directory: wagon maker, Randolph Street; listed as a member of the Tabernacle Baptist Church in 1843. [12]

Briscon, Benjamin  also Briscoe, Briscor; was listed as a charter member of the first Presbyterian church in June 1833, in the Fort Dearborn garrison; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319] [237a]

Bristol, Charles L.    partner of [see] Wm. Hogue & Co. with Hogue and John Hale; dissolution.

Bristol, Sarah D.  see Stolp, William Russel.

Britton, Joseph  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Broadman, Jonathan  of Naperville, IL, signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831.

Brock, General Isaac    British general in the War of 1812; counterpart to General Hull in the northwest theater; after the Fort Dearborn massacre he contended that he had no knowledge of any such attack by the Indians, which was disingenuous in view of the fact that British authorities had asked the Indians to kill every American settler W of Detroit.

Brock, Thomas  arrived in 1835, lawyer; candidate for alderman in 1837; 1839 City Directory: ex-justice of the peace, corner of Madison and Clark streets; Nancy, his first wife, died in 1839; afterward, married Mrs. Ester D. Miner, whose young children (Caroline and Gideon Minor) would die of smallpox early in January 1840.

Brodeur, Jean Baptiste  also Broudeaur; in April 1833, his name was among Catholic citizens on a petition to Bishop Rosati in St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319]

Bronson, Arthur  (1800-1844) New York capitalist and lawyer, real estate speculator, and financier who never lived in Chicago but became the most active of Eastern promoters during the land boom between 1833 and 1837. In August 1833, he visited Chicago with his friend Charles Butler, exploring and socializing, contributing a charitable donation of $50 to a Sunday school library. He could have seen only a few unsightly shacks scattered between the swampy prairie and the undeveloped shoreline, but Bronson expressed his faith in Chicago`s promise: “If I were a young man and unmarried I would settle down at Chicago: it presents one of the finest fields in America for industry and enterprise, and though at present a journey to this point is attended with great privations, fatigue, exposure, and difficulty, in a few years we will think no more of going to Chicago than we now think of going to Buffalo. There will be lines of steamships, stages, and railroads the entire distance from Albany to the Fort at St. Louis on the Mississippi, Chicago being an important and commanding point on this great thoroughfare.” In 1834, Bronson purchased 19 town blocks and 80 acres of adjoining land to which Capt. David Hunter held title (half of Kinzie`s and the whole of Wolcott`s additions), all on the N side, paying the then-astounding sum of $20,000; after his return to the East, he continued to buy Chicago land working through at least 10 different agents, among them John H. Kinzie and Dr. Temple; Chicago lawyer James Grant handled the legal problems of the land titles; in May 1836, before the collapse of land prices in 1837, Bronson sold most of his holdings, with enormous profits, to the American Land Co. controlled by Butler. During a subsequent visit to Chicago in 1844, he became ill and died soon after of consumption in New York. [13, 233″] [12]

Bronson, Myron K.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and also listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Brookes, Henry  (c.1818-1882) also Brooks; from England, probable brother of Samuel; arrived July 27, 1833, with his wife Elizabeth Ester and a son John Howard (died in 1844 at age 12) [Andreas contributes that “the Brooks children” Elizabeth, Margaret, and Henry attended school under Miss Eliza Chappel in 1833, daily paddling their own canoe across the river to and from school. Henry and Elizabeth may have come with several children; eds.]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. Mrs. Charles A. Taylor reports that Mr. Brookes brought a piano from England, and that Mrs. Brookes, assisted by George Davis, gave several concerts during the winter of 1834-35; 1839 City Directory: clerk, boards Samuel Brookes; lived in Hyde Park in 1878; died on Mar. 3, 1882. [145, 319, 653] [12]

Brookes, Mary  see Brookes, Samuel L.; see Cleaver, Charles, Jr.

Brookes, Samuel L.  also Brooks; arrived on July 27, 1833, from Newington Green, Middlesex, England, with his wife Mary (née Shepherd) and daughter Mary; likely brother of Henry; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; applied for wharfing privileges on Nov. 20, 1835; 1839 City Directory: – Chicago`s 1st – florist, Adams Street near Dearborn. [28, 243, 319, 351] [12]

Brookes, Samuel Marsden  born c.1818 in England, arrived in October 1833; 1839 City Directory: – Chicago`s 1st – portrait painter, Adams Street; later studied in Milwaukee (there marrying Julia Beldon Jones in 1842) and Europe. Together with Thomas Stevenson in 1856, he painted the Fox River series; moved to California in 1862; still living in 1885 at San Francisco. [243] [12]

Brookfield, William  married to Emma Lolliet; their son Walter was baptized Oct. 28, 1830, by Father Badin; is listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in 1833. [319]

Brooks, Captain  master of the lake schooner [see] Jesse Smith which, coming from [see] Shipwagen, visited Chicago on Oct. 17, 1835; 1839 City Directory: Captain, schooner Jessie Smith.

Brooks, Lt. Edward E.  from Kentucky; stationed at Fort Dearborn; visited John Kinzie in 1817 on Jan. 12, on Feb. 28, and once again in June, as recorded in Kinzie`s account books; advanced to the rank of captain in 1819 and was transferred to Detroit; resigned from the military in 1827; served as inspector general of the Territorial Militia of Michigan at the time of the Black Hawk War and was in Chicago with the rank of colonel under Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, June 11-22, 1832; died in Detroit. [404] [12]

Brother, Charles  one of 36 “Citizens of Chicago” who was at Taylor`s Tavern on June 18, 1832, and signed a resolution thanking [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, his officers and soldiers of the Michigan Territory Militia, for coming to protect and defend the village between June 11 and June 22 during the Black Hawk War. [Michigan Historical Collections XXXI: 444-46, Lansing, Mich., 1902; 714]

Brown’s boarding house    see Brown, Rufus.

Brown, Adam  (c.1805-Mar. 8, 1895) born in Guilford, NC; early settler who built his cabin in 1833 at the present NW corner of the intersection of Sauk Trail Road and Chicago Road in South Chicago Heights. Brown, a farmer, came with his wife Phoebe (TN c.1810-1892) and their first son (OH 1832-); the couple had nine more children, and within several years the family opened a general store and an inn. A plaque designates this location as “Brown’s Corner.” An earlier plaque with a longer descriptive text was once nearby, stolen by vandals; see “Adam Brown” in the Monuments section for detail. [Current plaque photographed by Alan Gornik, 2010] [288a] [692f]

Brown, Andrew  moved into Dutchman’s Grove [now within the limits of Niles Township] in 1834 and still lived there in 1884.

Brown, Caroline  see Clarke, Henry B.

Brown, Charles B. and Samuel  Charles is known to have arrived in 1835; probably brothers, were enrolled as grade school students in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [351] [728]

Brown, Daniel B.    came in 1835; partnered his brother [see] Nathaniel J. and [see] Augustus Garrett in the firm Garrett, Brown & Brother until late November, then purchasing and selling real estate for Garrett, Thompson, Brown & Co.

Brown, Dr. William  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; received $40 in payment for a claim in September that year at the Chicago Treaty. [319] [12]

Brown, E.  advertised “Painting” first in the June 8, 1835, Chicago American and continued the ad into the autumn: “Carriage, Sign, Ornamental and Fancy Painting, Guilding, &c.; executed in the first style,” on Randolph Street, over Briggs & Humphrey`s Carriage Shop.

Brown, Erastus S.  arrived on June 22, 1833, in a yawl, Ariadne, with a load of lumber, landing where Mrs. Wright formerly lived [lakeshore, E end of Madison Street]; had been a member of the initial canal commission created by Governor Cole in 1823. [12]

Brown, Harriet Gould  see Bates, John, Jr.

Brown, James  voted on July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830; his wife`s name was Vienna; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Brown, Jesse B.  on April 3, 1832, purchased “downtown” lot three in block 20 for $60 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], but soon after sold it to Richard J. Hamilton; as captain, took charge of one of the five volunteer militia companies raised in Cook County during the Black Hawk War; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [12]

Brown, Joseph  an early settler in the Hickory Creek timber; he was observed living near [see] Colonel Sayre in June 1829 by [see] William Rice; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; died later in the autumn, the first white man known to be buried in what became Will County; his wife became known as [see] Widow Brown. [421a, 734] [377]

Brown, Joseph W.  brigadier general of the 3rd Brigade of the Michigan Territory Militia, who gathered the entire force at Niles, MI, early June during the Black Hawk War, knowing that in Chicago “the Supplies for the troops had just arrived …, and no men [were present] to protect them”; 120 men came to Chicago under [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams, remaining from June 11 to June 22, 1832. [714]

Brown, Lemuel  (1784-1883) originally from Cumberland, RI; arrived from Springfield, MA, in February 1833, with his wife Cynthia; were listed together among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; an adopted daughter, Harriet E. Gould, also came and married John Bates on November 13; worked on the harbor project and purchased lots five and six in block 28 from Elijah Wentworth [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; 1839 City Directory: blacksmith, Randolph Street near Dearborn; lived in Kenwood in 1878 and at Lemont in 1885. [243, 319, 351] [12]

Brown, Lydia Ann  see Carli, Paul J.

Brown, Margaret  see Polk, Edmund.

Brown, Nathaniel J.  born in Windsor County, VT in 1812; in the late 1820s was an agent for an older brother`s first stage line between Detroit and St. Joseph; acquired woodland acreage along the Grand River in Kent County [Michigan], built a sawmill and rafted six schooner loads of pine from Granville to the coast, where the White Pigeon carried the lumber to Chicago for sale, arriving on April 4, 1835; remained to form a partnership with another brother, Daniel B., and [see] Augustus Garrett, opening a commission office [see Garrett, Brown & Brother] for the purchase and sale of Chicago real estate; in the December 2 Chicago Democrat the three men announced a new copartnership with Oliver H. Thompson – Garrett, Thompson, Brown & Co. – for the purpose of buying and selling real estate, conducting a general land agency, and also an auction, commission, and mercantile business; in 1837 contracted for rock work on the Illinois & Michigan Canal, excavating a mile at Lemont; 1839 City Directory: canal contractor; continued successfully in stone quarrying and real estate. [243] [13]

Brown, Rufus B.  from New York; served in the Chicago militia during the 1832 Black Hawk War; with his wife Elizabeth was a charter member of the first Presbyterian church, organized by Reverend Porter on June 26, 1833; early Sunday school meetings were held in Brown`s well-reputed boarding log house, which was adjacent to that of P.F.W. Peck. Reverend Porter lived in Peck`s house and had his meals at Brown`s house; George David [see entry] stayed at Brown`s in October 1833 with his 13 fellow travelers; Rufus and Elizabeth were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen had taken prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; 1839 City Directory: warehouseman, Bristol & Porter; later married [see] Sarah Dunn Howe in 1843; 1843 City Directory: warehouse man, John Chapin & Co., res 189 Lake, and 1844 City Directory: clerk at J. P. Chapin & Co.`s, res corner Lake and Wells sts. Rufus died in Burlington, WI, on Sept. 2, 1872, aged 69; in 1885 his widow Sarah lived at 45 S Ann Street, dying at age 73 on Feb. 2, 1890. [243, 319, 714]

Brown`s boarding house Recalling his arrival in Chicago on Oct. 23, 1833, [see] Charles Cleaver remembers: … we turned north and made for the centre of the village, between Franklin and LaSalle Streets, near the river. Here we had to wait an hour or two until we could find some place in which to spend the night. We at last found shelter under the roof of a log boarding-house, kept by a Mrs. Brown. … The most fashionable boarding-house was kept in a log-building about 16×24 feet: there forty persons daily took their meals—how many slept there I could not say. I know they took in our whole party of sixteen the first night in Chicago, and set the table for breakfast until about dinner-time, and dinner till supper-time. [145] [12]

Brown, S. Lockwood  arrived in 1835; later secretary of the Sunday School Union of Chicago and would write about the history of Sunday school in Chicago.

Brown, Samuel  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; married Clarissa Horr on Feb. 3, 1834, per announcement in the Chicago Democrat. [319]

Brown, Thomas  enlisted at Fort Dearborn for three years as a private on May 11, 1835. [708]

Brown, Thomas C.  shipmaster, arrived from New York in 1833; married Harriet Ellston on Jan. 6, 1834.

Brown, William  a private in Capt. Morgan L. Payne`s company; near the Napier`s Settlement in early June 1832, he was killed and scalped by a party of Indians while hauling shingles to fortify [see] Fort Payne. [714]

Brown, William Hubbard  (1796-1867) from Connecticut, married Harriet C. Seward in 1822; came to Chicago from Fayette County, IL, in October 1833 (was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town that year); listed as a subscriber when the Chicago Democrat first published in November; on May 28, 1834, he and J.B. Tuttle opened a grocery store on Dearborn Street, one door S of Messrs. Newberry & Dole, a partnership they dissolved on June 21; another notice in the May 20, 1835, Chicago Democrat announced “connexion in business … closed” with P.P. Russell, of Russell & Brown; joined the Presbyterian church on Nov. 3, 1835, and in June 1836, was chosen as an elder, a position held until 1842, when he withdrew to help form the Second Presbyterian Church; in late November 1835, he became a vice president of the Chicago Bible Society, and on the 24th filed a statement in support of David Carver`s claim for wharfing privileges; 1839 City Directory: cashier, State Bank of Illinois, corner of Lake and South Water streets; according to Robin Einhorn [233”], by 1840 he had established a reputation as a conservative financier; a staunch Whig with a moralistic approach to both politics and investment, he would be remembered as one of the few Chicagoans to remain solvent when the land bubble burst in 1837, though he actually failed along with everyone else; was appointed school agent of the city in 1840, becoming an influential friend of the Chicago school system and a philanthropist in later life; 1844 City Directory: attorney, office Bank Building, res cor Illinois and Pine sts. In 1856 became the first president of the Chicago Historical Society; William H. Brown School at 54 N Hermitage Ave. would be named after him; he died in Amsterdam while touring Europe. [28, 97, 233”, 243] [319]

Brown, William Hubbard  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Browne, Bvt. 2d Lt. Gustavus    buried in Chicago, one of 75 cholera victims during the 1832 Black Hawk War.

Brownelle, Jeremiah  on 1830 census of Peoria County; owner of 80 acres of Chicago land in the NE quarter of Section 18, Township 39, prior to 1836, as seen in Andreas` History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [421a] [319]

Browning, E.  see Hammer, John.

Brownville, Jeremiah  see Brownell, Jeremiah.

Brunson, Margaret  see Tripp, Robinson.

Brush Hill   a locale which the Potawatomi had long inhabited and valued for its important trail; in the early 1800s a large native village existed there along Salt Creek. [415]

Brush Hill Trail  also Brush Hill Road, Fullersburg Road; Indian trail between Chicago and the Naper settlement; crossed the Des Plaines River at the Laughton ford, near the Barry Point Road bridge; later became the county Southwest Plank Road, then Ogden Avenue; the land that surrounded the rise known as Brush Hill later became Fullersburg, then Hinsdale.

Brush, E.A.  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

Brush, Henry L.  in 1833 owned lot three in block 44 and lot one in block 33 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; both lots had formerly belonged to John Evans; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Bruté de Remur, Most Reverend Simon William Gabriel  first Catholic bishop of Vincennes, in the territory of which the diocese Chicago was included during the period 1834-1843. He visited Chicago in 1835 and spent time with Father St. Cyr, under whose guidance St. Mary’s Church had been built in 1833; on May 7, 1835, the bishop wrote the following note: “Of this place the growth has been surprising even in the west, a wonder amidst its wonders. From a few scattered houses near the fort it is become, in two or three years, a place of great promise. Its settlers sanguinely hope to see it rank as the Cincinnati of the North. Here the Catholics have a neat little church. Americans, Irish, French and Germans meet at a common altar, assemled from the most distant parts of the republic or come from the shores of Europe to those of our lakes. Reverend Mr. St. Cyr is their pastor. They have already their choir supported by some of the musicians of the garrison. Many of the officers and a number of the most respectable Protestants attend.” [269a]

Bryan, J.  also Brian; a private at Fort Dearborn I who visited John Kinzie on July 4, 1804 and again on Aug. 20, 1805, as listed in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Bryant, Lemuel  a visitor to Fort Dearborn in 1832 during the Black Hawk scare who described the cholera-ridden soldiers in his diary, which is preserved at the Chicago History Museum. See quotation below. [288a online]

… [page 87] the 14th of July was a day never to be forgotten · the night before a schooner landed at this place and brought word that the troops would be here in a day or two at most and this was hailed as an event that would terminate the war speedily · my uncle moved some of his things the day before and would move his family the next day · at 2 oclock word was brought to us that the steamboat Sheldon Thompson had landed [88] & brought the Cholera · 15 had been thrown overboard after sundown · Gen. Scott on whom the command now devolved was sick in the bake-house the next door & was not expected to live till morning · all was confusion · the troops near ordered out of the fort for the reception of the sick soldiers & what frightened soldiers calling to each other · dogs barking · Indians hallooring rendered it an awful scene never to be forgotten [89] we were warned out of our habitation immediately · I started for the oak woods about 2 miles to get Lyman`s team · it was on the beach and I shall always remember the scene · the prairie on one side with enemies on it at probably no great distance · the other Lake Michigan on it · the dark steamboat like a dark putrid mass for so it appeared according to the stories reported ….

Buchholz, Friedrich  German immigrant who came to Dunklee`s Grove, later Bloomingdale, with his family in 1835 from Stolzenau (near Hanover); educated and articulate, he led the local Lutheran community in worship for three years before a professional minister became available; died in a construction accident on Feb. 15, 1838, when helping a newcomer build his home. [342]

Buckeyes  nickname for Ohio natives or residents, common in early Illinois. Ohio is referred to as the Buckeye State. [734] [55a]

Buckhorn Tavern    see Wentworth, Elijah, Jr.

Bucklin, James M.  (1802-1890) from Providence, RI; appointed chief engineer for the Illinois & Michigan Canal construction project by the Illinois canal commissioners in the summer of 1830; he and Captain Pope, surveyor, came immediately to Chicago, moving into the Wolf Point Tavern; with help from the soldiers at Fort Dearborn under Major Fowle, they completed the job of surveying and mapping the canal route by December 31; in 1830, purchased two lots of block six from the government [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; in 1835 he married Mary Ann Beckwith in Alabama. Curiously, in his writings both before and after 1830, Bucklin favored a rail connection rather than a canal, and in later life worked for several emerging railroad lines; in 1830, he notes:

The journey to Chicago was alike long and memorable. North of Springfield the country was very thinly settled … no houses or improvements except at the points of the timber bordering on the streams across the prairies at intervals of thirty or forty miles. … The streams which we crossed had not yet broken through the thick matted sod upon which they flowed but were of wide expanse, the water slowly percolating underneath and through the grass. The prairies were infested with myriads of green-headed flies [see “greenheaded fly”; eds.] whose bites were so severe on the horses we were compelled frequently to travel by night. … In due time we reached the Des Plaines river where, for the first time, I caught a view of Lake Michigan. Away in the distance I espied a little dot on the horizon, which proved to be the flag that floated over Fort Dearborn. On the banks of the lake with naked eye we could see but little else, but with the aid of field glasses, we could discern the palisades of the fort surrounded by what looked like a few huts and some scattering Indian lodges which then comprised all there was of the settlement known as Chicago. Between us and the lake the country seemed to be an arid, concave plain, without a vestige of vegetation of any sort, recent prairie fires having entirely consumed the grass, the smoke of which was still visible.
The Chicago River that Bucklin observed: … The water was deep, clear, and apparently pure. The banks were fringed with wild rice, and it looked like a canal, meandering through a level, green meadow. There were no trees, but we noticed a few scattering log-houses on the banks, some Indian lodges, and Fort Dearborn on the bank of the lake in the distance, which was somewhat elevated above the surface in the rear. [704] [12]

Buckner, Diana W.  see Hamilton, Richard J.

budget    for the village budget, see corporate finances.

Budlong, Levontia  see Spring, Giles.

buffalo  see bison.

Buffalo  161-ton schooner built at Huron, OH, in 1832; first called at Chicago from Calumet on Oct. 25, 1835, under Captain Beraun; sank on the Niagara River in 1839. [48]

Buffalo, NY  located at the point where the W end of the Erie Canal reaches Lake Erie, the settlement suddenly became a busy transit point for westward migration when the canal opened in 1825. Canal line boats and larger lake vessels, always crowded in the early days when westbound, exchanged passengers here. In May 1835, [see] Ellen Bigelow was among the passengers. As in Chicago, real estate speculation was rampant at that time. She gives her impression of Buffalo and vividly describes her journey to Chicago on the brig Illinois in a letter to a relative back home. [55a]

Buisson, Antoine  called Antoine Besom by Gilbert et al.; brother of [see] Louis Buisson; voyageur at the time when Jean Baptiste Point de Sable owned a farm at the mouth of the Chicago River; passed through Chicago periodically when traveling between the Great Lakes and the Illinois River. [649] [273]

Buisson, Louis Pierre, Sr.  (c.1758-1830) also Bisson, Buison, Besson, Bieson, Beeson, Beason, Besau and Bissow; Louis was a Canadian trader working the Illinois River from Michilimackinac to Peoria, where he lived, regularly visiting Chicago; listed in John Kinzie’s account books on Apr. 10, 1804; May 15, 1804; May 24, 1806; June 4, 1808; Sept. 17, 1808; and once again between June 1 and Aug. 15, 1812; lived in [owned?] a cabin in Chicago at the time of the August 1812 massacre, N of the river near the lakeshore and half a mile N of the Kinzie house; during the massacre he remained indoors with his family and all survived; he ransomed several survivors held captive by the Indians after the massacre and spent the winter of 1812-13 at Chicago in a trading partnership with [see] Des Pins. When Peoria was destroyed in November of 1812 by Craig’s Illinois militia, most houses were burned but Buisson’s and Des Pins’ escaped the flames. In 1818 the American Fur Company established a post on the E side of the Illinois River three miles below Lake Peoria. In August 1821 Buisson is listed with Louis Bibeau on an American Fur Co. invoice for trade on the Illinois River and its dependencies. Buisson was in charge of what was known in 1822 as the Illinois Outfit of the Opa post, and he held this position until his death in 1830. Buisson was married to French-Potawatomi Suzanne Françoise (Sheshi) Chevalier Morin (daughter of [see] François Pierre Chevalier), sister of [see] Archange Ouilmette, mother of [see] Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé Mann; his children included Louis Pierre, Jr. (who married James Leigh`s daughter Mary sometime after the massacre), Jean Baptiste, Michel, and Nicholas. [172a, 226, 259, 273, 275a, 404, 649, 692c] [10aa]

Buisson, Suzanne Françoise Chevalier Morin  also known as Sheshi; believed to be identical with [see] Bezion, Françoise; born c.1785, daughter of [see] François Pierre and Marianne Chevalier, sister of Archange [Antoine] Ouilmette and Catherine [Alexandre] Robinson; first married to [see] Pierre Louis Morin, father of [see] Archange Thérèse Morin Tremblé Mann; later wife of [see] Louis Pierre Buisson. [275a]

bull plow  crude “breaking” plow with a wooden mold-board, for turning up the sod; forerunner of the lighter “self-scouring” plow with steel mold-board that [see] Asahel Pierce would later adapt at Chicago.

Bumgarden, Morris  arrived in 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and still resident [Andreas] in the autumn; see Baumgarten, Moritz. [319] [12]

Bunker, Obadiah  John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by a customer of this name in September 1822. [404]

Burbie, Cynthia  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Burdick, Lorin  (Apr. 30, 1795-Aug. 3, 1878) born in Westford, VT; was a soldier in the War of 1812; married Ester (VT Aug. 12, 1796-Sept. 2, 1887), daughter of Rev. Samuel Bixby of Essex in 1816; came to Walker`s Grove (now Plainfield) by 1833 with [see] Chester Ingersoll; assisted [see] James Walker in constructing his water-powered gristmill and sawmill; within two years he returned to Vermont for his family, arriving in 1836 to farm. The couple had 14 children: Maria (c.1817-), Betsey (c.1819-), Samuel (January 1820-Feb. 11, 1903 KS), Charity (c.1823-), Mary (Jan. 14, 1824-), Amarilla (1825-), Joalma (Jan. 2, 1826-), Timothy (c.1829-), Lorin, Jr. (c.1831-), Harrison (Mar. 31, 1833-), Serapha (NY 1835-), Lewis, Josiah, and Susan. [734] [692b]

Burdick, Paul  listed as a subscriber to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833. Dr. Boyer noted that a Mr. Burdick had his house 3 1/2 miles N of the main Chicago River, between the prairie and the sand ridge that paralleled the lakeshore. [728]

Bureau, Michel  see Belleau, Michael.

Buret, Pierre  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

burial   see Indian surface burial.

Burk, Captain  also Burke; the ship captain who built the [see] Agnes Barton with [see] Frederick A. Howe, Sr. at Buffalo, NY, and first sailed it to Chicago in June 1834. In September 1835 the schooner [see] United States arrived at Chicago under Captain Burk. [728]

Burke, Michael  among the Catholics who signed a petition submitted to the bishop at St. Louis in April 1833, requesting that a priest be assigned to them; married Marguerite May Kurbey in 1836; 1839 City Directory: tender, south branch bridge.

Burke, Patrick  also Burk; U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted on May 27, 1806; visited John Kinzie on Apr. 11, 1806, and on Feb. 21, 1807, as shown in Kinzies’s account books; listed as sick on a muster roll from Nov. 30 to Dec. 10, 1810; reenlisted in 1811; was killed after the surrender at the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre. [404, 708] [226]

Burley, Arthur Gilmore  (1812-1897) arrived from Exeter, NH, on May 11, 1835; half brother of Stephen F. Gale; 1839 City Directory: crockery, stone, earthenware; 161 Lake St.; the 1844 City Directory listing is under A. G. Burley & Co.: crockery store, 105 Lake st (See card [advertising china, glass, earthen, stone ware and looking glasses]), res[idence] Tremont Hotel; in 1885 lived at 1620 Indiana Avenue. [351] [12]

Burly Shoulders    see Shabbona.

Burman, —  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted in August 1811, was killed at the 1812 massacre. [226]

Burnet, Gen. Ward Benjamin  (c.1811-1884) born in Pennsylvania; second lieutenant, when he arrived with the military in August 1832, for the Black Hawk War and later became general; in 1878 lived in New York City; died on June 24, 1884. [639] [12]

Burnett, George  U.S. Army fifer at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Oct. 1, 1806; entries in John Kinzie’s account books show that he was in Chicago earlier; he visited Kinzie on July 20, 1805, on May 1, 1806 (listed as corporal), and on Jan. 19, 1812. He was killed by an Indian after the surrender at the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [404, 559, 708] [226]

Burnett, John  the second son of [see] William and Kakima Burnett; by 1812 he was in Chicago farming with his partner [see] James Leigh, Leigh & Burnett. Long a family friend of interpreter [see] Jean Baptiste Lalime and his family, he initially met the needs of Nokenoqua and their young son following Jean`s murder by [see] John Kinzie on June 17. John conducted business with Kinzie soon after the Fort Dearborn massacre, while Kinzie was moving from Chicago to Detroit by way of the Burnett post at the mouth of the St. Joseph river; the corresponding entries in Kinzie’s account books are dated August 18, September 21, and December 2, 1812. Remaining at St. Joseph, John and Nokenoqua eventually married. [393c] [404]

Burnett, William  (-1814) of Scottish origin, arrived in Michigan from New Jersey about 1769 and had a trading post in Detroit, where John Kinzie first began work; in 1775 became a trader on the E side of the St. Joseph River, about a mile above the river`s mouth (now Benton Harbor, MI) opposite Topenebee`s village, where he lived until his disappearance in 1812, his death supposed by 1814. In 1782 Father Levadoux married Burnett and Kaw-kee-me (also Kakima), daughter of Potawatomi Chief Aniquiba and sister of Topenebe, later principal chief of the St. Joseph`s band of Potawatomi, and thereafter noted in 1782 that Burnett “had cleared large fields, erected a valuable mansion house, barn, storehouses, &c.;, and cultivated the earth, and traded with the Potawatomi and other nations of Indians, and that he never removed from thence. His orchards contained apple, quince, peach, and cherry trees.” Their children were [see] James (who continued the father`s business after his death until his own in 1835), John, Isaac, Jacob, Abraham, Mary, and Rebecca—all sent to Detroit or Montreal for their education. In 1798, Burnett also maintained a trading post at Chicago, and in August of that year he wrote to a firm in Montreal “that it was understood a garrison would be sent to Chicago,” a project not realized until five years later. Burnett`s sympathy was with the Americans; in 1800 he financed the Chicago property of Point de Sable with Jean Baptiste Lalime standing in as his nominee, and also purchased two smaller Chicago farms, one from Ralph Belanger and the other from Pierre Lefebvre, with John Griffing as nominee. In 1803 his was the only farm at Chicago known to the War Department as a source of provisions for the new Fort Dearborn. In the same year John Kinzie, who had been an early trade associate of Burnett, witnessed the transfer of the Point de Sable farm to Lalime and was then designated the trader at Chicago; Kinzie`s account books show the dates of business meetings with Burnett for September 2 and November 19, 1803, June 15 and August 14, 1804. The Kinzie family moved into the house in 1804 and Burnett outfitted the Kinzie & Forsyth post. In 1805 Kinzie, possessing fur packs for a trader who owed money to both Burnett and [see] Richard and Hugh Pattinson, reimbursed only the British traders at Detroit, and afterward only favored their trade goods and credit. After the Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812 the Kinzies, as well as Captain and Mrs. Heald, fleeing from the Indians, were temporarily housed by Burnett`s family at St. Joseph.
The children of Burnett were granted land sections by the government in the Treaty of Chicago of 1821, and the estate of William Burnett received $1000 at Chicago Treaty of September 1833, B.B. Kercheval as trustee. Most stayed in Michigan when the Potawatomi left, but Abram, a nephew adopted by Abraham, went with the tribe to eastern Kansas near Topeka and there was recognized as a chief; a hill there still bears a family name, Mount Burnett. His death was announced on June 29, 1870, in the Lafayette, IN, newspaper. [13, 95a, 166, 393c, 394b, 404, 464c, 526, 527, 649] [12]

Burnham, Captain  captain of the schooner [see] General Wayne.

Burns House  built c.1809 by [see] Ezekiel Cooper on the north bank of the river “nearly opposite the garrison” and W of the Kinzie house [later the SW corner of State and North Water streets]; became known as the Burns House when Thomas Burns married the widow Cooper in 1811. In this house the Potawatomi chief White Elk found and killed Mrs. Sukey Corbin [see Corbin, James] and her two small children during the 1812 massacre. The Indian agent Jouett and his family occupied and enlarged a house on the north bank of the river during his second term at Chicago, from 1816 to 1819, and it was then known as the Agency house; it is uncertain if this was the former Burns House, or a separate building constructed by the soldiers in 1807, as mentioned in a letter of October 9 that year by Captain Whistler [see Agency Houses]. From 1820 to his death in 1830, the successor agent, Dr. Wolcott, lived either with his family in the officers` quarters of the garrison or in the Agency House; by then the structure had been remodelled into a double log house and partly clapboarded; at times he shared the Agency house with John Kinzie, whose own house began to crumble in the late 1820s, and who died in 1828. Wolcott`s widow, with her widowed mother, Mrs. John Kinzie, and her half sister Mrs. Lenai Helm, left the house in 1831. Afterwards and until 1833, Col. R.J. Hamilton and his family lived there. [74, 367] [12]

Burns, Thomas  also Burnes; U.S. Army private; enlisted on June 8, 1800; reenlisted twice for five years of service as he was on the muster roll from Nov. 30 to Dec. 10, 1810; remained at Fort Dearborn after his term expired and settled as a civilian, married the widow Mary Cooper, and moved into her house on the north bank of the river [the house may have been or at least was close to where the second Agency house, “Cobweb Castle”, would be built], becoming stepfather to James, Anne(?), Frances(?), and Isabella Cooper; visits to John Kinzie’s trading post are listed in Kinzie`s account books for multiple dates: July 4, 1804; Aug. 14, 1804; Aug. 9, 1806; Feb. 15, 1807; Aug. 27, 1809; April 1812; and finally during the period between June 1 and Aug. 15, 1812; Burns was wounded at the 1812 massacre as the sergeant in charge of the Chicago militia, organized earlier in the summer by Captain Heald; after the surrender, he was tortured and killed by an Indian squaw with a pitchfork; three of his stepchildren died with him; his wife ( -1823) and two girls (Isabella Cooper and Catherine Burns) survived the massacre and Indian captivity and later lived in Detroit. Isabella married George Fearson of Detroit, the younger brother of Mary Julia Fearson, wife of William Whistler. [226, 404, 708] [12]

Burtis, Sgt. Richard  also Burtiss; listed as a charter member of Reverend Porter’s Presbyterian church in June 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; he led the singing in the newly constructed first church building at the SW corner of Clark and Lake streets in January 1834. [12, 319] [237a]

Burton, Edward  began advertising a “New Fashionable Tailoring Establishment” in the Chicago American on June 27, 1835; recently arrived from New York City, his shop was on Lake Street, near Franklin.

Butcher, Draper  John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by a customer of this name on May 27, 1804. [404]

butchers  an entry on May 27, 1804, within John Kinzie`s account book lists [Stephen] Draper as Fort Dearborn`s butcher; self-employed butchers thereafter were Archibald Clybourne (1823); Jonas Clybourne (1824); Mark Noble, Sr. (1831); George W. Dole (1831, actually a merchant who employed butchers); Mark Noble, Jr. (1831); John Noble (1831); Sylvester March (1833); Edward Simons (1834); Cyrus P. Albee (1834); and Gurdon S. Hubbard (began meatpacking in 1834). For details, see individual entries; for a good description of the beginning of Chicago`s meat industry, see Goodspeed`s History of Cook County, Illinois [1:651].

Butler, Charles  New York investor and friend of real estate speculator Arthur Bronson, brother of Andrew Jackson`s attorney general. During the winter 1832/33 Butler met Robert A. Kinzie, who while visiting New York, offered him Chicago real estate; in August 1833, Butler and Bronson visited Chicago to see the settlement and determine later land purchases; were present at the treaty with the Indians; stayed at the Green Tree Tavern of James Kinzie; for Butler`s diary notes on that occasion, see Green Tree Tavern entry. As president of the American Land Co., Butler spent $100,000 in May 1835 to buy 50 acres – 1000 city lots – from Bronson on the north side of the river, a fraction of the same land that Bronson had purchased in the fall of 1834 from Capt. David Hunter for $20,000. Butler had married William Ogden`s sister, Eliza, and through his brother-in-law Ogden came to Chicago to supervise Butler`s investments, later becoming – Chicago`s 1st – mayor. In 1881 Butler shared his earliest impressions of Chicago in a letter with Ogden (below):
… In the winter of 1832-33 I was spending some time with my friend Arthur Bronson in New York as his guest. Among other topics we discussed that of a visit to the Western country the following summer for information and pleasure. We decided on the plan of a journey to Chicago the ensuing summer. [Butler and Bronsen traveled via Niagara Falls, then Buffalo, by steamer to Detroit, by rented wagon with two horses – plus two saddle horses, with Gholson Kercheval as hired guide – to South Bend and Michigan City; eds.] … From Michigan City to Chicago, a distance of about sixty miles, the journey was performed by me on horseback. There was but one stopping place on the way, and that was the house of a Frenchman named Bayeux [Joseph Bailly], who had married an Indian woman. At Calumit River, which was crossed on a float, there was an encampment of Pottawatomie Indians. There were some trees on the westerly bank of the river, and in some of these the Indians had hammocks. In making the journey from Michigan City to Chicago I followed the shore of the lake nearly the whole distance. … I approached Chicago in the afternoon of a beautiful day, the 2nd of August, (1833); the sun setting in a cloudless sky. On my left lay the prairie, bounded only by the distant horizon like a vast expanse of ocean; on my right, in the summer stillness, lay Lake Michigan. I had never seen anything more beautiful or captivating in nature. There was an entire absence of animal life, nothing visible in the way of human habitation or to indicate the presence of man, and yet it was a scene full of life; for there, spread out before me in every direction, as far as the eye could reach, were the germs of life in earth, air and water. I approached Chicago in these closing hours of day, `So calm, so clear, so bright,` – and this was the realization of the objective point of my journey. – But what was the condition to this objective point, this Chicago of which I was in pursuit, to which I had come ? A small settlement, a few hundred people all told, who had come together mostly in the last year or two. The houses, with one or two exceptions, were of the cheapest and most primitive character for human habitation, suggestive of the haste with which they had been put up. A string of these buildings had been erected without much regard to lines on the south side of the Chicago River (South Water Street). On the west side of the South Branch, near the junction, a tavern had been improvised for the entertainment of travelers, erected by James Kinzie, but kept by a Mr. Crook [David Clock; eds.]; and there we found lodgings. … Emigrants were coming in almost every day in wagons of various forms, and, in many instances, families were living in their covered wagons while arrangements were made for putting up shelter for them. It was no uncommon thing for a house, such as would answer the purpose for the time being, to be put up in a few days. Mr. Bronson himself made a contract for a house, to be put up and finished in a week. There were, perhaps, from two to three hundred people in Chicago at that time, mostly strangers to each other. In the tavern at which we stayed, the partitions were chiefly upright studs, with sheets attached to them. The house was crowded with people ? emigrants and travelers. Many of them could only find a sleeping-place on the floor, which was covered with weary men at night. … The east window of my bed-room looked out upon Lake Michigan in the distance, Fort Dearborn lying near the margin of the lake; and, at this time, there was nothing, or very little, to obstruct the view between the inn and the lake, the fort and the buildings connected with it being the principal objects; and those buildings were very low structures; and I could, from my window, follow the course of the river, the water of which was as pure as that of the lake, from the point of junction to its entrance into the lake. …. [639] [12]

Butler, Harriet F.  see Rees, James H.

Butler, Jesse  tailor; had a shop in 1835 on South Water Street, at the rear of the McCormick & Moon hat shop, according to [see] J.D. Bonnell. [12]

Butterfield Creek    main tributary of Thorn Creek, in the SW portion of the Calumet basin.

Butterfield, Benjamin  (c.1780-) born in Charlotte, VT; married Mary (NH Dec, 16, 1783-), daughter of Nathaniel and Beulah (née Dryer) Daggett on Nov. 24, 1800, at Westmoreland, NH; lived in Indiana several years; settled in Homer Township (Will County) by 1831, making a claim in Section 34 of Chicago and building a cabin; served under Captain Seission during the Black Hawk War in 1832; in 1836 they sold the claim to [see] Jireh Rowley and went W to Iowa; the couple eventually returned to Charlotte, VT. [734]

Butterfield, Justin  (Dec. 27, 1789-1855) born in Westmoreland, NH; son of Isaac and Orpha (née Howe) Butterfield; a lawyer from Keene, NH, he came to Chicago in 1835 to reconnoiter and settled permanently; formed a law partnership with James H. Collins which lasted many years; married Elizabeth Pierce (c.1808-) at New York; was a member of the first board of directors of Rush Medical College when incorporated in 1837; 1839 City Directory: attorney and counsellor at law, 46 Dearborn St., residing at Michigan [Hubbard] Street at the corner of Rush, housing sons Justin, Jr. (law student, Butterfield & Collins), William (medical student), and George. [243] [12]

Butterfield, Lyman  (1797-1845) arrived on the schooner Telegraph with Capt. Joseph Naper in 1831; staked a claim and settled N of the Napier settlement, in Wheaton; came with his new wife, Amanda Hooper; second corporal in the militia company under Napier during the 1832 Black Hawk War; 1839 City Directory: Columbian House, corner of Wells and South Water streets; died in Chicago. [12]

Byron, Francis C.  John Kinzie’s account books show that he was visited by an “old man” of this name on June 9, 1804. [404]

Byrum, Thomas  the adjacent notice appeared in the Sept. 24, 1835 Chicago American, strongly suggesting that Thomas Byrum farmed in the Chicago area in 1834 or 1835.