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Ma-chu-etah  also Mah-che-o-tah-way [with Mah-che-o possibly meaning `irascible person`]; member of an 1835 exploring party under [see] Capt. William Gordon that left Chicago in June and returned in September in conjunction with the Indian removal effort. [456b]

Mabury, James  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Apr. 14, 1806; killed at the massacre of 1812. [708] [226]

Mack, Stephen Andrew, Jr.  (Feb. 2, 1798-Apr. 10, 1850) son of Col. Stephen Andrew and Temperance (née Bond; June 15, 1786-) Mack, born in Tunbridge, VT; attended classes at Dartmouth College in Hanover, NH, but following the War of 1812 went to Detroit with his father who became a partner of the trading firm [see] Conant & Mack. Mack, Jr. was an early white settler in the Rock River valley c.1822, with a strong Chicago connection; lived at Bird`s Grove along the Pecatonic River and later at Rockton, Winnebago County, IL, working as Indian trader for the American Fur Company and for his own account and shipping his merchandise through Chicago; in 1823, 1824, and 1826, he received from Dr. Wolcott licenses to trade with the Indians at the Rock River; voted in Chicago on May 11, 1828, and again on July 24 and Aug. 2, 1830 (see elections). In February 1829 at Grand Detour, IL, he married Ho-no-ne-gah (c.1814-Sept. 5, 1847; also known as Mary), daughter of [see] Shabbona and Pokanoka, who bore him nine surviving children at Bird`s Grove: Rosa (Nov. 14, 1830-Dec. 26, 1865; Mrs. Elisha Fitch Leonard), Mary F. (July 15, 1832-Oct. 13, 1915; Mrs. Charles Stocker, Mrs. Isaac Justin Terill), William H. (July 27, 1834-), Louisa J. (May 6, 1836- ; Mrs. Ladawick L. Curtis), Thomas H. (Feb. 9, 1838-), Henry Clay (Dec. 1, 1839-Jan. 1, 1849), Edward (Dec. 3, 1841-), Matilda (Nov. 26, 1843-), Caroline E. (Oct. 16, 1845-Aug. 29, 1929; Mrs. Edward E. Cook); two male infants died at birth in 1846 and in 1847 when Mary died. On Apr. 3, 1832, he purchased lots 7 and 8 in block 43 on E Water Road, next to and S of Joseph LaFramboise`s lot [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; enlisted in the Black Hawk War, serving in Captain Brown`s company, then was garrisoned and served in Capt. J.S.C. Hogan`s company; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; received $350 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September, and $500 in trust for Colonel Mack`s heirs; Mack`s métis daughters Rosa and Mary received $600. In 1835 he acquired a tract of land at the mouth of the Pecatonic River and began a settlement called Macktown, establishing a general store with Chicago goods acquired on Indian ponies. In 1838 he began a ferry across the Rock River, but by 1842 a bridge was built at his own expense; to protect the title of his children to his estate, he and Ho-no-ne-gah remarried on Sept. 14, 1840, and a codicil to his will was executed later following the birth of more children and his wife`s death. On Feb. 4, 1848 he married widow Mrs. Isabel Daniels of Harrison, IL; Mack died suddenly and was buried on his farm beside Ho-no-ne-gah; in 1880 their remains were reburied in Phillips Cemetery at Harrison. [12, 119, 140a, 220a, 319, 692b] [13]

Mackay, Capt. Aeneas  (Nov. 24, 1794-1850) also Mackey; son of John and Elizabeth Mackey, christened at Christ Episcopal Church in New York City on Jan. 21, 1795; entered the military in 1813, promoted to first lieutenant of ordnance in 1815; arrived in Chicago by canoe on Aug. 28, 1820, as a member of Governor Cass` expedition to explore the upper Mississippi; stayed at John Kinzie`s house, then continued to Detroit; was promoted to captain in 1822, serving as assistant quartermaster after 1824. On June 19, 1832, Mackay was ordered to accompany the Artillery under Colonel Eustis, arriving at Chicago on the Sheldon Thompson on July 10 and soon “quartered in the upper part of the Village”; was promoted to major in 1838, and to lieutenant colonel, deputy quartermaster general in 1846, and brevetted colonel for service in the Mexican War; he died in 1850. [714] [326]

Mackenzie, Alexander  carried out two remarkable journeys of exploration in 1789 and 1793, each time starting from Fort Chipewyan, a trading post of the North West Company on Lake Athabasca, in what is now northern Alberta. On the first expedition he discovered and followed the Mackenzie River (named after him) to the Arctic Ocean; during the second he crossed the Rocky Mountains and followed the Fraser River to the Pacific Ocean, thus becoming the first white man to cross the full width of North America. In 1801 he published an account of his travels. [440a]

MacKenzie, John  see McKenzie, John.

Mackey, James  settled in 1834 on Section 12 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL. [13]

Mackinac    see Michilimackinac.

Mackinac Island    see Michilimackinac Island.

mackinaw  this English entry represents a type of boat, blanket, cloth, coat, and trout. It is not the Ojibwa word for `turtle,` despite the source etymon being turtle; also see entry for makinâc. [456a] [456b]

Mackinaw  of or from Mackinac Island; common spelling for Mackinac [see Michilimackinac] from about 1812 on; if the spelling is “Mackinac,” pronunciation today is as though mackinaw, rhyming with paw, a custom introduced by the French Canadian voyageurs; street name: Mackinaw Avenue (3332 E). [456b]

Mackinaw boat  see bateau.

Mackinder, Ellen  see Fuller, Morell.

MacKinzie, John  see McKenzie, John.

Mackraragah  according to Eckert, a Winnebago chief who took part in the Fort Dearborn massacre and survived the action. [226]

Mad Sturgeon    see Nescotnemeg.

Madison County, Illinois Territory  named after President James Madison; Chicago was part of Madison County from Sept. 14, 1812, to Nov. 28, 1814, then became part of Edwards County; for details, see jurisdiction. [335a, 436a] [544]

Madison, Diana  see Allen, Nathan.

Madison, James  (1751-1836) Virginia native; fourth United States president who served from 1809-1817; from 1812 to 1814 Chicago was within [see] Madison County. In 1814 asked Congress to authorize construction of a canal at the Chicago portage; Congress did not act on this recommendation until 1822. Under his administration, the second Fort Dearborn was built at Chicago in 1816; Madison Street represents the N-S baseline for Chicago`s street numbering system since 1909. James Madison School, 7433 S Dorchester Ave.

Madison, William S., M.D.    born in Kentucky; sixth Fort Dearborn military surgeon who had enlisted as a surgeon’s mate at the beginning of the War of 1812, and resigned in 1815; rejoined the army in 1820 and came to Fort Dearborn with the rank of surgeon major, succeeding Dr. McMahon and being succeeded by Dr. M.H.T. Hall in 1821; was killed in action against hostile Chippewa in 1821 after leaving Fort Dearborn.

magazines    see periodicals.

Magellan, Ferdinand    (1480-1521) Portuguese explorer who initiated and led the first circumnavigation of the earth for the Spanish crown; the Strait of Magellan at the southern end of South America, which he discovered and through which he sailed, was named after him. He died on April 27, 1521, before the voyage was completed, and only one of his five ships, navigated by Juan Del Cano and with 18 of his men, returned to Spain. The voyage lasted from Sept. 20, 1520, until Sept. 7, 1522.

Maggand, Benjamin  from Indiana; settled at Joliet in the Hickory Creek precinct in 1831; signed the [see] Herrington Petition that December; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [734] [319]

Magie & Wilkinson  grocers, advertising a new store in the Chicago Democrat on June 11, 1835, on LaSalle Street, “a few doors south of Hubbard`s brick store”; the partner was likely [see] Elias R. Wilkinson; among the dry goods itemized were “Blue and figured twill`d Jeans, Grodeswa Silks, plain and striped Sattinetts, Bobbinett Laces, Rowen Cassimeres and French Bombazines.”

Magie, Haines H.  dry goods merchant and co-owner of Magie & Wilkinson; was a member of the fire engine company No.1 (“Fire Kings”) in December 1835; 1839 City Directory: H.H. Magie & Co., 130 Lake St. [12]

Magill, Arthur W. and Frances  brother-in-law and sister of [see] Dr. Alexander Wolcott, Jr., and parents of William and Juliette Augusta (who married John H. Kinzie); each corresponded with him at Chicago before his death in 1830, with letters that are preserved at the Chicago History Museum; 1839 City Directory: Arthur W. Magill is listed with two others, likely sons—Alexander W., a clerk, and Julian, a clerk with Kinzie & Hunter.

Magill, Juliette Augusta  see Kinzie, Juliette Augusta Magill; see Kinzie, John Harris.

Magill, William  nephew of Dr. Alexander Wolcott, brother of [see] Juliette Augusta Magill Kinzie; as a boy in his teens, he spent some time at Fort Dearborn in the early 1820s as guest of his uncle. In a letter to William`s mother, dated “Chicago Jany 10, 1823” Dr. Wolcott speaks of tutoring William in French and mathematics, and remarks that he is able to shoot to kill grouse on the wing; the exact duration of William`s stay is not known.

Maglen, E.  see Johnson, Peter.

Mahaffy, Mary  see Young, George.

mail carriers  though sailing ships from the eastern lakes brought mail from Detroit and elsewhere, postal service to Fort Dearborn and to the few settlers nearby began in 1820 as a monthly transport of postmarked letters between the fort and Fort Wayne [IN]. Appointed by the United States government to deliver mail between the widely-separated destinations, private contractors were often unreliable and the modest pay was frequently docked for poor performance. Among known mail carriers of this early period, provided with flat metal boxes covered with untanned deerskin, are Bemis (1823), John Kinzie Clark (1825), John H. Fonda (1825-1828), David McKee (1826), Elijah Wentworth, Jr. (1830), Jock Jombo (1834-35), Alexis Clermont (1832-1836). A métis mail carrier, whose name is not recorded, arrived on horseback from Green Bay in the winter of 1832-33 with his feet frozen, one of which required amputation by Dr. Harmon – Chicago`s 1st – major surgery. See entries of individual names for details; see entry on postal service for the mail system after March 1831; for a firsthand account on the work of a mail carrier, see below for an excerpt from the 1888 narrative of Alexis Clermont. [147, 389b, 649]
During the Black Hawk War (1832), I served on the home-defence company of volonteers, under Colonel Tyler, to protect Fort Howard. That disturbance over, I ran the mail on foot, from Green Bay to Chicago, the contractor being Pierre B. Grignon. I would start out from the post-office in Shantytown, taking the Indian trail to Manitowoc. Only twice would I see the lake between Green Bay and Milwaukee—at Sauk River, twenty-five miles north of Milwaukee, and at Two Rivers. From Milwaukee I went to Skunk Grove, then to Gros Point, where I struck the lake again, and then I would see no more of the lake until I reached Chicago. … At Gros Point, Michael Ouelmit [Michael Ouilmette, son of Antoine and Archange Ouilmette; eds.] had a little trading post. As for Indians, there were large villages of them at Manitowoc and Sheboygan, not many at Milwaukee, and I do not recollect that there were any villages between Milwaukee and Chicago. If I remember aright, there were at this time but ten houses in Chicago. John, James, and Robert Kinzie, I remember well; also the postmaster, John Logan. … In making my trips I was not alone. An Oneida Indian always accompanied me. The load was limited to sixty pounds, and we usually had that weight. As a rule it took us a full month to make the round, From Greenbay to Chicago and return. We carried two shot-bags filled with parched corn; one of them hulled, the other ground. For the greater part of our diet we relied upon the Indians, or on what game we could kill; the bags of corn were merely to fall back upon, In case the Indians had moved away, as they were apt to, on hunting and fishing expeditions. At night, we camped out in the woods, wherever darkness overtook us, and slept in the blankets which we carried on our backs. In Chicago we merely stopped overnight, and promptly returned the way we came; we were delayed by a tardy mail from Detroit, which reached Chicago by steamer in summer, by foot, overland, in winter. … Our pay was usually from $60 to $65 for a round trip such as I have described, although in the fall it sometimes reached $70. I made my last overland trip to Chicago in the summer of 1836.

According to John H. Fonda, the attire of a mail carrier in 1827 included the following: A smoke-tanned buckskin hunting shirt, trimmed leggins of the same material, a wolf skin chapeau with the animal`s tail still attached, and moccasins of elk hide. A heavy mountaineer`s rifle with shortened barrel and with a shoulder strap. A powder horn hung from the shoulder. The waist belt held a sheath knife, a pair of pistols, a pouch of mink skin with rifle bullets and a short-handled ax. [251]

Main Poc  (-1816) also Main Poche, Main Pogue, Main Poque, Main Pock; Potawatomi chief who lived near the junction of the Kankakee and the Des Plaines rivers early in the 19th century; inveterate enemy of the Americans; outspoken in his complaints about unequal justice, as applied by the white authorities; organized threatening demonstrations against Fort Dearborn in 1808 and was an active marauder during the years leading up to the Fort Dearborn massacre; fought with Tecumseh`s forces near Malden in 1812; with the defeat and death of Tecumseh he moved his forces to the upper reaches of the Yellow River in Indiana; died there in the spring of 1816, a victim of alcoholism. [12, 692g] [559]

Maine Township  on the Des Plaines River, located in the NW Chicago suburban region, bordered by Elk Grove Village on the W and Niles on the E; settlement by European immigrants began in 1832. The township was organized in 1850 under the general law for organization of townships. [13]

makinâc  makinâc – Ojibwa word for `turtle`; the Algonquin word is mikkinâk; both -k endings are pronounced, but in the mouths of Canadian voyageurs, using French, that – -k was elided, resulting in [see] Mackinaw. [456a] [456b]

malaria  a common disease in Chicagoland and southern Illinois in pioneer days, wherever swamps, ponds, and wet bottom lands allowed mosquitoes to thrive; the illness was called ague, or bilious fever when liver function became impaired; medical historians believe that the disease came from Europe with early explorers around 1500; early travel accounts and letters from the Midwest abound with reports of the ague, such as those of Jerry Church and Roland Tinkham, the details of which are extracted below; also see entry for Sherman, Phinneus.
From the Journal of Jerry Church, when he had “A Touch of the Ague” in 1830: … and the next place we came to of any importance, was the River Raisin, in the state of Michigan. There we met with a number of gentlemen from different parts of the world, speculators in land and town lots and cities, all made out on paper, and prices set at one and two hundred dollars per lot, right in the woods, and musquitoes and gallinippers thick enough to darken the sun. I recollect the first time I slept at the hotel, I told the landlord the next morning I could not stay in that room again, unless he could furnish a boy to fight the flies, for I was tired out myself; and not only that, but I had lost at least half a pint of blood. The landlord said that he would remove the musquitoes the next night with smoke. He did so, and after that I was not troubled so much with them. We stayed there a few days, but they held the property so high that we did not purchase any. The River Raisin is a small stream of water, something similar to what the Yankees would call a brook. I was very much disappointed in the appearance of the country when I arrived there, for I anticipated finding something great, and did not know but that I might on the River Raisin find the article growing on trees! But it was all a mistake, for it was rather a poor section of country. … We then passed on to Chicago, and there I left my fair lady-traveler and her brother, and steered my course for Ottawa, in the county of Lasalle, Illinois. Arrived there, I put up at the widow Pembrook`s, near the town, and intended to make her house my home for some time. I kept trading round in the neighborhood for some time, and at last was taken with a violent chill and fever, and had to take my bed at the widow`s, send for a doctor, and commence taking medicine; but it all did not do me much good. I kept getting weaker every day, and after I had eat up all the doctor-stuff the old doctor had, pretty much, he told me that it was a very stubborn case, and he did not know as he could remove it, and thought it best to have counsel. So I sent for another doctor, and they both attended me for some time. I still kept getting worse, and became so delirious as not to know anything for fifteen hours. I at last came to and felt relieved. After that I began to feel better, and concluded that I would not take any more medicine of any kind, and I told my landlady what I had resolved. She said that I would surely die if I did not follow the directions of the doctor. I told her that I could not help it; that all they would have to do was to bury me, for my mind was made up. In a few days I began to gain strength, and in a short time I got so that I could walk about. I then concluded that the quicker I could get out of those “diggins” the better it would be for me. So I told my landlady that my intention was to take my horse and wagon and try to get to St. Louis; for I did not think that I could live long in that country, and concluded I must go further south. I accordingly had my trunk re-packed, and made a move. I did not travel far in a day, but at last arrived at St. Louis, very feeble and weak, and did not care much how the world went at that time. However, I thought I had better try and live as long as there was any chance.

From a letter by Roland Tinkham, relative of Gurdon. S. Hubbard, describing his observations of malaria during a trip to Chicago in the summer of 1831: … the fact cannot be controverted that on the streams and wet places the water and air are unwholesome, and the people are sickly. In the villages and thickly settled places, it is not so bad, but it is a fact that in the country which we traveled the last 200 miles, more than one half the people are sick; this I know for I have seen it. We called at almost every house, as they are not very near together, but still there is no doubt that this is an uncommonly sickly season. The sickness is not often fatal; ague and fever, chill and fever, as they term it, and in some cases bilious fever are the prevailing diseases.
Also see David, George, as he described the prevalence of ague in settlements on the road to Chicago in 1833 (diary entry of Sept. 24).

Malast, John Baptiste    voted on Aug. 7, 1826 [see Chronology].

Malford, James H.    a member of the fire engine company No.1 in December 1835 [see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, with entry on firefighting]; likely [see] Mulford, James H.

Malott, Keziah  see Forsyth, Thomas.

Malzacher, Louis  German immigrant who arrived in 1833; on May 2, 1837, he voted in the second ward for the mayor; 1839 City Directory: grocery and provision store, 181 Lake St. [12] [342]

Malzacher, M.  German immigrant, attested to as having arrived and lived in Chicago in 1833; probably a brother of Louis Malzacher. [342]

Mammut americanum  see mastodon, American.

Manall, Charles  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

Manierre, Edward  (June 22, 1812-c.1890) born in New London County, CT; arrived Aug. 4, 1835; with his partner George Blair placed a Sept. 1, 1835 advertisement in the Chicago American for their tailoring establishment, Manierre & Blair [see ad]; was a half-brother of [see] George Manierre; married Margaret Ann Spangler in 1839, and their children were Eva, Kate, Charles V., Fannie W., and John T.; 1839 City Directory: Manierre & Blair (George), merchant tailors, 43 Clark St.; 1843 City Directory: tailor, 43 Clark, bds Elisha Clark, 1st Ward; 1844 City Directory: tailor, Clark st house E. Clark 1st ward; served as alderman in 1848. In the 1880 U.S. Census he is listed with his second wife Etta (née Willard, from MA, married Mar. 30, 1876), their child George W., and his five older children; lived at 2352 Prairie Ave. in 1885. He died at age 78 in New London, Connecticut. [12] [351]

Manierre, Elizabeth  see Snow, George W.

Manierre, George  (1817-May 21, 1863) half brother of Edward; arrived in 1835 from Connecticut with his sister Elizabeth and her husband [see] George W. Snow; in March 1836 he found work in Grant & Peyton`s law firm until its 1838 dissolution; also in 1836 became a deputy clerk of the circuit court and a law student; 1839 City Directory: attorney and counselor at law, 105 Lake St.; in 1840, or shortly thereafter, he became editor of the Chicago Democrat. In 1842 he was elected City Attorney, serving three years, and in the last term he revised the Charter and Ordinance under the direction of the Common Council; he married Ann Hamilton Reid (Scotland 1823-) in Fontana, WI, on Sept. 17, 1842, and the couple had four sons: George, William, Benjamin, and Edward; 1843 City Directory: Manierre, George (M. & {George} Meeker), res 49 State, school commissioner and also: Manierre & Meeker, attorneys, 118 Lake; 1844 City Directory: of M & Meeker, res State st; served as alderman from the First Ward in 1846; was elected as circuit court judge in 1855, reelected in 1861; buried at Graceland Cemetery; his widow lived at 1928 Calumet Ave. in 1885; George Manierre School, 1420 N Hudson Avenue. [12, 351, 498, 728]

manitou  an Algonquian Indian word referring to supernatural beings or gods.

Manitou[i]riniou  meaning `wonderful man`; see entry on Jean Nicollet.

Manitoumie  an Algonquin word designating a geographic area of southwestern Wisconsin, but on some seventeenth century maps parts of Illinois are included and beyond. According to Carl Masthay, the word variously means `where the spirit dwells` or possibly `(my) mystic power.` Two of the maps showing Manitoumie include the region where Chicago would later arise; see entry on Thévenot`s map. [456b]

Mann, Archange  daughter of [see] Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé and [see] John Mann; born c.1829 at the mouth of the Calumet River; her mother, Thérèse Archange, received $400 as a beneficiary under the Treaty of 1833 in Chicago, and $600 for her children; in 1838 Archange was taken with her siblings by Thérèse Archange to live with the Potawatomi tribe, then at Council Bluffs, IA; there she married Charles Chapdelaine and with him had three children. Archange and Charles and one child died of autumnal fever [malaria] in 1845; daughter Julia and son Charles were taken to Kansas in 1847 by grandmother Thérèse Archange Mann, where Charles died. [12] [275a]

Mann, John  also Mann, Johann; of German origin; voted on July 24, Aug. 2, and Nov. 25, 1830; on Aug. 3, 1830, married [see] Archange Thérèse Morin Tremblé; later in August on the 1830 U.S. Census for Peoria and Putman Counties he listed his wife and a young girl and boy as dependants; when they became early members of the Catholic congregation—he signed for a family of five [Andreas erroneously notes four; surviving children included Zoe, Marie, and Louis Tremblé, John Peter and Archange Mann] on the 1833 petition to Bishop Rosati, asking that a priest be assigned to Chicago; in 1832 or 1833 tried to get into the Chicago lumber business and poled a raft of square building timber from the Calumet to the Chicago River, but found no takers, until Joseph Adams bought it, in friendship, and passed it on to Nelson Norton, who used it for the Dearborn Street bridge; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and in September is listed in the Chicago Treaty records as recipient of $200 for a claim made; in the December 10, issue of the Chicago Democrat John gave notice that he had found a pocketbook; declared candidate for colonel of the Cook County militia but lost to J.B. Beaubien in the election of June 7, 1834. The family lived from 1830 to 1838 at the mouth (E side) of the Calumet River, where they kept a tavern and ran a ferry that was owned by Reverend See. John became a serious alcoholic and his wife left in 1838, possibly at his death, and returned with some of the children to her Potawatomi tribe, then at Council Bluffs, IA. But John may then have removed to Wisconsin; in April 1845, a John Mann is appointed harbor master in Racine County (Milwaukee) and died there by 1850. For a description of overnight stays at Mann`s inn by three separate visitors in 1830 and 1833, see excerpt from Harriet Warren Dodson`s journal under Warren, Daniel, and from those of Jerry Church and Colby C. Benton below. [12, 13, 53, 141, 275a, 319, 342, 654]
Jerry Church`s overnight in 1830: It was fifty miles from the old Frenchman`s [Joseph Bailly] house to the Calamink river, where the first white man lived in the road. He had a half-breed Indian wife, and kept the ferry across the Callamink river at its mouth [John Mann and his wife Archange]. We thought we could reach his house the first day, but our horse got weary of traveling in the sand, on the beach of the Michigan lake, and we were forced to stop. We unhitched our horse and turned him out to graze on the sand rushes and juniper berry bushes, and my friend and myself had to lay down to sleep in part of an old canoe that had floated ashore, and fight the musquitoes all night, without any thing for supper, or any thing else for comfort. Next morning we traveled on until ten o`clock before we came to the crossing place, both tired and hungry. I was as near gone as any man could well be and live. I went to the hut and asked the man if he could give us some breakfast. He said he could not, for he had nothing in the house for his own family. He said that he had sent to Chicago for provisions by a wagon, and it had not returned, and he could not give us anything for breakfast. I told him I must have something to eat before I went farther, if I had to kill a young papoose and roast him. I saw a gun standing in the corner of the hut and I loaded it and went out on the beach and shot a black bird, took it down to the water and picked off the feathers and dressed it in good order, and went back to the house and asked the woman if she would roast it for me. She said she would. She also said she had a little coffee, and would make me a cup of coffee. I told her that was very kind indeed, and requested her to make it as soon as possible, which she did, and gave us a few Indian Cranberrys, and we fared sumptuously. I asked the man what the bill was. He said not anything; and I gave the woman a dollar, and told her that I should always remember her while I lived for saving my life. We then crossed the river and had twelve miles to go to Chicago.

Another trip by Church later in the same year: We had to camp out three nights, and in the course of our journey, stopped at the house where the Indian woman saved my life by roasting the blackbird, at the mouth of the Callamink river. The man said he knew me, and that he was better prepared now than he was at that time. He said he could now give me something to eat, and not only that, but some good old whiskey to drink beside. I told him such news as that was always pleasant to me, and I hoped he would always be blessed with plenty of those good things. ….

En route from Michigan City to Chicago, Colbee C. Benton stopped for the night of Aug. 17, 1833, and reports as follows:
It has been a beautiful day—a cool, refreshing breeze from the lake has favored us, which we found quite comfortable; and it was well for us, for we could not find anything else to refresh ourselves or horses until we arrived to the mouth of the Calemic River [Calumet River], a distance of fifty miles. We found great quantities of sand cherries, but we never saw any before and did not dare to eat many. They resemble our black cherries, only a little larger, and grow on low bushes on the dry sand, and are very sweet indeed. … About noon we saw an Indian but he run[sicand hid from us, and after traveling about half way across the beach we passed an Indian camp. We stopped and borrowed a dipper to dip up some water. I proposed stopping to dine with them as they had just got their dinner ready, but my companion said I could if I would eat out of the same dish, a dish filled with corn and fish without even being scaled, all thrown in whole and jumbled up together into a real chowder. I finally concluded not to dine and we proceeded. We seemed to be traveling all the time in the same spot; we seemed to be following a point of land but did not seem to gain any. It was like going round a bay, there was all the time a point extending out. And finally it was no more nor less than a bay consisting of the south end of Lake Michigan. … The lake was gently rolling and it looked powerful and magnificent. Its waters were clear and pure and cool and good to drink. The shore of the lake is sandy all the way round the south end of it, and in some places the sand hills and sandy plains extend back into the country for miles; and in some places there are extensive marshes bordering on the lake, seemed to be parted only by a little winnow [sic; window?] of sand. It is more marshy near the mouth of the Calamic River, and we traveled along the shore of some small lakes, only had to cross a little sand bar. The whole country on the south shore of Lake Michigan is cold, marshy land or barren, sandy land for some miles from the lake. We found some coal on the shore, which was an evidence that there is a bed of it somewhere in the vicinity. … We arrived at Mann`s log house at the mouth of the Calemic about five o`clock p.m., very hungry and very much fatigued after having rode fifty miles without any to eat; and our horses, too, were weary and hungry, but we could not get anything but marsh hay. Yet we were determined to remain till next day. Mr. Mann, the proprietor of this splendid establishment, married a squaw and we had a squaw supper. Quite a decent cup of coffee, tho`. After supper I borrowed a gun and went up the river after game. I saw a great many ducks but they were flying at a distance. I saw some in the river but the marsh about the river was so wide and the grass so high that I could not get a shot at them. … In the evening Mr. Mann returned from Chicago with some oats and we succeeded in getting a few for our horses—but a few, however, for there were some more travelers arrived in the evening and we were obliged to divide. Some of the travelers had been to Chicago and some had been down into the state of Illinois. After each one told his most marvelous stories we retired to a log hut recently erected for a lodging room. There were three things called beds, which were occupied by six of us, and two were obliged to sleep on the floor. [421a] [728]

Mann, John Peter  son of [see] Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé and [see] John Mann; born c.1830 at the mouth of the Calumet River; received $600 as a beneficiary under the Treaty of 1833 in Chicago. In early October 1843, 13 year old John Mann was brought to Council Bluffs, IA, among other Potawatomi boys located in the East by a former sub-agent. [275a]

Mann, Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé  (given names often corrupted to Arkash Sambli); born c.1798; métis daughter of Suzanne Françoise Chevalier (daughter of [see] François Pierre Chevalier) and Pierre Morin. Thérèse Archange was the niece rather than the “adopted” daughter of [see] Antoine and Archange Ouilmette; during the Fort Dearborn massacre she remained at home with her family, and all survived the encounter; soon afterward in Peoria she met Toussaint Tremblé (from where ‘Sambli’ may have arrived) and they married somewhere in Illinois between 1813 and 1815. They had three children (Louis François [1815-], Zoe, and Marie C. [c.1817-1848; Mrs. John Anderson]), but Tremblé abandoned the family in 1827; Thérèse filed for divorce, with Antoine Ouilmette’s support, which was awarded in June 1830. She then married [see] John Mann in Chicago on Aug. 3, 1830, Reverend See officiating, and they had a son [see] John Peter and a daughter [see] Archange; the family lived at the mouth of the Calumet River until 1838, managing Reverend See`s ferry; received $400 as a beneficiary under the Treaty of 1833 in Chicago. Archange left in 1838 and returned with some of the children to her Potawatomi tribe, then at Council Bluffs, IA; there daughter Archange Mann married Charles Chapdelaine and with him had three children; in 1847 Thérèse Archange left Iowa for Kansas, joining the Potawatomi Indians with her three Anderson and two Chapdelaine grandchildren, where she died in c.1850; for additional information, see Mann, John. [12, 226, 654]

Below are comments by Mrs. Charles A. Taylor and Dr. Valentine A. Boyer, who visited the Manns in 1832 and 1833.
Mrs Charles A. Taylor`s comments: We found our new host … with a half-breed wife. Numerous children of all ages nearly filled this cabin. They were pushed aside for our comfort, as we were obliged to spend the night under their roof, which covered two rooms. One was used for a sleeping room, devided by a blanket. The woman shared my bed, with her infant. In spite of discomforts, we slept well.
Dr. Boyer`s comment: … As customary among the Indian Traders, we found Mr. Mann living with an Indian Squaw, a female apparently of the higher order of her class, a neat tidy matronly woman of a sympathizing tendency who manifested the disposition to administer to the welfare of the female portion of our party. [275a]

Manning, Joel  arrived from Massachusetts in 1835; served as election judge in 1837; 1839 City Directory: secretary to canal commissioners. [733]

Manning, John  served as corporal in Captain Boardman`s voluntary county militia late May 1832 into June and as second sergeant under Captain Napier in July 1832 during the Black Hawk War. [12] [714]

Mansion House  hotel built in 1831 by Dexter Graves on the N side of Lake Street near Dearborn, almost opposite the Tremont House. Graves sold out to Edward Haddock [his later son-in-law] in 1834, who sold the hotel to Abram A. Markle in 1835; in an ad in the Chicago American, Aug. 7, 1835 [see Austin, William G., M.D.], it is referred to as [see] Cook`s Coffee House; in 1837 Jason Gurley managed the Mansion House; the hotel was later moved at least twice, and was destroyed by the fire of 1871. [136a] [12]

Mantet, Nicolas d`Aillebout, Sieur de  French officer under the command of Frontenac who was sent to and stationed near Chicago with a relieving party during the period from 1693 to 1696 [or 1701-1705, according to documents cited by Faye] when Great Lakes Indians in the St. Joseph region threatened to rebel against the French; a fort was constructed, probably at the mouth of the Chicago River; in the following years Mantet, with his fellow officer [see] Louis de la Porte de Louvigny, proposed to carry on the work begun by La Salle; their joint memoir was published by Margry [see Bibliography]. Mantet assisted Louvigny in the preparation of the 1697 Louvigny map, which calls the Calumet River, R. de Chicagou. [718]

maple sugar  produced in large quantities by midwestern Indians, especially within the forests along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. E.O. Gale, in his Reminiscenses of Early Chicago, writes: “For I remember how as a boy [1835] I prized the granulated maple sugar we were want to purchase from the squaws. It was put up in small birch bark boxes ornamented with colored grasses, and in large baskets made of the same material holding some 25 pounds. After the departure of the larger tribes, we were occasionally enabled to purchase it from straggling bands coming from the north or Michigan.” Also see: Henri Joutel, for an excerpt from his journal with a description of maple sugar encountered in 1688 at Chicago.

Marco Polo    traveled to China in 1270 via the traditional overland route, going east from Europe; when he returned 25 years later, he wrote a bestseller about his experiences, a book that played a major role in making this fabled land of the Orient that he called Cathay, a place to dream of and reach; the dream had remained alive for 200 years when Columbus, in 1492, set out to find a more direct way to China; he found America instead.

Marcot, Jean Baptiste  French trader; see LaFramboise, Marguerite Magdelaine Marcot; also see Misigan.

Marcot, Marguerite Magdelaine  see LaFramboise, Marguerite Magdelaine Marcot.

Marcy, Martha R.  see Frink, John.

Marengo  104-ton schooner, built in 1831; arrived from Detroit in October 1831 with goods for Newberry & Dole and with many immigrants; in 1834 the vessel made five calls at Chicago, two more in 1835, all under Captain Dingley, covering the route to Buffalo; sank on Lake Erie in 1856. [48]

Marest, Père Gabriel  (Oct. 14, 1662-Sept. 15, 1714) born at Laval, France; entered the Jesuit novitiate at 19 years of age and taught at Vannes during 1682-88, then studied at Bourges and Paris five years and came to Canada in 1694; while appointed to the chaplaincy of an expedition to Hudson Bay, he was captured and taken to England, but was allowed to return to France, from where he promptly returned to North America. He was appointed to the Illinois missions in 1698 to serve the Kaskaskia Indians, first at Lake Peoria, then following them to the mouth of the Des Peres River [now the site of St. Louis] and finally, in 1703, to what is now the Kaskaskia River in Randolph Co., IL, where he established a [see] Kaskaskia Indian mission village, working with Fathers Jacques Gravier, Julien Bineteau, Jean Marie de Ville, Jean Mermet, Pierre François Pinet and the Frère Donné Jacques Largillier; died in 1714 during an epidemic that also claimed several hundreds of his French and Indian parishioners. In his letter of Nov. 9, 1712, to his superiors, he was the first to use the expression “Lake Michigan,” explaining that Lac des Illinoiswas inappropriate because the Illinois did not live nearby; his brother Father Joseph J. Marest also served as a missionary in the Midwest at approximately the same time and was stationed at Michilimackinac in 1711. Father Gabriel Marest’s handwriting can be found on 25 pages of the 672-page manuscript of the Miami-Illinois dictionary written primarily by [see] Father Pierre François Pinet, an invaluable source document to the language of the Native Americans of Illinois. [34a, 464i, 514b, 665] [456a]

Marguerite  see Bourassa, Léon.

Marguerite Magdelaine  see LaFramboise, Marguerite Magdelaine Marcot.

Mariah Antonette  schooner afloat on Lake Erie in 1827; under Captain Scoville, made three calls at Chicago from Buffalo in the summer of 1834, beginning June 30. The July 2 Chicago Democrat notes that “SALT in good barrels” are now available “For sale by HUBBARD & Co.”

Markle, Abram A.  (-Nov. 30, 1845) arrived in 1835; served in the first engine company of the voluntary fire department the same year; managed the Mansion House hotel on the N side of Lake Street, near Dearborn, in 1835, and in 1836, managed or owned the Exchange Coffee House at the NW corner of Lake and Wells streets; 1839 City Directory: late Illinois Exchange, 192 Lake street; 1843 and 1844 City Directories: laborer, North Branch, 4th ward. Among the many buildings destroyed in the Chicago fire of July 14, 1874, was an old brick house on the NW corner of Taylor and State streets; excavating the plot to rebuild two weeks later, a contractor discovered in the rear yard a marble tombstone and a few bones below. The inscription read: Abram A. Markle · Died Nov. 30, 1845 · Aged 48 (Chicago Tribune, Aug. 3, 1874, page four). [Chicago Genealogical Society Vol. 41 No. 2:69 Winter 2008-2009] [12]

Markoe, Hartman  a vice president of the Young Men`s Temperance Society, organized on Dec. 19, 1835; 1839 City Directory: dry goods merchant, Lake Street.

Marquette, Père Jacques, S.J.  (June 1, 1637-1675) born in Laon, France; became a Jesuit priest and was assigned, at his request, to Nouvelle France to do missionary work, arriving at Quebec on Sept. 20, 1666; learned six Indian languages, including Illinois; in 1668 founded the Mission de Sault Ste. Marie; in 1669 took over Mission du Saint-Esprit that Father Allouez had founded earlier at Chequamegon Bay, and in that year he prepared with Father Allouez a valuable manuscript map of Lake Superior that, as an engraving, was printed in the Jesuit Relations · 1670-1671; from there in 1669 he also wrote a letter to his superiors at Quebec in which he first expressed a deep interest in exploring the lands that lay further W [see an excerpt from his letter below]; in 1671 he founded the Mission de St. Ignace; appointed by his superior Father Claude Dablon to accompany Louis Jolliet, the two began their voyage at St. Ignace on May 17, 1673, and traveled the Mississippi River; with them were five voyageurs (the names of four are believed to be Jacques Largillier, Pierre Moreau, Jean Plattier, and Jean Thiberge [Tiberge?], and a fifth of uncertain identity, possibly Pierre Porteret); on their return trip, the party passed through the Chicago portage in 1673 (probably September) and thus they became the first Europeans documented to have visited the site that was later to become Chicago. On Oct. 25, 1674, Marquette headed south again, this time along the W shore of Lake Michigan and in the company of Pierre Porteret and Jacques Largillier; they arrived at the mouth of the Chicago River on Dec. 4, 1674; surprised by early cold weather, they camped there until December 12, then moved up river to a second camping place on the north bank of the west branch of the south fork of the Chicago River [where Damen Avenue now spans the stream], and here they spent the winter in a makeshift cabin; here, probably on December 13, Marquette celebrated – Chicago’s first – Christian religious service; here he made the last entries into his journal, which was – Chicago’s first – document partially written within the limits of the future city. On Mar. 30, 1675, Marquette and his two voyageurs moved on. After a brief Easter visit to the Kaskaskia village on the N bank of the Illinois River between the present towns of Utica and Ottawa, where Marquette founded the Mission de la Conception in April 1675, they returned by way of Hickory Creek to the Calumet River and Lake Michigan; on his way back to St. Ignace, Marquette died on May 18 of amebiasis near [now] Ludington, MI, on the E coast of Lake Michigan. Marquette School, 6550 S Richmond St. and Marquette School Branch, 6201 S Fairfield Ave.; street names: Marquette Avenue (2700 E); Marquette Drive, (6600 S); Marquette Road (6700 S and 6600 S); Marquette Park, at Marquette Road and Kedzie Avenue; see Monuments section for details. [12, 49, 105aa, 161, 195, 197, 208, 269a, 282, 298, 307, 456b, 514b, 581, 585, 611, 629, 633, 634, 663, 681, 682]
Excerpt from a 1669 letter by Father Marquette, as edited and reprinted in the Jesuit Relations: “When the Illinois come to trade at the Point they pass a great river which is almost a league in width. It flows from north to south and to so great a distance that the Illinois, who know nothing of the use of the canoe, have never as yet heard of its mouth, &c.; It is hardly probable that this great river discharges itself into the Atlantic in Virginia; we are more inclined to believe that it has its mouth in the gulf of California, &c….;” Marquette then expressed the hope for an opportunity to “visit the nations who dwell along its shores, in order to open the way to many of our Fathers, who for a long time have awaited this happiness. This discovery will give us a perfect knowledge of the sea either to the south or to the west.” [718]

Marquette`s map  the “holograph” [handwritten or hand-drawn] map (see Maps section, 1673, Père Jacques Marquette) and report prepared by Father Marquette during the 1673 voyage with Jolliet, both unknown until rediscovered in 1844 by a local Quebec public official [see Viger, Jacques], are kept in the Archives de la Compagnie de Jésus, St. Jérôme, Quebec.

Marquette`s prayer book  a small manuscript book of praying and catechism, prepared for him by Father Claude Allouez, entitled Praeces Ilinicae [Illinois Prayers], which he carried on his journeys to Illinois; preserved at Quebec, facsimile published there in 1908. [649]

Marquis, William  received $150 in payment for a claim at the 1833 Chicago Treaty; listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took that same year. [319]

marriage  – Chicago`s 1st – in April 1693 Pierre You de la D`couverte, one of La Salle’s men on the 1682 trip to the mouth of the Mississippi, was married to an Indian woman at Chicagou. For the second and third Chicago marriages see entries on Whistler, Sarah and Kinzie, Ellen Marion.

Marsh, Lawrin  also Lowrian, Laurie; signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty, and received $3290 in payment for a claim. [559] [12]

Marsh, Sylvester  (1803-Dec. 30, 1884) born in New Hampshire; arrived in 1833; initially worked for Gurdon Hubbard as a meat packer; in 1834, temporarily in partnership with Edward Simmons (dissolved as per notice in the Chicago Democrat of Aug. 6, 1834), he built his own packing house on Kinzie Street, near Rush, and opened a butcher shop on Dearborn between Lake and South Water streets; 1839 City Directory: Marsh & Dole (George W.), butchers, Dearborn Street; served in the Chicago militia as second lieutenant during 1840-41; listed in the 1843 and 1844 Chicago Directories: “98 Lake, packing-house, 304-6 North Water”; in 1855 he removed to Concord, NH, where he died. [12, 13]

Marshal Ney  lake schooner owned by Oliver Newberry, called on Chicago in August 1830 and October 1832.

Marshall, Gen. Humphrey  from Kentucky; was a second lieutenant under General Scott, when he assisted with the deposition of the remains of soldiers during the cholera epidemic of 1832 [see cemeteries] — one being classmate [see] Second Lt. Franklin McDuffie; later served as congressman together with Hon. John Wentworth; died in 1872, having attained the rank of brigadier general. [708]

Marshall, James A.  of Roselle, IL, has contributed valuable information to this web site on the subject of ancient Indian mound building activity in the Chicago region. A graduate of Illinois Institute of Technology in civil engineering, with a masters degree in city and regional planning, he is a registered professional engineer with more than 44 years of experience. In 1954, as an avocation, he set up the Fort Dearborn hiking trails for Boy Scouts in the Cook County Forest Preserves and Indiana Dunes State Park, together with maps and text explaining the geology and botany of the area. In 1960 he was hired by a consulting firm to draw up plans for new state parks near Chicago. He discovered that this metropolitan area had a deficit of public recreational acreage of 55,000 acres compared to the other great metropolitan areas of the United States, and that Illinois had the lowest per capita acreage of state parks and state forests in the nation. His plan resulted in acquisition of what are now Moraine Hills, Silver Springs, and Volo Bog State Parks and substantial additions to Chain-of-Lakes and Illinois Beach State Parks. In 1965 he began the surveying and mapping of prehistoric constructions. He discovered 45 sites of prehistoric earthworks – circles, effigies, a pyramidal work, and a canal, all within 60 miles of downtown Chicago. The sites were in badly eroded condition and nearly all unknown to the public. Several of these sites are quite large and, if restored, would be spectacular. He is currently [2005] working with state and local governments to acquire and preserve these sites. In conjunction with this interest, he appeared on the Odyssey TV series “Myth and Mound builders” and is part of a second video titled “Lost Secrets of the Red Paint People.” [450-452] [450a]

Marshall, James Augustus, M.D.  born in England in 1809; physician and lecturer from New York who visited Chicago on April 20, 1832, remaining only a few hours to explore the potential of opening a practice; in his words, “This might be a place of some importance, but the ground is too low”; he was irritated by the croaking of innumerable bull frogs, later writing: “I found the place too small for me to hope to make anything of my profession, the garrison being supplied with one of the best in the country, in the person of Dr. Phillip Maxwell, so we shipped at once for Navarino, Green Bay, Wis.” However, on Aug. 5, 1834, Dr. Marshall returned to Chicago, arriving on the schooner Nancy Dousman; on Nov. 19, 1834, he announced in the Chicago Democrat the opening of a dancing school at the New York House; E.O. Gale, in Reminiscenses of Early Chicago , refers to him as “Little Jimmy Marshall,” confirming that he was a physician by training, but worked here as a dancing master and as an auctioneer of canal lots with John Bates; on Sept. 3, 1836, married Andalusia Shattucks, who died in 1837; in 1838 married Rosanna M. Shattucks; 1839 City Directory: auctioneer, commission, &c.;, South Water Street; lived at 2906 Indiana Ave. in 1885. [12, 265, 351] [544]

Marshall, John  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; built a tavern with [see] Benjamin Hall at Dutchman`s Point in 1840. [319] [13]

Marshall, Ruth  see Ward, Bernard.

Martin, George  arrived in1833 and moved on to Naperville, where he built the first frame house. [314a]

Martin, Isabel  see Forsyth, William, Sr.

Martin, Israel  settled early in 1835 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL, but after a short time moved to the town of Palatine. [13]

Martin, Laurent  voted in Chicago on Aug. 2, 1830 (see elections); was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Martineau, Harriet  (c.1799-1876) English author and traveler to Chicago in 1836, who left a vivid account of her visit, contributing a valuable perspective; her description of the prairie between the town and the Des Plaines River follows; see Bibliography. [12, 453]
[Comparing the prairie with the Salisbury Plain of her native England] … A single house in the middle of the Salisbury Plain would be desolate. A single house on a prairie has clumps of trees near it, rich fields about it; and flowers, strawberries, and running water at hand. But when I saw a settler`s child tripping out of home-bounds, I had a feeling that it would never get back again. It looked like putting out into Lake Michigan in a canoe. The soil round the dwellings is very rich. It makes no dust, it is so entirely vegetable. It requires merely to be once turned over to produce largely; and, at present, it appears to be inexhaustible. As we proceeded, the scenery became more and more like what all travelers compare it to, —a boundless English park. The grass was wilder, the occasional footpath not so trim, and the single trees less majestic; but no park ever displayed anything equal to the grouping of the trees within the windings of the blue, brimming river Aux Plaines. [454]

Mascoutens  Algonquian, “people of the little prairie”; Indian tribe related to the Potawatomi; Father Allouez found them at Green Bay in 1670, and Father Marquette reported seeing them near Chicago in 1674; driven S and westward by neighboring tribes to eventual settlement along the Fox River, WI.

Mason, Matthias  (1801-1876) blacksmith; arrived in 1833 and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; married to Maria Rice (1800-1873); first had his shop on the SW corner of Franklin and South Water streets, then moved in July 1834 to Lake Street, near Dearborn, renting his former smithy to John S.C. Hogan for use as a post office; his apprentice was [see] Benjamin Lupton; advertising for “Matthias Mason & Co.—blacksmith, on Main-street nearly opposite Graves` Tavern” can be found in the first issue of the Chicago Democrat, Nov. 26,1833. [Graves` Tavern in 1833 was on Lake Street]; removed to Indian Creek [Lake County] in 1835; died at Sutherland, IA on Dec. 20, 1882. [319] [12]

massacre    see Fort Dearborn massacre.

massacre tree    see Chicago massacre tree.

Masse, Jean  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a] [46]

Masthay, Carl D.  linguistic scholar who has contributed immeasurably to the preparation of the second edition of the book Early Chicago by editing and translating obscure names and words of the native people of the Chicago region and thereby helping the modern reader to better understand their spirit and their customs. Here follows a brief summary of Carl Masthay`s background: Connecticut native (New Britain, Southington, Meriden); U.S. Air Force, Chinese voice-intercept-processing specialist; bachelor of arts degree, Northern Michigan University in French, Spanish, biology with honors, 1967; medical copy editor for Mosby, Inc., in St. Louis for 33 years (1968-2001, retired); major books: Schmick`s Mahican Dictionary (1991), Kaskaskia Illinois–to–French Dictionary (2002); life member Mensa (1991); linguist proficient in 10 or more languages; legal doctorate equivalency to linguistics degree specified by Orleans International (1992).

mastodon, American  Mammut americanum; prehistoric elephant-sized large mammals with well developed upper tusks which flourished mostly during the interglacial periods. They stood eight to 10 feet tall at the shoulder and weighed between four and seven tons, roamed North America as early as 3.5 million years ago, but died out at the end of the last ice age about 12,000 years ago. Fossil remains are common throughout Illinois, occurring within the Chicagoland area—one was discovered in the summer of 1883 on the S side of Wicker Park near Milwaukee Avenue, 1 1/4 miles E of Humboldt Park [illustration by George E. Colby, 1910]. Another mastodon, found at Glen Ellyn in 1963, is now preserved in the Edwin F. Deicke Exhibit Hall at Wheaton College. The latest significant find of fossilized mastodon bones as of this writing was made in August 2005 in Pratt`s Wayne Woods Forest Preserve in Wayne, Du Page County. [55`, 93a] [341]

Mather, George    see Russell & Mather Addition.

Mathews, Lucy Welford  see Temple, Peter.

Mathieu, Elizabeth  see Beaubien, Mark.

Matteson, Joseph  (-Jan. 8, 1852) partner of [see] Walter S. Gurnee; 1839 Chicago Directory: Gurnee & Matteson [wholesale saddlery hardware, 106 Lake st]; 1843 Chicago Directory: (Gurnee & M.), res State, bet Washington and Randolph; 1844 Chicago Directory: of Gurnee & M. h State b Wash and Randolph. Joseph died at age 56.

Matthews, William W.  first personnel manager at Montreal of the American Fur Co. for the entire Northwest; required pre-employment physicals before hiring voyageurs; organized the traders` brigades that would fan out into the wilderness to service the remote outpost; responsible for starting young Gurdon S. Hubbard in the fur trade, hiring him for five years at $120 per year in 1818; named on a Michilimackinac American Fur Co. invoice for “Goods to be sold in Montreal,” dated Sept. 5, 1822. [10aa] [12]

Maur`s Hotel  on the Chicago Road, at Calumet, in 1834. [12]

Maw-naw-bun-no-quah  see Beaubien, Jean Baptiste.

Maxwell, Philip, M.D.  (Apr. 1, 1799-Sept. 5, 1859) born at Guilford, VT, son of Philip and Abigail (née Rice) Maxwell; studied and originally practiced medicine in New York State; married Jerusha Moore (Dec. 28, 1804-Mar. 27, 1875) at Guilford in September 1822; 12th of the Fort Dearborn surgeons, serving at the fort with Dr. George F. Turner; received his appointment as surgeon`s mate with the U.S. Army on July 13, 1832, and arrived at Fort Dearborn on Feb. 3, 1833 to replace Dr. S.G.J. DeCamp; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document with the Indians as a witness and received $35 for a claim he made at this treaty; remained at Fort Dearborn until its abandonment on Dec. 26, 1836; 1839 City Directory: Garrison. After his resignation from the Army in 1844, he became a private practitioner in Chicago, serving as city physician in 1845, and as state representative from 1849 to 1852. His spirited discussions at the billiard table of the old Tremont House with Dr. Egan, a like large man of wit and overflowing humor, have become legend. In 1855, Dr. Maxwell retired to Lake Geneva, WI; little is known of his family, but daughter Celia (Ophelia; Sept. 27, 1827-Oct. 18, 1863) Maxwell attended school under Miss Eliza Chappell in 1833. The doctor`s Prescription and Diet Book of the Sick and Wounded at Fort Dearborn, 1832-1836 is preserved at the Chicago History Museum; street name: Maxwell Street (1330 S). [12, 66, 319] [97]

May, Francis  see Le Mai, François.

May  called a brig by John Kinzie, but sometimes referred to as a schooner; was mastered by [see] Capt. James Rough; brought supplies to Fort Dearborn and Kinzie; corresponding entries in Kinzie`s account books can be found for visits on June 16 and Nov. 2, 1804, Jan. 15, 1806, and July 12, 1808. [404]

Mayer, Leo  see Meyers, Leo.

McCafferty, Michael  an ethnolinguist, Algonquianist and Uto-Aztecanist on the faculty of the Department of Second Language Studies at Indiana University who has been working with the Miami-Illinois language for thirty years. He is particularly interested in Algonquian place names and the historical French-Algonquian interface in the mid-continent. His interest in and contributions to the earlychicago web site and his knowledge of the local native historical languages have been major factors in making this site an authoritative source of information. Current projects of his include an ethnolinguistic and geographical study of 18th-century French trader itineraries and related documents concerning the Illinois Country; the reconstruction of the French “namescape” of the Illinois Country and the Wabash valley in the 18th century; a book on the Native American-created place names in Illinois; and an analysis of the names of the some of the subtribes of the Miami and Illinois Indians. Early historical maps containing his research for Indiana are on permanent display at the Eiteljorg Museum of the American Indian in Indianapolis in the form of interactive digital screens. McCafferty`s work includes articles in the following publications: see 464a to 464l, McCafferty, Michael, in the Bibliography section.
[McCafferty’s entry on the Miami-Illinois word for Lake Peoria, and its literal translation into English, can be found in the Encyclopedia section under “Pimitéoui“; ed.]

McCall, James A.  came in the fall of 1833 from Victoria, Canada, and worked as a tanner for John Miller in the tannery immediately N of Miller`s Tavern; a notice in the Chicago Democrat of May 1, 1839, indicates that a James McCall had died, and Elizabeth McCall was the administrator of his estate.

McCall, John H.    brother of James A.; arrived in the winter of 1834-35 from upper Canada.

McCarthy, Jonathan  signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness. [12]

McCarty, Duncan  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted in December 1805; killed after surrender at the massacre of 1812. [226]

McCarty, N.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

McCarty, Richard    trader in Michilimackinac during the Revolutionary War; licensed by British authorities to trade with the Illinois, his business brought him to Chicago periodically; siding with the Americans after the war, he moved to Vincennes.

McClellan, James  teacher at the English and Classical School for Boys; succeeded Thomas Wright in 1835 and continued to teach until 1838; he was not listed in the 1839 Chicago Directory, but a J. McClellan was listed in the 1844 Directory as general superintendant of public works, on Lake Michigan, residing then at the Lake House. [12, 357] [506]

McClenthan, Sally  see Galloway, James.

McClintock, James Hamilton  (May 13, 1806-May 18, 1886) brother of Wilson; arrived in 1830 and settled at Lyonsville [Lyons Township]; married Phebette Lane (Feb. 2, 1814-Apr. 17, 1865), sister of [see] DeWitt Lane; lived in Gowen, IL, in 1885. [12, 278, 351] [387a]

McClintock, Wilson Washington  (May 4, 1804-Sept. 9, 1867) brother of James; arrived in 1832; he and his wife Catherine lost a two-year-old son, Franklin, of encephalitis on April 19, 1836, as per notice in the Chicago Democrat, April 20; served as commissioner of streets in 1836, as election judge in 1837; on Sept. 12, 1840, the Chicago Daily American announces the death of his (second?) wife Charlotte; died at Bachelors Grove. [387a]

McClure, Charles  arrived from Canada in 1835; was elected town trustee in 1835 but declined the position; 1839 City Directory: carpenter. [351]

McClure, Josiah E.  arrived from Canada in 1835; a notice in the Chicago Democrat of Jan. 14, 1837, announced his marriage to Harriet Johnson, “daughter of a U.S. Army captain” [perhaps {see} Capt. Seth Johnson, who served at Fort Dearborn in 1832-33 and remained in Chicago after 1834 as a civilian; eds.]; 1839 City Directory: McClure & Co., commission merchants, 89 Lake St.; lived at 2120 Michigan Ave. in 1885. [12] [351]

McClure, Mary E.  see Jamison, Lt. Louis T.

McConnell, Edward  (1805-1878) born in Dublin; came to Montreal in 1823, and arrived in Chicago from Detroit on board the Marshal Ney in August 1830, staying at Miller`s Tavern a short while, then moved to Springfield, where he became connected with the U.S. Land Office; served in the Black Hawk War; returned to Chicago in 1835 to become chief clerk for Edmund D. Taylor, receiver of the Chicago Land Office; invested extensively in Chicago real estate; 1839 City Directory: gardener, Lumber Street near Canal Street; married Charlotte McGlashan in 1844; died on May 11, 1878, and was survived by his wife and sons John, George, and Benjamin F.; his widow lived at 101 Washington St. in 1885. In a letter, written to H.E. Drummer on July 18, 1835, McConnell notes the accelerating growth of the town. [12, 13, 351] Excerpt of McConnell`s letter:
Chicago is improving very fast. They are about building an Episcopal Church. The ladies had a fair some time since for the purpose of raising money to buy an organ and obtain about fifteen hundred dollars for their “notions and fixings,” they did not get any of my money for I had none about that time. There is some talk about building a Theatre to cost 20 thousand dollars. A Tavern is building which is to cost 18 thousand when complete There is a great deal of capital here there are more than a dozen who are worth upward of a thousand dolls each. Chicago is entirely Eastern in manners and people. Upward of two hundert families landed last week from down East. Twelve sail lay at harbor at one time discharging their cargoes …. [457]

McConnell, Murray  (1798-1869) New York born; a Jacksonville speculator who purchased a portion of the Fort Dearborn reservation from Jean Baptiste Beaubien in 1836, and attempted to execute an action of ejection against DeLafayette Wilcox, commandant at Fort Dearborn, but lost in court. [12]

McCord, Jason  merchant; arrived in 1834 from New York; in October 1835 he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; late that year he and [see] Flavel Moseley filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 4, block 19; 1839 City Directory: Mosely [Flavel] & McCord, merchants, on South Water Street; served as alderman in 1841 and 1843; died in 1871. [12]

McCord, John  (1803-1873) born in Orange County, NY; came in 1833, acquired land in Palos Township and farmed; served as county assessor and tax collector; married Harriet Paddock of New York in 1839. [278]

McCormick & Moon  according to [see] J.D. Bonnell`s report, a hat store on South Water Street between Dearborn and Michigan in 1835 [in part of the Newberry & Dole warehouse], representing the branch of a Detroit firm and run by Mr. Moon; Jesse Butler had his tailor shop in the rear. [12] [13]

McCorristen, William  also McCorrister; time of arrival uncertain; a notice in the Chicago Democrat of Sept. 16, 1835, indicates that on September 15 he had married the teacher [see] Catherine Bayne; member of the fire engine company No.1 in December [see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, with entry on firefighting]; in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American he placed an advertisement for the “AMERICAN HOTEL—The subscriber begs leave to inform his friends and the public, that he has opened the above named hotel, (recently called the Steamboat Hotel,) for the reception of Boarders and Travellers; and avails himself of this opportunity in returning his sincere thanks to those who patronized his late establishment on Wo`cott street, and assure them that no exertion or expense shall be spared to continue a general support. W. McCORRISTEN. N.B. The bar is supplied with choice Liquors, &c.; &c.;” The 1839 Chicago Directory listed: “McCorrister, William, American Hotel, North Water street”; died at age 67 on Oct. 25, 1862, in St. Louis, Missouri.

McCoy, John  soldier in the Revolutionary War who in c.1833 homesteaded on the Sauk Trail, W of Chicago Heights, a short distance E of what is now Western Avenue The site is located in the Thorn Creek Division of the Forest Preserve district of Cook County. McCoy came to Chicago by way of Ohio, perhaps explaining the substantial grove of Ohio buckeye trees now near his cabin site. His cabin served as a “station” on the underground railroad for escaped slaves. [Information furnished by Ed Lace, July 1996]

McCoy, Rev. Isaac  (1784-1846) Baptist minister from Kentucky; his wife`s name was Christina; established a mission school at Fort Wayne in 1820; among his students was Abram Burnett (nephew of [see] William Burnett), an interpreter, through whom McCoy met Menominee, a minor chief and religious leader among the Potawatomi along the St. Joseph River; upon invitation in June 1821, Reverend McCoy visited the St. Joseph area and, aware of a treaty at Chicago in August, proposed that the Indians ask for a mission school. The commissioners of the treaty granted the request, providing government payment for fifteen years and two sections of land, one on the St. Joseph River, as a site for teachers and a blacksmith. Six log structures were built in October and November 1822 and the Baptist Carey Mission [Niles, MI] opened in December for the benefit of Ottawa and Potawatomi children, but attended mostly by their métis relatives; Josette Ouilmette attended and Madore Beaubien spent 1823-1824 at this school. Reverend McCoy observed the payment of the Indian annuity at Chicago in October 1825, and at Indian agent Wolcott`s suggestion, on October 9 he addressed the Indians on the subject of the mission; the sermon was delivered in English and was – Chicago`s 1st – such event; the school existed from 1822 to 1828, and the mission was closed as the Indians and métis settlers were relocated. By late summer 1828, with the removal of Indians west of the Mississippi River then favored by the government, Reverend Mc Coy, also a government surveyor, was appointed to lead a mixed party of tribesmen (J.B. Chandonnai among them) into Missouri and Kansas; unimpressed, the Potawatomi and Ottawa returned to St. Joseph in October. In 1840 McCoy published History of Baptist Indian Missions—embracing remarks on the former and present condition of the aboriginal tribes, their settlement within the Indian Territory, and their future prospects; died at Louisville, KY, in 1846 at age 62. [12, 229, 319, 729a] [468]

McDale, Alexander  voted in the Aug. 2, 1830, election; listed as owner of 80 acres of land in the NW quarter of Section 6, Township 39, prior to 1836, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp, 112-113; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [12]

McDaniel, Alexander  (1815-1898) from Bath, Steuben County, NY; first visited Chicago in 1833 when he was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; an unclaimed letter is listed on Jan. 1, 1834; visiting again in late May 1836, when an ad in the Chicago American, placed by the real estate broker [see] William Montgomery, induced him to purchase a 160 acre preemption claim on what is now Ridge Road (former Green Bay Trail) in Winnetka from Perry Baker and Simeon Loveland in October; during that year, McDaniel helped build the log house of Erastus Patterson, later known as the Patterson Tavern, two miles further N on the same road; that year McDaniel visited and later described the Grosse Pointe home of the [see] Antoine Ouilmette family; in the spring of 1837 McDaniel built his own two-story house on his newly acquired lot [The structure is now referred to as the Schmidt-Burnham Log House after subsequent owners. It was moved from its original location to Tower Road and then to Crow Island Woods Park in 2003, and is currently preserved by the Winnetka Historical Society; eds.]; 1839 City Directory: teamster, Michigan Avenue. McDaniel became a successful real estate developer on the North Shore, married Emeline C. Huntoon on Nov. 27, 1842, and moved to Evanston. For further detail on his life, see article by John F. Swenson referenced below. [96a, 243, 319, 734b] [649a]

McDeed, James and John  lived in the Upper Hickory Creek timber; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [734] [319]

McDonnell, Charles  submitted a petition for wharfing privileges late in 1835, accompanied by a report of the committee on wharfs and public grounds; 1839 City Directory: grocery and provision store, 30 Market [Franklin] St. In 1849 the newspaper Chicago Democrat unsuccessfully supported his candidacy for a position of Chicago alderman. [233”]

McDuffie, Bvt. Second Lt. George W.   was buried in Chicago in 1832 as one of 75 cholera victims during the Black Hawk War.

McDuffie, Lt. Franklin   of Rochester, NH; was buried in Chicago in 1832 as one of 75 cholera victims during the Black Hawk War; a classmate of [see] Humphrey Marshall, then a second lieutenant under General Scott, who served with him and then assisted with the deposition of his remains [see cemeteries]. [708]

McForreston, W.    arrived in 1835 and served as a member of the first engine company of the voluntary fire department in the same year.

McGlashan, Charlotte  see McConnell, Edward.

McGowan, Patrick  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted in April 1806; survived massacre of 1812 and subsequent Indian captivity. [226]

McGrath, Thomas  arrived from Ireland in 1835. [351]

McGregor, A.    identified in a Chicago Democrat ad of May 28, 1834, as the supplier of pine timber in 12-to-60-foot lengths and 6-to-14-inch squares, available through P. Pruyne & Co. at “as reasonable terms as can be had in Chicago” [possibly Alex McGregor, who had worked under William Jones on the Buffalo harbor, and, following his visits to Chicago in 1831 and 1832, had been advised of the opportunities].

McHarry, John  arrived from New York in 1834; a notice in the Chicago Daily American of July 7, 1842, announced his marriage to Mary A. Scovill on June 29. [351]

McIlvaine, Caroline Margaret    (1868-1945) associated with the Chicago Historical Society between 1901 and 1927, serving as invaluable librarian (many accessions), lecturer, secretary, and installation exhibit director; introduced or edited other writers’ important contributions concerning Chicago’s history.

McKay, James  arrived from Scotland in 1835. [351]

McKee, David  (1800-1881) born in Loudoun County, VA, of Scottish and Irish ancestry; at age 13 in Cincinnati, OH, he was apprenticed to a blacksmith; afterward worked on a steamer running between New Orleans and St. Louis; a government blacksmith and gunsmith who came to Chicago on June 5, 1823, initially as an employee of Col. Benjamin B. Kercheval, Indian agent at Detroit, arriving from Fort Wayne in the company of the expedition lead by Maj. Stephen H. Long; spoke fluently the Potawatomi language; assessed on $100 of personal property in 1825, and voted locally in 1826 and 1830; built his house and smithy on the N side of the river just W of the agency house [now corner of Franklin and Kinzie streets] in or before 1825, and employed William See and Joseph Porthier; in 1826 he made monthly trips on foot, leading an Indian pony between Chicago and Fort Wayne, via Elkhart and Niles, MI, to carry the mail “on account of the Government,” the round trip taking two weeks. He married Wealthy Scott (Stephen H. Scott`s daughter of [see] Grosse Pointe) on Jan. 23, 1827, John Kinzie, J.P. officiating; a son, Stephen J., was born on Sept. 18, 1830; bought in 1830 from the government lot 1 in block 5, lot 7 in block 4, and lot 7 in block 49 [see Maps section, 1834, John S. Wright]; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; during the Black Hawk War served in the Chicago militia under Captain Kercheval, being listed in the muster roll of May 2, 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $180 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; in 1834 the family moved to a farm of 400 acres in DuPage County and later to Kane County; applied for wharfing privileges in Chicago on Nov. 21, 1835. After Wealthy`s death, he married Sarah Ward (1816-1886) in 1836; they had Wealthy (Mrs. Chester C. Becknell), James W. (1839-), and Carrie A. (Mrs. Daniel D. Fisher). Stephen J. died in 1878; David died in Aurora on Apr. 8, 1881, buried in Big Woods Cemetery. [12, 28, 319, 389b, 421a, 550a, 708, 714] [441]

McKee, James  born in Kentucky; came from Jacksonville, IL, to Joliet City Township in Will County in 1833 and acquired the claim and improvements of [see] Charles Reed on the W side of the Des Plaines River; laid out the town of West Joliet in 1834 and completed construction of the gristmill that autumn, opening for business in late December; the mill was in operation until 1838 when work on the IL & MI Canal interfered, McKee receiving from the Canal Commissioners $17,655 in damages. [734] [692b]

McKenzie, Elizabeth  born 1770; daughter of Scottish Murdock Otis and Erina Jemima (née Chapman) McKenzie [McKinzie on the 1810 census of Giles County, VA, now WV], sister of Margaret, John Kinzie`s first wife (see Kinzie family tree); both sisters had been raised by Shawnee Indians as captives, but were later ransomed; married John Clark, an early Detroit friend of John Kinzie; their children were Elizabeth (1791), [see] John Kinzie Clark (1792), and twins [see] Andrew and Mary (1796); after her separation from John Clark, she married [see] Jonas Clybourne of Virginia and moved to Chicago in 1824. [649] [12]

McKenzie, Emily Tyne Halliburton  (c.1734-Feb. 28, 1794) mother of [see] John Kinzie; probably born in England; was married successively to three British army men: first was William Halliburton, chaplain in the 1st Regiment with a commission dating in 1747, they had one daughter Alice, born in 1759; Emily Tyne was widowed by the death of Halliburton and married [see] John McKenzie, a surgeon, by whom she had John Kinzie in 1763; McKenzie died soon after John`s birth; again widowed Emily married [see] William Forsyth, probably a native of Ireland, who was a soldier in the 60th Regiment, probably in the 2nd Battalion, since his service was verified by the then commandant, a major in the 2nd Battalion at Detroit; with Forsyth she had another son [see] James in 1769, and another in 1771, [see] Thomas; she later favored to be called Anne, rather than Emily. [95a] [649]

McKenzie, John  also found as Mackenzie, MacKinsie, but McKenzie is what he wrote himself; father of John Kinzie; a surgeon of Scottish descent who served in the British army per appointment of Feb. 2, 1756, then lived in Quebec, and later in Detroit where he married in 1761, then died in 1763; his wife, mother of John Kinzie, was Anne Tyne, widow of William Halliburton, a chaplain of the first Royal American Regt. of Foot; their son John was born in Quebec in 1763. [649] [407]

McKenzie, Margaret    see Kinzie, Margaret McKenzie.

McKillip, Daniel  Eleanor Lytle Kinzie`s first husband (see Kinzie family tree); was killed in 1794 by General Wayne`s troops at Fallen Timbers when fighting on the side of the Indians.

McKillip, Eleanor  see Kinzie, Eleanor Lytle McKillip.

McKillip, Margaret  (1794-1844) later Margaret Helm, Margaret Abbott; daughter from an earlier marriage of John Kinzie`s second wife Eleanor (see Kinzie family tree); was born at Colchester, Ontario, on Lake Erie in 1794, the year her father, Daniel McKillip, was slain at Fallen Timbers; was raised in Detroit by her grandparents, where she married [see] Lt. Linai T. Helm on June 10, 1810; came to Fort Dearborn in 1811 with her husband; survived the massacre with the help of Black Partridge and Waubinema [the moving legend being embodied in a Chicago bronze statue, see Monuments section] and, dressed as a French woman, was undetected by the Indians in the Kinzie House, then hidden on the bedstead below feather bedding behind large [see] Mrs. Sheshi Buisson who was seated forward with her sewing in the house of the Ouilmette family; after several days Chandonnai conveyed her and the Kinzies to St. Joseph; was reunited with Lieutenant Helm in New York. They had one son in 1821, William Edwin, but she divorced her husband in 1829 at the Peoria Circuit Court, charging infidelity and drunkenness; was awarded $800 at the Treaty of Prairie du Chien on July 29, 1829 “for losses sustained at the time of the capture of Fort Dearborn in 1812 by the Indians”; received $2000 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of 1833. On Jan. 25, 1836, she married [see] Dr. Lucius Abbott of Detroit, where she died in October 1844. [226, 275a, 327, 406, 407, 559] [12]

McMahon, J. Ponte Coulant, M.D.    born in Washington City; became a surgeon’s mate with the Third Infantry of the U.S. Army on Nov. 21, 1817; fifth Fort Dearborn surgeon, arriving in 1818 to succeed Dr. John Gale; served at the fort until 1820, when he left on account of ill health, and was followed by Dr. W. Madison; resigned from the Army in 1834 and died in 1837.

McMannomy, John  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

McMurray, Andrew    from Tennessee; notice in the Chicago Democrat of June 25, 1834, reports his accidental drowning at age 22 in the north branch of the Chicago River on June 23.

McNair, William  an early settler and farmer of Lenawee County, MI; as colonel of the 8th Regiment, Michigan Territory Militia, he assembled his troops at Niles early in June 1832 under [see] Brig. Gen. Joseph Brown`s direction, and came to Chicago under [see] Maj. Gen. John R. Williams during the Black Hawk War, remaining there from June 11 to June 22, 1832.  [714]

McNeil, Lt. Col. John    from a Scottish-Irish family that had established itself in New Hampshire in 1718; at 6 feet 6 inches, he was the rival of General Scott in size; commandant at Fort Dearborn from October 1821 to July 1823; married to Elizabeth Pierce, half sister of President Franklin Pierce; a daughter was born to them, possibly the first child born at the new fort; died in 1850.

McPherson, Hugh  U.S. Army private and drummer in the military band at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Oct. 20, 1807; killed in the initial action at the massacre of 1812. [708] [226]

Meacham, George Standish  (June 11, 1832-Jan. 22, 1915) born in Benson, VT, son of [see] Harvey Porter and Elizabeth (née Aiken); came with his family to Meacham`s Grove in 1834, living there until the late 1840s when the family removed to Mankato, MN. He married his cousin Caroline Jessie Clark, Carrie (1839-1864; aunt Electa Meacham [Mrs. Curtis] Clark`s daughter) of Meacham`s Grove, IL, in Nicollet, MN. On a ranch outside Mankato, children Julia Electa (1860-1937; Mrs. John Albert White), Mary Agnes (1862- ; Mrs. Frank LeDuc), and Caroline Jessie (1864-1918, Mrs. Frank LeDuc) were born. George married his second wife Margaret (née Benedict Drake; Brooklyn, OH) in Hebron in 1866; they had two surviving children: Herbert Bradner (1869-1936) and Margaret Sarah (1876-1963; Mrs. Harold T. Burnett). With Julia Electa, her husband John White and children Florence May (1885-1966; Mrs.Wilber Squibb) and George Haven (1886-1889), George and Margaret moved to another farm at Medical Lake, WA, then to Spokane. In 1911 the family moved to another farm in Gooding, ID, with second daughter Irene Genevieve (1897-1983; Mrs. Claude Jessie Privett); between 1919 and 1929 they farmed near Boise, ID, until Julia and John retired to Florence`s home in Livermore, CA, where they died. Descendant of the Mayflower`s Myles Standish, George Standish died in Mondovi, WA, and was buried in the Spokane Cemetery. [433a]

Meacham, Harvey Porter  (Aug. 9, 1800-Nov. 28, 1878) born in Pawlet, VT, son of Abraham and Lydia (née Standish) Meacham; came from Sandy Creek, NY, with his brothers Silas and Daniel, following their brother [see] Lyman. Harvey, his wife Fanny Elizabeth (née Aiken; 1804-1839; Benson, VT) and sons Royal DeSalvo (1828-1906) and [see] George Standish (1832-1915), settled in 1834 at Meacham`s Grove [Medinah, three miles NE of Bloomingdale] on land he acquired and farmed; there Agnes Ann (1835- ; Mrs. George Volney McGraw) and Newton (1837-1840) were born; when Fanny died in June 1839, Harvey married Vilura Dodge (Aug. 9, 1800-Nov. 28, 1878) born in Pawlet, VT, son of Abraham and Lydia (née Standish) Meacham; came from Sandy Creek, NY, following his brothers [see] Lyman, Silas and Daniel; Harvey, his wife Fanny Elizabeth (née Aiken; 1804-1839; Benson, VT) and sons Royal DeSalvo (1828-1906) and [see] George Standish (1832-1915), settled in 1834 at Meacham`s Grove [Medinah, three miles NE of Bloomingdale] on land he acquired and farmed; there Agnes Ann (1835- ; Mrs. George Volney McGraw) and Newton (1837-1840) were born; when Fanny died in June 1839, Harvey married Vilura Dodge (1805-1891, Brandon, VT) on October 13 at Meacham`s Grove where Frances Caroline (1840-c.1923; Mrs. Larue P. Parsons), Henry Harvey (1844-1864), Mary Elizabeth (1845- ; Mrs. Ebenezer Fletcher) and Eliza Matilda (1847-1929; Mrs. James Wilson) were also born; the family then moved to Kerns, MN. Harvey Porter and Vilura are buried in the Hebron Cemetery in Nicollet, MN. [433a]

Meacham, Lyman and Silas  born in Pawlet, VT, sons of Abraham and Lydia (née Standish) Meacham; Lyman (Oct. 5, 1797-c.1892) arrived from Sandy Creek, NY, in 1833, and acquired the NW quarter of Section 4 in Township 39 N, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; Lyman`s wife died in the autumn of 1833 at Meacham Grove [Medinah, three miles NE of Bloomingdale], and was buried in a coffin made from wagon box boards, and within the precinct`s first election [then still Cook County], he was selected justice of the peace at Elk Grove; [see] brother Harvey Porter followed with his family, also settling at Meacham Grove in 1834. Silas (July 2, 1783-1852) came with his second wife Eliza (née Clark; Mar. 20, 1828, Pawlet, VT); in the 1844 General Directory he is listed as the keeper of the [see] lighthouse, residing at the New York House with H.T. Meacham, a hostler. [314a, 506] [433a]

Méachelle  Potawatomi chief in the Chicago locale who alleged to have, as a child, observed the massacre of the last Illinois Indians at Starved Rock at the hands of the united Potawatomi and Ottawa, and as an old man related the event to John D. Caton. For this there exists no contemporary documentation.

Mead, Hannah  see Lane, Joseph.

Mechkigi  Potawatomi chief [mashkig, meaning `swamp,` unless mashkiki, meaning `medicine`], living temporarily at Chicago in the late 1770s when the village had been abandoned by white settlers and traders during the Revolutionary War; both Mechkigi and Nanaloibi, a fellow chief, were much courted at the time by both British and American agents. [456b]

medical society    see Cook County Medical Society and Chicago Medical Society; also see physicians.

Medora, Augusta  see Gale, Stephen Francis.

Meeker, Joseph S.  (1805-1872) born in New Jersey; carpenter who came to Chicago with his wife Adeline in the summer of 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and joined the Presbyterian congregation in September, constructing their first meeting house later that fall at Lake and Clark streets; having brought with him from the East a small collection of books suitable for religious education [Edwin O. Gale called them “biographies of goody-goody boys”], he donated them to the church and became librarian for the congregation when its Sunday school was formally organized on Mar. 16, 1835; also that year constructed Chicago`s first schoolhouse, built for that purpose, on part of the Presbyterian church property, for which the promoter and benefactor John S. Wright paid him $505.93; his name was on a school-related petition signed on September 19, as he was active in public school organization; in October signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; 1839 City Directory: carpenter and builder, 165 Clark St.; died in Chicago. [12, 319] [351]

Meldrum, Anne  (1823–Jan. 19, 1905) born in Detroit; daughter of John and Sara Lytle Meldrum, niece of Eleanor Kinzie; following her parents` deaths, at the age of eight in 1831, she joined her cousin John H. Kinzie`s family in Chicago; she eventually returned to Detroit and married prominent druggist Robert Dermont with whom she had three children. [484a]

Meleagris gallopavo  see turkey, wild.

Melish, John  (1771-1822) born in Scotland; left Glasgow in 1798 for the West Indies, was in Georgia in 1806-07, returned to Scotland but was back in the U.S. the next year, settling in Philadelphia in 1811 where he became a map publisher who, in 1816, issued the first wall map to show the entire extent of the United States with the Contiguous British & Spanish Possessions; the map became very popular and went through 23 editions. After his death, he was succeded by [see] Henry Schenk Tanner as America`s preeminent map publisher in Philadelphia [This excerpt showing the Chicago region is from the 1820 printing of Melish’s wall map.] [681] [682]

Mellan, Lemira  see See, Rev. William.

Membré, Père Zenobius (Zénobe)  (1645-1689) born in France; Franciscan priest who spoke the Illinois language and served briefly at the Mission de la Conception in southern Illinois in 1679; was present in 1680, together with Frs. Hennepin and Ribourde, when La Salle built Fort Crevecoeur at Lake Peoria, probably passed through the Chicago portage repeatedly during that expedition; later was the chaplain for La Salle`s and Tonti`s expeditionary party via Chicago [January 1682] to the mouth of the Mississippi, and for La Salle`s final, fatal expedition which ended in Texas [1684-1687]. Here Father Membré was killed by hostile Indians as one of the last surviving members of the abandoned French Texas colony. [12, 295, 269a, 486a, 514b, 519] [611]

Ménard, Père René  (1605-1661) born in Paris, came to Canada as a Jesuit instructor in 1640; preceded Father Allouez as missionary priest among the Ottawa at Keweena Bay on the S shore of Lake Superior in 1660-61, assisted by Adrien Jolliet; died soon in the northern woods. [His name is listed on the Marquette monument {see Monuments section} of 1926, but we find no evidence of Father Ménard having worked in or visited Illinois; eds.] [12]

Ménard, Pierre, Jr.  see Ménard, Pierre, Sr.

Ménard, Pierre, Sr.  (1766-1844) French fur trader and merchant from Saint Antoine, Canada, who settled at Kaskaskia in 1790; was elected to the first Illinois senate in 1812; served as senate president until 1818, when he became Illinois` first lieutenant governor; visited Chicago in 1835, ruefully sharing then with Father St. Cyr that he once owned part of the Kinzie estate, having paid $50 at the time, but later sold the land to John Kinzie for the same price [his name is on the list of purchasers of choice lots of Sept. 27, 1830, the first day of government land sales; together with E. Roberts he had owned lot 4 of block 29 {see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright}, but by 1833 Roberts was listed as the sole owner]. On September 28, the twelfth day of the 1833 Chicago Treaty, Menard was chosen “to serve as purchaser and appraiser of horses for the use of Indians” jointly with David R. Porter and Benjamin B. Kercheval by the Board of Commissioners; `Pierre Menard Fils.` was a member of the 1833 Chicago Indian Treaty commission, and Pierre Ménard, Jr., probably the same person and the son of Ménard Sr., received $2000 for claims at the Chicago Treaty, plus an additional $500 to hold in trust for [see] Marie Tremblé, plus $250 “in right of G. W. Campbell”; a ‘Peter Ménard (Maumee)’ also received $500 for a claim. Ménard`s bronze statue is on the grounds of the capitol building in Springfield; street names: Menard Avenue, Menard Drive [both at 5800 W]. [12, 267, 268, 319] [345]

Menéndez de Avilés, Pedro  Spanish expedition leader who founded St. Augustine in 1565; became the earliest permanent settlement on the North American continent and claimed jurisdiction N to and beyond the Chicago region.

Mephitis mephitis  see skunk.

Merians, Mary  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Mermet, Père Jean  (Sept. 23, 1664-Sept. 15, 1716) born at Grenoble, France; became a Jesuit novice at Avignon at age 19, continued studies at Embrun in 1685-1686 and taught at Carpentras, Roanne and Vesoul, then completed studies in Dôle (1692-96) and came to Canada in 1698 as a Jesuit teacher; in 1699 he served at the Mission de l`Ange Gardien in Chicago, and was placed in charge when Father Pinet left for the Peoria mission; during July 1700 he wrote his vows in Latin which would be forwarded to the Jesuits in Rome; in this work he identifies the mission as Mission de l`Anges Sacré. Mermet left the Guardian Angel Mission early in 1702, thus ending its existence; he subsequently aided Father Aveneau at the St. Joseph Mission in southern Michigan until the autumn of 1702, ministered to Mascoutens in southern Illinois until 1704, and finally worked among the Kaskaskia until his death. Father Mermet was a contributor to the 672-page French/Miami-Illinois dictionary written predominantly by [see] Father Pierre François Pinet. Mermet’s handwriting appears on 118 of those pages. The manuscript was discovered and analyzed by the linguist Michael McCafferty in 1999. [269a, 464c, 464i] [514b]

Merrick`s Hotel  mentioned in Enoch Chase`s 1834 letter as existent on the Chicago Road, halfway between Calumet and Chicago. [12]

Merrill, A.    subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833.

Merrill, George  (1812-1901) born in Canada; arrived in 1834 with the Joseph Lovett family and settled on Lovett`s claim one mile NW of Whiskey Point in Jefferson Township; married to Julia Lovett. [13]

Merrill, George W.  from New Hampshire, arrived in 1835; in October signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade; 1839 City Directory: dry goods merchant, 166 Lake St.; later became prominent in the railroad business (Fox River Valley Line) and was a member of the second Presbyterian church. [12] [351]

Merrill, Isaac    on the post office list of unclaimed letters for April 1, 1834.

Merrill, Sarah  see Gage, Jared.

Mesier, Peter A.  New York lithography firm that published several of the first maps of Chicago in the 1830s, one being the map of “73 Building Lots in Chicago to be sold at Auction by James Bleeker & Sons on Thursday, 22nd of October” [existent in the Newberry Library; those involved were likely in New York; eds.].

Mesquakie Indians  see Fox Indians.

messisipi  Father Allouez`s spelling of Mississippi; he was one of the first to have heard of the great river from prairie Indians, among them the Illinois, who occasionally visited his Mission de Saint-Esprit, established in 1665.

Metea  Potawatomi chief [mede means `medicine man`], took part in the Fort Dearborn massacre. [456b]

Methodist congregation  occasional visits to Chicago by clergy from the Methodist Fox River mission took place as early as 1826, among them Rev. Isaac Scarritt`s visit in 1828, during which he conducted a well attended service at Fort Dearborn; in 1830 the blacksmith and Methodist Episcopalian preacher Rev. William See moved to Chicago and delivered Sunday sermons on an irregular basis; in late 1831 Rev. Stephen R. Beggs arrived, moved into Reverend See`s former residence, the “school house” on the river`s W side, just N of Wolf Point, where in 1832 he was first joined and then succeeded by Rev. Jesse Walker; regular Sunday service began at the “school house,” at the house of Mark Noble, Sr., and elsewhere; the congregation was not formally organized until 1834 when it acquired its own 28-by-36-foot frame building in the second half of that year, built by John Stewart and Rev. Henry Whitehead at a cost of $580, at the corner of North Water and Clark streets; religious services were held here until 1836. At the end of 1834, Reverend Walker became superannuated, and was followed by Rev. John T. Mitchell in 1835; Whitehead received a license to preach in 1834 and did so on occasion in 1835, prior to Reverend Mitchell`s term. On Nov. 20, 1835, the congregation was incorporated as the Methodist Episcopal Church of Chicago, and in 1857 was renamed First Methodist Episcopal Church of Chicago. [12]

Methodist Episcopal Church of Chicago  see Methodist congregation.

métis  (pronounced /may- TEE/, the final – is normally not pronounced in English) French, designating an individual of mixed parentage: Indian and French or French Canadian; Abbè Thaumur de la Source, visiting the Chicago area in 1699 with the St. Cosme party, relates in a letter: “I will mention also, that many Canadians marry among the Illinois”; métis were in the majority in Chicago from c.1790 to 1832, not counting the members of the Fort Dearborn garrison. [456b, 533-4, 536] [537]

Mett, Oliver  mentioned as having lived at Chicago in 1828. [220]

Meucret, Gilles  member of La Salle`s 1682-83 expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, which took the party through Chicagoland in January 1682 on its way S; was later honored by the king for his services. [46]

Meules, M. Jacques de    intendant of New France, 1682-1686.

Meurin, Father Sébastien Louis  (Oct. 30, 1707-Aug. 13, 1777) native of Champagne; entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1729; ministered 21 years in Louisiane; went to Canada in 1741, and the following year was sent to the Illinois mission where he labored at Kaskasia until the expulsion in 1763; the lone Jesuit granted permission to remain in the Illinois country, he became the curé of the French parish in Cahokia; first [see] vicar-general for the Illinois country, appointed in 1767 by Bishop Olivier Briand of Quebec. Unable to exercise vicarial powers, he was restricted to the curacy of French parishes in the region: Vincennes [IN], Kaskaskia, Cahokia, St. Louis, and Prairie du Rocher; church records written by him begin in 1749; in poor health throughout his life, he died at Prairie du Rocher (Randolph County, IL). On his travels between Illinois and Canada by way of Michilimackinac, Father Meurin almost certainly passed through the Chicago site, the absence of written records to that effect notwithstanding. [665, v. 70:310] [664a]

Meyers, Leo W.  (June 26, 1834-July 31, 1897) also listed as Myers [by Andreas], Myer [on A. Hubbard`s list]; son of Mathias Nathaniel and Dorothy Blondine A. Meyers; born at Fort Dearborn on June 26, 1834; grew up in Chicago, and married Helen/Nettie Evans (1847-1893); the couple had four daughters: Nellie/Helen (c.1867-1947), Lydia (1872-1933), Blondine (1877-1938), and Sybell Sophia (1881-1939); became prominent in the city`s fire department; Leo died in Chicago on July 31, 1897. [351]

Meyers, Mathias Nathaniel  (-1851) also listed as Meyer, Mayer and Myer; German baker who arrived from Alsace-Lorraine in the spring of 1831 and opened a bakery at Wolf Point; came with his wife Dorothy Blondine A. (1799-1879); a son, [see] Leo was born at Fort Dearborn on June 26, 1834; 1843 Chicago Directory: res Michigan, bet N. Clark and Lasalle; 1844 Chicago Directory: house Michigan st. b Clark and Lasalle sts. Mathias died in 1851; he is considered Chicago`s first settler of German birth by some, but Wellmacher and Van Horne are recorded earlier. [342, 351; Chicago Genealogy Vol. 9 No. 4:171, Summer 1977] [12]

Meyo, Michael  with his consort Margaret Mollard had their son Joseph baptized by Father St. Cyr on May 26, 1833, in St. Mary`s Catholic Church. [657c]

Miami  northern branch of the Algonquian-speaking Indians inhabiting the country between the Wabash and the Illinois Rivers [myaamiiwamyaamia meaning `downstream person` {of the St. Joseph River that flows from southwestern Michigan through South Bend, IN}]; related to the Illinois and speaking a similar language; the Wea (French, Ouiatanon) is a subtribe of the Miami. The tribes inhabited Chicagoland as well as the areas of Milwaukee, Racine, Kenosha, Waukegan, and Whiting (IN) at the time of arrival by the first European explorers. Throughout the late 1660s into the 1670s, they traveled to the Green Bay region to trade; in c.1690 a band of Miami established a village on the main portion of the Chicago River, and a second village soon developed on the south branch, attracting French soldiers, missionaries, and traders. In 1695 Cadillac mentioned a visit to Mackinac by “the Illinois of Chicagou,” but they were more likely Miami. About 1700 de Liette, who ran a trading post in Chicago at that time, estimated 300 families in each village, with a total population between 3,000 and 4,000. During the middle of the 18th century, the Illinois were decimated by wars with the Potawatomi, Kickapoo, Ottawa, Chippewa, Sac, Fox, and Winnebago and were forced to relocate S into the upper Wabash and Maumee River valleys, much reduced in numbers; they left the Chicago region permanently about the year 1718, though Charlevoix made reference to them there in 1727. [See] Little Turtle, who signed the Treaty of Greenville, was their most well-known leader, with a large village where Fort Wayne was erected in 1794. The Potawatomi then became the dominant tribe near Chicago and remained so until the forced relocation of all Indians by the U.S. government. For a firsthand description of appearance and character traits of the Miami, see under entry for St. Cosme; street name: Miami Avenue (6124 N). [12, 71, 124, 168a, 393c, 456b] [651]

Miami River  also River of the Miamis; early name for the [see] St. Joseph River of southwestern Michigan flowing through South Bend, IN; sometimes confused with two other, similarly named rivers: the Miami of the Lake, an early name for the Maumee River of Ohio until about 1816, and the Great Miami, which flows into the Ohio River near Cincinnati. [456b]

Miami-Illinois  an Algonquian language spoken by various Indian tribes during the earliest times of contact with Europeans in what are now the states of Indiana and Illinois. The main tribes were the Miami and the Peoria, Kaskaskia, Cahokia, Piankeshaw, Michigamea, and Tamaroa. Few native speakers of this language remain. [456a]

Miamitown   British settlement in Indiana at the site of the later Fort Wayne; John Kinzie owned a substantial trading establishment here in 1789, which he abandoned when fleeing before the advancing army of General Harmar in 1790.

Michel, Jean  French Canadian surgeon for La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi River which passed through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on it`s way south; Michel is the second European physician known to have been to Chicagoland; see Surgeon for the first one. [486a] [46]

Michigamea  also Mitchagamie, Mitchigamie, meaning `great-water` or `great-lake`; one of five tribes of the Illinois confederation; also an early name for the Kaskaskia River. [34a] [456b]

Michigan City Trail  inland branch of the Chicago-Detroit Road that passed through Baillytown, [Hammond, Riverdale, and Roseland]; eventually named Indiana Avenue, which continues north into Chicago.

Michigan City, IN  on the southern shore of Lake Michigan at the mouth of Trail Creek, formerly called Rivière du Chemin, where many Indian trails crossed which were later used by European travelers and settlers. The earliest recorded [see] tornado in the area, in 1774, first hit near the Chicagou portage, crossed the lake and destroyed many trees here. In 1775 [see] Jean Baptiste Point de Sable, the African-American who seven years later founded modern Chicago, began his fur-trading operations at the mouth of Rivière du Chemin in association with the Kaskaskia trader Pierre Durand; their cabin is thought to have been located in present Krueger Park. In 1779 Point de Sable, who took his surname from the large sand spit at the river’s mouth, was arrested by British troops under Lt. William Bennett, wrongly suspected of sympathies with the rebels against British rule. Settlers arrived in the 1820s; on the bank of Trail Creek the Vail sawmill opened in 1832, one of many to furnish lumber for the Chicago boom. Traveling the road in October, 1833, Charles Cleaver stopped overnight, observing the next morning an “… embryo city, which contained about fifty inhabitants. The buildings consisted of one small brick tavern, a frame one opposite, a blacksmith-shop, a store, and half-a-dozen houses, built in, on, above, and below the sand. It was literally a place of sand, … .” In 1835 the Detroit-Michigan City portion of the road took three days by stagecoach, the Michigan City-Chicago portion took two days. In the July 15, 1835, Chicago Democrat, John Calhoun reported receiving the first issue of Michigan City Gazette, its editor writing of “a young city … with its four-story frame buildings.” [69, 70, 386a, 508b, 649] [145]

Michigan County, IL    proposed in 1828 by a petition to the Illinois General Assembly, originating in Chicago, which the new county was meant to include, but never created; for details, see Chronology, Oct. 20, 1828.

Michigan Lake    see Lake Michigan.

Michigan peninsular traffic  trans-peninsular traffic routes between Lake Huron and Lake Michigan were well known by the Indians long before the first Europeans arrived on the North American continent. These routes were shown to the early French travelers during the
middle of the 17th century. To them they became of great importance once Fort Pontchartrain was establisched at Detroit (1701) for both military and commercial purposes, and Fort St. Joseph was reestablished at Niles (1715) as a subsidiary. In addition, there was the small French trading post at Chicagou. The long route from Detroit to St. Joseph and Chicagou went north through the entire length of Lake Huron, past Michilimackinac, then S to the lower end of Lake Michigan. The short route crossed E to W on the rivers of the peninsula, with only one portage required between a branch of the Saginaw River to one of the Grand River. It soon became the preferred way to travel. [For a wealth of additional detail on this subject the reader may wish to consult the 2003 book by Timothy J. Kent, Paddling Across the Peninsulaeds.] [398b]

michigan  Algonquin word meaning `great lake`; street name: Michigan Avenue (100 E). [Michigan Street, now Hubbard Street, is extant on John S. Wright`s survey manuscript in 1834 and Edward B. Talcott`s “Chicago with the Several Additions compiled from the recorded plats in the Clerk`s Office, Cook County, Illinois,” published in 1836; eds.] [456b]

Michigan  first steamboat (472 tons) to have cabins on deck; built at Detroit in 1833 by Oliver Newberry, and first to enter the Chicago River and pass through the recently completed Dearborn Street drawbridge on May 4, 1834; was built with two engines side by side of 80 horse power each, each with a propeller, at Detroit in the spring of 1833; was commanded by Captain Pickering (later by Capt. Chesley Blake, according to N. Norton and the June 8, 1835, Chicago American); one of three steamers to call at Chicago during that year. The Michigan made additional calls on Aug. 21, 1834 (Captain Pease), and in 1835 under Captain Blake on June 29 and July 26, each time coming from Buffalo, NY.

Michigan  130-ton schooner built at Perrysburg, OH, in 1832; first called at Chicago on July 20, 1834, coming from Buffalo, NY; returned on July 20 and Nov. 9, 1835, under Captain Dixon. [48]

Michilimackinac  Ojibwa, mitchimakinâk meaning `great turtle`; [In English, the final -c should be pronounced, matching Algonquian custom rather than later French influence; some maps and writings show the word Michilimackinac spelled with -illi-, but -ili has been shown to be preferable by etymological studies; Anglicized pronunciation /MISH-e-le-MAC-kin-mac/]; the name Michilimackinac applies not only to the entire region of the strait formed by the confluence of Lakes Michigan, Superior, and Huron, but also, and specifically, to the following three distinct sites: (1) Point Ignace on the northern mainland, (2) Mackinac Island in the strait, and (3) Mackinaw City on the southern mainland. At Point Ignace, where the town of St. Ignace is now located, a settlement of French fur traders already existed when, in 1671, the Mission de Saint-Ignace was moved here from Mackinac Island. A small fort was added for the protection of the traders and the mission; from here Father Marquette and Jolliet left to explore the Mississippi and found the Chicago site in 1673. From 1683-1685, [see] Oliver Morel de la Durantaye served as commandant at the fort, the same Durantaye who in 1684 came to Chicago to construct a fort that he left garrisoned intermittently for the protection of local traders. In 1715, the French moved fort and mission to a site on the southern shore of the strait, but the name Michilimackinac remained the same; it is now Mackinaw City. From 1761 to 1796, the fort was under British control, from 1796 to 1812 American, from 1812 to 1815 British again, and since then it has remained American. Here were the western headquarters of the American Fur Co., and to this place the Chicago traders sent their furs, and from here they received their supplies and pay. Prior to 1830, Michilimackinac had been the site of the only—and remarkably active—town within a vast wilderness, and a way station for men and supplies destined for frontier military fortifications at Green Bay, Chicago, Prairie du Chien, and St. Anthony Falls.
Excerpt from Jacques Nicolas Bellin`s 1744 map of the Great Lakes, showing the Michilimackinac locations of the successive French missions and forts in this strategic area. [456b]

Michilimackinac Island  small island in the Straits of Mackinac, later called Mackinac Island; here Father Dablon began the Mission of Saint-Ignace in 1670, but removed to the mainland of the upper peninsula the following year [St. Ignace], after Father Marquette had joined him.

Midlothian Turnpike  an early Indian trail which once passed through Batchelors Grove Cemetery. [387a]

Migneret, Pierre  member of La Salle`s expedition to the mouth of the Mississippi, passing through the Chicago portage in January 1682 on the way south. [486a]

Miguly, Rudolph  also Rudolphy Migleley; arrived in 1834 from Germany; 1839 City Directory: grocery, Randolph Street, near LaSalle; lived on 2430 Prairie Ave. in 1885. [12] [351]

Miles, Susan  Beaubien, Alexander.

Military Tract  also bounty lands; a popular name given to a section of the state of Illinois, set apart under an act of Congress, passed May 6, 1812, as bounties of land, 160 acres each, for soldiers in the war with Great Britain commencing the same year; the tract was located between the Mississippi and the Illinois Rivers [see Maps, 1823, Fielding Lucas, Jr.], was surveyed in 1815-16, and comprised of 207 townships each measuring six miles square, plus additional fractional townships, altogether providing 3.5 million acres for claims. Settlement of such claims [320 acres per veteran] began to stimulate growth in 1823; both the Military Tract and Chicago were part of Pike County then and most of the pioneers came through Chicago.

militia    see Fort Dearborn militia.

Millen, Ellen Adell  see Stewart, John.

Miller & Company  New York lithography firm that published a real estate map of Chicago in 1835, “Map of Lots at Chicago for Sale by Franklin & Jenkins on Friday, 8th May, 1835, at 12 O`clock at the Merchants Exchange” [within the Newberry Library; those involved are unknown, likely partners in New York; eds.].

Miller House  also Miller`s Tavern; originally a log cabin built in 1820 by Alexander Robinson on the projection of land between the north branch and the main channel of the Chicago River, opposite Wolf Point; in 1827 Samuel Miller and his brother John, with Archibald Clybourne holding a partnership interest, added a two-story house to the cabin, fronting the river; John Fonda and Boiseley stayed there in January 1828; initially used as a store and as shelter for travelers, the structure soon became a regular tavern, licensed on April 13, 1831; when Sam Miller removed to Elkhart, IN, after his wife`s death in 1832, P.F.W. Peck moved in with goods and managed a store.

Miller’s Tavern   see Miller House.

Miller, Charles  first listed as living in Chicago in 1833, and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; married Mary Curtis on Aug. 21, 1842; listed as barber and hairdresser in the 1844 City Directory. [319] [319]

Miller, George G.  purchased real estate in blocks 18 and 36 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] and soon thereafter sold it to George Walker prior to 1833.

Miller, Jacob  (-1849) from Virginia; cousin of John and Samuel Miller, also cousin of Benjamin Hall; married in Virginia the widow Mary Ann Daniel with two children [Harmon Daniel and Aramosa Daniel]; arrived in Chicago in June 1832 with Hall and Thomas Clybourne, just before the Black Hawk War, and served as a volunteer private in Captain Hogan`s company; left and returned with his family to settle in Chicago on May 25, 1834; did blacksmithing, helped in harbor and pier construction; reported later that at that time the mouth of the Chicago “river was about 200 feet below Madison street. I know I lived right there in 1834”; made a government claim on Mill Creek [tributary of the Des Plaines River in Newport Township, Lake County] in late summer of 1835 and built a saw- and gristmill soon after; served as justice of the peace; 1839 City Directory: blacksmith on N State Street, corner of Indiana [Grand]; sold the mill in 1849 and left for California, dying en route; widow Mary Ann Daniel Miller lived at 42 Clybourn Avenue in 1885; children: Harmon Daniel, lived in Lake County, about 10 miles W of Waukegan, in 1876; and Aramosa Daniel, who married George N. Powell; they kept a hotel at Holstein, Cook Co., about 1836, and she later lived there with a second husband. [692b, 706] [12]

Miller, John  brother of Samuel Miller; came in 1831; ran a tannery with Benjamin Hall immediately N of Samuel Miller`s tavern; purchased Wellmaker`s four lots on block 14, and by 1830 the Miller brothers, together with Hall, owned the entire block; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and elected town trustee (first board) on August 10; in 1834 settled in Niles Township and built a sawmill on the N branch of the Chicago River with father-in-law [see] Elan Crane; 1839 City Directory: tanner, north branch and fire warden, fourth ward; died at Galesburg. [13, 319, 692b] [12]

Miller, Joseph  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1835. [342]

Miller, Peter  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted in December 1805; declared unfit for service early in 1811 but reenlisted later on July 24; one of the sick soldiers killed within or near the sick wagon at the 1812 massacre. [708] [226]

Miller, Ralph  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted in December 1805; left Chicago when his term expired Dec. 19, 1810. [226]

Miller, Samuel  brother of John; arrived in 1826 or earlier; married Elizabeth Kinzie, daughter of Margaret McKenzie Kinzie Hall, on July 29, 1826, John Kinzie J.P., her father, officiating; the couple had three children: Margaret Ellen, Montgomery, and Filly, who died early. According to G. Hubbard, “Samuel Miller bought a small log cabin on the opposite side of the river from Wentworth, and south of the present Kinzie Street bridge, to which he added a two-story log building [in 1827], finishing the outside with split clapboards. These two public buildings [Wolf Point Tavern and Miller`s Tavern] were the first Chicago could boast”; was licensed to operate a tavern with Archibald Clybourne on May 2, 1829, and licensed to operate a ferry at the forks on June 2, 1829, again jointly with Clybourne; with his brother in 1830, purchased from the government the land in block 14 on which their buildings stood [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; was elected Cook County commissioner on March 7, 1831, when the board was first created; received a county license as an innkeeper on April 13, 1831; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on October 5, and signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; in March 1832 built a roofless estray pen on the SE corner of the public square, – Chicago`s 1st – public building, for which he billed the town $20 but received only $12, because it did not meet specifications agreed upon; also in 1832 built – Chicago`s 1st – bridge, 10 feet wide and for foot traffic only, made of floating logs, that crossed the north branch at where Kinzie Street is; during the Black Hawk War served in the Chicago militia under Captain Kercheval, being listed in the muster roll of May 3, 1832. In July of that year, his wife Elizabeth died and Miller with his children moved to Elkhart, IN, where their uncle, William Kinzie, had his home. Miller was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and received $100 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty in September; as Margaret Hall`s grandchildren – Margaret Ellen, Montgomery, and Filly Miller – received $800 at the same treaty, held by trustee Richard J. Hamilton; Samuel received $100 in payment for a claim at the treaty. In May 1880 John Wentworth noted that Samuel Miller was then the County Judge of Du Page County; also see entries for Miller House, estray pen and Kinzie, Elizabeth; street name: Miller Street (1028 W). [12, 13, 319, 421a, 708:65] [351]

Millhouse, Susan  see Simmons, John.

mills  the earliest sawmill in the Chicago region was built between 1828 and 1832 by David and Bernardus H. Laughton at Laughton’s Ford of the Des Plaines River; another one, further out, in the area was the Andrew steam powered sawmill, built in 1830 on the Detroit-Chicago Road E of La Porte, IN; sometime in 1831 Capt. James Walker opened gristmills and a sawmill on the Du Page River at Walker`s Grove, and throughout 1832 lumber was occasionally hauled to Chicago by oxen team; by 1833 the steam powered sawmill built by the Chicago firm Bickerdyke & Noble on the E bank of the Des Plaines River [just N of Lake Street bridge, becoming the nucleus for the development of Oak Park and River Forest communities] met the growing demand for building materials and would furnish the lumber for the Chicago River piers when harbor construction began in 1833, with Indians among the workers; in 1832 the Vail mill opened on Trail Creek near Michigan City. All local mills combined could not satisfy the need for lumber during the Chicago boom period, and increasingly lumber had to be hauled on wagons from Indiana or by ship from Michigan. The first lumber merchant [see] David Carver plied his schooner in the summer of 1833 between St. Joseph and his lumberyard, located between LaSalle and Wells streets; by 1835 competition included Kinzie, Hunter & Co., and Jones, Clark & Co. For additional contemporary comment by Charles Cleaver on lumber and sawmills see below.
… [I will] give you some idea of the trouble and difficulties … [the first settlers] found in providing timber and materials with which to build even the small houses and stores that were put up in those early days…. The whole stock of pine lumber in the village when I came here [late October, 1833] amounted to 5,000 or 6,000 feet of boards, and that was held at $60 a thousand. Previous to 1833 most of the houses had been built of logs, some round, just as they came from the woods; while the more pretentious, belonging to the officers of the army and the great men of the village, were built of hewn logs. There was a small sawmill run by water about five or six miles up the North Branch, where they had built a dam across the stream, getting a three or four foot head of water; there was also a small steam sawmill, run by Captain Bemsley Huntoon, situated a little south of Division Street, at the mouth of a slough that emptied itself into the river at that point, in both of which they sawed out such timber as grew in the woods adjoining, consisting of oak, elm, poplar, white ash, etc. Of such lumber most of the houses were built, and any carpenter that had ever been compelled to use it, particularly in its green state, will appreciate its quality. In drying it will shrink, warp, and twist in every way, drawing out the nails, and, after a summer has passed, the siding will gape open, letting the wind through every joint. Such was the stuff used for building in 1833 and 1834. Some even did worse than that, and went into the woods for their scantling, cutting down small trees and squaring one side of them with a broadax. One of the largest houses built that winter, by Daniel Elston, was built with that very kind, both for uprights and rafters. During the summer of 1834 the supply of pine lumber was greatly increased, and the price much lower. I think the most of it came from Canada, but even as late as 1837 timber was so scarce (and heavy timber was used in large buildings in those times, the frame being pinned together by mortise and tenon) that, wanting considerable of it to put up a factory, I found it cheaper to purchase ten acres of land, ten or twelve miles up the North Branch, from which I cut the necessary logs, hauled them into the city on sleighs, and had them squared on the ground with the broadax. But heavy timber for frame buildings soon after that came into disuse, as it was found the present way of putting up frame buildings was much stronger and better. It used then to be called [see] balloon framing. G.W. Snow, an old settler, had the credit of first originating the idea. [145, 473, 734]

Water powered gristmills and sawmills in the Chicago region are listed below in chronological order of construction. For detail, see entries on their builders. This listing is largely derived from the work of Philip E. Vierling, where additional information can be found. [692b]
Between 1828 and 1832 – Sawmill built by David and Bernardus H. Laughton at Laughton’s Ford of the Des Plaines River.
1831/1832 – Sawmill built by Joseph Napier at Naper`s Settlement on the E side of the Du Page River.
1832 – Gristmill and sawmill built by James Walker at Walker’s Grove, a mile S of Plainfield, on the E side of the Du Page River.
1832 – Steam powered sawmill built by Mark Noble, Jr. on the N branch of the Chicago River near the southern end of Goose Island; became known as Huntoon’s Sawmill.
1832 – Sawmill built by Colonel Sayre on the N side of Hickory Creek in Will County.
1833 – Sawmill built by George Bickerdyke and Mark Noble, Jr. where Lake Street crosses the Des Plaines River in what is now River Forest.
1833/34 – Gristmill built by John Norman on the Des Plaines River at what is now Joliet.
1833/34 – Sawmill built by Joseph Norman on the S side of Hickory Creek about 1.25 miles downstream from what is now New Lenox.
1834 – Sawmill built by John Miller on the E side of the N branch of the Chicago River in Niles Township.
1834 – Gristmill built by James McKee on the W side of the Des Plaines River at Joliet.
1834 – Gristmill built by Bailey Hobson on the W side of the Du Page River at what is now Naperville.
1834 – Sawmill built by Daniel Warren on the W side of the Du Page River at what is now Warrenville.
1834 – Sawmill built by Jedediah Woolley, Jr. on the E side of the Du Page River in Will County.
1835 – Sawmill built by Hiram Kennicott on the W side of the Des Plaines River in Vernon Township.
1835/36 – Sawmill built by Jacob Miller on the S side of Mill Creek in Lake County’s Newport Township. [13]

Mills, Benjamin  (May 2, 1796-June 6, 1841) born in Chesterfield, MA; son of Josiah and Esther (née Strong) Mills; came to Bond County, IL, in c.1819; was a county judge in 1822 and register of the U.S. Land Office at Vandalia, 1823-1829; married Eliza Brewster on July 24, 1826 at Worthington, MA. As a circuit riding attorney in Galena he traveled to Chicago in early April of 1832, in the company of attorney (see) James M. Strode and Judge Richard M. Young, and became aware of the early unrest of the Black Hawk War, and warned the Chicago settlement of the impending danger; elected to the IL House of Representatives that year; in 1834 was defeated as a candidate for U.S. congressman, returning to Worthington, MA, a few years later. [714] [12]

Mills, Elias  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; taken prisoner by Indians at the massacre of 1812, and remained in captivity at the Indian villages along the Fox River for nearly two years; was then ransomed through the help of Michael Buisson, son of the trader Louis Buisson. [226]

Milwaukee, WI  early names include Milwakee, Milwakie, Milouaki, Melloki, and Melleoki; Chicago`s rival town on the western shore of Lake Michigan, about 90 miles N of Chicago at the mouth of the river of the same name, was incorporated as a town in 1837. The town was preceded by an Indian village of the same name, meaning `fine land` in Algonquin. French traders had settled as early as 1743, the first one of (fragmentary) record being a Frenchman named St. Pierre, who lived there from 1764 to at least 1779. Prominent among the early Milwaukee trading families were those founded—usually in joint partnership with Indian spouses—by Jacques Vieau (1795), Jean Baptiste Mirandeau (1798), Alexis LaFramboise, Antoine Le Clair and Laurent Solomon Juneau. There was frequent contact and interaction between them and the Chicago traders. In August 1820, when the Lewis Cass expedition came through, they found “a trading post, two American families, and an Indian village.” By 1834 Milwaukee started to grow rapidly, but eventually would not keep pace with Chicago, whose phenomenal growth was due to the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal. In the early 1830s, the trip by stagecoach between Chicago and Milwaukee took 1 1/2 day at a cost of $3 in the summer, $5 in the winter; street name: Milwaukee Avenue, diagonally crossing the checkerboard street pattern and extending toward Milwaukee. An early Indian trail led from Chicago to Wisconsin and Milwaukee, later becoming the Elston Road. Milwaukee Avenue is of later origin, built in the middle of the 19th century as the Northern Plank Road. [85a, Wisconsin Historical Collections 15 (1900):458-460]
In regard to the accompanying illustration, Peter Vieau (born Jan. 20, 1820), in conversation with Dr. Lyman C. Draper on Oct. 20, 1889, “… [vouches] for its general accuracy, for the place represented is my birth place, my father`s old trading post. The house at the top of the high bank was our dwelling. The warehouse was southeast of this, and hid by it. At the base of the bank was the house of a voyageur. The long boat represented was a Mackinac boat; but it ought to have four oars on each side, instead of two. The Indian in the boat is intended to be Meguin (the feather), a Pottawattomie: he was a great shot, as an archer; all the other Indians hereabout feared him, for he could shoot nine out of ten ducks on the wing. The buildings in the picture were destroyed in 1836 or 1837, at the time of the great land speculation. …” [691]

Miner, Aaron  a Revolutionary War veteran, likely a relative of Frederick; joined family within Elk Grove Township in 1834. [278]

Miner, E.W.  see Barnes, Joseph A.

Miner, Frederick T., M.D.  (c.1793-1861) arrived from Vermont Sept. 28, 1833 with wife Miranda (were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August) and an 11-year-old son, Rush [named after Dr. Benjamin Rush], and his sister E.W. Barnes; soon moved on to Elk Grove Township, farming the next 25 years, practicing medicine simultaneously; subsequently moved to Arlington Heights, where he died. [13, 319] [278]

Miner, Horace    voted in election of Nov. 25, 1830 [see Chronology].

Miner, Mrs. Ester D.  see Brock, Thomas.

Mirandeau, Jane  also Genevieve; long worked with her sister as a domestic servant for the Kinzie family prior to the Fort Dearborn massacre; received a quarter section of land [160 acres] in the 1829 treaty, next to the land granted to her sister Victoire Mirandeau Pothier, near Billy Caldwell`s reservation; some of her land is now part of the North Branch Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District. At the Chicago Treaty of September 1833 she received $200, for which John H. Kinzie acted as trustee. [12]

Mirandeau, Jean Baptiste, Jr.  also Miranda; born in 1796; worked as a servant in the households of John Kinzie and Dr. Wolcott; early member of the Catholic congregation, signing for himself and two of his sisters on the 1833 petition to Bishop Rosati, asking that a priest be assigned to Chicago. At the Chicago Treaty of September 1833 Jean Baptiste received $300, with John H. Kinzie acting as trustee; is listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took that same year. [12, 319] [226]

Mirandeau, Jean Baptiste, Sr.  also Miranda, Maranda; educated member of a prominent Quebec French family; became an early permanent settler, blacksmith, and trader at Milwaukee (c.1789); listed in John Kinzie`s account books on Oct. 1, 1805, April 30, and Aug. 7, 1807, prior to moving with his family to Chicago in 1810 and occupied a house SW of the fort on Frog Creek, doing blacksmith work at Fort Dearborn in 1811-12, but returned to Milwaukee shortly before the massacre. In 1816, the family came again to Chicago as he had become an employee of the American Fur Co. and was a close friend of John Kinzie; had married an Ottawa woman, with whom he had 10 children: two died very young; the others, in the order of their birth, were [see] Jean Baptiste, Jr., Joseph, Louis, Madelaine, Victoire [see separate entry], Rosanne, Genevieve [see Jane], and Thomas. Jean Baptiste, Sr., died in the spring of 1818 or 1820, and was said to have caused his death by heavy drinking. Madelaine married [see] John K. Clark in 1825. At the Chicago Treaty of 1833, Thomas received the sum of $400, Jean Baptiste, Jr., and a Mrs. Van Rosetta Miranda recerived $300 each, and Jane [Genevieve] received $200, with John H. Kinzie acting as trustee for all of them fund. [12, 226] [404]

Mirandeau, Madelaine  see Clark, John Kinzie.

Mirandeau, Victoire  born in the winter of 1800-01; fifth métis child of Jean Baptiste Mirandeau; never attended school, learning to read or write, but spoke French, English, and several Indian languages; often visited the Ouilmettes with her sister Madelaine while the father did blacksmith work at the fort, and both became eyewitnesses to the Lalime homicide in 1812; worked as servant with her sister Jane for the Kinzie and Wolcott families prior to the Fort Dearborn massacre; married [see] Joseph Pothier at Fort Dearborn on May 24, 1828, J.B. Beaubien officiating as justice of the peace; received 320 acres of land in the 1829 treaty, between land granted to her sister Jane and Billy Caldwell`s reservation; some of her land is now part of the North Branch Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District; lived in Chicago from 1816 to 1835, after which date the Pothiers (with three children) moved to Milwaukee, her childhood home, where her husband died in 1875 and she lived to an advanced age. [12]

Misigan  born Marie Anne Neskesh (1744-, daughter of Ke-wi-na-quot/Returning-Cloud); Ottawa wife of French trader Jean Baptiste Marcot and mother of Thérèse Marcot Lasalière-Schindler (c.1776-1855), [see] Marguerite Magdelaine Marcot LaFramboise (c.1771-1846), and Charlotte Marcot Chandonnet (c.1784-Jan. 2, 1806).

Mission de la Conception  [Mission of the Immaculate Conception of Our Lady of the Cascaskias] founded in April 1675 by Father Marquette at the Kaskaskia village near Utica, IL, after having first made contact with the Indians in August 1673 in the company of Jolliet; the mission became the parent house for several others, among them the St. Joseph mission in Michigan and the Guardian Angel Mission at Chicago; the original site of the mission is now known as the Zimmerman archaeological site. After Father Marquette, the mission was tended in succession by Fathers Allouez, Bineteau, Membré, Ribourde, Gravier, and Marest; mission and village were moved south in 1691 to Lake Peoria for greater safety from Iroquois attacks, and then in 1700, to the future site of St. Louis, and finally in 1703, to the Kaskaskia River, near its junction with the Mississippi. The mission existed until 1832, at which time the Indians were removed to Oklahoma, but there are still as many as 1000 descendants of Kaskaskia-blooded persons living in the greater vicinity of the mouth of the Kaskaskia River. [456b]

Mission de l`Ange Gardien des Miamis à Chicagoua  [Guardian Angel Mission] founded in 1696 by [see] Father Pierre François Pinet on the Chicago River, where he served with Father Julien Bineteau, and later with Father Jean Mermet. The mission`s name was first noted in a 1697 letter which [see] Father Jacques Gravier wrote to Father Jean de Lamberville in Paris. [This is generally thought to have been the first mission in Chicago; however, there exists some evidence in records left by Joutel and Perrot that Father Allouez maintained a short-lived mission during the years 1684-85 when Durantaye built and commanded a French fort in Chicago.] The fathers maintained close contact with the Mission de la Conception, then at Lake Peoria under Father Jacques Gravier. It was in Chicago that Father Pinet began writing the French/Miami-Illinois dictionary discovered in 1999 by the linguist Michael McCafferty at the Jesuit archive in St-Jérôme, Québec. On Governor Frontenac`s order Father Pinet closed the mission for political reasons in 1697, then reopened it the following year. In 1699, three priests from the Séminaire des Missions Étrangères of Quebec visited, conducted to Chicago by Tonti. One of them, Abbé St. Cosme, supplied a vivid picture of the mission in his report [see excerpts with entry on St. Cosme], also indicating that French traders lived nearby. At its peak the mission was surrounded by a Wea [subgroup of Miami] village of 150 cabins. From 1699 on it was intermittently occupied by Father Mermet, permanently abandoned by early 1702 because of the increasing danger of Fox and Iroquois attacks. [12, 267, 268, 290, 429a, 464c, 464i, 572a, 649]

Mission de Saint-Esprit  [Holy Spirit Mission, La Pointe du St. Esprit] major Jesuit mission founded in 1656 by Father Claude Allouez at Chequamegon Bay of western Lake Superior [Ashland, WI] and taken over by Father Marquette in 1669; Father Claude Dablon reported in 1670 that Indians who identified themselves as belonging to the Illinois tribe had come north to trade at this mission.

Mission de Saint-François Xavier  founded in 1669 by Father Allouez, first on Green Bay [Point Sable, WI], but moved in 1671 to De Pere, WI, on the Fox River a few miles above Green Bay, from where Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet started their historic expedition, in the course of which they came to what is now Chicago; remained the closest mission to the north.

Mission de Saint-Ignace  founded in 1671 by Father Marquette at Michilimackinac [Point St. Ignace, Michigan Peninsula] and named after the founder of the Jesuit Order, Ignatius de Loyola [whose original name was Iñigo Yáñez de Oñaz y Loyola]; in exploring, both Fathers Dablon and Marquette had considered Mackinac Island before deciding to build the mission on the shore of the peninsula. By 1700 a thriving trade and French government center had evolved round the mission, but its importance declined with the founding of Detroit in 1701. [456b]

Mission de Saint-Joseph  founded in 1634 by the Jesuit fathers Jean de Brébeuf, Antoine Daniel, and Ambroise Davost among the Huron (where Récollet priests had earlier labored) at Georgian Bay, on the eastern shore of Lake Huron; destroyed by the Iroquois in 1649. [565]

Mission de Saint-Joseph  probably founded before 1689 by Father Allouez; the first preserved written document about the mission is a letter of 1706 by Father Marest; located on the bank of the St. Joseph River in the lower Michigan Peninsula at [Niles, MI]; active as late as 1773; here is the grave of Father Allouez, who died in 1690.[565]

Mission de Sainte Famille de Caoquias  [Holy Family Mission of the Cahokias; also Notre Dame de Kahokia; also Mission de Sainte Famille de Tamaroa, and (later) Mission de St. Sulpice] founded in 1699 by Father Pinet at the great village of Cahokia among the Tamaroa; Father Pinet died soon thereafter, and his place was taken by Father Gravier. The mission was closed in 1763 by Father Forget, who at that time freed three slaves owned by the Church. [565, 649]

Mission de Sault-Sainte-Marie  major Jesuit mission founded in 1668 by Fathers Marquette and Dablon at an Ojibwa village [Sault Ste. Marie; the oldest permanent European settlement in Michigan].

missionaries    see preachers and missionaries.

missions  listed below with their French names and in chronological order are those North American missions considered relevant to the discovery and history of Chicago — there is an individual entry for each mission in alphabetical order; many others, not mentioned here, have existed. All attempted to bring Catholicism to the Indians and in the process furthered the exploration and subjugation under the French crown of what later became New France and Louisiana. The first French cleric to arrive with the early colonizers was the secular priest Jessé Flêché in 1610, followed by the Jesuit fathers Pierre Biard and Ennemond Massé in 1611; in 1615 three Récollet priests, the abbés Denis Jamay, Jean d`Olbeau [Dolbeau], and Joseph le Caron reached Quebec and soon began missionary work among the Hurons.
Shown here is an excerpt of the 1672 Lake Superior map attributed to Père Claude Dablon and Père Claude Jean Allouez. It shows the locations of the earliest five missions as listed below. [342a, 456b]
Mission de Saint-Joseph (1634)
Mission de Saint-Esprit (1665)
Mission de Sault-Sainte-Marie (1668)
Mission de Saint-François Xavier (1669)
Mission de Saint-Ignace (1671)
Mission de la Conception (1675)
Mission de Saint-Joseph (1689)
Mission de l`Ange Gardien des Miamis à Chicagoua (1696)
Mission de Sainte Famille de Caoquias (1699) [612]

Mississippi bubble    see Louisiana Province.

Mississippi River  the word meaning `great river` in Algonquian: missi for `great,` siipi for `river.` Earlier names given to this river were Rio del Espiritu Santu (Pineda, the first to discover one or more of its outlets in 1519), El Rio Grande del Florida (De Soto), R. de la Concepción, and Missipi (Marquette); during most of the French period, before 1700, the Mississippi was called Rivière de Colbert (Jolliet, La Salle, Hennepin, Membré) after Louis XIV`s minister, [see] Jean Baptiste Colbert. The attached early map of the mouth of the Mississippi with its bizarre cluster of islands and channels may help explain why La Salle failed to find the river mouth on his final visit to the new continent. [197, 198, 456b]

Mississippi  a 77-ton schooner from Cleveland under Captain Freeland; called at Chicago on Oct. 24 and Nov. 9, 1835.

Mississippian Culture  see Indian prehistory.

Missouratenoui  Miami-Illinois word, mihsooratenwi, meaning `wood-watercraft-hill`, i.e., `dugout canoe hill` or `pirogue hill`; see Mount Jolliet. [464c]

missouri  Miami-Illinois word, mihsoori, meaning `wood-watercraft`, i.e., pirogue, dugout canoe. [464c]

Mitchell, John  London mapmaker who came to Virginia as a botanist early in the 18th century; was able to draw upon the maps and other records in the Admiralty Office and the Board of Trade; in 1755 produced A Map of the British and French Dominions in North America, the most up-to-date map at its time and the standard for the last half of the 18th century, followed by 20 additional editions until 1799; died in England in 1768.

Mitchell, Rev. John T.  Methodist minister who succeeded Rev. Jesse Walker in leadership of Chicago`s early Methodist congregation near the end of 1834, and who was in turn succeeded by Rev. O.T. Curtis in 1836; is said to have been a graduate of Illinois College at Jacksonville; in 1835 lived with his bride at Flusky`s boarding house, and on November 25 was elected president of the Chicago Bible Society. [12] [544]

Mitchell, S. Augustus  Philadelphia mapmaker who, in 1836, published The Tourist`s Pocket Map of the State of Illinois; the map showed the proposed Illinois & Michigan Canal and the division of the canal corridor into townships, a first step toward the sale of canal land to finance the project; a popular map that had many subsequent editions.

Mitchigami    also Michigamea, Mitchagamie, Mitchigamie; Illinois tribe, part of the Illini confederacy.

Mittatass  a principal warrior of the Ottawa, involved in the Fort Dearborn massacre; held Lieutenant Helm prisoner after the massacre, releasing him to the trader Thomas Forsyth in return for two horses and a keg of liquor. [226]

Mkedepoke    see Black Partridge.

Mo-ah-way  also Moaway; a Potawatomi Indian whose name translates `wolf,` who once lived on the land now called [see] Wolf Point; first reported by Juliette Kinzie in her book Wau-Ban; received land and monies in the Indian treaties of 1829 and 1833. [697]

Moffett, William  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted April 23, 1806; listed in Kinzie`s account books on Nov. 4, 1806, and Feb. 11, 1807, and April 10 and July 21, 1812; believed killed in action at the massacre of 1812. [226] [404]

Mohawk  one of five nations of the Iroquois confederacy who inhabited upper New York State; the Indian word means `savage,` `ferocious`; street name: Mohawk Street (532 W).

Mohawk Trail    also see Sauk Trail; Indian trail leading W from Albany, NY, to Chicago and beyond, by way of Buffalo, Cleveland, and Sandusky; the portion from Detroit to Chicago became known in the early 18th century as the Chicago Road or Chicago Turnpike.

Mohr, M.  Swiss, born c.1807; arrived in May 1835; living at Walworth, WI, in 1885. [12]

Molere, Pierre  married to Angelique Vandette; Catholic church records reveal that in Chicago on Oct. 18, 1830, Father Badin baptized their children: Monique, Agatha, and Joseph; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Mollard, Margaret  see Meyo, Michael.

money (1)  Paper money: Initially the economy of the Ancien Régime was based on barter, and whatever few French coins were available. Newly imported coins tended to rapidly disappear. The first paper money issued on the North American continent was the French card money, a brainchild of the Canadian Intendant Jacques de Meulles; in 1685, he arranged to have ordinary game cards cut into quarters, each quarter was stamped with the French crown and fleur-de-lis symbol, then signed by the governor, intendant, and treasurer of Quebec. The people were ordered to accept this makeshift money as valid tender. It proved highly unstable in value, and it is not likely that any of it reached Chicagoland. On the East Coast, the Massachusetts Bay Company began to issue properly designed paper money in 1690; not until May 10, 1775, did the U.S. government issue paper money; before that time, and for decades thereafter, notes were issued by virtually thousands of small private banks, by some city governments, or by local enterprises such as railroad companies, printed for them by engraving and printing firms. Lieutenant Allen, in charge of Chicago harbor construction and obliged to pay his workers, complained that he “… must endure taking and circulating … a motley kind of money of which I can know little or nothing”; when a bank failed, which happened often, holders of its money were out of luck. Before 1840, most bills were black and white.

money (2)  Coins, European: Silver coins were safer than paper money, but all coins were in short supply. England failed to make enough coins available for the colonies. Spanish-milled silver Reales pieces (“8 bits”; “pieces of eight”) were therefore accepted as official currency in colonial days; they came in two forms: “pillar dollars” had the Spanish coat of arms on one side, the pillars of Hercules on the other, and were coined from 1745-1770; “bust dollars,” showing Carolus III and IIII [IV] instead of the pillars, were minted from 1772 to 1825. Some of the “bust dollars” were counterstamped in London with the head of George III of England to validate them as legal British currency [which gave rise to the sarcastic contemporary saying “Being short of silver to make money pass, they stamped the head of a fool on the head of an ass”] but the public accepted them, stamped or not; slightly larger than the United States silver dollar, which they inspired, their higher silver content made them more acceptable even after the U.S. Mint began producing dollars; smaller Spanish escudo denominations were also available. The colony of Massachusetts had began to strike silver shillings in 1652, but was later forbidden by the English king to continue. Shown above are two types of coins used in Chicago prior to the existence of the dollar.
Other foreign coins used in North America include the French livre and centime pieces, some English guineas and shillings, Portuguese rei pieces, Virginia halfpennies, and privately minted Welsh halfpennies. During the Chicago land boom (1833-1837), the need for money overtook even the capacity of private banks to issue notes. Often one man would repay another by exchanging work for work. For a description of how various business entities began to create their own money (scrip) and how the resulting currency chaos led to the sudden collapse of the boom, see the following recollections of an eyewitness (printed in Magazine of Western History):
Canal scrip was money; the bank bill was money; and the private individual decided it was necessary, in order to keep the ball rolling until the future should realize the wildest dreams, that he must take his turn at making money. Nearly every man in Chicago doing business was issuing his individual scrip, and the city abounded with little tickets, such as “Good at our Store for 10 cents,” “Good for a Loaf of Bread,” “Good for a Shave,” “Good for a Drink,” &c.; &c.; When you went out to trade, the trader would look over your tickets and select such as he could use to the best advantage. The times, for a while, seemed very prosperous. We had a currency that was interchangeable; and for a time we suffered no inconvenience from it, except when we wanted some specie to pay for our postage. In those days it took twenty-five cents to send a letter. But after a while it was found out that men were over-issuing. The barber had outstanding too many shaves; the baker too many loaves of bread; the saloon-keeper too many drinks. Want of confidence became general; each man became afraid to take the tickets of another. Some declined to redeem their tickets in any way, and some absconded. … Of a sudden the ripple had been made, and the circle of distrust had spread beyond recall.

money (3)  The American dollar: In 1792 the dollar and cent were established as the monetary unit of the nation, and the the government began striking coins in its first mint at Philadelphia; the initial supply was limited. Shown here are the two sides of a one cent coin from 1833. [517]

Monroe, Capt. James  captain of the steamboat Sheldon Thompson which brought the [see] cholera to Chicago on July 10, 1832. [714]

Monroe, James  (Apr. 28, 1758-July 4, 1831) born in Westmoreland County, VA; son of Spence and Elizabeth (née Jones) Monroe; studied law under Thomas Jefferson; as Virginia delegate in the Continental Congress he advocated commercial navigation on the Mississippi River and in 1785, prior to passage of the Northwest Ordinance, he made a reconnaissance to the area [see his observation below]; in 1790 he was elected senator from Virginia and named ambassador to France four years later; governor of Virginia between 1799 and 1802, in 1803 he was appointed as envoy to France to negotiate the acquisition of Louisiane, completed April 30; fifth United States president, serving from 1817-1825; under Monroe Illinois became a state of the Union on Aug. 24, 1818. James Monroe School and James Monroe Annex, 3651 W Schubert Ave.; street names: Monroe Street, Monroe Drive, both at 100 S. [377]
“A great part of the territory is miserably poor, especially that near Lakes Michigan & Erie & that upon the Mississippi & the Illinois consists of extensive plains wh. [which] have not had from appearance & will not have a single bush on them, for ages. The districts, therefore, within wh. these fall will perhaps never contain a sufficient number of inhabitants to entitle them to membership in the confederacy.”

Monroe, N.L.F.  arrived from Connecticut in 1834, signing up in October with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade [also see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, with entry on firefighting]; on Aug. 5, 1837, a legal notice involving a Nelson Monroe appeared in the Chicago American. [733]

Monroe  341-ton steamboat, built in 1834 at Monroe, MI, and an occasional visitor to Chicago in subsequent years; “a beautiful boat of the largest size, and of elegant finish and furniture,” its first call at Chicago was on Aug. 20, 1835, under Captain Whittaker, when it came from Buffalo, NY, via Sault Ste. Marie, Mackinac, and Green Bay. [48]

Monselle, Charles  early member of the Catholic congregation; in April 1833 his name was on the petition by Catholic citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Mont Jolliet  see Mount Joliet.

Montgomery, John  prior to 1836 he owned 80 acres of land in Section 30, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113; a notice in the Chicago Daily Journal of Sept. 21, 1842, announced the September 19 marriage of a John H. Montgomery to Miss Mary Chivel, “both of this city.” [12]

Montgomery, Loton W.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; married to Elizabeth Montgomery; opened his shop on South Water Street, E of the corner with Dearborn, and advertised in the December 17 issue of the Chicago Democrat, “Boot and Shoe Making, next to Peter Cohen”; 1839 City Directory: [living or working at] United States Hotel. [319]

Montgomery, William  born in Pennsylvania c.1817; arrived in 1833; on July 6, 1835, advertised in the Chicago Democrat“auction and commission on South Water Street, at David Carver`s old stand” [between LaSalle and Wells streets], and thereafter placed ads frequently in the paper; one month later he “Wanted a Man to Ring Bell for Auctions”; also offered real estate by placing ads in the Chicago American (one of his customers was [see] Alexander McDaniel); opened an office on South Water Street in October that year where he also distributed the Saturday Evening PostCasket, and Book of Nature; married Virginia Alice Temple Jan. 6, 1843, in Galena. [544] [649a]

Montigny, Rev. François Jolliet de  (1661-1725) came to Canada from Paris and was ordained as a priest; became a member of the Seminary of Quebec; leader of the Séminaire des Missions Étrangères delegation led by Tonti [of which Abbés St. Cosme and Davion were members] that visited Chicago in October 1699 to consult with Fathers Pinet and Bineteau, on the way to work among the Arkansea along the Mississippi; founded a mission at Tamaroa, of which the Jesuits complained; returned through Chicago in April 1700; was vicar general to the bishop of Quebec and director of the Ursulines. In 1701 Rev. de Montigny was sent from France to China, where he endured great hardship as a missionary; resided in Paris as director of Missions Étrangères from 1710 until his death. [665] [269a]

Montreal canoe    a heavy-duty birchbark French canoe, referred to as “the workhorse of the fur trade”; 35 to 40 feet long, capable of transporting more than three tons of freight with a 7-to-12-man crew.

Monuments  see the separate section of this book dealing with early historical monuments, arranged in alphabetical order.

Moon, —  partner in the Chicago branch of the Detroit hat store, [see] McCormick & Moon.

Moore, Henry  arrived from Concord, MA, in 1834, admitted to the Illinois Bar on Dec. 8, 1834; initially served as deputy to Colonel Hamilton, the circuit court clerk, but in June of 1835 began an individual legal practice, advertising in the Chicago American [see ad]; with C. Petit and Lt. J. Allen began the Chicago Reading Room Association in July; his name was on a school-related petition signed on Sept. 19, 1835, and on November 22 submitted a petition for wharfing privileges; in 1837 he became a trustee of Rush Medical School; 1839 City Directory: attorney and counseller at law, 9 Clark St.; on account of poor health, removed soon after to Havana, Cuba; died in 1841 at Concord, MA; his widow lived at Yorkville, Kendall County, in 1885. [13] [12]

Moore, Henry  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Moore, L.J.  see Hanchett, John L.

Moore, Peter  member of the Baptist church and present at its initial organizational meeting of Oct. 19, 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; on June 3, 1834 married Jane Parks “of the DesPlain” or “the DesPages,” J.D. Caton officiating. [319] [12]

Moran, Pierre  see LeClerc, Peresh.

Moras, Antoine  of Detroit; engagé in the party of [see] Hugh Heward, which stopped in Chicago at Jean Baptiste Point de Sable`s farm from May 9 to 11, 1790, on the way from Detroit to Cahokia.

Moreau, Pierre  one of five voyageurs who took part in the 1673 expedition of Father Marquette and Louis Jolliet to the Mississippi and the Chicago site. During Marquette`s second trip to the Illinois River in December 1674, Moreau was in Illinois territory on his own account as a trader under the name La Taupine, and learning from the Indians that Marquette was camped at the Chicago River and ill, he brought a man with medical knowledge to the camp; in reference to this man, Marquette only denotes “the surgeon.” There has been much speculation in the past as to the true name of this doctor; some earlier historians believe that his name was Louis Moreau, unrelated to Pierre Moreau; John F. Swenson identifies him as [see] Jean Roussel or Rousselière; see Monuments section.

Morgan, Achilles  resident of Vermillion County in 1827, when he came to Chicago as captain of 100 militia volunteers from Danville [Vermillion Rangers] to lend protection during the [see] Winnebago War. [12]

Morgan, Col. George  Indian agent appointed by the Continental Congress and a prominent trader in Kaskaskia; in 1776 he issued safe-conduct passes to “the French people in Chicago” to visit Pittsburgh. The names of these settlers are not recorded. It is known, however, that in 1778 and 1779 Pierre Durand, a Cahokia trader, passed through Chicago en route to Point de Sable`s earlier trading post at Rivière du Chemin and encountered only Indians. [649]

Morgan, E.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November. [319]

Morgan, Moses  carpenter from Detroit who came with the garrison of the second Fort Dearborn in 1816 to assist in the reconstruction of the fort; in his old age wrote a narrative of his experience. [497]

Morin, Pierre Louis  (Oct. 28, 1769- ) also Moran; son of Jean Roch Morin of Quebec and Thèrése, a Potawatomi woman; baptised at the St. Joseph mission with his younger brother François (Aug. 3, 1772- ) on Mar. 21, 1773. Louis Paschal Chevalier and Madeleine Larcheveque were Pierre`s godparents; Jean and Thèrése married there the following day. An older brother, Jean Baptiste, who later traded with [see] William Burnett, was baptised S of Detroit on July 19, 1782, at age 14 years eight months. In the Treaty of 1821 at Chicago Pierre received one section of land, and his children two sections of land, at the mouth of the Elkheart River; a section of land previously granted to him at the Treaty of St. Mary`s in 1818 was then granted to his nephew Jean Baptiste Cicot, son of sister Pe-say-quot, having been so intended. He married [see] Suzanne Françoise Chevalier, daughter of [see] François Pierre Chevalier; the couple had one daughter, [see] Thérèse Archange Morin Tremblé Mann. [275a]

Morin, William M.  native of New York; became a private at Fort Dearborn when Lieutenant Allen enlisted him on Dec. 8, 1833; known as a carpenter and cabinetmaker; in 1834 he deserted and the March 25 issue of the Chicago Democrat carried a notice promising $30 reward for information leading to his capture, by order of Major Green. [12]

Morris, Buckner Stith  (Aug. 19, 1800-Dec. 16, 1879) born in Augusta, KY, son of Dickinson and Frances Buckner Morris; attorney; married Evelina Barker of Kentucky in 1832; arrived in 1834 via the Wabash River to Vincennes, from there on horseback to Chicago; formed a law partnership with J. Young Scammon; in August 1835 advertised an office with [see] Edward Casey on Dearborn Street, near South Water Street, second floor of Garrett`s auction room; subsequently had an illustrious law career that included being elected the 2nd mayor of Chicago on Mar. 6, 1838; 1839 City Directory: (alderman, ward 6), attorney, &c.;, Saloon Bdgs; 1843 City Directory: attorney, res Indiana, bet Cass and Rush; 1844 City Directory: attorney at law, Clark st. opposite City Hotel, h Indiana st. b Cass and Rush sts. Evelina died in 1847, mother of two daughters; in 1850 Buckner married Eliza A. Stephenson, who died in 1855, mother of a son. In 1856 he was an unsuccessful candidate for Illinois governor; also that year he married Mrs. Mary E. Parish (née Blackburn) of KY. Morris died on Dec. 16, 1879, aged 79 and is buried at Rosehill Cemetery. [233”, 435a, 728] [12]

Morris, Buckner Stith  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Morris, Joseph E.    see Norris, Joseph E.

Morris, Potily    on Oct. 1, 1835, married John Latzky, Father St. Cyr officiating.

Morris, Potily  see Latzky, John.

Morrison, Charles  born in Cambridge, NY; the fifth son of Ephraim and Sally (née Adams); arrived from New York in 1835; 1839 City Directory: drayman, 135 Clark St. [Five of the Morrison brothers had worked under {see} William Jones on the Buffalo harbor and, following his visits to Chicago in 1831 and 1832, had been advised of the opportunities]; had died by 1879. [3] [351]

Morrison, Daniel  (c.1819-1880) born in Cambridge, NY; the youngest son of Ephraim and Sally (née Adams); arrived from New York in 1835; 1839 City Directory: drayman, 135 Clark St.; died on Nov. 9, 1880. [3] [12]

Morrison, Ephraim  (c.1814-1880) born in Oneida County, NY; farmer; married Sally Adams and they had six sons: Orsemus, James M., Ezekiel, Ephraim, Charles, and Daniel. The five oldest sons worked under [see] William Jones on the Buffalo harbor and, following visits to Chicago in 1831 and 1832, had been advised of the opportunities. Following his oldest son, Orsemus, he sold their farm in Cambridge and with the proceeds came to Chicago in October 1834; among his investments he purchased a lot at the NE corner of Clark and Madison streets; 1839 City Directory: hat and cap factory, Dearborn Street, between Lake and South Water; died on June 15, 1880. [3, 12] [351]

Morrison, Ephraim, Jr.  born in Cambridge, NY; the fourth son of Ephraim and Sally (née Adams); arrived from New York in 1835; 1839 City Directory: teamster, 111 Madison St.; died in 1880. [3] [351]

Morrison, Ezekiel  born in Cambridge, NY, c.1810; the third son of Ephraim and Sally (née Adams); arrived in 1833; 1839 City Directory: carpenter, 123 Clark St.; by the 1850s had become a leader in the emerging railroad industry; lived at 125 Clark St. in 1885. [3, 12] [351]

Morrison, James M.  born in Cambridge, NY; the second son of Ephraim and Sally (née Adams); arrived from New York in 1833; a member of the fire engine company No.1 (“Fire Kings”) in December 1835, and a firewarden in 1836; 1839 City Directory: carpenter, 131 Clark St.; had died by 1879. [3, 12] [351]

Morrison, Mrs. Amanda  see King, Sherman.

Morrison, Orsemus  born in Cambridge, NY; mechanic and builder, who was employed as a government construction foreman at Buffalo; the first son of Ephraim and Sally [née Adams]; arrived from New York in 1833 to attend the first sale of school lands and bought a lot at the SE corner of Clark and Madison streets, with a two-hundred-foot front on the former, for $62 in silver, where he built a frame residence on the corner and later a row of tenement houses from timber cut on the north branch; also acquired land within block 7 of the School Section Addition, fronting Harrison Street (416 feet) and Halsted Street (400 feet) for $61; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. He was married to Lucy Paul; a very large man, weighing 300 pounds; appointed street commissioner in the fall of 1833, jointly with Silas W. Sherman; collector and constable – Chicago`s 1st – in July 1835; in the Dec. 9 Chicago Democrat he placed the notice “Pewter Up All persons who is not known by the Collector, owning property on the corporation or as agent for such, will please to call at his office in front of the (Eagle Coffee House) and pay his tax by the first of January, …”; again constable in June 1836; alderman for the second ward in 1837; 1839 City Directory: street commissioner, collector, coroner, 153 Clark Street. Orsemus died in Chicago on Jan. 4, 1864, at the age of seventy-eight years; in 1885 his widow lived at 1510 Washington Blvd.; their two surviving daughters were Hannah M. Spofford and Lucy M. Mills, both of Chicago. For one of his first official acts as constable and coroner, see Fernando Jones` story under entry Jones, Fernando. [3, 12, 319] [351]

Morse, Reverend Jedediah  sent by Secretary of War John Calhoun to visit northwestern Indian tribes and government factors in 1820 in order to gain information helpful in determining future policies of the United States factory system; at Fort Dearborn he found that factor Jacob Varnum`s fur trade for all of 1818 amounted to only $25; Congress abolished the factory system in 1822. [12]

Morton, Nancy  see Warren, Daniel.

Moselle, Charles  arrived in 1832 and served under Capt. Gholson Kercheval in the Chicago militia during the Black Hawk War. [714]

Mosely, Flavel  also Moseley; arrived from New York in 1834; active as a volunteer fireman; served as school inspector and promotor of community schools; 1839 City Directory: Mosely & McCord (Jason), merchants, South Water Street; member of the Presbyterian church; on the Board of Education between 1850 and 1864; died in Chicago in 1867, leaving $10,000 to a book fund he had established for poor children`s text book needs. Moseley School [1890], corner of Michigan and Twenty-fourth streets. [“Educational Chicago”, Chicago Genealogical Society Vol. 37 No.3:99-104, Spring 2005] [12]

Moss, Isabella  see Lane, Charles Baxter.

Moss, Minerva  see See, Rev. William.

Moss, Thomas William  (Feb. 17, 1811-March 11, 1885) married Isabella Crumlick on April 4, 1835 (d. Mar. 27, 1848); their sixth of seven children, daughter Isabella married [see] Charles Baxter Lane. Following his wife`s death Moss married Sarah McGettigen in 1850, and Anna Turney in 1853, with whom he had seven children; he and his wife Isabella were buried in Bachelors Grove Cemetery with other family members; vandalized, the stones were removed by a Moss descendant in 1988 to Landmark Church, the Tinley Park Historical Society`s museum. [387a]

Mott, August  also Mortt; U.S. Army private of German extraction garrisoned at Fort Dearborn, enlisted July 9, 1806; listed in Kinzie`s account books on Nov. 4, 1806; May 10, 1807; and Dec. 9, 1811; survived the massacre of 1812 but was killed by his Indian captors during the winter of 1812-13. [226, 393c, 708] [404]

Moundbuilders  see Hopewell. [410]

Mount Joliet  also Mont Jolliet, Mount Juliet, Monjolly; Miami-Illinois name, [see] missouratenouimissouri; a distinct alluvial mound that formerly stood on the western bank of the Des Plaines River, about 40 miles SW of Chicago; was described by early travelers as having had the form of a truncated cone, 60 feet high, 1,300 feet long at the base, and 225 feet wide, its top perfectly level, its regular sides sloping at 45 degrees; observed by Abbé St. Cosme in 1699, and shown on maps as early as 1674 (Louis Jolliet) and 1778 (Thomas Hutchins). An entry in the journal of [see] Hugh Heward records a French village near the mound in 1790. In 1789, while exploring the Illinois River and the portage connecting with Lake Michigan, Lieutenant Armstrong observed Mount Joliet and described it in his report to the government [see below]. The illustration with this entry is by Schoolcraft. The mound no longer exists; parts were leveled during the construction of the Illinois & Michigan Canal, and its clay core was mined in production of tiles and bricks for the growing city. [414, 464c]
Lieutenant Armstrong describing Mt. Joliet: Mount Juliet stands on a delightful Grassy plain and is a beautiful work of nature. The side that fronts the water is about fifty perches in length [one perch equals 5 1/2 yards; eds.] and is nearly thirty in breadth. … Its perpendicular height above the Surface of the plain is 60 or 70 feet; the top is perfectly level. It is upward of two hundred yards from the water side…. [640]

mountain lion  Felis concolor; also called panther, cougar, puma, catamount or painter; this animal was encountered and hunted in Illinois by early explorers but was never plentiful. When Charles Jouett, Indian agent, brought his bride Susan on horseback from Kentucky to Fort Dearborn mid winter in 1808, he kept the “panthers,” whose frequent cries the party could hear during the night, away with the help of campfires. Mountain lions were still reported seen in the 1830s near S Chicago and in the Indiana dunes. It was assumed, that all mountain lions had been exterminated in Illinois before 1870, but the Chicago Tribune reported that on Apr. 14, 2008 one specimen was unfortunately killed by the police in the Roscoe Village region of northern Chicago, and a second was spotted hours later near the Skokie Lagoons but escaped. For bobcat, Felix rufus, see separate entry. [“News of the wild,” Chicago Wilderness Summer 2008; 74] [341]

Moyan, John  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted on June 28, 1806; killed in action at the massacre of 1812. [226]

Mud Lake  known as le petit lac by the French; also Lac Marais, Swamp Lake, Portage Lake; a swampy, elongated lake, its western end divided into N and S arms, both now eliminated by construction, was five miles in length and located in the depression left behind when the ancestral Chicago River changed course and flow direction c.3800 years ago; instead of continuing to follow the old outlet of glacial Lake Chicago and run into the Des Plaines River, the water broke its banks near Lake Street and ran into Lake Michigan. Mud Lake straddled the divide between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River system, representing the central portion of the Chicago Portage route, stretching from the Chicago River`s south branch (Albany Avenue and 31st Street) to the beginning of Portage Creek (Harlem Avenue and 49th Street); Portage Creek flowed from Mud Lake into the Des Plaines River. For an account on the abundance of water fowl on Mud Lake in pioneer days, see birds. For a vivid description of the difficulties regularly encountered when traversing Mud Lake, see Gurdon S. Hubbard`s account below. [413. 692d]
Mud Lake drained partly into the Aux Plaines and partly through a narrow, crooked channel into the South Branch, and only in very wet seasons was there sufficient water to float an empty boat. The mud was very deep, and along the edge of the lake grew tall grass and wild rice, often reaching above a man`s head, and so strong and dense it was almost impossible to walk through them. Our empty boats were pulled up the channel, and in many places, where there was no water and a hard clay bottom they were placed on short rollers, and in this way moved along until the lake was reached, where we found mud thick and deep, but only at rare intervals was there water. Forked tree branches were tied upon the ends of the boat poles, and these afforded a bearing on tussocks of grass and roots, which enabled the men in the boat to push to some purpose. Four men only remained in a boat and pushed with these poles, while six or eight others waded in the mud alongside, and by united efforts constantly jerking it along, so that from early dawn to dark we succeeded only in passing apart of our boats through to the Aux Plaines outlet, where we found the first hard ground. While a part of our crew were thus employed, others busied themselves in transporting our goods on their backs to the river; it was a laborious day for all. Those who waded through the mud frequently sank to their waist, and at times were forced to cling to the side of the boat to prevent going over their heads; after reaching the end and camping for the night came the task of ridding themselves from the bloodsuckers. … The lake was full of these abominable black plagues, and they stuck so tight to the skin that they broke in pieces if force was used to remove them; experience had taught the use of a decoction of tobacco to remove them, and this was resorted to with good success. Having rid ourselves of the bloodsuckers, we were assailed by myriads of mosquitoes, that rendered sleep hopeless, though we sought the softest spots on the ground for our beds. Those who had waded the lake suffered great agony, their limbs becoming swollen and inflamed, and their sufferings were not ended for two or three days. It took us three consecutive days of such toil to pass all our boats through this miserable lake…. [354]

Mueller, Jacob  also Müller; born c.1810 in Rohbach, Germany; arrived in May 1834; married Catharine Baumgarten; still lived in Chicago in 1879. [12]

Muenster, Sebastien  (1489-1552) Münster in German spelling; scholar, cosmographer, cartographer; first to reintroduce Solinus and Ptolemy, and arrange with his collaborators in atlas form various, then modern, separate maps for each of the four continents known at the time; viz. Europe, Africa, Asia, and America; of particular interest is map “Novae Insvlae, XVII Tabvla,” printed in Basel in 1540 (see Maps section). [502]

Mulford, Edward H.  (c.1794-1878) was a major in the War of 1812 and once an escort of General LaFayette; watchmaker; arrived in 1833 with his wife, Rebecca, to engage in the jewelry business of his son [see] James H. Mulford; a second son, Edward H. Mulford, Jr., also joined the business of his brother (not later than 1839); was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August that year; in 1836 Edward, Sr., acquired from the government 160 acres of land at $1.25 per acre at [see] Grosse Pointe and built a cabin on the W side of Ridge Road Trail to secure his preemption claim; 1839 City Directory: Major E.H. Mulford, Illinois Street near State; held a commission as justice of the peace; died on March 5, 1878, in Evanston. [12, 243, 319] [351]

Mulford, James H.  son of Edward H. Mulford; arrived late in 1832 or in 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November; jeweler and seller of novelties and art objects, with a store one door S of the post office, which at that time was at the NE corner of Lake and South Water streets; on Jan. 7, 1834, Mulford advertised in the Chicago Democrat watches and jewelry, adding that he would pay “cash for old silver”; in June and July of that year he had for sale, “at reasonable prices,” American, French, and English engravings, as well as original still life and landscape paintings; in August 1835, he requested 500 ounces of tortoise shell for the “highest cash”; 1839 City Directory: James H. & Edward H. Jr. Mulford, jewelers, &c.;, Dearborn Street. [319] [12]

Mullarky, Thomas  a child by this name was enrolled as grade school student in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [728]

Muller, Peter  originally Pierre Mueller, a Frenchman; lived at Wolf Point c.1826, near [see] Alexander Robinson; voted in election of Nov. 25, 1830; Peter`s wife was Robinson`s half sister [see] Mollaire who later, as widow, continued to reside there until c.1842; the couple had four children: Alexander (likely named after his uncle), Paschal, Margaret, and Socra; on Schedule A of the 1833 Chicago Treaty the métis children were granted monies in lieu of reservations – the two oldest sons received $800 each, with Gholson Kercheval as trustee, and the two younger daughters received $200 each. [12, 275a] [220a]

murder  – Chicago`s 1st – murder trial after the town had incorporated took place in the fall of 1834, Circuit Judge Young presiding in an unfinished 20-by-20 foot store on Dearborn Street, between Lake and Water streets. In a drunken fit, the Irish laborer John Fitzgerald, on returning home and finding something not to his liking, had beaten his wife, Elizabeth, and she had died from the injury. Thomas Ford was the prosecuting district attorney, and James Collins successfully defended the accused before the jury; he was acquitted. The second murder trial in Chicago did not occur until 1840, although a murder occurred and a suspect was indicted in 1835, the trial was held in Iroquois County because of a change of venue. For details of this case, see Norris, Joseph E.

Murphy, Hiram P.  arrived in 1835 and remained in Chicago. [351]

Murphy, James K.  born c.1824 in Ireland; arrived in August 1835; 1839 City Directory: clerk, John Fennerty [Fennerty`s fancy dry goods store on South Water Street]; still lived in Chicago in 1879. [12] [243]

Murphy, John  (1799-1881) born in Ireland, married Bridget Rogers on Apr. 26, 1835, Father St. Cyr officiating; said to have moved to Lake County.

Murphy, John  (1803-1850) born in County Cork, Ireland, and a strict Catholic, arrived with his wife, Harriet [née Austin, a strict Baptist], in June of 1834; the children of this alliance, reports John Wentworth, were all baptized in both religions; ran Mark Beaubien`s Exchange Coffee House for two years and in 1836 managed the Sauganash, renaming it United States Hotel, but in 1837 he built his own United States Hotel W of the river [West Water St., corner of Randolph]; served as alderman in 1839, and again in 1844; died of cholera on Aug. 14, 1850, while still residing at his hotel; in 1885, his widow lived at 351 W Adams Street. [12, 351, 357, 706] [707]

Murphy, N.    married Mrs. M. Frauner in 1834, said to have been the first Chicago marriage in which Father St. Cyr officiated.

Murray, Isaac  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; resident of Naperville. [319]

Murray, James  was listed as a charter member of the first Presbyterian church in June 1833, in the Fort Dearborn garrison; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August that year; a James Murray is listed with an Alexander Brand in the 1839 Chicago Directory as exchange brokers at 189 Lake Street; in 1844 Murry & Brand yet existed at a corner of Lake and Clark streets, as listed in the City Directory. [132, 243, 319] [237a]

Murray, John  came with his wife, Amy (née Napier), and their son [see] Robert Nelson, and in-laws, Joseph and John Napier, and their families on the Telegraph in July 1831, immediately journeying W in prairie schooners to land along the Du Page River, where Joseph Napier had previously made a claim; served as private in Harry Boardman`s company, part of Major Bailey`s Cook County voluntary militia, from May 24 until mid June 1832, stationed at Fort Dearborn during the Black Hawk War.

Murray, Robert Nelson  born c.1814 in Washington, NY; arrived on the Telegraph in July 1831 with his parents, John and Amy Murray, all traveling westward to the Du Page River to homestead within the Napier settlement; a Nelson Murray signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December; served as corporal in the Chicago militia company under Captain Napier during the Black Hawk War; a Nelson Murray was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; became an attorney and later a county judge; living in Naperville in 1885. [12, 319] [351]

Murray, William  an enterprising Englishman who lived in Kaskaskia in 1765, established in 1773 the “Illinois Land Company” and, in the presence of the civil and military officials of the town, acquired from the several assembled Indian chiefs two very large tracts of land in exchange for trade goods, weapons, horses, cattle, and other specified items. In the deeds, one of the designated boundaries was “Chicagou or Garlick creek,” such that the site of the present city was included in the grant; the deeds were later declared null and void by the U.S. Supreme Court, based on the well-established rule that the Indian-owned frontier lands could be sold by them only to a government. Furthermore, these purported grants were illegal under then-prevailing British law and George III`s Proclamation of 1763, as well as earlier French and later American law. [12] [608]

Mursell, Sarah  see Hinton, Rev. Isaac T.

Musham, Harry Albert  (1886-1973) born in Chicago, grandson of a lake schooner captain, son of an 1871 fire marshal; naval architect, pioneered a system of weather forecasting based on the fluctuation of the water levels in the Great Lakes; in 1939 was chairman of the Fort Dearborn Memorial Commission, submitting a report on the location of the first Fort Dearborn that determined the city`s placement of pavement markers; in 1943 published research on the location of the 1812 massacre or battle. [Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 36:21-40]

muskrat  Ondatra zibethicus; abundant in Illinois in pioneer days and still plentiful; gradually replaced beavers as a trade item in the late phase of the fur trade (1830s) when the supply of beaver pelts dwindled in the Midwest and NW regions. Elijah Wentworth, Sr., related that, when he came to Chicago in 1827, “a great deal of the land in Chicago, along the river and lake, was low and marshy with numerous muscrat houses scattered about.” [341]

Mutti, Maria A.  see Stein, Charles.

Myers, Frederick A.  soldier stationed at Fort Dearborn who kept a journal of events from early 1832 to February 1834, preserved at the Chicago History Museum; after leaving the army he became a fur trader among the Ojibwa, living with an Indian woman and writing an English-Ojibwa dictionary; by August 1835 was back in Chicago, owner of considerable downtown property and selling groceries; his name was on a school-related petition signed on Sept. 19; married to Sene Hayden; said to have died of cholera and was buried at the northside cemetery that later became Lincoln Park. [12] [314a]

Myers, Leo  see Meyers, Leo

Myers, Leo  see Mayer, Nathaniel.

M` Cauley, —  at a coroner`s inquest, reported in the June 10, 1835 Chicago Democrat, the body of an Irish woman was identified as that of M`Cauley [McAuley] who, inebriated for several days, had come to her death by “a fracture to the scull, caused by a violent blow or fall.”