Encyclopedia letter K

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K. Utica  schooner from Kalamazoo, called at Chicago on Aug. 4, 1835.

Kankakee River  in Miami: Theakiki, Theakike; corrupted by the French to Quin-qui-que, Kiakiki, then to Kankakee; among the many portages in the Chicago region were those between the Calumet and various tributaries of the Kankakee River.

Kankakee–St. Joseph portage  named after the rivers used by Indians and early European pioneers traveling between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River system. The Chicago portage was generally favored, because the traveling distance on the Kankakee River (299 miles) was almost seven times the distance on the Desplaines River. [692g]

Kannenkoth, Katharina  see Wode, John.

Karamone  Winnebago chief, present at the Fort Dearborn massacre; survived the encounter. [226]

Kaskaskia  kaahkaahkia, earlier kaaskaaskia meaning: ‘katydid’ [submitted by Carl Masthay];
(1) Indian tribe, part of the Illinois confederacy, first encountered by Father Marquette and Jolliet in 1673 on their way up the Illinois River; (2) Illinois village, also referred to as the “Great Illinois Village” in later years; initially with 74 cabins in 1673, located on the N bank of the Illinois River near Starved Rock, between the present towns of Utica and Ottawa [see map by Father Marion A. Habig]. Father Marquette returned in April 1675 and founded the Mission de la Conception; subsequently additional tribes of the Illinois confederacy, including Peoria, Cahokia and Tamaroa, added their villages immediately to the west, such that by 1677, when Father Allouez visited, he reported that there were eight tribes housed in 351 cabins. La Salle, who visited January 1, 1680, found 460 cabins, each with five or six families. The village stretched along one and one half miles of the riverbank, covering a quarter mile inland from the bank. Father Membré, who did missionary work among the village inhabitants together with Fathers Gravier and Ribourde in 1679, reported that it was “composed of 7 or 8000 souls.” In September 1680 the Iroquois invaded with overwhelming force, destroyed the entire village, killed many of the inhabitants and dispersed the remainder, Tonti and the Jesuits. The location was abandoned in 1691 for Lake Peoria, where Tonti and François Daupin de La Forêt built Fort St. Louis de Pimitéoui and Father Gravier continued his missionary work; about 1750 the tribe relocated to De Pere from Peoria. The tribe was settled in Kansas in 1832, then moved to northeastern Oklahoma in 1868. (3) Former town in southern Illinois where the Kaskaskia River joins the Mississippi, settled in 1703; became the commercial and cultural center of Illinois for the next 100 years; was made the capital of the Territory of Illinois in 1809, and remained capital during the early statehood period until late 1820, when Vandalia became the capital through 1840, then Springfield; was county seat of St. Clair County from 1809-1812. For details, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. Kaskaskia was destroyed in 1881 when the Mississippi River suddenly changed its course. [294a, 455, 456a, 464c, 493] [544]

Kaw-kee-me  see Burnett, William.

Kawbenaw  also known as The Carrier; young Potawatomi chief who took part in the Fort Dearborn massacre and is credited with saving the life of Rebekah Heald, soon after ransomed by Jean Baptiste Chandonnai; though his wife attempted to steal Rebekah`s saddle blanket, they both survived the encounter. [393c] [226]

Keah Keakah  kiihkiihkwa, Miami-Illinois meaning ‘hawk’ (species unknown). Miami subchief, leader of the Miami Indian escort of 27 warriors at the [see] Fort Dearborn massacre in 1812; survived the encounter. [226, 456b] [464c]

Keamble, —  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn in 1812; first name not known; believed to have been killed in action at the massacre of 1812. [226]

Keating, William Hypolitus  (1799-1840) geologist, mineralogist, and historian for Maj. Stephen Long’s expedition which visited Fort Dearborn in June 1823; was not favorably impressed by Chicago’s appearance nor by its prospects, describing them in unflattering terms, but nevertheless spoke in favor of an Illinois & Michigan canal; for some of Keating’s astute comments, see the following excerpt; for his complete report, see Bibliography.

In the afternoon of the fifth of June, we reached Fort Dearborn (Chicago), having been engaged eight days in traveling a distance of two hundred and sixteen miles, making an average of twenty-seven miles per day. … At Fort Dearborn we stopped for a few days, with a view to examine the country and make further preparations for the journey to the Mississippi. … We were much disappointed in the appearance of Chicago and its vicinity. We found in it nothing to justify the great eulogium lavished upon this place by a late traveler, who observes that ‘it is the most fertile and beautiful that can be imagined’ [Schoolcraft, in 1820]. ‘As a farming country,’ says he, ‘it unites the fertile soil of the finest lowland prairies with an elevation which exempts it from the influence of stagnant waters, and a summer climate of delightful serenity.’ The best comment upon this description of the climate and soil is the fact that, with the most active vigilance on the part of the officers, it was impossible for the garrison [of Fort Dearborn], consisting of from seventy to ninety men, to subsist themselves upon the grain raised in the country, although much of their time was devoted to agricultural pursuits. The difficulties which the agriculturist meets with here are numerous; they arise from the shallowness of the soil, from its humidity, and from its exposure to the cold and damp winds which blow from the lake with great force during most part of the year; the grain is frequently destroyed by swarms of insects; there are also a number of destructive birds of which it was impossible for the garrison to avoid the baneful influence, except by keeping, as was practised at Fort Dearborn, a party of soldiers constantly engaged at shooting at the crows and blackbirds that depredated upon the corn planted by them. But, even with all these exertions, the maize seldom has time to ripen, owing to the shortness and coldness of the season. The provisions for the garrison were for the most part conveyed from Mackinaw in a schooner, and sometimes they were brought from St. Louis, a distance of three hundred and eighty-six miles up the Illinois and Des Plaines rivers…. … The appearance of the country near Chicago offers but few features upon which the eye of the traveler can dwell with pleasure. There is too much uniformity in scenery; the extensive water prospect is a waste uncheckered by islands, unenlivened by the spreading canvas, and the fatiguing monotony of which is increased by the equally undiversified prospect of the land scenery, which affords no relief to the sight, as it consists merely of a plain in which but few patches of thin and scrubby woods are observed scattered here and there. … The village presents no cheering prospect, as, notwithstanding its antiquity, it consists of but few huts, inhabited by a miserable race of men, scarcely equal to the Indians from whom they are descended. Their log or bark houses are low, filthy and disgusting, displaying not the least trace of comfort. Chicago is perhaps one of the oldest settlements in the Indian country; its name, derived from the Potawatomi language, signifies either a skunk, or a wild onion; and either of these significations has been occasionally given for it. A fort is said to have formerly existed there. Mention is made of the place as having been visited in 1671 by Perrot, who found ‘Chicagou’ to be the residence of a powerful chief of the Miamis. The number of trails centring all at this spot, and their apparent antiquity, indicate that this was probably for a long while the site a large Indian village. As a place of business, it offers no inducement to the settler; for the whole annual amount of the trade on the lake did not exceed the cargo of five or six schooners even at the time when the garrison received its supplies from Mackinaw. It is not impossible that at some distant day, when the banks of the Illinois shall have been covered with a dense population, and when the low prairies which extend between that river and Fort Wayne, shall have acquired a population proportionate to the produce which they can yield, that Chicago may become one of the points in the direct line of communication between the northern lakes and the Mississippi; but even the intercourse which will be carried on through this communication, will we think at all times be a limited one; the dangers attending the navigation of the lake, and the scarcity of harbours along the shore, must ever prove a serious obstacle to the increase of the commercial importance of Chicago. [294]

Keecheeaqua  see La Tendre, Jean Baptiste.

keelboat  a large flat boat used early on the rivers, carrying from 20 to 30 tons; usually manned by 10 hands, including a steersman and a captain or master or “patroon” [Canadian jargon]; could maneuver the Chicago portage during favorable water conditions; upstream travel was tedious and time-consuming, the trip from New Orleans to Louisville, KY – a distance by river of 1,500 miles, took from three to six months, rowing and staking most of the way, sometimes supported by a sail, if conditions were right.

Keeney, G.W.  advertised his “wholesale and retail establishment, a few doors below Newberry & Dole” in May 1834 issues of the Chicago Democrat. He sold an extensive assortment of cooking stoves and tin, sheet iron and copperware, hollow ware, plows and plow castings.

Keepoteh  meaning ‘surrounded by fire or war’; Potawatomi warrior present at the 1812 Fort Dearborn massacre; at the direction of his chief Topenebe (Burnett connection) he boarded the Kinzie boat and helped save the Kinzie family. [226] [456b]

Keez-ko-quah  see Beaubien, Madore Benjamin.

Kekionga  popular spelling of Miami-Illinois /kiihkayonki/. In Miami-Illinois, this term means “Kiihkaya`s Place.” Kiihkaya is a borrowing of a name given to Gen. Anthony Wayne by Delaware Indians who spoke Munsee and Unami. Those language versions of this place name would literally translate “the Old Person`s Place,” General Wayne having been regarded as an elderly man by the Delaware. [456k]

Kelley, Henry  also Kelly; worked for Samuel Miller; voted on Aug. 7, 1826, and July 24, 1830.

Kellogg, Joseph  (Nov. 8,1691-1756) in February 1704, Joseph and other members of his family were captured by Indians during their raids on the English settlement Deerfield, MA, and taken to the Montreal area; after living with the Indians for a year and having learned Mohawk and likely other Indian languages, he was delivered to the French; became a naturalized French subject and worked as an interpreter for the next 10 years. In 1710, he joined a Canadian trading party bound for Illinois; after overwintering at Michilimackinac, the six voyageurs coasted down the western shore of Lake Michigan to Chigaquea, where they portaged into the Illinois River, traveling down it to the Mississippi as far south as the mouth of the Ohio River, then returning up the Illinois, Kankakee, St. Joseph, and Lake Michigan en route back to Mackinac and Montreal. In 1717 Joseph returned to Massachusetts where he dictated his observations and cartographic notes to the future Governor of Massachusetts Paul Dudley, who forwarded the text to London [see excerpt pertaining to Chicago and the Illinois River below]. As a result of this, the celebrated English cartographer John Senex in 1719 revised his 1710 map of North America. Kellogg described various villages where he had visited, but he said nothing about a European settlement at the place he referred to as Chigaquea, although he described the land, vegetation, and game, thereby providing evidence that no French people lived at Chicago in 1711, the place having been abandoned in favor of Cahokia and Kaskaskia, which he described as populated. Kellogg is believed to be – Chicago’s 1st – English-born visitor. [Mississippi Valley Historical Review 23, 1936: pp. 345-54; 205, 735aa]
From Paul Dudley’s transcript of Kellogg’s report: … Having passed These Streights [of Mackinac], They Entred the Lake Ilinois or Michigan; here again Mr. Kellug observed a Mistake as to the Situation of the Lake. For whereas the Map [by John Senex] places the length of it North & South, he assures me that it lyes near North North East and South South west, or as his Phrase was, the South end Should be placed more to the Westward. This Great Lake also they Coasted till they came near the South west end of it, and then carried their cannoos over land a full League to a Branch of the River Ilinois, and this was their biggest carrying place of the whole Voyage, and is called Chigaquea. About the head of the River Ilinois are fine large Savannahs or Meadows of forty Miles in length, Some of the Richest Land the World affords. This River Ilinois is one of the Great Rivers that falls into Missasippi, and runs a Course of one hundred & thirty Leagues before it Empties itself into Missasippi. Into this River Ilinois comes the River Miamis or St. Joseph, as the French call it, issuing from the Lake Hinois. Mr. Kellug in his return went up that River into the Lake; there they met with Sturgeon of ten feet long. The Savannahs before mentioned are the noble pasture of Buffalo’s and wild Cattle and which they saw in great herds, and to their Surprise in Some of the feeding or lodging places of these wild Cattle they discovered bunches of true clover Grass. as they went to the River Hinois they raised Infinite number of wild fowl, Such as Cranes, Geese, Duck, and Swans in great abundance that feed upon wild oats [wild rice] [which] are called by the Indians Mauahomine, by the French Falavoine, and are very good Grain, and may be boyled and Eat as rice, and will Swell from one quart to ten or twelve, they grow in Such abundance by the Banks of the River as it runs thro’ Savannahs that a man may fill a Cannoo with the grain in a few hours; upon this River Ilinois they found wild apple trees and plumb-trees, the apples bitter and Sower, but the plumbs good; and a fruit much like Cucumber that grow upon Small trees or Shrubbs. They call em Raisimins. before the River Ilinois falls into the Missasippi, it is Joyned by the Curamani, which in the Indian Signifies Vermillion and So may be named upon the Map.
The next Stage down this River was the Fort Louis, alias Crevecoeur. Here again happens a Considerable mistake in the Map, for whereas the Fort is placed at the lower end of the little Lake Pimetawi [Peoria]; it really stands thirty Leagues above that Lake. Below the Lake Pimetawi, the River Ilinois is Joyned by two Considerable Rivers & at length Empties all its Water into the Great River. The River Missasippi where the River Ilinois Joynes it is more than half an English mile broad, and very deep water. Here Mr. Kellug found himself in a New World, Compared with the River Canada
. …. [649]

Kelsey, Patrick  a subcontractor in 1835, clearing the land on the N side to prepare for street grading; also ran a small yellow boarding house among the sand hills N of the river with his wife Eve, as noted by [see] J.D. Bonnell; voted in the 1837 city election; 1839 City Directory: laborer, Chicago Avenue near North Dearborn Street; still listed in the 1844 directory. [12] [13]

Kelso, John  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted in December 1805; accepted discharge on Dec. 17, 1810, when his term expired; stayed to be a tutor to the Kinzie children and then a field hand on Leigh’s farm; on April 6, 1812, marauding Winnebago attacked and he escaped with John Leigh, and alarmed the garrison at the fort; rejoined the army May 3 as a private and was killed in action at the massacre of August 15. [708] [226]

Kendall, Betsey  see Flagg, Reuben.

Kennicott, Hiram  lawyer; brother of [see] John A. Kennicott; member of the large Kennicott family of lawyers and physicians from New York; arrived in 1834 and soon after built a cabin on the Des Plaines River in Vernon Township [Lake County] near the village of Half Day; created saw- and gristmills on the river and opened a general store; became the first justice of the peace of Lake County on Oct. 17, 1835. In 1836 his parents and several younger siblings came from New York state and joined him; Hiram and his wife had 12 children. He lost his farm in the crash of 1837, then moved to New Orleans but returned in 1843 to acquire 960 acres amid acreage of relatives; a close friend of [see] John Stephen Wright; later moved to Silver Cliff, Colorado [see photo of Hiram, courtesy of Hiram I. Kennicott]. [432, 432a] [351]

Kennicott, John A., M.D.  (1802-June 4, 1863) of Scottish origin; born in 1802 near Saratoga, NY, as the second of 14 children, among them [see Hiram, Levi, William, and Jonathan], all of whom seem to have settled in the Chicago area between 1832 and 1836, some moving on later, others becoming prominent local citizens. John was first active as school teacher while acquiring a medical degree, then traveled into Canada and south through the midwest; in 1830 he married Mary Shutts Ransom of Buffalo, NY, and together in New Orleans they began their family; came to Chicago in 1836 and thereafter was often referred to as “The Old Doctor”; was a circuit physician [See the story below about an essential helpmate to the doctor, related by A.T. Andreas.], but much of his time was devoted to prairie horticulture, and he became the first great nursery man in northern Illinois. His initial log cabin [see Kennicott’s Grove for a photo, courtesy of Hiram I. Kennicott] and farm stood NW of Chicago at a place soon called The Grove, now part of Glenview, IL, made famous by Dr. John “for its view, its rare and beautiful flowers and its sweeps of fruit trees and berry bushes”; in 1856 the cabin was replaced by a larger stucture, the Kennicott House. Much later the site became an 82 acre environmental center, the Grove National Historic Site at Glenview, IL. John and Mary had seven children; prominent among their sons was the naturalist and Arctic explorer [see] Robert K. Kennicott. [351, 432a, 582a]
A.T. Andreas, in 1884, reported the following about Dr. Kennicott’s horse: After a long career of usefulness the equine [of Dr. Kennicott], becoming unfit for service, was turned loose to shift for himself, and, finding some choice picking in the court-house square, he made that a resort. The citizens recognized the old animal and, compassionating his condition of marasmus, assembled and determined upon giving the veteran a donation party. At the appointed time they flocked to the square with provender and building material. A shed was constructed by the embryonic humane society, and the food stored therein. Then a procession was formed, with the equine beneficiary at its head, and after parading the streets to the martial music of fife and drum, the steed was installed in his stable, where he existed until spring, when Death mounted the pale white horse, and rode him to the happy hunting grounds. Peace to his mane(s). [12]

Kennicott, Jonathan Asa, M.D.  (1824-1862) from Albion, NY; younger brother of [see] John A., Hiram, and William H. Kennicott; arrived with his family from New York in 1836 as a child; obtained his degree from Rush Medical College in 1843, but practiced dentistry the next three years with his brother; married Marie Antoinette Fisk in 1854. He built an elegant mansion on what is now Chicago’s south side at 48th Street and Dorchester Avenue, calling it Kenwood after his mother’s family estate in Scotland. The name Kenwood was later applied to the entire fashionable neighborhood; street name: Kenwood Avenue (1332 E). [12, 13, 351, 432a] [582a]

Kennicott, Levi  doctor; brother of [see] John A., Hiram, William, and Jonathan; came to Chicago before 1834 (1832?), but soon moved 20 miles north, settling in Lake County; eventually moved to Black Hawk, Iowa. [351] [432a]

Kennicott, Robert K.  (1835-May 13, 1866) second child of [see] John A. Kennicott, M.D. and Mary Shutts Ransom; came to Chicago with his family at the age of one, destined to become the most famous of all the Chicago Kennicotts. Early in his childhood he developed an intense interest in natural history; at age 18 he began communicating with and collecting speciments for the Smithsonian Institute, and at 20 he became an assistent to the prominent naturalist Louis Agassiz; later was instrumental in creating Chicago’s natural history museum and the natural history department of Northwestern University. In 1866, then a major of the U.S. Army and while exploring Alaska a year before it was purchased by the United States from Russia for two cents per acre, Robert died of undetermined causes. The findings of his expedition were submitted to Secretary of State William H. Seward by Robert’s companion naturalist W.H. Dall and helped convince Congress to approve the purchase. The town Kennecott in Alaska and the Kennicott Glacier were named after him. [432a] [582a]

Kennicott, William Henry, D.D.S.  younger brother of [see] Dr. John A. Kennicott, under whom he had studied medicine; became – Chicago`s !st – dentist when opening his office in May 1834 at the Eagle Tavern, as advertised in the Chicago Democrat, and practiced in town for many years, for some time joined in his office by his younger brother, [see] Jonathan Asa; was one of 14 siblings, mostly boys, who between 1832 and 1835 came to Chicago from New York State, although not at the same time, with many of them settling in the N and NW periphery of the original town, where they acquired much land; married Caroline P. Chapman from New York in 1838; 1839 City Directory: dentist, Lake St.; in 1849 was an unsuccessful candidate for mayor; a successful physician and horticulturist; died in 1853. Col. Adolphus S. Hubbard, in about 1880, listed the following additional male members of the Kennicott family as: Dr. John A.; James H. (attorney, died in Mexico in 1840); Dr. Levi (moved to Black Hawk, IA); Hiram (lawyer and farmer) moved to Silver Cliff, CO); Dr. Jonathan Asa; Alonzo (farmer in Barrington); and Joseph (farmer in Arlington Heights). [12, 351, 432a] [432]

Kennicott`s Grove  “The Grove,” home of [see] Dr. John A. and Mary Kennicott [photo, courtesy of Hiram I. Kennicott]. [432a]

Kennison, David  (1736-1852) also Kinison; born in Kingston, NH; U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, listed in John Kinzie’s account books on Sept. 3, 1804, on July 20 and Aug. 12, 1805, and on Apr. 10, 1812; survived the massacre [in a conflicting report, Kinison died at the massacre, which suggests the later Kennison may be an imposter]; captured; later returned to live in Chicago. By his own information and count, Kennison was the last survivor of the Boston Tea Party and died at the age of 115 years. A curiosity of sorts, he was made “manager” of Rice’s Theater in 1848, which prompted him to advertise as noted below; was buried in the city cemetery that would later become Lincoln Park, where a large granite s boulder with bronze (now aluminum) plaque commemorates him [see Monuments]; street name: Kennison Avenue (4500 W). [12, 226, 355a, 404, 708]
David Kennison’s published notice: I have taken the Museum in this city, which I was obliged to do in order to get a comfortable living, as my pension is so small it scarcely affords the comforts of life. If I live until the 17th of November, 1848, I shall be 112 years old, and I intend making a donation party on that day at the Museum. I have fought in several battles for my country. All I ask of the generous public is to call at the Museum on the 17th of November, which is my birthday, and donate to me what they think I deserve. [559]

Kent County, Canada  Chicago was defined as part of Kent County of the Province of Upper Canada of England when the county was created in 1792; although the action was in conflict with U.S. claims as expressed in the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, England remained in de facto control of the county until 1796. [544]

Kenwood  early fashionable neigborhood on Chicago’s south side; derived its name from the home of [see] Kennicott, Jonathan Asa, M.D. [582a]

Kenworthy, Mr.  a traveling ventriloquist who delighted his audiences in Chicago on June 10 and 11, 1834. At “Bromback Hall” [Traveller’s Home] he promised to “offer for the amusement of his visitors, his Whims, Stories, Adventures &c.; of a Ventriloquist, as embodied in his entertaining monologue of the Bromback Family” (seven distinct characters) as well as “performing many other very interesting feats.” [482]

Keokuk  (1790-1848) blue-eyed Sauk métis leader born in Illinois; his name kiyokaga meant ‘watchful fox, one who moves about alert’; respected for his forceful personality, wisdom, and remarkable oratory; during the War of 1812, when the Sauk and Fox tribes divided their loyalties, his fellow Sauk leader Black Hawk fought the Americans, while Keokuk remained uninvolved; in 1832 he refused to join the Black Hawk War. A bronze bust of Keokuk is kept in the U.S. Senate; street name: Keokuk Avenue (4144 W). [12, 211] [456b]

Kercheval, Col. Benjamin Berry, Sr.  (Apr. 9, 1793-Mar. 23, 1855) born at Berry Plains, Frederick County, VA; third son of John and Jane (née Berry) Kercheval. Indian agent at Detroit in 1821, where he hired blacksmith David McKee as a federal employee and sent him to Chicago in 1823, to be retained at Fort Dearborn and teach the Indians, as stipulated in the Chicago Treaty of 1821; on Jan. 18, 1821 he married Maria, daughter of Robert and Mary (née Scott) Forsyth; the couple had three children: Eliza Cass (c.1822-1872), Mary (c.1824-July 10, 1910), and Benjamin Berry, Jr. (c.1828-). On Sept. 27, 1830, he is listed among the first buyers of two choice downtown lots [in block 29, lot 5 and 6; see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], which he conveyed to Robert Kinzie, assignee; other early records show [see] William Belcher as the initial owner. In July 1832 Kercheval was the sutler at Fort Howard, with a mixed assortment of goods on the west side of the Fox River. On September 28, the twelfth day of the 1833 Chicago Treaty, Kercheval was chosen “to act as appraiser of goods and merchandise furnished for the use of the Indians” jointly with Madison F. Abbott and Robert Stuart, and also was chosen “to serve as purchaser and appraiser of horses for the use of Indians jointly with David R. Porter and Pierre Menard” by the Board of Commissioners; he signed the treaty document as a witness and received $1500 in payment for a claim at the treaty; served as trustee for William Burnett at the same treaty. [319] [12]

Kercheval, Gholson  (Dec. 4, 1805-July 17, 1875) also Kerchival or Kircheval, Goldson; born at Washington, Mason County, KY; fifth son of John and Jane (née Berry) Kercheval; younger brother of [see] Benjamin B. Kercheval and older brother of Lewis C.; arrived in 1831 and worked as a clerk for Robert Kinzie; had his own small trading establishment during 1831 in one of the log cabins at Wolf Point [according to Mrs. Kinzie in Wau-Bun], where he was joined by his younger brother [see] Lewis C. Kercheval; purchased real estate in block 16, selling it soon after to Anson H. Taylor [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; served as Indian agent at Fort Dearborn between agent Dr. Wolcott’s death [Oct. 26, 1830] and agent Thomas J.V. Owen’s arrival in the spring of 1831, then as subagent with James Stewart, beginning May 1, 1832; was one of the first three Cook County commissioners elected on Mar. 7, 1831; signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on October 5. As subagent and captain he first organized the Chicago Militia, 37 citizens and improvised soldiers who were listed on the muster roll of May 2, 1832, and who accompanied Agent Owen or Captain Kercheval and Interpreter Caldwell on reconnoitering travels throughout the Black Hawk War [for the complete list of militia members who served under Kercheval, see Andreas, 1:269]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and signed the Chicago Treaty document as a witness in September; later on November 25 married Felicite (May 14, 1814-Dec. 19, 1893), daughter of Miles and Françoise (née Pelitier) Hotchkiss of Kaskaskia, the Hon. R.I. Hamilton officiating, making him brother-in-law to Owen, who was married to her sister, Emeline; the couple had one surviving child, Walter Gholson (-Apr. 18, 1883), a marine editor of the Chicago Tribune; in 1834 Gholson was a member of the Cholera Vigilance Committee; in 1836 he served as a director of the newly organized Chicago Hydraulic Company; 1839 City Directory: real estate, River Street. Gholson continued as a real estate agent in the city until 1850, then left for California where he initially prospered and then lost his wealth; he died in San Francisco and was buried in Sacramento; Felicite lived at 203-1/2 Clark St. with their son until his death, then after 1885 removed to St. Louis where she died on Dec. 19, 1893. [See Gholson Kercheval`s signature below.] [12, 319, 714] [351]

Kercheval, Gholson  his signature, as found in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Kercheval, Lewis C.  (1809-Dec. 8, 1852) born in Kentucky; sixth son of John and Jane (née Berry) Kercheval; an attorney, arrived in Chicago coming from Kentucky in 1831 and joined his older brother Gholson in the Indian trade at the latter’s trading post; in 1832 served as county commissioner; married Nancy Stephens of Joliet, as per notice in the Chicago Democrat, Nov. 4, 1835; 1839 City Directory: inspector, port of Chicago, boarded at City Hotel; 1843 City Directory: justice of the peace, 5 Clark, boarded at City Hotel; 1844 City Directory: L. C. Kercheval justice of the peace, office Clark st. 3d door S. of South Water st; his widow lived at 204-1/2 Clark St. in 1885; see Edwin O. Gale’s vivid description of Lewis which follows; also see Kercheval, Lewis, a cousin who settled at Hickory Creek; street name: Kercheval Avenue (4600 W). [12, 97, 319, 734]
Gale’s description of Lewis C. Kercheval: As I recall that smooth stern-faced man with short, straight, gray hair and tall commanding figure advantageously set off in a well-fitting Websterian blue coat with large brass buttons, moving among us with erect carriage (especially after he became President of the Washingtonian Society), with slow step and precise dignity, conscious that he was Colonel by courtesy, Justice of the Peace by the votes of his fellow citizens and Inspector of the Port by the friendship of Old Hickory, it is hard to realize that this was the same person who was so much interested years before at that insignificant trading cabin, in the patronage of beaded squaws and painted bucks. [351]

Kercheval, Lewis    (Apr. 17, 1794-February 1873) also Kerchival; born in Martinsburg, WV; fifth son of James (c.1768-, Berkeley County, WV) and Mary (née Pottenger; c.1772-, Berkeley County, WV) Kercheval; cousin of [see] Benjamin, Gholson, and Lewis C. Kercheval; married Mary (Polly) Runyon (KY Sept. 23, 1798-Sept. 12, 1841, daughter of Michael and Nancy [née  Blakewell] Runyon) on Feb. 1, 1814 in Preble County, OH; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830, within months of arriving at the Hickory Creek settlement in Will County with his family and their Runyon in-laws from Ohio; built a log cabin within two weeks and began to supplement the family`s provisions by traveling to IN settlements during the first year, 150 miles away; was elected Cook County commissioner on March 7, 1831, when the board was first created; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; farmed; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. The couple`s children were sons John Gougar, James C. (-1873), and daughters Martha (also called Patsy; OH Oct. 14, 1808-Dec. 2, 1865; 1856, Mrs. Thomas Culbertson), and Nancy (OH c.1814-1835, Mrs. Robert Stevens). Lewis died at Hickory Creek; James C. was supervisor of the town of New Lenox three years, but a farmer until his death, his wife still listed as the farmer in 1878, when son Charles E. (Sept. 21, 1843-) was also listed as farmer and stock-raiser in the township. [319, 421a] [734]

Kercheval, Nancy  see Stevens, Capt. Robert.

Ketchum, Mary R.  see Vial, Robert.

Kettlestrings, Joseph  (1808-1883) immigrated from Yorkshire, England, in 1831 with wife Betty (née Willis, 1828 {1802-1885}) and small children William and Ann. The Methodist family spent the first winter in Cincinnati, OH, where the third child, Hanna, was born; came to Chicago in 1833; placed a claim (173 acres) on “the first dry land W of Chicago,” later called Kettlestrings’ Grove [then Oak Ridge and, from 1871 on, Oak Park] where eight more children were born: Ellen, Mary, Joseph, Jr., Dora, Elizabeth, Thomas, Mary Ann, and Walter. Joseph, Sr., initially hauled lumber for the Chicago firm Bickerdyke & Noble [having known Bickerdyke in England and then been invited to work for him] which maintained a steam lumbermill on the E bank of the Des Plaines River [just N of the present Lake Street bridge]. The family lived in a log cabin near the mill until he built the first house in 1835 [bronze plaque once located at 1135 Lake Street in Oak Park, now preserved at the Oak Park Historical Museum]. That year he acquired an ownership interest in the mill and also sufficiently enlarged his house to serve as what was first known as Kettlestrings’ Tavern, later Oak Ridge House; while he worked at the mill, Betty boarded mill hands and managed the inn. From 1843 to 1855, the family lived predominantly in Chicago for the benefit of the children’s schooling and where Kettlestrings worked grading the city streets; in 1855 the family returned to Oak Ridge and began to subdivide the farmland. It is not clear whether Kettlestrings’ reported habit of selling parcels of his land only with a binder never to sell liquor on the property stemmed from sound business principles or from an ardent disdain of alcoholic beverages on ethical grounds. He died on Oct. 17, 1883, and Betty on Jan. 21, 1885; the family grave [see Monuments section] is at [see] Forest Home Cemetery. The bronze plaque shown here is located currently (2010) in Scoville Park in the village of Oak Park. For an earlier plaque, no longer present, see “Kettlestrings House and Tavern” in the Monuments section. [Photograph taken by Alan Gornik, 2010] [12] [503a]

Kettlestrings` Grove  early community, now Oak Ridge; see Kettlestrings, Joseph.

Kettlestrings’ Tavern  see Kettlestrings, Joseph.

Kewanee  Ojibwa word for prairie hen; street name: Kewanee Avenue (4200 W).

Keyes, Edward  purchased on Sept. 4, 1830, lots 5 and 6 in block 8, and lot 9 in block 28 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; by 1833, the latter belonged to John Noble, the former to Enoch Thompson; according to a notice in the Chicago Democrat on July 29, 1835, an Edward Keyes died that month in LaSalle County, IL.

Kickapoo  an Indian tribe of the central Algonkin group that included the closely related Sauk and Fox; first noted as “Kicapous” between the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers by Father Allouez, 1667-70.

Kile Tavern  also Kyle Tavern, A Farmers Hotel and Stage Coach Stop, and Ten Mile House; historic stagecoach stopover; on Vincennes Trace near what is now 83rd Street; built c.1836.

Kiley, Miss  see Emerson, Benjamin.

Killigoss, Isaac  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Kilpatrick, Samuel  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn, enlisted in December 1805; was ill at the time of the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812, and was killed in the sickwagon. [226]

Kimball & Porter  see Kimball, Walter.

Kimball, Harlow  (1811-1881) born in Watertown, NY; visited Chicago in 1833; his enthusiastic testimony aroused [see] John Calhoun’s interest and led to his own return in 1834; 1839 City Directory: merchant, Clark Street; in both the 1843 and 1844 Directory his house is listed at 71 Monroe Street near State; died in Oakland, CA, on Aug. 25, 1881. [12] [243]

Kimball, Henry N.  arrived from New York in 1835 and served as county treasurer that same year; 1839 City Directory: vessel owner. [243]

Kimball, Margaret L.  see Gary, Jude Perin.

Kimball, Walter  (c.1809-1882) born in Rome, NY; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; subscribed to the Chicago Democrat in November, present in Calhoun’s office while the first issue of the Chicago Democrat was printed; with Porter [Hibbard Porter?] opened a dry goods, crockery, and hardware store on the SE corner of South Water and Clark streets in November 1833, the building having been previously occupied by P. Carpenter’s drugstore, and subsequently by the Clarke drugstore; by Dec. 1, 1835, Kimball & Porter had moved to the NW corner of Clark and Lake streets, remaining until 1840. Kimball served on the village board of trustees and also on the board of directors of the first bank in Chicago in 1835 (State Bank of Illinois); 1839 City Directory: probate judge, corner of Clark and South Water streets; in 1849 became clerk of the superior court; died on Aug. 17, 1882. [12, 319] [351]

Kimberly, Edmund Stoughton, M.D.  (1803-1874) also Kimberlee, often mistakenly referred to as “Dr. Kimball” by Andreas; born at Troy, NY, son of John and Hannah Alcott Stoughton Kimberly; received his medical degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City; married Marie Theresa Ellis in 1829 (Jersey City, NJ 1810- ); arrived at Chicago in the fall of 1832 with his family and a young business man, Peter Pruyne; listed in Andreas’ “Map of Chicago in 1830” (pp. 112-113) as a patentee prior to 1836 of 80 acres of land, consisting of the E half of the SE quarter of Section 32, Township 39, just N of present 39th Street; bought land from the Clybourne family on Franklin Street [lots 5 and 6 in block 5; see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; began private practice and opened a drug and variety store under the name of Peter Pruyne & Company on South Water Street, between Dearborn and Clark (the second such store, P. Carpenter’s was the first); soon became regarded as the leading druggist in town, although he continued to practice medicine; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. The town meeting that decided Chicago’s incorporation took place in the Pruyne & Kimberly drugstore, and Dr. Kimberly acted as secretary and voted “yes” [for a copy of that meeting’s report, see entry on incorporation]; his signature is on the election notice of August 5, and he was elected trustee on August 10. In 1837 he became a trustee of Rush Medical School and also established a free school for all students with [see] Theophilus S. Greenwood and Jacob Russell. When Pruyne died in 1838, Kimberly moved the drugstore into Tremont House, destroyed by fire in 1839; 1839 City Directory: residence, North Water Street next to the Lake House Hotel; served as city health officer from 1837 to 1841; 1844 City Directory: physician, 101 Lake st. house State st. The couple had six surviving children: Lewis Ashfield, John Ellis, Margaretta Morris (Mrs. James M. Donnelly), George Stoneacre, Cora Livingston (Mrs. George C. Hicks), and Augustus Van Horne; in 1854 Dr. Kimberly retired to his country home in Lake County, where he remained until his death; in 1885 his widow lived at Barrington Station, IL. For his signature, and for Edwin O. Gale’s description of him, see below; Kimberly Avenue (4700). [12, 39, 66, 221, 243, 319, 351]

Gale’s description of Dr. Kimberly: He was a tall, slender, dignified gentleman, one of the old school of courtly, kindhearted practitioners, ever responding as readily to the call of the poor and obscure as to the wealthiest and most prominent. Glasses were not so commonly worn then as at present, and his gold-rimmed spectacles always seemed to add to the confidence his patients reposed in him. He was our family physician as long as he practiced here. [357]

Kimberly, Edmund Stoughton, M.D.  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Kimberly, George Stoneacre  third son of [see] Dr. Edmund Kimberly, born in Chicago in 1837; mentioned by Andreas as managing a singing group with the name “Minstrels” in 1850. [12]

Kimberly, Ira  arrived from New York in 1834 and served as a member of the voluntary fire department in 1835 [see petition to the village board of Dec. 16, 1835, with entry on firefighting].

Kimberly, John and Lewis  children by this name were enrolled as grade school students in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded, but they are now known to be Dr. Edmund S. Kimberly`s oldest children: Lewis Ashfield Kimberly (1830-1902) and John Ellis Kimberly (1832- ). Both were born in Troy, New York. [728]

Kinder, David  private at Fort Dearborn under Captain Heald; killed in action at the massacre of Aug. 15, 1812 [approximate spelling given the poor imprint on Captain Heald’s list; not on Eckert’s list].

Kinder, Emma  see Wayman, Samuel.

King, Byram  also Byron or Byran; arrived in 1834 from New York; partner in the hardware firm of [William] Jones, King & Co. on South Water Street between Clark and Dearborn, established in 1834, and which subsidized – Chicago’s 1st – foundry built on Polk Street in 1835; was among the members of the first board of health appointed June 19, 1835, and elected to the town board of trustees in July 1835; served as clerk for School District No. Four later in September; on July 7, 1836, married Emily Jones, his partner’s eldest daughter; 1839 City Directory: Jones, King & Co.; died in 1841. [12]

King, Henry  arrived in 1834 from New York; with an ad in the Oct. 28, 1835, Chicago Democrat, announced that he had taken over Hubbard & Co. with an extensive “assortment of Fall and Winter Goods”: Dry Goods, Ready made Clothing, Bonnets [“Ladies Florence gipsey bonnets; leghorn Tuscan corded edge and fancy do.; Misses do.;–straw bands”], Groceries, Hardware, Heavy Goods, Wooden and other Ware, Jewelry and Fancy Articles, House Keeping Articles, Guns and Rifles, Fur Goods, Boots and Shoes; 1839 City Directory: dry goods &c.;, N Dearborn Street near Kinzie Street; in 1843 the Chicago Democrat notes Henry and Ann G. King as involved in a forced house sale by default of payment, the mortgage transferring to William Ogden for Arthur Bronson; possibly identical with Henry W. King mentioned by Andreas as a prominent member of the Westminster Presbyterian Church in the 1850s. [12]

King, Maj. Sherman  a corporal in Captain Boardman’s voluntary county militia late May into June, 1832, and second lieutenant in Captain Napier’s militia company between July 19 and Aug. 18, 1832 during the Black Hawk War; that year he and [see] Theron Parsons initially claimed land at [now] Morton Arboretum and, within the year, King substituted his claim for another at Brush Hill; held the rank of major in 1833, and that year married Mrs. Amanda Morrison on December 1, Stephen M. Salisbury officiating; resided at Brush Hill, building a one-story house on Salt Creek in 1835 (extant in 1939); constructed a sawmill with neighbor [see] Nicholas Torode on the E bank of Salt Creek in 1837, selling it to Torode in 1843 for $500. [280a, 415, 660, 692b, 714] [217a]

King, Nathaniel  also Nat, likely younger brother of Tuthill; salesman in [see] Tuthill King’s clothing store in 1835, listed as clerk in the 1839 City Directory.

King, Nehemiah  practical surveyor and engineer, member of the Ohio legislature, judge; received $125 at the Chicago Treaty on Sept. 27, 1833; recommended for county commissioner for the Chicago precinct in the April 16, 1834, Chicago Democrat; chosen as nominee for the state house of representatives at the Ottawa convention in June that year. In June 1835, then a federal surveyor, he bought 80 acres in the subdivision of Summit (the SE quarter of Section 12, Township 38), selling them in 1839 to [see] Russell Heacock. [417a] [12]

King, Thomas J.  in October 1835, he signed up with the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company, an early volunteer fire brigade.

King, Tuthill  born 1803 in New York; arrived with his bride in April 1835; the two initially lived in the attic of William Jones’s house on the corner of Wells and Randolph streets; was observed by E.O. Gale as proprietor of the New York Clothing Store, assisted by Nat King, and by June he advertised “3 doors north of the Tremont House, in Dearborn” in the Chicago American; member of the voluntary fire department; 1839 City Directory: New York clothing store, 115 Lake St.; active in public education as a member of the board of the Dearborn Seminary in the 1850s; lived at 85 Washington St. in 1885. [12, 266] [351]

Kingsbury, Col. Jacob  (-1837) from Connecticut; in command at Detroit, Mackinac and other northwestern military posts from 1804 on; for a while was the superior authority of several posts that included Fort Wayne and Fort Dearborn. The Kingsbury Papers, including his correspondence and other documents, are of primary importance as a source for northwestern history; the papers exist in the archives of the Chicago History Museum. Colonel Kingsbury left the military service in 1815 and died in 1837. [400]

Kingsbury, Maj. Julius Jesse Backus  (c.1797-1856) Second Infantry; served at Fort Dearborn from June 17, 1832, to May 31, 1833, under Col. William Whistler, during which time he purchased from Robert A. Kinzie lot 5 of block 35 of the original town [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; married to Jane Creed Stebbins, who as a widow lived at Old Lyme, CT, in 1885. [319] [12]

Kingsley, James M.  formerly a merchant of New York City from Schuylkill County, PA; returning from Galena he was taken ill at Chicago with bilious fever [malaria] and died three weeks later, “aged 22 years and a few months,” as announced in the Sept. 17, 1834 Chicago Democrat. [135]

Kingston, John Tabor  early Wisconsin pioneer who visited Chicago in the spring of 1835, before the opening of navigation on the Illinois & Michigan Canal; his accounts are published as Early Western Days; lived at Necedah, WI, in 1885. [12]

Kingston, Paul  a Scottish Presbyterian, from Lewistown, IL, where he was a storekeeper and active in church affairs; arrived with his family in 1830 and helped organize the Presbyterian church; had a son named John, and at least two daughters; on Sept. 4, 1830, bought real estate in blocks 20 (lot 7), 29 (lots 9 and 10), and 32 (lot 4) [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; in the Sept. 23, 1834, Chicago Democrat he advertised land for sale on the Du Page River at the Walker’s Grove settlement [Plainfield]; on Dec. 5, 1835, applied for wharfing privileges; on May 18, 1841, married Mrs. Mary Yard of Little Fort [Waukegan]. [28] [319]

Kinison, David  see Kennison, David.

Kinley, Lucy Jane Smith  born Aug. 17, 1828, in Du Page County, IL; as widow Smith she married [see] William Russel Stolp on Nov. 15, 1848.

kinnikinnick  a form of pipe tobacco used by the Indians; usually dried leaves mixed from a variety of plants, varying from tribe to tribe and usually not containing what we now know as the tobacco plant, still always irritating to the mucous membranes; the word also meant [see] calumet.

Kinzie & Co.  a trading partnership that, according to [see] William Smith, existed prior to John Kinzie’s 1828 death and consisted of John Kinzie, Robert A. Forsyth and William Smith. [319]

Kinzie & Hall  the partnership of James Kinzie and David Hall that had created Wolf Tavern in 1823, advertised a new store in the June 25, 1834, Chicago Democrat, one door E from the corner of Lake and Canal streets, near the Point, selling dry goods, hardware, and groceries; in the Dec. 2, 1835, Chicago Democrat they announced the sale of the entire stock of goods and offered thanks to their customers.

Kinzie & Hyde  see Davis, Kinzie & Hyde.

Kinzie & Whistler  a partnership entered into by John Kinzie and [see] John Whistler, Jr. to serve jointly as sutlers to Fort Dearborn I during 1807-1809. [404]

Kinzie – U.S. Girl Scouts connection  Juliette Gordon Low (1860-1927), who preferred to be called “Daisy”, was a great-granddaughter of [see] John Kinzie (1763-1828) and his second wife Eleanor Lytle (1771-1834). She visited England in 1912 and became enthusiastic about the British Girl Scouts organization. Upon her return to the United States she formed the first Girl Scout group in her native country, including the production and sale of Girl Scout cookies.
Her grandparents of the Kinzie line were John Harris Kinzie (1803-1865) and Juliette Magill (1806-1870), her parents William Washington Gordon II (1834-1912) and Eleanor Lytle Kinzie (1835-1917). In 1865 Daisy came to live with her grandparents John Harris and Juliette Kinzie in Chicago for a period of eight months. Daisy married William Mackay Low (-1905). In 1948 the United States government issued a postage stamp honoring her as the first American Girl Scout pioneer. [438b]

Kinzie account books  the account books kept by John Kinzie for Messrs Kinzie · Forsyth & Co. contain a wealth of historical information; they cover the period from Sept. 30, 1803 to Apr. 27, 1824. The early entries were made while Kinzie still lived and traded near present South Bend, IN, on the St. Joseph River; beginning with May 12, 1804, the entries were written in Chicago. After the Fort Dearborn massacre on Aug. 15, 1812, Kinzie moved to Detroit, where he wrote entries from Aug. 23, 1814 until June 16, 1816. Some entries after the date of the massacre but before Aug. 23, 1814, were written while he was in transit, but the remaining entries were written after his return to Chicago again. Kinzie’s original account books were lost when the building of the Chicago Historical Society was destroyed by the great fire of 1871; fortunately, a copy had been made in 1861 by the then secretary of the society, Rev. William Barry, and has survived to this day. It lists the visiting customers by name (not always clearly legible and often misspelled by Kinzie) and date. This copy is referred to as the “Barry Transcript” and is now part of the Chicago Historical Museum Library. Whenever Kinzie used the term [see] Adventure – which he did 16 times – he indicated that his customer intended a trading expedition into dangerous territory. [692g] [404]

Kinzie Addition  the NW quarter of Section 10, embracing the old Kinzie homestead, but consisting of only 102 acres (because the lake occupies its eastern extent), instead of the 160 acres the Kinzies were entitled to claim in September 1830; in Wau-Bun, Mrs. Juliette A. Kinzie relates an exchange of opinions [see below] between her mother-in-law Eleanor and Robert A. Kinzie concerning the land that the Kinzies were entitled to but failed to claim. The addition was surveyed in February 1833 by George W. Snow, at the request of Captain Hunter and in the presence of John Harris Kinzie; bounded on the S by the river (with the sand bar at the river’s mouth, understood by some to be included), W by State Street, E by the lakeshore, and N by Chicago Avenue. Juliette Kinzie quoting Eleanor and Robert: Now, my son, said his mother, to Robert, lay your claim on the cornfield at Wolf Point. It is fine land, and will always be valuable for cultivation – besides, as it faces down the main river, the situation will always be a convenient one. The answer was a hearty laugh. Hear mother, said Robert. We have just got a hundred and two acres – more than we shall ever want, or know what to do with, and now she would have me go and claim fifty-eight acres more! Take my advise, my boy, repeated his mother, or you will live one day to regret it. [12]

Kinzie Block  all blocks (and the lots within each) of the original Kinzie Addition were available for sale by 1834, except block 11 – the “Kinzie Block” (shown on John S. Wright’s manuscript map), bounded by Rush, Illinois, Cass [Wabash], and Michigan [Hubbard] streets; John H. Kinzie had begun to build his brick residence there in 1834, on the NE corner of Cass and Michigan streets, and “Kinzie Church” or the St. James Church, was constructed in 1836, on two lots at the SE corner of Cass and Illinois streets.

Kinzie Family Tree  

Kinzie House  built by the first trader [see] Point de Sable, sometime between 1782 and 1790 on the north bank of the main portion of the Chicagou River, where the river turned S until it reached the lake. The wooden beams were horizontally arranged, as is evident on the Fort Dearborn draft prepared by Captain Whistler in 1808. When Jean Baptiste Lalime and William Burnett exchanged the property rights from Point de Sable in 1800, the main building measured 22 by 40 feet, with at least eight outbuildings, including barn and ice house. Kinzie witnessed the property transfer to interpreter Lalime in 1803. Elizabeth Thérèse Fisher Baird visited Chicago in 1817 with her mother Marienne La Sallier Fisher, and recollected a brief description of its interior in later life. George W. Dole remembers: “[it] stood on where Pine [State] Street would later be, and S of North Water Street; from the front of the house’s piazza, E of its center, you could look down the river as it ran up the lake, and have a fair view of a boat coming up or going down ….” The inventory and sale bill after Kinzie’s death imply that the house was heated with four metal stoves. The land on which the house stood had belonged to the U.S. government since the Treaty of Greenville of 1795 which, however, the Chicago area Potawatomi did not recognize. They gave the land to trader Kinzie as a gift on Nov. 4, 1806. Title to the land from the United States was not acquired until 1830. Under both Point de Sable and Kinzie, and before regular hotels existed in town, the house would at times serve as an inn, “upon the express or implied understanding that payment was expected” (Hurlbut). Near the end of its existence, it was used as a medical practice and residence by Dr. Harmon and as a post office by Jonathan Bailey. For a roster of successive owners and occupants see entry on Kinzie House chronology. For additional information on the house see John H. Kinzie’s and E.T.F. Baird’s reports below, the picture with the Kinzie Addition entry, the blueprint by Donald Schlickan here, as well as the 1857 issue of Chicago Magazine. [29, 162]
Elizabeth Thérèse Fisher Baird`s description of the old Kinzie House: … a large, one-story building, with an exceptionally high attic. The front door opened into a wide hall, that hospitably led into the kitchen, which was spacious and bright, made so by the large fire-place. Four rooms opened into the hall, two on each side, and the upper story contained four rooms.
John H. Kinzie’s 1857 description of the house: Every feature of the old home is distinct in [my] recollection. The Lombardy poplars, which perished long ago, and the cottonwoods which once were but saplings planted by [my] own hands, and which have stood until the more recent days as mementoes of the past; the rough-hewn logs which formed the wall of [my] home, the garden and the shrubbery, the fence paling that surrounded it, and the green lawn at the front of the house, gently descending to the water of the river; the tiny boat floating idly at the foot of the walk; and, as the crowning mark of the picture, standing upon the opposite shore, upon the highest part of the elevation, the old fort, the whitewashed walls of the block-houses, the barracks and the palisades, glistening in the bright sun, while a gentle slope of green grass extended from the enclosure to the very water’s edge. It was a beautiful sight. Over all this rose the few pulsations of human progress, as seen in an occasional Indian, with his canoe or pony or pack of furs; a French Canadian loitering here and there; a soldier pacing his rounds about the fort, or idly strolling over the prairies, or hunting in the woods.
Also see Philip E. Vierling`s “Where was the Du Sable farm of 1790” in the Essays section. [692l]

Kinzie House chronology  in the spring of 1782, possibly earlier, Jean Baptiste Point de Sable settled at Chicago to farm and trade with the Indians, building a rude log cabin on the north bank of the river where it turned S to meet the lake. By the time he sold the cabin in 1800 for 6,000 livres ($1,200), he had developed the property into a commodious, well-furnished French-style house with numerous outbuildings.* Successive owners and occupants include:
Point de Sable c.1784-1800, trading partner
Jean Lalime/William Burnett 1800-1803, owner**
Dr. William C. Smith 1803 (with Lalime)
John Kinzie family 1803-1829 (except 1812-1816)
Widow Leigh & Mr. Des Pins 1812-1816
Anson Taylor 1829-1831 (residence and store)
Dr. E.D. Harmon 1831 (residence & medical practice)
Jonathan N. Bailey 1831 (residence/post office)
Mark Noble, Sr. 1831-1832
Judge Richard Young 1832 (circuit court sessions)
unoccupied and decaying 1833, nonexistent by 1835.
The map accompanying this entry represents an enlarged detail of the draft Capt. John Whistler prepared in 1808 of Fort Dearborn and surroundings [To see the entire draft go to entry Whistler, Capt. John]. It shows John Kinzie`s estate buildings (numbered 30 and 32) obliquely across the river from Fort Dearborn`s guard house (9). Whistler called building no. 32 “grist mill worked by horses.” No. 25 is the “River Cheykago,” no. 26 the ” bank of said river,” no. 29 “beach between said river and lake.” It is of interest to note from the draft that the Kinzie House, build in c.1784 by Jean Baptiste Point de Sable, had its wall beams horizontally arranged, not vertically implanted in the ground like many early French log cabins.
* see listing of assets: Quaife, Milo M. Documents: Property of Jean Baptiste Point Sable, 1928.
** a careful reading of the Point de Sable-Lalime sales contract indicates that William Burnett was not just signing as a witness, but also financing the transaction, therefore controlling ownership. [649]
Also see Philip E. Vierling`s “Where was the Du Sable farm of 1790” in the Essays section. [692l]

Kinzie slough  (pronounced /sloo/) a swamp on the N side of the Chicago River, drained by a small creek entering the river about 200 feet W of the Kinzie House.

Kinzie · Forsyth & Co., Messrs  though the half brothers became trading partners in 1804 (the first entry dated May 12 at Chicago), Ledger A was begun only in January 1806 by [see] Thomas Forsyth who had established his headquarters at Peoria Lake by 1802 and until 1812, living there through 1818. An entry in Ledger A dated July 27, 1808, is for “[one pair] womans shoes made at Chicago” – the value not itemized. This ledger was later donated by a trader to the Missouri Historical Society in St. Louis and is among the Forsyth Papers. [393c] [649]

Kinzie, Eleanor Lytle McKillip  (1769-1834) first child of John and Sarah Lytle (also Little) of Philadelphia; sister of Margaret, who married William Forsyth, Jr.; widow of Daniel McKillip; second wife of John Kinzie [see Kinzie family tree]; like Kinzie’s first wife, Eleanor spent part of her childhood (four years) as a prisoner of the Indians, in her case under the relatively benevolent supervision of the famous Seneca chief Cornplanter; into the marriage with Kinzie she brought a daughter, Margaret, who later married Lieutenant Helm. With John Kinzie she initially had a child who died in infancy, then John Harris in 1803, Ellen Marion in 1804, Maria Indiana in 1807, and Robert Allen in 1810, the last three born in Chicago. Eleanor received $3500 for herself and the four children she had with Kinzie at the Indian treaty of 1828. Her death was announced in the March 18, 1834 Chicago Democrat: “Died · In New York, Mrs. Eleanor Kinzie, aged 64, formerly of this place”; died of cancer of the face. [12, 135] [226]

Kinzie, Eleanor [Nelly]  daughter John Harris and Juliette Augusta (née Magill) Kinzie. See Gordon, Eleanor Lytle Kinzie.

Kinzie, Elizabeth  (1791-1832) daughter of John Kinzie and his first wife Margaret McKenzie; sister of William and James (see Kinzie family tree); lived with her mother in Virginia, but after 1816 joined her father in Chicago where, on July 29, 1826, she married Samuel Miller, with her father, as county justice of the peace, performing the ceremony. They had three children: Margaret Ellen, Montgomery, and Filly, who died early. During the Black Hawk War she moved with husband and children into Fort Dearborn for protection; while living in the fort she became very ill, and died in July 1832. Also see entry for Miller, Samuel. [12] [10b]

Kinzie, Ellen Marion  (1804-1860) known as Nell; daughter of John Kinzie and Eleanor McKillip; family documents show her first name as Eleanor, like that of her mother, but she usually signed “Ellen M.”; – Chicago’s 1st – child born of European parents within the eventual city limits of Chicago; the date was Dec. 27, 1804 [see Eckert; also see testimony by Mrs. Ann Whistler in Hurlbut, Chicago Antiquities; her published obituary erroneously gives 1805 as her birthyear]. Ellen Marion married Dr. Alexander Wolcott on July 20, 1823; the ceremony is often said to have been Chicago`s first recorded marriage, but is actually the third [for the first, see You de la Découverte, Pierre], and became possible when John Hamlin of Peoria, who had recently received a commission as justice of the peace from Fulton County, happened to stop at Fort Dearborn while herding cattle from southern Illinois to Green Bay; it was Hamlin’s first such official act, performed awkwardly because he was unfamiliar with the procedure, but much appreciated: followed by a feast on duck and venison, with everybody invited, John Kinzie playing the wedding march on his violin, and dancing until dawn. The couple had two children by April 24, 1829, when the proud father wrote his sister, Frances Magill in New York, and shared that “Master Natty Bumppo and Miss Mary Chatham [Mary Ann] who, besides readings & spellings, help their uncle Robert to set his nets & bring in the ducks & pigeons that he shoots, drive the sheep to the fold, feed the chickens, and chase the old cock turkey all over the premises….” In a letter written Aug. 24, 1830, to her sister-in-law, Ellen disclosed that they had lost their son on July 7; her husband died later on Oct. 26. Dr. Wolcott had purchased from the government in 1830 the entire block 1 of the original town [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] and ownership transferred to his widow. She remained at Cobweb Castle with half sister Margaret Helm until 1831 when, following an auction of household goods, both moved to Fort Howard, together with their sister Maria Indiana Hunter, whose husband’s transfer from Fort Dearborn came due. In 1836 she married the Hon. George C. Bates of Detroit and they had one son, Kinzie Bates; Ellen died at Detroit; street names: Ellen Street (1282 N); Marion Court (1838 W). [207, 226] [12]

Kinzie, Emily  née Tyne; mother of John Kinzie; daughter of a London carriagemaker; was the widow of British army chaplain William Haliburton when she married John Kinzie’s father, the captain and army surgeon John Mackenzie in December 1761, bringing a daughter, Jane Haliburton, into the marriage [see Kinzie family tree]; widowed again in 1763, she married William Forsyth, Sr., in 1765.

Kinzie, Hunter & Co.  by 1835, David Hunter and John H. Kinzie were active in the necessary and profitable lumber trade; 1839 City Directory: forwarding, commission merchants, North Water Street near Rush. [13]

Kinzie, James  (April 2, 1793-Jan. 13, 1866) son of John Kinzie and his first wife Margaret McKenzie; brother of William and Elizabeth [see Kinzie family tree], born in Detroit. It is believed that James and his siblings accompanied their mother to Virginia on her separation from John Kinzie. James returned to the Midwest in 1816 and on Aug. 3, 1818, became an employee of the American Fur Co., maintaining posts at Milwaukee (with John Kinzie Clark and, in 1822, also with Jean Baptiste Beaubien) and Racine; his illegal sales of whisky to the Indians caused the Indian agent [Wolcott] at Chicago to direct him to close his business in Milwaukee, and he moved to Chicago that same year (1822); built and occupied a cabin at the forks on the E side of the South Branch, and used it as a store. In 1823 he built the Wolf Tavern with his half brother David Hall, who then sold out to James; in 1826 he sold his cabin on the South Branch to Mark Beaubien, who converted it into the Eagle Exchange Tavern; in 1828 he claimed $22.18 against the estate of François Le Mai, including an item of March 19, 1828, “Amt. of expense incurred by hunting the corps [of Le Mai].” James received $485 in compensation for a claim at the Indian treaty of 1829. Canal engineer James Bucklin, who visited Chicago in 1830, reports that James was a trained blacksmith. About 1830, James bought lots in blocks 2, 11, 12, 21, 22, 23, 40, and 41 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright], selling much of it again within a few years; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; served as private under Captain Kercheval in the Chicago militia during the Black Hawk War, as listed on the muster roll of May 3, 1832; signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as a witness, and received $5000 and $300 in payments for claims and $800 as Margaret McKenzie Kinzie Hall`s son at the treaty. In 1833 he built the Green Tree Tavern at the NE corner of Lake and Canal streets; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; partnering David Hall again, Kinzie & Hall advertised a new store in the June 25, 1834, Chicago Democrat, one door E from the corner of Lake and Canal streets, near the Point; was appointed Cook County’s first sheriff by the governor, was listed in July 1834 as a candidate for county commissioner, and became firewarden of the fourth ward later on September 25; also was – Chicago’s 1st – appointed auctioneer [see a sample of his activity below; also see Wabansia Addition for James’s involvement in real estate ownership and transfer] and served as trustee of the school section; on November 21 he applied for wharfing privileges, filing a claim two days later, a petition on the 25th and another on December 5; in the December 2 Chicago Democrat that year, Kinzie & Hall announced the sale of the entire stock of goods and offered thanks to their customers. He first married [see] Leah See (Logan, KY Nov. 15, 1815-), daughter of Rev. William and Minerva (née Moss) See, and they had three children; Leah died at Racine, Wisconsin Territory, on June 15, 1837, survived by two small children, John and [see] Liscomb, Margaret Ellen Kinzie; though a James Kinzie listed in the 1839 City Directory (real estate agent, North Canal Street), the family had removed to Racine in 1836. In 1838 he married Virginia Hale (Bluefield, WV 1824-), daughter of Isaiah and Margaret (née Lucas) Hale; they had 11 children: Robert Hale (Feb. 24, 1840-), Mary (1848-October 1869; Mrs. Joseph Frost), Jennie (1850-; following the death of Mary, Mrs. Joseph Frost), Frances L., known as Fannie (1852-; Mrs. Charles Frost), Sarah (Mrs. William Liscomb), Julia G., Cornelia G., Lizzie G., and James L. (May 26, 1863-July 14, 1920). In the late 1840s the family moved to Clyde, Iowa County, WI, as did the William See family, where the two men built a gristmill; a sawmill was built by Kinzie a year later; the mills were destroyed by a freshet in 1868, two years after Kinzie`s death, then rebuilt by son Robert and two sons-in-law. [10aa, 12, 28, 220, 262a, 275a, 319, 421a]
[In the Dec. 10, 1833, issue of the Chicago Democrat appeared an announcement that James Kinzie, auctioneer, would sell on December 13 the following real estate: Lot 7, Block 8, and house, formerly occupied as a meeting-house, opposite the bridge on the north branch of the Chicago River. [The meetinghouse is the log cabin formerly occupied by Reverend See, and later by Reverend Walker, and the bridge was – Chicago’s first – bridge, begun in 1832 as a floating log bridge for foot traffic only. The exact location of both structures would have been difficult to determine, were it not for Kinzie’s exacting announcement, which places lot seven at the SW corner of Kinzie and Canal streets; eds.] [704]

Kinzie, John  [This entry was written by John F. Swenson in 1999; all rights are reserved. The entry is currently undergoing revision based on new information and documents found since 1999.] (1763-1828) principal trader at Chicago from 1804 to 1812; born a British subject in Quebec, Dec. 27, 1763, an allegiance he maintained until about the time of the Fort Dearborn massacre, Aug. 15, 1812; then became a secret U.S. Indian agent while also serving in the Detroit area in the British Indian Department; was imprisoned in Canada by British authorities upon information given by Tecumseh, but escaped and eventually reestablished business at Chicago in late 1816. No portrait of John Kinzie has survived, if one ever existed. From his granddaughter Nellie Kinzie Gordon [280], we learned that he showed an extraordinary likeness to the English statesman [see] George Canning of the early 19th century.

He was born MacKenzie but changed the spelling to Kenzie and later to Kinzie. His father, John Kenzie or MacKenzie, was a Scottish surgeon in the British army and died about 1763. His mother, Emily Tyne, had been first married to British army chaplain John Halliburton and then, in 1761, to Kenzie; was widowed twice; about 1764 she married William Forsyth, member of a prominent trading family. Forsyth became Kinzie’s stepfather, and his five sons, from this and a previous marriage, became John’s stepbrothers.

The Forsyth family, and John Kinzie, moved to Detroit by 1779, and were enumerated in that year’s census. The tradition that the five Forsyth sons were born in Detroit is inconsistent with the censuses of 1762, 1765, and 1768, in which no Forsyths are recorded.

Kinzie was described as a domineering man, with quick temper and a sharp tongue; owned and played a violin; outspoken in his anti-American sentiments and actions until his business was destroyed, most of his customers having been killed in the Fort Dearborn massacre. With his first wife Margaret, née McKenzie but not related, he lived in Detroit and had three children: William, James, and Elizabeth; the marriage ended in divorce [the children stayed with their mother, but would all live in Chicago later in life]. He was a member of John Askin’s Detroit military company under British rule; the United States did not govern Detroit until 1796. Kinzie started in the Indian fur trade about 1780 under William Burnett and was long associated with this wealthy merchant, who had been financing his operations as late as 1801. As a trader and silversmith, Kinzie did business at the Miamis Town (Fort Wayne, IN) in 1789, but being a British subject, he lost his business and had to flee before the advancing army of General Harmar in 1790. He settled further down the Maumee and again had his establishment destroyed at the time of General Wayne’s victory at Fallen Timbers in 1794. From 1796 to early 1804 he had an establishment on the St. Joseph River, near present South Bend, IN, and then moved to Chicago. In 1800 he and Burnett inventoried and appraised the Chicago farm operated by [see] Jean Baptiste Point de Sable as part of a nominal “purchase” by Burnett’s employé Jean Lalime; this farm was then generally known as Burnett’s and as the sole local source of farm products; Kinzie bought it in 1803.

An extract from Kinzie’s account book (originals destroyed in the 1871 Chicago fire) at the Chicago History Museum has its first entry at Chicago (he used the French spelling Chicagou for several years) in May 1804. He was appointed justice of the peace at Chicago, Indiana Territory, by Governor Harrison in that year, but no records survive of this office. He bought the former Point de Sable farm from Lalime, who was really a nominee for Burnett, in 1803 and moved there with his family in 1804. His family included his second wife Eleanor (née Lytle, widow of Daniel McKillip, daughter of William and Ann Lytle), their infant son John Harris, and Margaret McKillip, Eleanor’s daughter from her first marriage. In Chicago they had three more children: Ellen Marion in 1804, Maria Indiana in 1807, and Robert Allen in 1810. Kinzie was a farmer, merchant, and Indian trader in Chicago from 1804 to 1812, as proprietor or partner with his stepbrothers Thomas and Robert Forsyth, sometimes supplying the garrison of Fort Dearborn when the official sutler failed to provide goods. In 1807 he entered into a partnership with Lt. William Whistler, son of the commanding officer, as sutlers to the fort (starting November 26, per accounts) until its dissolution on Aug. 21, 1809. The sutler’s contract was then awarded by the commandant Captain Whistler to his son William and the new surgeon’s mate Dr. Cooper; they charged the soldiers higher prices than Kinzie did. Whistler, Sr. was removed from his command for various acts of incompetence and misconduct and was replaced by Capt. Nathan Heald in the summer of 1810. Cooper left Chicago and the army in 1811. By suspicious means Kinzie in January 1812 formally got the sutler’s contract from Heald who, like his predecessor, prevented the soldiers from dealing with any other merchant who might offer lower prices. Since the soldiers spent about two-thirds of their pay with the sutler, this contract was a valuable one. The United States factor (Indian trader) Matthew Irwin called Kinzie’s arrangement a “monopoly” and wrote that Heald and other officers paid lower prices than the enlisted men, in addition to which Kinzie had increased prices substantially since getting his exclusive deal. Kinzie’s business grew and prospered; he had agents on the Rock River, at Milwaukee (probably Pierre Le Sellier), at Peoria (Thomas Forsyth) and “generally throughout the Indian Country.” He employed the métis children of the Milwaukee traders Mirandeau and La Framboise as household servants; employed in his business Billy Caldwell (chief clerk), Jean Baptiste Chandonnai, and Alexander Robinson; bought, held, and sold slaves [see Nash, Jeffrey; Black Jim; Henry].

Sometime in June 1812, Kinzie killed his neighbor and frequent customer Jean Lalime, the U.S. interpreter at Fort Dearborn. He hid in the woods near his home for a few days and then fled Chicago after dispatching Caldwell, and in July his Peoria partner Forsyth, to Vincennes to plead his case with Governor Harrison, in 1811 the victor at Tippecanoe as General Harrison. Forsyth was a secret U.S. Indian agent, now reporting to Gov. Ninian Edwards of the Illinois Territory, while Caldwell, whom Governor Harrrison’s staff tried in vain to recruit to the United States’ side, was shortly thereafter commissioned captain in the British Indian Department. Kinzie may have been another target for Harrison’s recruiting efforts, as he was an important Indian trader and clandestine agent of the British with many secrets of value to the United States.

Meanwhile Kinzie went to Milwaukee, arriving June 21. He was now a fugitive from U.S. justice as a result of what he called the “unfortunate affair” of Lalime’s killing. For eight days in late June and early July Kinzie attended a secret war council of pro-British Indians at Milwaukee convened by British orders to plan a series of attacks on American posts and settlements, including Chicago. He was initially denied admission to their council by some Indians who suspected, not without reason, that he was an American spy, but his British credentials, recently enhanced by his killing of the informant Lalime [see below], soon won him a seat at this meeting; also, Pierre Le Sellier, the British interpreter at Milwaukee, a frequent Kinzie customer and probably his agent as well, may have vouched for him. The story of this council is told in Kinzie’s letter to Forsyth of July 7, 1812, written at the site of present Ottawa, IL, while en route to Peoria.

Meanwhile an inquest into the killing of Lalime took place at Fort Dearborn, presided over by Captain Heald. Surprisingly, it was held in Kinzie’s absence, and he was acquitted on grounds of self-defense. Suppression of a homicide charge would have given the U.S. authorities some leverage to enlist him as a covert American agent, a role he soon played at considerable personal risk. His absence from Heald’s cursory inquiry foreclosed any breach of security by a potential disclosure of his shifting loyalties. The 1809-1812 letters of Irwin to William Eustis, secretary of war, and other documents in the U.S. National Archives (published in 1948, in Vol. 16 of the Territorial Papers of the United States) report these activities and suggest these and other elements of a complex scenario. Kinzie may have killed Lalime to silence him as Irwin’s informant inside the fort on treasonable activities by Heald, other officers of the fort, and Kinzie himself. Irwin expressed his fear that his life and Lalime’s were in danger; threats had been made. Irwin had been exposing to authorities in Washington Kinzie’s profiteering and corruption, his bribery to get the Fort Dearborn sutler’s contract, his bringing smuggled liquor and Indian trade goods from British Amherstburg to Chicago, and a twenty-year history of anti-American and pro-British activities, latterly joined in by Heald, Lt. Linai Helm (Mrs. Kinzie’s son-in-law), and Ensign Ronan. All of these officers paid lower prices than the enlisted men, whom over their protests Heald had forbidden by a written order to deal with any other trader. All of this despite Kinzie’s oath of loyalty to the United States taken when he was appointed justice of the peace by Governor Harrison of Indiana Territory in 1804, and sutler in 1812 by Captain Heald. Irwin left Chicago ostensibly to recruit his own successor and Lalime’s replacement, before he, too, could be assaulted. In the aftermath of the Indians’ murderous attack at Leigh and Russell’s farm on April 6, 1812, Kinzie and Helm had threatened to kill, and then expelled from the Chicago area, the local pro-American French, Ottawa, and Chippewa. In May other members of the garrison, perhaps not coincidentally, almost succeeded in killing Jean François Réaume, a British interpreter and sometime Kinzie customer, after he had given Heald valuable intelligence on dangerous Indian activities and the plans of Robert Dickson, a top British agent. Attacks on Chicago by Indians had been anticipated as early as 1809; they would be initiated on orders of the British Indian Department at Fort Malden in Amherstberg, opposite Detroit.

The apparently unauthorized and premature Winnebago attack on Sergeant Leigh’s farm in April warned Chicago of imminent danger, and the June war council at Milwaukee was concerned that this attack would have placed Fort Dearborn on high alert. But despite this, the Fort Dearborn attack, first of a series, was ordered, and occurred on Aug. 15, 1812, quickly escalating from an assault on a military objective into the atrocities of a massacre of military and civilian personnel. The Kinzies, Healds, and Helms escaped being killed. Kinzie gave an account of the massacre to Forsyth upon the latter’s arrival at a suddenly peaceful Chicago the next day, after his visit to Harrison’s office at Vincennes to mitigate Kinzie’s crime of killing Lalime. The timing of Forsyth’s movements and his missing the massacre by the slender margin of a single day bespeak forewarning more than coincidence. Billy Caldwell was also elsewhere on August 15, perhaps for the same reason. For several years, starting in 1813, he was an officer and ultimately commander of the British Indian Department at Fort Malden, not returning to Chicago until after 1820.

Exactly when Kinzie’s loyalty changed to the United States can only be guessed. The Indians’ destruction of his business at Chicago by the massacre in August, 1812, was perhaps the unintended consequence of a British order to the Indians to attack Fort Dearborn. This shocking carnage might well have caused him, at least privately, to switch sides, but instead he moved into British-held territory and assumed a new active role in the British Indian department, about the time his most important employe, Billy Caldwell, got his captains commission. Perhaps before the massacre, but after Kinzie killed Lalime, Harrison’s staff, having failed to win Caldwell to the United States’ cause, had succeeded in recruiting Kinzie as a U.S. agent with the help of Forsyth. The latter, already a secret agent, had met Kinzie at Peoria about July 2 before going to Harrison’s headquarters at Vincennes. Kinzie, who must have known of Forsyth’s clandestine service, wrote him on July 7, giving details of the just concluded Milwaukee war council, the sort of disclosure no loyal British agent would make.

These conjectures would help to explain Kinzie’s bizarre acquittal. This remarkable resolution of a homicide charge would have been a quid pro quo forcing Kinzie into the secrete service of a government he had long disdained. The days he spent in hiding in Chicago after the killing might have seen the start of a clandestine process to recruit Kinzie in exchange for his acquittal. The roles of Heald, Helm, and the other officers who voted acquittal might also have been the price of the government’s overlooking their nefarious activities as reported to the Secretary of War by Irwin, as well as the price of their silence on the subject of Kinzie.

After the massacre, the Kinzies and Mrs. Helm were escorted to safety at Burnett’s post at the mouth of the St. Joseph River by Jean Baptiste Chandonnai, Kinzie’s métis clerk, who was also a British interpreter. Chandonnai was involved as well in ransoming the Healds from Indian captivity and getting them to Burnett’s. The role of the Indians and others in these rescues has been variously interpreted but may be related to the fact that Kinzie had only six weeks earlier participated in the war council at Milwaukee, and that he and Chandonnai were covert agents of the British Indian Department, which had ordered the attack. Kinzie resumed trade at his old post on the St. Joseph River by Sept. 9, 1812, with Caldwell, Chandonnai, and Helm among his customers. By January 1813, Kinzie and his family were in British-held Detroit, Caldwell was a newly-commissioned captain in the British Indian Department at Amherstburg, and Chandonnai and Helm again appeared in Kinzie’s account book. The Kinzies lived in a large house on the northeast corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Street, although Kinzie himself appears to have spent part of his time at the St. Joseph post, where the last entry in his accounts is dated March 22, 1813.

Later in 1813, probably in August or September, Kinzie and Chandonnai were charged with treason against George III and jailed in irons in Fort Malden. While acting (so far as the British knew) as a British agent, he and Chandonnai, on leave from their trading post, were taking gunpowder to Tecumseh’s forces, which were fighting alongside British troops in the present Toledo-Sandusky area against Harrison’s advancing army. They were also trying, “in a correspondence with the enemy” (that is, as secret U.S. agents), to win the Indians over to the American side. Tecumseh complained to Maj. Gen. Henry Procter, the British commander, and Kinzie and Chandonnai were arrested. In the days of August and September, about the time of this arrest, American forces had repulsed the British-Indian sieges of Fort Meigs (present day Fremont, OH), which Tecumseh had demanded, emboldened by massive Indian reinforcements dispatched by Dickson from many places in the upper Midwest. Commodore Perry had beaten a British fleet near Put-In Bay, thus giving the United States control of Lake Erie and imperilling British supply lines. With American chances of victory improving, Kinzie was now on the winning side, but exposure removed him and Chandonnai from the field.

Chandonnai “escaped to the Indians,” probably with covert assistance, but Kinzie was sent in irons to Quebec and from there on a ship to England, perhaps to prevent him from also mysteriously escaping and giving British secrets to U.S. authorities, such as he had probably given U.S. secrets to his British contacts for many years. Ironically, at the end of September, Procter’s British troops withdrew from the Detroit area and, after dismantling Fort Malden, retreated eastward with the remainder of Tecumseh’s forces. Upbraided by Tecumseh for cowardice, Procter took a stand at Moraviantown on the Thames River, fighting a losing battle in which Tecumseh was killed. Billy Caldwell was wounded during this campaign. Kinzie was already outside the war zone and in the hands of stern British justice. But the ship carrying him was forced into port in Nova Scotia by a storm, and he escaped in the confusion. Remarkably, he eluded capture by the British authorities and by Indians, suggesting that he returned to Detroit via U.S. territory, a remarkable feat for a presumably impecunious prisoner. He was able to resume his business by August, 1814, in Detroit, now for nearly a year held by the United States.

Tecumseh had told Procter in 1813 they would kill Kinzie if the British didn’t, and the Indians had been offered a large reward in early December, 1814, by Lt. Joseph Cadotte of the Indian Department to bring Kinzie in alive as a prisoner to Mackinac, or failing that, to kill him, along with Chandonnai. The latter, a nephew of Topenebe, the local Potawatomi leader, was also wanted for the murder of his stepfather, a British army officer who had gone to Burnett’s to arrest him. On July 22, 1814, while a fugitive from British justice, Chandonnai was an official U.S. interpreter at an Indian treaty at Greenville, Ohio, convened by Governor Harrison and Governor Cass of Michigan Territory. The various Indian groups, including the Potawatomi of his uncle Topenebe, allied themselves to the United States and agreed to supply warriors to fight the British. Kinzie, who returned from exile about this time, now was a new and patriotic U.S. citizen looking for a non-secret government job as Indian agent or interpreter, and also seeking to reestablish his business at Chicago. In the spring of 1815, after the Treaty of Ghent ended the War of 1812, he complained about Cadotte’s reward offer to Governor Cass. This complaint was referred to James Monroe, then U.S. secretary of state as well as secretary of war, and at Monroe’s urging Governor Robinson of Canada ordered a military court of inquiry to hear the Kinzie and Chandonnai cases. United States intervention for these men at the highest official level suggested that they had acted in furtherance of United States interests and under clandestine directions, at great personal risk. The record of this hearing was published in 1890, in Vol. XVI of the Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. It contains extensive sworn testimony about the activities of Kinzie and Chandonnai, both unequivocally established to have been British subjects and agents up until the time of their treason.

Cadotte was acquitted with the court’s commendation for his actions in the matter, and a copy of the record was sent to Washington. Even before this court of inquiry, Kinzie and Chandonnai were received as useful U.S. citizens, and on Sept. 8, 1815, acted as interpreters at the Treaty of Spring Wells near Detroit, at which the various tribes officially “repented” their pro-British activities; Kinzie and Chandonnai had apparently repented privately and were now valuable public assets of U.S. Indian policy. Kinzie had always been on good terms with the Indians, who saved him and his family from harm at the time of the Fort Dearborn massacre, possibly on orders of the British Indian Department. His eyewitness account of the massacre [see Fort Dearborn massacre], another version of what he had told Forsyth the next day, describes the events. During the war of 1812 his home was occupied by the “British traders” from Peoria, Louis Buisson and François Lemoine dit Des Pins, suggesting that the British had an interest in preserving the property as a supply base to build a new fort at Chicago, plans which never materialized.

In the autumn of 1816, Kinzie and his family returned to their Chicago homestead, but he never regained the prosperity he had enjoyed before the war [see his letter to his son at entry Kinzie, John Harris]. In 1818 he became subagent under the U.S. Indian agent in Chicago. Plans were made but not carried out to have him live at present Ottawa, IL. He may have gotten this position with the help of Governor Cass and his relative Robert A. Forsyth, Jr., secretary of the Indian Department, both of whom he accompanied at six Indian treaties at St. Mary’s, Ohio, in the fall of 1818. He was also the Chicago representative of John Jacob Astor’s American Fur Company as John Kenzie, Jr., “clerk.” On Dec. 2, 1823, he was elected justice of the peace of Fulton County, in which Chicago was then included, and on July 28, 1825, he was sworn into the same office for Peoria County. In 1826 John Crafts died, and John Kinzie, together with Billy Caldwell, was appointed by the Peoria probate court under Judge Norman Hyde as appraisers of Crafts’s estate, with Alexexander Wolcott as official administrater. Kinzie died a few hours after suffering a cerebral stroke on Jan. 6, 1828. His initial burial place was near the fort, south of the river; then his body was moved across the river to the cemetery northeast of his home, where the dead from Fort Dearborn were usually buried; in 1835 his remains were moved to the north side cemetery, now Lincoln Park, and finally to Graceland Cemetery. Kinzie’s estate was administerd by the court appointed Alexander Wolcott, with Alexander Doyle and Jean Baptiste Beaubien as appraisers and Robert Allen Kinzie as clerk. When Wolcott died in 1830, David Hunter succeeded him as administrator of the Kinzie estate. In July of 1829, at the Prairie du Chien Indian treaty, “the heirs of the late John Kinzie” received $3500 compensation from the federal government. Street name: Kinzie Street (400 N). See John Kinzie’s family tree and family relationships with other Chicagoans. Also see entry “silver” for Kinzie`s trademark and activity as a silversmith. Also see John Kinzie (a brig on Lake Michigan, built in 1833). [12, 13, 109, 201a, 220, 226, 279, 559, 404-7, 585a] [649]

Kinzie, John Harris  (1803-1865) also Colonel Kinzie; Shaw-nee-aw-kee (Potawatomi name of his father, meaning ‘south-land,’ bestowed on John Harris after his father’s death); eldest son of trader [see] John and Eleanor Kinzie; born on July 7 in Sandwich, Ontario; came to Chicago in October 1804 with his parents, where he lived until 1812, when the family escaped to Detroit for the next four years; returned with his family to Chicago in 1816 and worked for the American Fur Co. under Robert Stuart from 1818 to 1823, living on Mackinac Island, during which time he became an accomplished violin player [for a 1821 letter he received on Mackinac from his father at Chicago, see below]; transferred to Prairie du Chien in 1823 to learn the Winnebago language; served as private secretary to Governor Cass of Michigan Territory in 1826, and during this year accompanied a delegation of Winnebago to Washington; in 1827 was at the Treaty of Butte des Morts; in late summer 1829, as U.S. sub-Indian agent, he was present at the Treaty of Prairie du Chien where 1.76 million acres of land in southern WI and northern IL were claimed by the Winnebago Indians. Sometime in 1830 he acquired Chicago lots in blocks 2, 5, 20, and 32 (see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright) and also that year on August 9, he married in NY Juliette Augusta Magill (1806 -1870) of Middleton, CT, the niece of his brother-in-law Dr. Alexander Wolcott; in September the couple boarded the Henry Clay at Detroit for Mackinac and for Green Bay from where they traveled to Fort Winnebago; there John Harris served as Indian agent, compiling vocabularies of both the Winnebago and the Wyandotte languages until June 1833, when he resigned and returned to Chicago, opening a variety store [May 14, 1834 ad in the Chicago Democrat: “Salt, Nails, Window-Glass, Iron &c.; &c.;”]. At the Indian treaty of 1829 he, together with his relatives, became the beneficiary of a $3500 payment “to the heirs of the late John Kinzie”; he signed the 1833 Chicago Treaty document as witness, and also received $5000 for a claim at the same treaty; in addition, he received $250 as trustee for the heirs of Joseph Miranda [Mirandeau]. He became the second town president when elected on Aug. 11, 1834, serving for one year; advertised in the Chicago American late summer and autumn of 1835, as merchant with a forwarding and commissioning business opposite Fort Dearborn, which, as well as a lumber concern, was soon partnered by his brother-in-law Maj. David Hunter; was also involved in efforts to secure a charter for the Chicago and Vincennes Railroad that fall; in late November submitted a claim [lots 1 and 2 of block 2] for wharfing privileges; served as president on the first board of directors of the branch of the State Bank of Illinois that opened in December 1835; during the land boom period prior to 1837 he became active steering the capital of eastern investors into Chicago real estate, as did his contemporaries Gurdon S. Hubbard and William B. Ogden; 1839 City Directory: Kinzie & Hunter, forwarding, commission merchants, North Water Street near Rush. In 1847 he ran for the Chicago mayoralty, but was narrowly defeated by [see] James Curtis. John Harris and Juliette had seven children (for detail, see entry on Kinzie, Juliette Augusta Magill); Juliette was later the author of Wau-Bun. Later in life John Harris served as registrar of public lands (appointed by President Harrison in 1841), canal collector (1848), and paymaster in the army, appointed by President Lincoln in 1861, with the rank of major; with an increasingly heavy workload, he died of heart disease on a Fort Wayne Railway train on Jan. 28, 1865. His brick residence stood at the NE corner of Cass [Wabash Avenue N of the river] and Michigan streets. John H. Kinzie School, 5625 S Mobile Ave. [12, 226, 233”, 405-7, 456b]

Letter from John Kinzie to son John H.: Dear Son: I received your letter by the schooner. Nothing gives me more satisfaction than to hear from you. It does give both myself and your mother a pleasure to hear how your conduct is talked of by everyone that hopes you every advantage. Rather let this stimulate you to continue the worthy man, for a good name is better than wealth, and we can not be too circumspect in our line of conduct. Mr. Crooks speaks highly of you, and try to continue the favorite of such worthy men as Mr. Crooks, Mr. Stewart [Ramsey Crooks and Robert Stuart together were managing the American Fur Co. on Mackinac Island] and the other gentlemen of the concern. Your mother and all of the family are well, and send their love to you. James is here, and I am pleased that his returns are such as to satisfy the firm. … I have been reduced in wages, owing to the economy of the Government. My interpreter’s salary is no more, and I have but $100 to subsist on. It does work me hard sometimes to provide for your sisters and brothers on this, and to provide for my family in a decent manner. I will have to take new measures. I hate to change houses, but I have been requested to wait Conant’s arrival [Mr. Conant of Conant & Mack, Detroit, competitors of the American Fur Co., which bought C & M out in 1822]. We are all mighty busy, as the treaty commences to-morrow, and we have hordes of Indians around us already. My best respect to Mr. Crooks and Stewart, and all the gentlemen of your house. … Adieu. I am your loving Father. John Kenzie. [Aug. 19, 1821]
Announcement in a September 1830 issue of the North-Western Journal, published weekly in Detroit: Married on the 9th inst. at New Hartford, Oneida County, N.Y. by the Reverend Mr. Adams, Mr. John H. Kinzie, Agent of Indian Affairs at Fort Winnebago, to Miss Juliette Auguste Magill. [604a]

Kinzie, Juliette Augusta Magill  (1806-1870) née Magill, born September 11 in Connecticut; daughter of Arthur Magill and Frances Wolcott; sister of William Magill who, as a boy in 1823, spent some time at Fort Dearborn with their uncle Dr. Alexander Wolcott; married her uncle’s brother-in-law John Harris Kinzie on Aug. 9, 1830, and moved with him to Chicago in 1834; they had seven children: Alexander Wolcott (1833-1839), Eleanor Lytle (June 18, 1835-1917), John Harris, Jr. (1838-June 17, 1863), Arthur Magill (b. 1841), Julian Magill (b. 1843, died at age six weeks), Francis William (1844-1850), George Herbert (b. 1846); in later years she wrote the book Wau-Bun, the “Early Days” in the North-west (published 1856), which recorded much information about early life in Chicago and what we now call the Midwest, although her text is not always historically accurate. Juliette was not, as is often said, Chicago’s first author; that honor goes to [see] Lt. John Gano Furman; Juliette`s granddaughter [see] Juliette Low, daughter of Eleanor Lytle, attained fame for having introduced Girl Scouting to America in 1912. [10b, 12, 405-8] [558]

Kinzie, Leah See  see Kinzie, James and See, Leah.

Kinzie, Margaret Ellen  see Liscom, Margaret Ellen Kinzie.

Kinzie, Margaret McKenzie  born 1778; daughter of Scottish Murdock Otis and Erina Jemima (née Chapman) McKenzie of Virginia; first wife of John Kinzie, prior to his Chicago period; sister of [see] Elizabeth McKenzie, who became the wife of John Clark, John Kinzie’s early trading partner [see Kinzie family tree]. In 1774 the sisters were captured by the Shawnee and raised among them; in c.1786 they were ransomed by Kinzie and Clark. Kinzie and Margaret had three children: William, James, and Elizabeth, who returned with their mother to Virginia after the parents separated. Clark and Elizabeth had four children: Elizabeth, John Kinzie, and twins Andrew and Mary; most whom also returned to Virginia. There both sisters found new husbands; Elizabeth married [see] Jonas Clybourne, and Margaret married [see] Benjamin Hall, and both families would eventually settle at Chicago, forming the Virginia branch of the Kinzie family and settling along the north branch. [12]

Kinzie, Maria Indiana  (1807-1887) born in Chicago on September 28 of John and Eleanor Kinzie; in 1824-25 she was courted by the trader John Crafts, whose untimely death at the Kinzie House in May 1825 ended the budding relationship; married [see] Lt. David Hunter, later general, on Sept. 18, 1829 [see Kinzie family tree]; for the marriage license the lieutenant sent a soldier on foot 160 miles to Peoria; moved with her husband to Fort Howard when he was transferred in 1831; both enjoyed a long life together; they had no children. [12, 226, 407] [407]

Kinzie, Robert Allen  (1810-1873) also Major Kinzie; fourth surviving child of John and Eleanor Kinzie, born (February 8) and died (December 13) in Chicago [see Kinzie family tree]; with his family, survived the 1812 massacre and escaped to Detroit, returning to Chicago in 1816; during his teens attended school in Detroit for several years; from 1825 to 1827 worked for his brother John Harris at Prairie du Chien and later at Fort Winnebago, acquiring the nickname `Bob` as he was known throughout all the Indian tribes, rendering “cordial welcome”; from 1829 to 1840 he remained in Chicago, mostly in trade. In 1830 he entered at the government land office, on behalf of his mother’s family, a claim for the 102 acre tract lying N of the river between State Street and the lake, and – Chicago’s 1st – deed on record from Governor Reynolds conveys lots 5 and 6, block 29, original town, to Robert Kinzie for $109 [conveyed to Kinzie as assignee of Benjamin B. Kercheval on Sept. 27, 1830, and recorded on Dec. 2, 1831]; Kinzie at that time was entitled to claim additional land, but failed to do so. [For the record on an exchange on that subject between Robert and his mother, see Kinzie Addition]. With James Kinzie he built and operated a store (Chicago’s second frame building, after Billy Caldwell’s residence) on the W side of Wolf Point in 1832 near Wentworth’s Tavern; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and signed the Chicago Treaty document as a witness, and receiving $1216 and $5000 in payments for claims at the same treaty; advertised whitefish for sale in the March 4, 1834, issue of the Chicago Democrat, which later in November, identifying him as with the firm Kinzie & Forsyth, announced that on November 8 he married Gwenthlean (1817-1894), daughter of Col. William Whistler, Rev. Isaac Hallam officiating; the couple had 12 children (for details, see entry on Whistler, Gwenthlean); in 1835 Robert became a partner in the hardware firm of Davis, Kinzie & Hyde, and resided on the N side of Michigan Avenue, SE of the old Kinzie mansion; late November that year he filed a claim for wharfing privileges; 1839 City Directory: Davis, Kinzie & [Thomas] Hyde, hardware, Kinzie Street near Cass [Wabash]. After 1839, he lived in Walnut Grove, IL; was post trader at Fort Des Moines, IA, in 1843; and eventually resided in Burlington, Coffey County, KS, where brother-in-law [see] John Harrison Whistler and his family also lived, all pioneer settlers of the town. In 1861 he was appointed paymaster in the army with the rank of major, and remained in this service until his death; buried at Graceland Cemetery in the family grave; in 1885 his widow lived at 3308 Wabash Avenue. [12, 226, 319, 351, 406] [407]

Kinzie, William  (1788-1869) eldest son of John Kinzie and Margaret McKenzie, John’s first wife; brother of James and Elizabeth [see Kinzie family tree] and stepbrother [see] David and stepsister Sarah Hall; married Rebecca Martin in Virginia in 1811; they had nine children: Margaret (1812), Mary Jane (1814), James (1816), Elizabeth (1821), Daniel Martin (1823), Isaac (1825), David Hall (1827), Henry C. (1830), and Araminta C. (1831); the family then moved to Elkhart, IN. At the Chicago Treaty of 1833, in September he received $800 as Margaret McKenzie Kinzie Hall`s son. William never resided in Chicago; he died at Elkhart. [10b, 12, 706]

Kitchimokman  Potawatomi name for American, meaning ‘Big Knife’ [plural: Kitchimokmanog, ‘Americans’]; a term used by all Algonkian language speakers. [456b]

Klingmann, William  German immigrant, first attested to as having lived in Chicago in 1835. [342]

Knaggs, Whitmore  Indian agent, attended the Chicago Treaty of Aug. 29, 1821; at the W.H. Wallace estate sale on May 10, 1827. A Wm. G. Knaggs received $100 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12] [220]

Knapp, Ira O.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Knickerbocker, Abraham V.  arrived in 1833 from New York and was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; worked as clerk for harbor improvements under Supt. Maj. George Bender, receiving $30 per month; was a member of the “Washington Volunteers,” a Chicago fire brigade existing prior to incorporation; made a claim for wharfing privileges with Edmund Kimberly in 1835; in 1836 was among the first officers of the Chicago Marine and Fire Insurance Company; in 1837 he served temporarily as acting superintendent of the harbor when Lieutenant Allen, superintendent since 1834, was reassigned; 1839 City Directory: clerk, government works. [319] [12]

Knickerbocker, H.W.  born c.1812 in New York; came in October 1833; by 1879 he lived at Naperville, and was still living in 1885. [12]

Knight, James  a child by this name was enrolled as grade school student in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [728]

Knowles, Joseph  see Noles, Joseph.

Knox County, Northwest Territory  the county existed from June 20, 1790 to Apr. 28, 1809, and initially contained Chicago in its northeastern region. Chicago was simultaneously claimed by England as part of Kent County of the Province of Upper Canada from 1792 on. British authorities were in de facto control in Chicago and the Northwest until 1796. On Feb. 3, 1801 Knox County was made smaller and Chicago became part of Wayne County, Northwest Territory; for details, see Chicago jurisdictional chronology under jurisdiction. [436a, 544] [335a]

Koehler, Bernhard Joachim  German immigrant who came with his wife (née Boeske; see photographs), their daughter Margaretha, and stepchildren Wilhelm and Sophia Boeske from Stolzenau, Germany; they settled on May 25, 1834, in a densly wooded region on the east bank of Salt Creek that was soon known as Koehler’s Grove, located immediately E of Duncklee’s Grove [both locations are now part of Bloomingdale]. [342]

Koehler’s Grove  see Koehler, Bernhard Joachim.

Koerner, Gustave Philip  originally Körner; born at Frankfort, Germany, in 1809; a liberal university student familiar with American constitutional law, he fled the chaos of Europe in 1833 and settled in St. Clair County, Illinois; became professionally active as a lawyer in the Illinois court system and politically involved in the state and national campaigns of 1856 and 1858, and President Lincoln’s election. Koerner visited Chicago in 1836, leaving with a sense–learned and objective–of the immensity of “life in this new Eldorado.” [416]

Kurbey, Marguerite May  see Burke, Michael.

Kuyes, James  visited John Kinzie’s trading post in May 1819, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]