Encyclopedia letter O

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Oak Park, IL  formerly known as [see] Noyesville; western suburb, approximately 10 miles from Lake Michigan, developed on an old sand bar (geologists term it the Oak Park spit) that formed 11,000 years ago on the shore of Lake Chicago; first settler was Joseph Kettlestrings (1833) from Yorkshire, England, who worked at a steam sawmill on the east bank of the Des Plaines River, just N of Lake Street bridge, built in 1831 by the Chicago firm Bickerdyke & Noble and later owned by Ashbel Steele, River Forest`s first permanent resident. The mill gave Oak Park [and River Forest] its start by attracting laborers; earlier names are Kettlestrings` Grove and Oak Ridge; the name Oak Park was not used until 1872, and incorporation did not occur until 1902; street name: Oak Park Avenue (6800 W). [166] [701]

Oak Point  see Point of Oaks.

Oak Ridge   (1) an early name until 1871 for the community of Oak Park; (2) a wooded sand ridge that extended from near Douglas Grove (Lake Shore near 35th Street) in a SW direction towards Blue Island; this ancient shoreline of Lake Chicago had long been a popular Indian trail and was surveyed as a northern portion of the Vincennes Trail in 1833-34.

Oak Ridge Inn    see Kettlestrings, Joseph.

Oak Woods    early name for what is now called Hyde Park.

Oak Woods Cemetery  see cemeteries.

Oalds, Emily  see Caddy, George.

Odawa  also [see] Ottawa, one of the Proto-Algonquian tribes, the first native tribe to contact the French explorers in 1633; migrated westward along the St. Lawrence River to Ontario and the Great Lakes; one of the three tribes to compose the Ojibwa, existing in the Georgian Bay area; the word /ata:we:wa/ means `he/she trades`. [393c, 464c, 642a]

Odel, John  settled on the SW quarter of Section 30 of Dutchman’s Grove [now within the limits of Niles Township], in the year 1834. [13]

Odocoileus virginianus  see white-tailed deer.

Ogden Avenue    see Ottawa Trail.

Ogden, Eliza  see Butler, Charles.

Ogden, Mahlon Dickerson  younger brother of William, a lawyer who came in 1836; 1839 City Directory: attorney, [Issac N.] Arnold & Ogden, Clark Street; died on Feb. 14, 1880. [12] [243]

Ogden, William Butler  (June 15, 1805-Aug. 3, 1877) born in Delaware County, NY; studied law; became a member of the New York legislature and was active in the Erie Railroad project; arrived in June 1835 to handle his brother-in-law Charles Butler`s real estate investments; immediately involved himself in town governmental affairs, and in September 1835 he was vested with authority by the town board to purchase in the East and deliver two fire engines. When he returned with them in 1836, he came to stay, bringing his younger brother Mahlon, also a lawyer; a Democrat, William became the 1st mayor of the city of Chicago by election on May 2, 1837, defeating John H. Kinzie of the Whig Party; 1839 Chicago Directory: real estate dealer, Kinzie Street near N State, his brother handling much of the business; 1843 and 1844 Chicago Directories: of O. & [William E.] Jones, res Ontario st. b Cass [Wabash] and Rush, and Ogden & Jones, land agents, Kinzie st. b Wolcott [now State] and Dearborn. Ogden died at Boscobel, his residence along the Harlem River near High Bridge, NY. William B. Ogden School, 24 W Walton St.; street name: Ogden Avenue, a diagonal street in the SW of Chicago. For the origins of this street, see Brush Hill Trail. [12, 98, 435a] [243]

Ogden`s Slough  a slow moving creek that drained part of the swampland in the triangle between the main part of the Chicago River and the south branch; emptied into the south branch below 12th Street; a similar rivulet, a short distance farther S, was called [see] Healy`s Slough; also see slough. [728]

Ogée, Joseph  also Ogie; métis, lived earlier at Peoria and prior to 1830 on Rock River at a crossing and settlement later called Dixon`s Ferry [see map by Rufus Blanchert, 1883]; came to Chicago to make purchases at the estate sales of W.H. Wallace on May 10, 1827, and again at the estate sale of François Le Mai on May 12, 1828; was an alcoholic, rendering his ferry service unreliable; in 1830 Dixon bought the ferry and its attached property from Ogée; received $200 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12, 220, 692b]

Ohio  187-ton steamboat for passengers from Buffalo, NY; built at Sandusky, OH, in 1830; called three times at Chicago under Captain Cotton in the summer of 1834 (June 26, July 17, July 20); capsized at Toledo in 1842. [48]

Ojibwa  also Chippewa; an Indian tribe of the Algonquian linguistic family, to which the [see] Odawa and Potawatomi belonged; they were first encountered by the French near Sault Sainte Marie, who therefore called them Saultaux after 1640. The name Chippewa is a corruption of Ojibwa. The tribe has been memorialized (see Monuments section) in the granting of its name to Chippewa Woods, located in the northernmost portion of the Indian Boundary Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District; street name: Chippewa Avenue (2000 E). [393c] [464c]

Old Chicago Trail  also Archer Trail; originally a portage trail, representing the northern part of the Old Chicago Trail from Bloomington, broadened to a wagon trail in 1834; paralleling the south branch and the Des Plaines River, crossing the latter at Summit, where Van Austen`s tavern was in the 1830s, continuing on the E side of the river to Brighton, then entering SW of the town as Archer Avenue. The first wagon loads of grain, produced by early prairie farmers for shipment to eastern ports, reached Chicago on this trail.

Old Geese   nickname of [see] Wentworth, Elijah, Sr.

Old Point  according to Alexander Beaubien, the location at the river where Dearborn Street later crossed; Dearborn Street bridge was called Old Point Bridge by some.

Old Sand Road   early name for the southern portion of the Green Bay Trail; paralleling the lake and following an ancient shoreline [Clark Street]; see Green Bay Indian Trail.

Old Settlers’ List    see Calumet Club.

Old Settlers’ Society    formed on Oct. 22, 1855, with J. H. Kinzie as president, Col. R.J. Hamilton as vice president, J.Y. Scammons as treasurer, George T. Pearsons as secretary; committee for annual festival: G.S. Hubbard, John S. Wright, and John C. Haines; eligible for membership were those who resided in Chicago prior to January 1837, as well as male children of members, born in Chicago prior to 1837, eligible upon reaching the age of 21.

Olin, Nelson  enterprising Milwaukee resident who made a business trip to Chicago in October 1835 and whose account can be found in his Reminiscences of Milwaukee during 1835-36; see the following excerpt of his report, reprinted in the Wisconsin Magazine of History 8 (1929-1930):
After returning from the land sale [at Green Bay], I purchased a yoke of cattle and picked up what hides I could find about Milwaukee and started for Chicago for a load of flour. I paid 2 cents for hides in Milwaukee on the way down, and sold the same in Chicago at twelve and one-half cents per pound. Purchased 12 barrels of flour at $10 per barrel and a yoke of Hoosier cattle, that could not be driven one rod without being led with a rope or behind another pair of cattle, at $60. After getting my cattle together and my flour on the wagon, I started for Milwaukee. I drove out from the store house on the Main Street, and had not gone ten rods before the wagon was in the mud to the axles. I was stalled and had to roll out every barrel of flour before the wagon could be hauled out. After loading again, I made another move toward Milwaukee. The bridge that spanned the Chicago River, a stream one rod in width, was made of black-oak poles lying just above the water [floating log bridge; eds.]. It was one of the poorest excuses for a bridge I ever saw. Above the forks of the Chicago River a boy of fifteen years could at that time run and jump across it without much exertion. After crossing the river the road was very muddy for one-half mile out of town, but then I found very good roads until I reached Root River [now Racine], where I came to heavy timber. From that point to Milwaukee there was just no road at all. When I got fastened to trees that could not be drawn over, there was no such thing as backing Hoosier cattle. I would hitch my lead oxen to the hind end of the wagon and haul it back until loose. In this way I worked my way to Milwaukee. My flour sold at $15 per barrel. It went like hot cakes.

Oliver Breeze & Co.  see Breeze, Oliver.

Oliver, Robert  contracted with the postmaster general by 1833 to leave Chicago with mails via Romeo and Iroquois for Danville once a week – 125 miles – for $600, known as Route No. 84. [389b]

Olmstead, Polly Gray  see Rowley, Jrieh.

Olscum, Madaline  see Alscum, Madaline.

Ondatra zibethicus  see muskrat.

ONeil  see entries for O`Neil at the bottom of the O list.

opossum  Didelphis virginiana; common indigenous animal throughout the state of Illinois; appears to have been less frequent in pioneer days than it is today; called rat de bois [forest rat] in early French accounts of explorers and missionaries [ref. Jesuit Relations]. [259] [341]

Orcutt, Philura M.  see Ballingall, Patrick.

Ordinance of 1784    a federal act for the government of the Western Territory, the provisions of which were never acted upon and which was superseded by the Federal Land Ordinance of 1785.

Ordinance of 1785  see Federal Land Ordinance of 1785.

Ordinance of 1787  see Northwest Ordinance.

Ordinances of the Town of Chicago  the following ordinances are those passed by the trustees, here presented in summary language and in chronological order, based on the complete text published in the Chicago Democrat on the dates indicated below. Only the first 16 were numbered. [357]
Passed Nov. 7, 1833 [see Chicago Democrat, Nov. 26, Dec. 3, 10, and 17, 1833]:
[1] Defines town limits: Jefferson St. on the W; Ohio St. [and both eastern and western projections thereof] on the N; Lake Shore and Fort Dearborn Reservation [E].
[2] Names four streets S of Washington St.: Madison, Monroe, Adams, Jackson.
[3] Makes restraining of pigs in the village streets a requirement.
[4] Makes the shooting of a firearm within the village a punishable offence.
[5] Makes the removal of timber from either Chicago bridge an offence.
[6] Regulates the fireproof passing of stovepipes through the walls or roof of any house.
[7] Regulates the running of horses through the streets.
[8] Prohibits the “indecent exhibition” of stallions within the town limits.
[9] Prohibits dumping of garbage, construction material, &c.; in village streets.
[10] Prohibits dumping of dead animals into the river.
Passed Dec. 4, 1834, at the house of Dexter Graves [see Chicago Democrat, Nov. 10, 17, 24, 31, 1833, and Jan. 7, 1834]:
[11] Names George W. Snow as assessor & surveyor of the town.
[12] Sets the town-tax collector`s compensation at 10 percent of the tax roll.
[13] Creates a bridge maintenance committee, appointing G.W. Dole, Medore B. Beaubien, Edmund S. Kimberly, and John Miller.
[14] Makes John Dean Caton town attorney.
[15, 16] Regulates the use of riverfront property and the application process for wharfing privileges.
Passed June 6, 1834, at the house of E.H. Hadock [see Chicago Democrat, June 18, 25, and July 2, 1834]
· Details the duty of the assessor regarding taxable property.
· Details the duty of the supervisor of streets.
· Empowers the supervisor of streets to draft male residents between the ages of 21 and 60 for the duty of street repair, three days a year.
Passed July 11, 1834 [see Chicago Democrat, Aug. 6, 13, and 20, 1834]:
· Levies a tax of quarter of 1 percent on all taxable property for the year 1834.
· Instructs the surveyor to graduate South Water Street such that water will flow N into the river.
· Gives instructions to the tax collector.
Passed July 30, 1834 [see Chicago Democrat, Aug. 27, 1834]:
· Further details the duties of the tax collector, including the requirement to post a bond.
Passed Sept. 1, 1834, at the house of Starr Foot [see Chicago Democrat, Sept. 3, 10, 17, and 24, 1834]:
· Prohibits the selling or dispensing of alcoholic beverages by any “tippling house or grocery” on Sundays;
· Orders the town attorney to prosecute all offences of the previous ordinance.
Passed Sept. 25, 1834, at the Tremont House [see Chicago Democrat, Oct. 1 and 8, 1834]:
· An ordinance to prevent fire.
[Sec. 1] Divides the town into four wards as follows: E of LaSalle St. and between Jackson and South Water—first ward; N of Jackson and between LaSalle and East Water—second ward; N of the river—third ward; W of the north and south branches of the river—fourth ward.
[Sec. 2] Appoints firewardens, one for each ward: (1) William Worthingham, (2) Edward E. Hunter, (3) Samuel Resigue, and (4) James Kinzie.
[Sec. 3] Regulates the fireproof passing of stovepipes through the walls or roof of any building.
[Sec. 4] Describes the duty and authority of the firewardens.
[Sec. 5] Sets fines for violators.
[Sec. 6] Repeals the earlier fire ordinance of Nov. 6, 1833 (Ordinance Six).
Passed Sept. 29, 1834 at the Tremont House [see Chicago Democrat, Oct. 1, 1834]:
· Makes it unlawful to remove dirt or sand from any of the town streets, unless for the purpose of repairing those streets by order and permission of the supervisor of streets.
Passed Oct. 13, 1834, at the Tremont House [see Chicago Democrat, Oct. 22 and 29, 1834]:
· A fire ordinance.
[Sec. 1] Further details the authority and duty of firewardens.
[Sec. 2] Makes the warden, in whose ward a fire breaks out, “Warden in Chief,” subjecting the other three wardens to his authority.
[Sec. 3] Assigns a numbered badge or plate to each firewarden, designating his ward, to be worn on his hat.
Passed Nov. 3, 1834 at “the Exchange” [see Chicago Democrat, Nov. 5, 12, 19, 26 and Dec. 3, 1834]:
· An ordinance for the further prevention of fires.
Makes it unlawful to carry or convey firebrands or coals of fire between buildings within the town limits, unless transported in a covered earthen or fireproof container.
Passed Aug. 5, 1835 [see Chicago Democrat, Aug. 12, 19, 26, and Sept. 2, 1835; also see the Illinois Regional Archives Depository]:
· An omnibus ordinance.
[Sec. 1] Declares that anyone guilty of violating the laws and ordinances herewith can expect penalties.
[Sec. 2] Makes it unlawful to place obstacles (timber, stone, &c.;) on public passages (streets, sidewalks, &c.;) without permission of president or trustee, except for those related to building construction, and then may only block one half of the passage for no longer than two months.
[Sec. 3] Makes it unlawful to place casks or crates on the walkway in front of a building further than four feet, or in the street, unless with permission.
[Sec. 4] Makes it unlawful to for any animal, wagon, or cart to cross a sidewalk, unless to enter a lot or yard.
[Sec. 5] Makes it unlawful to ride or drive over a bridge faster than at the pace of a walk.
[Sec. 6] Makes it unlawful for anyone to damage pavements, walks, sewers, drains, or to dig holes or ditches without permission, or to obstruct repair.
[Sec. 7] Makes it unlawful to dispose anything (e.g. straw shavings) into sewers, drains or ditches, obstructing its purpose.
[Sec. 8] Makes it unlawful to possess a billiard table, nine or ten pin alley for public use without a specific license.
[Sec. 9] Makes it unlawful for an owner with a billiard table, gambling equipment, or liquor for sale, to allow the gaming house to become disorderly.
[Sec. 10] Makes it unlawful to conduct oneself disorderly, to riot, to create a disturbance in the streets within the town, or to form crowds for unlawful purpose.
[Sec. 11] Makes it unlawful to dump on streets or into the river any dead animals or putrid meat, fish entrails, decaying vegetables, or any other offensive substance.
[Sec. 12] Makes it unlawful to dump any “nuisance” into any lot.
[Sec. 13] The president or any trustee, on finding “any nuisance” in the street or in any lot, may order the perpetrator to remove it.
[Sec. 14] Makes it unlawful to any grocery or “tippling house” to sell beer on the “Sabbath, or first day of the week.”
[Sec. 15] Makes it unlawful to burn hay, straw, chips, or any combustible material in any street or in any lot without permission from a trustee.
[Sec. 16] Chips or other combustible material accumulating within buildings must be removed at least once a week.
[Sec. 17] Makes it unlawful to dump chips or other combustible material on streets.
[Sec. 18] Redefines how stovepipes must be passd through the roof or wall of buildings.
[Sec. 19] Forbids the carrying of open fire through streets or lots.
[Sec. 20] Forbids fireworks or the firing of guns within town limits.
[Sec. 21] Creates firewardens for each district and defines their duties.
[Sec. 22] Forbids the stacking of hay in the area bordered by Washington, Canal, and Kinzie streets, and the lake.
[Sec. 23] Sets penalties for the offenses against the foregoing ordinances.
Passed Oct. 19, 1835 [see Chicago Democrat, Oct. 28 and Nov. 4, 1835]:
· An omnibus ordinance.
[Sec. 1] Sets the time when the trustees appoint three inspectors of elections, attendant to the annual election of trustees and all special town elections.
[Sec. 2] Sets the time of polling in such elections; declares poll lists to be kept in the same manner as that of the state law.
[Sec. 3] Describes inspectors` responsibilities following elections, compliant with state law.
[Sec. 4] Specifies the inspectors` filing of canvasses with the clerk of the county court circuit.
[Sec. 5] Designates special elections to fill vacancies in the offices of trustees.
[Sec. 6] Authorizes trustees to appoint from time to time as many police constables as they may think proper.
[Sec. 7] Directs trustees to chose time and place of their meeting by resolution. Makes the president the presiding officer and gives him “only a casting vote.”
[Sec. 8] “The trustees shall meet annually hereafter on or before the second Tuesday in June and by ballot appoint a president, clerk treasurer, attorney, street commissioner, police constable, collector of taxes, and town surgeon, two measurers of wood, two measurers of lumber, two measurers and weighers of grain, and such other officers as the trustees may deem necessary for the good of said town: if for any cause the above officers are not appointed on the day above mentioned, the trustees may adjourn from day to day until they are appointed.”
[Sec. 9] Requires that bonds be filed by the treasurer, street commissioner, and collector(s) of a height deemed appropriate by the trustees.
[Sec. 10] Describes the duties of the police constable, which includes the duty “to attend all fires within the limits of said town.”
[Sec. 11] Describes the duties and the powers of the trustees, which includes the power “to arrest all dissolute and riotous persons.”
[Sec. 12] Defines the duties of town assessor.
Passed Nov. 4 [see Chicago Democrat, Nov. 11, 18, 25 and Dec. 2, 9, 16, 1835; also see Illinois Regional Archives Depository]:
· An omnibus ordinance.
[Sec. 1] Declares that anyone guilty of breaching the laws and ordinances herewith can expect penalties.
[Sec. 2] The fire department consists of the chief engineer, two assistants, four wardens, in addition to trustees (all ex-wardens) and (as many as appointed by trustees) fire engine men, hose men, hook and ladder and axe and saw men.
[Sec. 3] Details the chief engineer`s responsibilities.
[Sec. 4] Details the assistant chiefs` responsibilities.
[Sec. 5] Details the firewardens` assignment and responsibilities.
[Sec. 6] Fire companies—”The firemen shall be redivided into companies, to consist of as many members as the Board of Trustees shall from time to time direct, to attend to the fire engines, hose carts, hooks and ladders, axes, saws, and other fire apparatus, belonging to the Town of Chicago; and each of the companies shall on the first Monday of December in each year, choose from among their own numbers a Foreman, Assistant Foreman, and Clerk, in such manner as they think proper.”
[Sec. 7] Details each company`s responsibilities and duties.
[Sec. 8] Details the foreman`s responsibilities.
[Sec. 9] Declares that any neglect, inattendance or apparatus maintenance failure will result in penalty.
[Sec. 10] Declares that any neglect of assistance without sufficient excuse will result in penalty or expulsion.
[Sec. 11] Declares that misuse of apparatus for private purpose will result in penalty.
[Sec. 12] Defines in principle the required headgear: black leather cap with identification in white.
[Sec. 13] Details the numbers and responsibilities of the hook, ladder, axe, and saw men.
[Sec. 14] Regulates fire attendance.
[Sec. 15] Details the state of readiness of fire equipment.
[Sec. 16] Specifies fine if a fireman is absent when needed.
[Sec. 17] Defines required headgear for hook, ladder, axe, and saw men: black leather cap with identification in white.
[Sec. 18] Addresses the numbers of fire hose men selected.
[Sec. 19] Describes the fire hose men`s responsibilities.
[Sec. 20] Specifies the hierarchy among fire hose men.
[Sec. 21] Defines required headgear for fire hose men: black leather cap with a coil pictured and identification in white.
[Sec. 22] Defines the badges of office at fires—the president and trustees each to carry a staff with gilded flame atop.
[Sec. 23] Defines required headgear: white leather cap with Chief Engineer in black.
[Sec. 24] Defines required headgear: white leather caps with Engineer No. 1 and Engineer No. 2 in black.
[Sec. 25] Defines required headgear: brim hat, white crown with warden in black; also to carry a white trumpet.
[Sec. 26] Defines required headgear: black leather cap with Foreman and engine company identification in white.
[Sec. 27] Defines required headgear: black leather cap with “Foreman” and hook and ladder company identification in white.
[Sec. 28] Defines required headgear: black leather cap with Assistant and identification in white.
[Sec. 29] Declares that any fireman neglectful of his responsibilities will be noted.
[Sec. 30] Describes the duties of the constable during a fire.
[Sec. 31-33] Declares town residents subject to and under the authority of the fire warden during a fire.
[Sec. 34] Details the penalty for damaging town firefighting equipment.
[Sec. 35-37] Requires residents to keep leather fire buckets in their buildings, buckets that are painted and labeled with the owner`s name or initials; instructs residents when to use them.
[Sec. 38] Designates Attorney E.W. Casey, Supervisor of Roads and Bridges Edward E. Hunter, and the firewarden to handle all cases in which a resident contests a penalty.
[Sec. 39] Lowers penalty for stacking hay within the town limits from $25 to $5.
[Sec. 40] Specifies locations for the public posting of ordinances.
[Sec. 41-44] Sets election rules.
[Sec. 45] Declares that unexpected vacancies in offices must be filled by special election.
[Sec. 46] Authorizes the board of trustees to appoint police constables as needed.
[Sec. 47] Authorizes the board of trustees to determine when they will meet.
[Sec. 48] Sets the appointment date for town officials on or near the second Tuesday in June.
[Sec. 49] Requires that the treasurer, the commissioners, and the tax collectors be bonded.
[Sec. 50] Defines the duties of the town constable.
[Sec. 51] Defines the duties of town trustees. [592]

Oregon  schooner on the Chicago-St. Joseph route in 1834 under Captain Brooks, making 13 calls at Chicago that year, carrying lumber, merchandise, and passengers; on Sept. 9, 1835, the vessel called under Captain Howard, coming from Buffalo, NY.

Orillat, Jean  wealthy trader and merchant at Montreal in the 1760s and 1770s; in May 1770, he financed the travel of two canoes licensed to go to “Chiquagoux” under the direction of Jean Baptiste St. Cire [St. Cyr] with eight additional engagés, probably to scout a locale for a future trading post, but never established by him [see Gaffé]. Likely Orillat himself had visited or passed through Chicago in connection with his trading activities, because he is known to have traveled to Cahokia; financed many trading expeditions.

ORourke  see entries for O`Rourke at the bottom of the O list.

Ortelius, Abraham  (1527-1598) geographer and friend of Gerhard Mercator; traveled extensively in communication with other geographers and cartographers; in 1570 published the first modern atlas of the world, Theatrum Orbis Terrrarum, in Antwerp. Among 70 maps, many by other mapmakers, is the map Americae sive Novi Orbis, Nova Descriptio (see Maps) that provided the most accurate depiction of settlement within the Americas in the late 16th century; the atlas was continually revised and expanded into the next century. [94, 392] [605]

Osborn, Andrew L.  born c.1815 in Ridgefield, CT; arrived in July 1835; in 1836 he worked for John Calhoun as a typesetter; in the late 1840s was member of a group planning railroad construction; by 1841 had married Lucy F. Northam of Noble County, IN, and moved to La Porte, IN, where he married Abbey (born c.1819 in Massachusetts) on Mar. 11, 1841. In the 1880 U.S. Census he is listed as a lawyer in La Porte, living with his second wife Abbey and their twenty-year-old son William F., employed by a railroad. Andrew still resided there in 1885. [12] [351]

Osborn, Caleb  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Osborn, James T.  also Osborne; arrived in 1832 and served that year in the Chicago militia under Capt. G. Kercheval in the Black Hawk War. [714]

Osborn, Rebecca  see Heacock, Russell E.

Osborne, William  (c.1811-1884) born in Ridgefield, CT; arrived on May 1, 1834; successful as a partner of Silas B. Cobb in the boot, shoe, hide and leather trade; served in the volunteer fire department in 1837; 1839 City Directory: boot, shoe and leather merchant on 141 Lake St.; he and his wife were members of the Presbyterian church; died on Jan. 2, 1884. [12, 351] [733]

Oscom, Antoine    listed as an interpreter employed on Sept. 25, 1818, in Chicago by the American Fur Co.

Osterhoudt, Levi M.  (-Nov. 15, 1881) also Ousterhoudt, Osterhardt, Osterhaudt; in 1833 he ran the Sauganash Hotel; 1839 City Directory: [L.M. Osterhoudt] New York House, 180 Lake Street. In c.1842 he partnered [see] George Dolton in the construction of a tavern/hotel on the Calumet River, built at 133rd Street [later the NW corner of 134th] and Indiana Avenue (originally the Michigan City Trail); 1843 City Directory: prop[rietor] Sauganash, Market, 100 ft south of s.e. cor Lake; 1844 City Directory: Sauganash Hotel, c Lake and Market [card: Farmers will find the best accommodation for their teams]; Osterhoudt died in Norwood Park on Nov. 15, 1881, aged 73 years. [12, 243, 538a] [357]

Ostrander, Lt. Philip  (c.1784-1813) born in New York; enlisted with the U.S. Army on Oct. 29, 1801; served with the 1st Infantry at Mackinac until Nov. 14, 1806, when he was appointed an ensign and sent to Fort Wayne; promoted to 2nd lieutenant on May 1, 1808; detailed from Fort Wayne to Fort Dearborn with Captain Heald on Sept. 10, 1810 and was acting commandant while Captain Heald was on leave from November 1810 to June 1811, serving there until September 11; he then resumed his former station at Fort Wayne; became 1st lieutenant on Oct. 30, 1812, following the siege of the fort by Indians in September; in 1813 refused court-martial “for firing upon a flock of birds passing over the fort” and died in confinement on July 30. [326, 708] [288]

Otis, Mary H.  see Talcott, Mancel, Jr.

Ottawa  the word is /weta:wa:wa/, English derivative of [see] Odawa; a Proto-Algonquian tribe living along the Ottawa River, the first native tribe to contact the French explorers in 1633; migrated westward among the Great Lakes and became known as one of the three tribes to comprise the [see] Ojibwa. [393c, 464c, 642a]

Ottawa Trail  Indian trail between Chicago and the Joliet area, representing the continuation of the Long Portage Road across Stony Ford, later Brush Hill Trail, later yet Ogden Avenue, designated in 1831 as one of two official Cook County highways, accommodating stagecoachs and wagons SW to Ottawa and beyond by 1834; commemorated in the name Ottawa Trail Woods of the Salt Creek Division of the Cook County Forest Preserve District, through which it passed [see Monuments]. [415]

Ottawa, IL  town at the junction of the Fox and the Illinois Rivers, where coal was first found in the United States, three miles W along the Illinois River; originally laid out by Gurdon Hubbard and others as “Carbonia,” and in 1830 was platted, as was Chicago, by order of the canal commissioners, since they represented the termini of the proposed Illinois & Michigan Canal route. Early steamboats from the Mississippi found the Illinois River navigable up to Ottawa, making a stagecoach line desirable between Chicago and Ottawa; such was organized by Dr. Temple in 1833. The canal did not open until 1848. In May 1835, [see] Ellen Bigelow took the coach trip from Chicago to Ottawa—25 hours—and described it in some detail in a letter to a relative back home in the East. [55a]

Ouellet, Angelica  see Pettell [Pilet], Louis.

Ouiatanon  also Ouiatenon; see Wea.

Ouilmette, Antoine Louis  (1758-1841) a French Catholic, baptized Antoine Louis Ouimet, not Ouilmette, on December 26 in the parish of Ste.-Rose northwest of Montreal; it is not known why and when his family name changed to Ouilmette; also referred to as Ouilmet, Houillamette, Willamette, Wilmette, Wilmot, Wemet; second son of Louis Ouimet dit Albert and Louise Desjardins dit Charbonnier; came to Chicago in July 1790 [his statement], and built his cabin on the north bank of the Chicago River, a short distance W of the one owned by Point de Sable. From his cabin he provided ferry service across the river, if ever the need arose; in 1804 his neighbors on the north bank were Le Mai, Pettle, and Kinzie; by the latter he was periodically employed, and like Kinzie, he transported traders and other travelers over the Chicago portage — as noted in Kinzie`s account book on June 14, 1806, when he hired a wagon and a pair of oxen for $50 to transport Des Pins` [Lemoine`s] goods over the portage to the fork of the Illinois River. In 1825, his name was on the first Chicago tax list [was assessed on $400 of personal property that included cows, horses, sheep, wagons, and farm implements, and paid $4 in taxes] and in 1826 he was on the first poll list. In 1796, Ouilmette had married Archange Marie Chevalier [see separate entry], a French-Potawatomi woman with whom he had eight children: Sophia (1807-) [married I.J. Martell]; Joseph (1808-) [removed to former Marilton County, WI, to farm in the 1840s]; Louis (1809-) [also Lewis; see separate entry]; François [Francis] (1813-); Elizabeth (1815-); Michel (1819-) [known as Michael or Mitchell, under which name he served during the Black Hawk War in the Chicago militia under Captain Kercheval, being listed in the muster roll of May 3, 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, while managing a small trading post at {see} Grosse Pointe during the early 1830s]; Archange (1820-); Josette [Marriane Josephte] (1820-1894) [married {see} Jean Baptiste Durocher]; and an “adopted” girl named [see] Thérèse Archange Morin (niece, daughter of [see] Suzanne Françoise Chevalier Morin Buisson). Elizabeth married Michael P. Welch on May 11, 1830, Justice J.B. Beaubien officiating; the couple had a daughter, Mary Ann Welch, and a son Joseph was baptised on June 16, 1834, but later in October she sued for divorce and married [see] Lucius R. Darling. Thérèse Archange Morin married Toussaint Tremblé at Cahokia c.1820, divorced him in 1830, then married [see] John Mann that year, leaving with the children in 1838 for Council Bluffs. Like most Frenchmen, Ouilmette survived the Fort Dearborn massacre of 1812 by not joining the militia but remaining neutral and indisposed during the attack, cultivating the fort`s garden during the following years. The Prairie du Chien Treaty of 1829 awarded his métiswife and their children a grant of two sections of land at [see] Grosse Pointe [forcing Stephen J. Scott to abandon his homestead on the property and move to the Des Plaines River valley], and he then claimed and received $800. The family moved north that year and farmed, but may already have built a cabin there earlier, since the Ouilmette farm is used in the wording of the 1829 treaty as a boundary marker; he is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830. He was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833, and in September the Chicago Treaty awarded him another $800 for losses suffered in 1812, and in addition he received $300 for his children. His daughter Josette [Marianne Josephte] received a separate payment of $200. In 1836 [see] Alexander McDaniel visited and subsequently described the Ouilmette homestead: “On the 14th of August, 1836, I left Chicago in the morning and about noon I brought up at the house of `Anton` Ouilmette. The place was then called `Gross Point,` about fourteen miles north from Chicago on the Lake Shore. The house that the `Wilmette` family then occupied was a large hewed log blockhouse, considered in those days good enough for a very congressman to live in, at least I thought so when I was dispatching the magnificent meal of vegetables grown on the rich soil, which the young ladies of the house had prepared for me. The children were nearly white, very comely, well dressed and intelligent. Josette, in fact, had obtained quite a reputation as a beauty. The Wilmettes owned cattle, horses, wagons, carriages and farming implements, working a large tract of land.” The Chicago Genealogist describes the Ouimette reservation as having been 1580 acres large, of which “some” 300 now fall into the city limits of Evanston, and 1280 fall into Wilmette. The borders are given as follows: southern boundary at Central Street in Evanston; eastern boundary at the lake shore; northern boundary at the level of Elmwood Avenue in Wilmette; and the western boundary at the level of 15th Street in Wilmette. The family was involved early in the Catholic community, and his name was on the petition by Chicago`s citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis asking that a priest be assigned to them. When the Potawatomi were relocated W of the Mississippi in 1835, Antoine and Archange followed them in late 1836 or later. Archange died at Council Bluffs, IA, in November 1840 and Antoine died on Dec. 18, 1841. Also see entry on Wilmette, IL, as well as Ouilmette, Antoine, in Monuments section.
The map detail from Captain Smith`s 1818 draft, prepared for the U.S. Topographical Bureau, shows the exact locations of the Ouilmette and Kinzie farms relative to Fort Dearborn and the Chicago River. [13, 96a, 226, 259aa, 275a, 276, 291, 292, 319, 404, 406, 421a, 706, 734b] [12]

Ouilmette, Archange Marie Chevalier  (c.1781-1841) métis wife of [see] Antoine Ouilmette, whom she married in 1796 at [see] Grosse Pointe, 12 miles N of Fort Dearborn; conflicting reports in the early literature give her year of birth as 1764, 1781, and 1782, the year 1781 being the most likely; born at Sugar Creek, MI, to François Pierre and Marianne Chevalier; Archange was a sister of both Shesi [Pierre] Buisson and Catherine [Alexander] Robinson; another account [604a] gives her parents as the French fur trader Pierese Chevallier and his Potawatomi wife, Chopa, variant names of those listed. [96a, 226, 604a] [275a]

Ouilmette, Archange Thérèse  see Mann, Archange Thérèse Morin Tremblé Mann. The name Arkash Sambli, often found in the literature, is a corruption of Archange Tremblé. [275a]

Ouilmette, Elizabeth ‘Lizette’  (1811-1863) born in Michigan, daughter of Antoine Ouilmette and his wife Archange [née Chevalier]. On March 11, 1830, she married [see] Michael P. Welch, an Irish immigrant, Jean Baptiste Beaubien officiating as justice of the peace; a son Joseph was born in 1834, but the couple divorced later that year. Elizabeth received $200 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. She married [see] Lucius Ripley Darling in Milwaukee on July 15, 1838. A daughter Eliza Marriah (1850-1932) was born in Shawnee Co., Kansas. [449a] [12]

Ouilmette, Josette  see Ouilmette, Antoine Louis.

Ouilmette, Louis  also Lewis; son of [see] Antoine and Archange Ouilmette; an escort for Colbee C. Benton, visitor in 1833 who described him in his journal, excerpted as follows:
Wednesday Aug 21; Today has been very pleasant. I called upon the Agent and was introduced to my new companion, Louis Wilmot[Ouilmette]. He is half French and half Indian; rather short but very strong and active-looking. His complexion is that of an Indian, and his hair is long, straight, and black. He wears a hat, blue calico shirt, moccasins, and pantaloons, and he also wears a red belt round his waist in which is fastened his tomahawk and scalping knife. He has lived with the Indians more or less for six years and understands their tongue very well, and can speak English and French. … And after draining a couple of bottles of beer, we left Chicago in company with an old Indian, for Gross Point about twenty miles north on Lake Michigan, where we arrived about ten o`clock in the evening. Stayed with the old Indian[Antoine Ouilmette; eds.] whom I liked very much. He could talk some English and seemed quite a philosopher. While passing along the sandy shore of the lake the dogs ran after a deer. It was dark, and he expressed his astonishment at the wonderful power of the dog – his seeing, running, and scenting the track. Says he: `If a man should attempt to run in de dark wood, first he know, he have a stick right in his eye,` and says he, `There be a great many strange things in dis world, and I spose all for de best.` We turned our horses into a little field near the log mansion. Eat some crackers and went to bed in the same room with the old Indian and his squaw. Our bed was on the floor. When I was undressing says the old Indian: `I spose you would not think it very modest to take off your clothes and go to bed before the ladies.` However, I did not feel very delicate in the presence of his old squaw.

Ouilmette, Marie Louise  see Welch, John.

Outhet, Daniel  arrived 1832 from Yorkshire, England, with wife Elizabeth, (née Fox), and daughter Jane (born 1823); they were among those who took shelter at Fort Dearborn during the Black Hawk War of 1832; according to George Snow`s public administrator notices in the Chicago Democrat on Dec. 3, 1834, and March 23, 1836, both Daniel and Elizabeth had died by then. John C. Outhet [probably Daniel`s brother] arrived from England in 1836 and became a wagon maker, employing [see] William Wayman; 1839 Chicago Directory: wagon maker, 191 Randolph. He married Maria Sherman in 1842; 1843 Chicago Directory: wagon maker, 191 Randolph, res 244 Madison; 1844 Chicago Directory: Outhet, J. C. wagon maker, Randolph st. House Madison st. Jane married William Wayman in 1844. John C. Outhet died Nov. 27, 1892, at age 55. [135]

Outhet, Jane  see Outhet, Daniel; also see Wayman, William.

Owen, Emeline Hotchkiss  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; see Owen, Thomas Jefferson Vance. [319]

Owen, Thomas Jefferson Vance  (1801-1835) born in Kentucky; son of Maj. Ezra Owen, Indian fighter and companion of Daniel Boone; became U.S. Indian agent in 1830, serving in Chicago as successor of Dr. Wolcott from 1831 to 1833; purchased multiple lots of real estate from both the government and private sellers in blocks 2, 9, 10, 11, and 21 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; under him as subagents served N.D. Grover, James Stewart and Gholson Kercheval, as interpreter Billy Caldwell, and as blacksmiths David McKee and Joseph Pothier; assumed responsibility as caretaker of Fort Dearborn on May 20, 1831, and served until June 17, 1832. During the Black Hawk war of 1832 he, jointly with Richard Hamilton, negotiated with local Indian tribes. A Catholic, he signed the petition of April 1833 to [see] Bishop Rosati for a priest to be assigned to them, representing a group of 10; in early August that year he was one of the “Qualified Electors” who voted to incorporate the town, serving as president of this meeting [for a copy of the meeting`s report, see entry on incorporation]; member of the first village board of trustees (Aug. 10, 1833), which elected him – Chicago`s 1st – village president on August 12; having no town seal, he used the obverse of a United States half-eagle coin as the earliest town seal. In September he was one of three United States officials when the land session treaty was negotiated with Indians at Chicago. Owen had married Emeline Hotchkiss on July 9, 1823, daughter of Miles Hotchkiss of Kaskaskia; this made him a brother-in-law of Gholson Kercheval, who married Emeline`s sister Felicite; died in his home on Oct. 15, 1835, and his funeral services were conducted by Father St. Cyr; street name: Owen Avenue (7700 W). Note Emeline Hotchkiss Owen`s portrait. See his signature below. [12, 233″] [319]

Owen, Thomas Jefferson Vance  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Owen, W.E.  late in 1835 he and [see] R.J. Hamilton filed a claim for wharfing privileges for lot 4, block 19.

Owen, William and George  children by this name, probably siblings, were enrolled as grade school students in the class taught by [see] John Watkins in December 1835. Names of corresponding parents were not recorded. [728]

oxen  castrated bulls of a domestic breed, commonly used for pulling heavy loads by traders and early settlers; in July of 1804 Capt. John Whistler expressed to Colonel Kingsbury annoyance due to the scarcity of corn to feed public oxen, likely used in the fort`s construction; in their description of the Chicago Portage [April 4, 1819], U.S. Commissioners Graham and Philips noted a “well beaten wagon road” over which “boats and their loads are hauled by oxen and vehicles kept for the purpose by the French at Chicago.” Also see prairie schooners.

Ozier, Joseph  a soldier at Fort Dearborn in 1818, the year he married Madaline Alscum, métis servant girl indentured to Susan Randolph, wife of the Indian agent Charles Jouett. [12]

O`Neil, Jane R.  see Palmer, Dr. George W.

O`Neil, John  arrived from Ireland in 1834; tinsmith, who at some time served as town collector; 1839 City Directory: farmer, corner of 22nd and Halsted streets; in 1857 he began a five year term in the penitentiary for the murder of his neighbor Michael Brady. [12, 243] [351]

O`Neil, Thomas  arrived from Ireland in the year1834.

O`Rourke, James  arrived from Ireland in the year 1832; in 1836 he assisted Capt. J.B.F. Russell in the removal of the Indians from Illinois.

O`Rourke, Peter, Jr.  arrived from Ireland in the year 1832.

O`Rourke, Peter, Sr.  arrived from Ireland in the year 1832 [likely with his sons Peter and James], and began to farm, frequently selling the produce in town.