Encyclopedia letter F

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factory  see U.S. Factory System.

Failing, Cornelius  a farmer, born at Saratoga, NY; enlisted in the army for three years at age 22 on May 17, 1834, at Utica, NY; as listed in the Aug. 6, 1836 Chicago American he was one of 15 deserters from the Fort Dearborn Garrison between January 1 and July 28, prior to the withdrawal of all troops on December 29 that year. He deserted on February 1 and a reward of $450 was offered for his apprehension. (Chicago Genealogy Club, v. 2, no. 1, September 1969)

Fairplay  revenue cutter, armed single-masted U.S. revenue sailing ship that visited Fort Dearborn in 1819.

Faith  armed British schooner patrolling Lake Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control; built in Detroit in 1774. [48]

Fallen Timbers, Battle of  on Aug. 20, 1794, Gen. Anthony Wayne succeeded at Fallen Timbers, OH, in breaking Indian resistance to the continued colonization of the Midwest; his victory led to the Treaty of Greenville in the following year, the terms of which were of particular significance for the future development of Chicago. [ 570, 625] [152]

Farema, Joseph  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Nov. 21, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Farineau, Joseph  also Farrinault, Foreneau; an engagé who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Jan. 15, 1807, on Feb. 23, May 17, and June 2, 1808, and on Apr. 21, 1810, as shown in the Kinzie account books. [404]

Farnsworth, Harriet  see Frink, John.

Farnsworth, Mrs. Marcia Delia Baxter  (Aug. 23, 1809-April 1887) sister-in-law of [see] DeWitt Lane; a widow of means, one of the very few women who purchased land in May or June 1835 – on June 27, 160 acres, adjoining that of [see] Dorastus Lane; three months later at her home on the northeastern part of the ridge she married [see] Willard Jones in the first marriage there; Chicago American: “Married October 1, 1835, at Blue Island, by Rev. Mr, Hinton, Mr. Willard Jones of Chicago and Miss Mercia [sic] Della Farnsworth of Blue Island.” [304, 387a] [597a]

Farnsworth, William  (c.1795-1860) American born; entered the fur trade at Montreal, then signed up with the American Fur Co. and in 1818 was assigned as clerk in the district of Fond du Lac; in 1820, he left the company to become an independent trader on the shore of Green Bay and with success, in 1822 or 1823 married métis Marinette Chevalier, also a trader and popular with the Indians; there in 1832-33 he built the first sawmill on the Menominee River where Marinette, WI, now exists, and in 1835 took over another sawmill at Sheboygan, which had been built during the previous year by [see] William Payne and Oliver C. Crocker, and traveled to Chicago to acquire a manager, Jonathan S. Follet. Farnsworth spent the remainder of his life in Sheboygan, until his death in the Lady Elgin steamship disaster.

Farrar, Caroline F.  see Wilson, Charles Lush.

fathom  unit of measure equal to six feet; a descriptive term expressed commonly in pioneer days, i.e.: “The fur traders`s birch bark canoe was usually five fathoms and a half in length, and four feet and a half in their extreme breadth.”

Faucett, Lucinda  see Demont, William.

Faulkner, J.M.  advertised dry goods “And Ready Made Clothing, Crockery, Nails, Groceries, Hardware and Cutlery, Glass and Sash, Paints, Oils, &c.; N.B. Cash paid for 5,000 bushels of Oats” in the Chicago Democrat on Aug. 15, 1835, “two doors west of the Land Office on Lake St.” in a two story brick store just completed by A. Steele; his daughter Catherine Elizabeth was born in September that year, but died five months later; in the November 25 Chicago Democrat he announced the sale of his entire stock to Messrs. Chambers & Benedict and solicited the continued patronage of the people of Chicago and surrounding county at his old stand.

Faux, William  a visitor to the Birkbeck colony who left accurate but often uncomplimentary accounts of pioneer life in early Illinois in his 1823 book, Memorable Days in America: Being an Journal of a Tour to the United States, Principally Undertaken to Ascertain, by Positive Evidence, the Condition and Probable Prospects of British Emigrants. [240]

Fay, H.K.  was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; listed as having an unclaimed letter in the Jan. 1, 1834, Chicago Democrat; advertised property for sale in the June 20, 1835, Chicago American; then owned a boarding house on Lake Street, located opposite Dr. J.T. Temple`s house. [319]

Fay, John  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Sept. 5 or 13, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Fearson, Capt. John  (-1835) father of Mary Julia Fearson Whistler, and father-in-law of William Whistler. Fearson emigrated from England to Salem, MA, where he was captain of a whaler; served in the Revolution as 1st Lieutenant on the brigantine Eagle; on Feb. 22, 1783, he signed a petition requesting that he be commissioned as commander of the sloop Union (privateer). Sometime between 1787 and 1793 he moved to Detroit where he was master of the schooners Saguinah (Saginaw) and Utica; the latter ship passed to his son George by inheritance. After Detroit was turned over to the Americans by the British, John Fearson signified his intention to remain a British subject and later moved to Sandwich, Ontario, Canada. He visited John Kinzie’s trading post in Chicago on Oct. 31, 1805, on Jan. 9, 1806, and on Aug. 23, 1809 (the last time as captain of the sailing ship Ellenor [possibly Eleanor]), as shown in the Kinzie account books. He and his wife, Mary Amable (née Lajimodiere) Fearson are believed to have been buried in St. Anne`s Cemetery at Detroit. [270a]

Fearson, Mary Julia  see Whistler, Maj. William.

Federal Land Ordinance of 1785  provided for land to be divided into rectangular portions, bounded by parallels and meridians. Both the east-west oriented parallels, or township lines, and the north-south oriented meridians were located six miles apart, enclosing areas of 36 square miles each, which constituted survey townships [not to be confused with civic townships]. Within each township, parallel section lines, one mile apart, would create sections of one square mile each. This system, which was specifically applied to the Midwest trans-Appalachian region by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, resulted in the checkerboard street pattern characteristic of Chicago. The ordinance also created the office of the geographer of the United States; Thomas Hutchins became the first individual to hold the office. Also see Fielding Lucas` map to the right, also in Maps. [87, 521]

Felicity  a 45-ton British sloop, built as a merchant craft at the King’s Shipyard in Detroit in 1773-74; sister ship of the Welcome, both belonging to the Michilimackinac farmer and trader John Askin until taken over by the British Navy near the end of 1778. The Felicity was armed with four swivel guns, about three feet in length; patrolling Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie during the period of British control to “awe the Indians and prevent the rebels building boats” [Major De Peyster, 1779]; while patrolling the western shore of Lake Michigan with a crew of eight men, piloted by Samuel Robertson (a U.S. States civilian citizen), the Felicity passed the Chicago site on Oct. 3, 1779. The ship`s useful life ended in 1796. [389a, 441b, 565]

Felis concolor  see mountain lion.

Felis lynx  see bobcat.

Felis rufus  see bobcat.

Fer, Nicolas de  cartographer in Paris who, in 1718, published the mapLe Cours de Missisipi, ou de St. Louis, fameuse rivière de l`Amerique Septentrionale for the Compagnie d`Occident, compounding the “Mississippi Bubble”; Chicago is noted as Les Checagou.

Ferant, J.B.  also Ferrar, Ferran; a voyageur who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Oct. 28 and 31, 1805 and on June 7, 1806, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

Fergus Historical Series  see Bibliography.

Ferguson, Samuel B.  (1800-1884) a young contractor on the Erie Canal, living then at Whitesboro, NY; from there in 1824 he rode a horse to Council Bluffs [IA] and stopped at Chicago, “a hamlet of five houses,” on his return; later lived in Milford, MI, and became the proprietor of the opera house. [548a]

ferries    see bridges and ferries.

Ferry, Carolina Bourie  (1814-1914) born at Detroit; daughter of Louie Bourie, trader at Fort Wayne; wife of Lucien Ferry, an attorney; received $500 at the 1833 Chicago treaty with the Indians. [288]

ferry, Indian  Capt. John Whistler`s 1808 draft of Fort Dearborn shows a cabin at the Forks between the north branch and the main river, and notes “Indian Ferry [service across the north branch] attended by the man of this house” — see detail. [For a better appreciation of the location of this first public ferry in Chicago, see map in 1808 Chronology; eds.] [682]

Field, Thomas J.  co-owner of a grocery on Dearborn Street with George W. Reeble; the shop was raided on Oct. 25, 1834, by the sheriff in accordance with Illinois`s antigambling laws, the owners arrested, and a roulette table confiscated; each unable to post bond of $1,000, they went to jail.

Filatreau, Jean  member of La Salle`s party who, together with [see] André Eno, built and occupied for several months a “fort” in the Chicago area during the winter of 1682-83, as indicated in a letter La Salle wrote from Chicago on June 4, 1683. This would be the second semipermanent dwelling built by Europeans, the first being Father Marquette`s winter hut of 1674-75.

Filer, Alanson  born in Herkimer County, NY, in 1812; carpenter who arrived on July 6, 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; on Mar. 4, 1834, the firm A. Filer & Co. advertised in the Chicago Democrat its “Cabinet and Chair Manufactory, three doors north of the Baptist meeting house,” and by May 21, a second ad read “CHAIRS !!!, Clark, Filer & Co.”; “N.B. Sign painting and ornamental painting neatly executed” was added as postscript on June 10; on November 16, he married Mrs. Hannah Pilkington Green; a later marriage was with Elizabeth Crews; moved to the Root River settlement late in 1835; later returned to Evanston; in 1885, again lived at Racine, WI. [319] [12]

Filkins, Joseph  acquired a claim in 1834 in what is now the town of Wheeling, IL; he built his cabin in 1835 and moved his family in. [13]

finances    see corporate finances.

Finley, Clement Alexander, M.D.  (1797-1879) in some texts mistakenly identified as Dr. J.B. Finley; born in Newville, PA; graduated from the Medical School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1818; became the ninth Fort Dearborn physician, serving as assistant surgeon at the fort from Oct. 3, 1828, to Dec. 14, 1830, when he was followed by Dr. Harmon. Though the years were relatively uneventful, Lieutenant Furman`s letters in Hurlbut`s Chicago Antiquities describe the doctor as an active participant in regular wolf hunts near the fort; on Sept. 4, 1830, he purchased from the canal commissioners lots 5 and 6 in block 31, still in his possession in 1833 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright]; during the Black Hawk War served under General Scott at Fort Armstrong; in 1846 served as medical director under General Taylor in Mexico; in 1861, became surgeon general of the army, retiring the following year. [12] [704]

Finley, G.W.  signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Finney, Bernard  placed an ad, the first to appear, in the Aug. 12, 1835, Chicago Democrat that read: “$100 Reward. Ran away from the subscriber, living in St. Louis, on the 5th day of August, a mulatto man named George, about 26 or 30 years of age, about 5 feet 9 or 10 inches high, round face, rather full, and marked with the small pox, has a pleasing countenance when spoken to, and is obliging in his manners; a blacksmith by trade; had on when he left a white hat considerably worn, linen round about and summer pantaloons. It is supposed he has procured forged free papers, and will aim for some of the free states. The above reward will be paid for his apprehension and delivery to me in St. Louis, or fifty dollars for such information as may lead to his detection.”

Fire Kings  one of the early volunteer fire brigades, this one formed in September 1835. Among its members were H.G. Loomis, H.H. Magie, J.M. Morrison, H.B. Clarke, John and Alvin Calhoun, under Chief Engineer Hiram Hugunin, First Assistant William Jones, and Second Assistant Peter L. Updike. The appellation may have been chosen by those who witnessed a traveling entertainer, who earlier in February had dazzled Chicagoans with feats of the “Fire King” [see entry for Bowers, Mr.]. But another source identifies Hubbard`s fire engine as Fire King No. 1 and notes that the Fire Kings organized on December 12 to work the engine, its members reimbursing Hubbard for its cost. [12] [96]

firefighting  in 1831, the Illinois legislature passed an ordinance authorizing any incorporated settlement to organize a volunteer fire company; in Chicago, however, there had existed a volunteer fire brigade prior to the town`s incorporation, calling itself the “Washington Volunteers”; known members were A.V. Knickerbocker, J.J. Gilluffy, H. Williams, and C. Boardman. In November 1833, three months after Chicago`s incorporation as a town, its village trustees adopted the first fire-related ordinance, requiring that rooftop stovepipes be insulated from wooden building material; Benjamin Jones served as – Chicago`s 1st – firewarden, responsible for inspecting all town buildings each month. On Sept. 25, 1834, the town was divided into four wards for firefighting purposes, and a warden was appointed for each ward to enforce the November 1833 ordinance; they were, in numerical order of the wards: William Worthington, Edward E. Hunter, Samuel Resique, and James Kinzie. The first fire in the incorporated town occurred on Oct. 16, 1834 [see the report from the Chicago Democrat of October 21 in Chronology]. Lessons learned from this fire prompted the trustees to empower the wardens to summon bystanders to assist in suppressing fires, and on November 3 they passed another ordinance making it unlawful for any person to “convey fire brands or coals of fire from one house or building to another, unless the same be carried or conveyed in a covered earthen or fireproof vessel.” On Sept. 19, 1835, in preparation for a fire department, the town board authorized the purchase of two fire engines and 1,000 feet of hose. On November 4, the trustees passed an ordinance that established the Volunteer Fire Department of the Town of Chicago, headed by seven officers: the chief engineer, two assistant engineers and the four wardens; the ordinance of 52 sections, printed in the November 11, Chicago Democrat, also mandated the possession of leather buckets: “Sec. 35. Every dwelling or other building, containing one fire place or stove, shall have one good painted leather bucket, with the initials of the owner`s name painted thereon. Every building with two or more fire places or stoves, shall have two buckets. Every owner of such building or lessee of the same for a term of years, not provided with buckets as aforesaid, shall forfeit two dollars for each deficient bucket, and the further sum of one dollar for each month he shall neglect to provide himself with such bucket or buckets, after he shall have been notified by a firewarden so to do. Sec. 36. That every able bodied male inhabitant shall, upon an alarm of fire, repair to the place of the fire, with his bucket or buckets, if he shall have any, and hence to the direction of the several officers, as is provided by the thirty-first section of this ordinance, and in default thereof each person shall pay a penalty of five dollars. Sec. 37. That every occupant, of any building shall keep the same fire buckets, in the front hall of such building, or in some other convenient and accessible place, under penalty of one dollar.” In anticipation of the official action to create a fire department, a large number of volunteer fire fighters had already in September organized themselves into the “Fire Kings,” and on October 7 the “Pioneer” hook and ladder company formed. The names of most of the volunteers are recorded in historical documents and in this volume, and are evidence of the cooperative spirit prevailing in an early pioneer settlement. On October 23, Lewis Sely submitted a bill to the town council for a fire engine, and on December 8th Hubbard & Co. communicated with the council in regard to – Chicago`s 1st – fire engine [made by John Roger & Son, Baltimore] that was ordered by the corporation Chicago American, December 12]. Gurdon S. Hubbard may actually have acquired the engine – for $894.38 – that did not arrive until the following year. On December 12, the county commission gave its permission to erect an engine house on the public square for five years, and on December 15 members of Fire Engine Company No. 1 petitioned the village board for an engine house; a letter was also submitted, its unedited text follows. [12, 28]
To the board of Trustees of the town of Chicago. Gentlemen,
We the undersigned members of the fire Engine Company No. 1. would respectfully represent, that the building now proposed for the Engine House, being only 12 by 18 feet, is unquestionably to
 [sicsmall to meet the wants and necessities of the Engine company in this, to wit, The House should be sufficiently large not only for the Engine and utensils, but also room for the necessary operations of the company themselves in drying by a Stove &c; the Hose – Thawing the ice &c; – and room enough to hold such necessary meetings of the members as are required of them.
Your petitioners would further request, that a Cistern which would hold 3 or 4 Hogsheads of water ought to be constructed and attached to the Engine; as it will be remembered, we have only 150 feet of Hose and Suction Engine.
All which is respectfully submitted to the consideration of the board. 16th Dec. 1835
S.G. Trowbridge, T.O. Davis, H.G. Loomis, O.S. Beach, H.B. Clarke, Joel Wicks, N.F.L. Monroe, H.M. Draper, John Dye, Ira Kimberly, William McCorristen, Amos C. Hamilton, S.W. Paine, James H. Mulford, M.B. Beaubien, Edmund Peek

Proposals to build the engine house were submitted to the town council on December 23 by Dickinson & Sheppard [$375] and on the 30th by Levi Blake [$225]; Blake was awarded the contract on January 23. An engine house, 12 by 24 feet, was thereafter built on LaSalle Street, between Washington and Randolph; its pine cistern held two hogsheads of water. Not until August 2, 1858, was the first paid fire department organized. Until that date, firemen served as volunteers. [96]

fires, Fort Dearborn    see Fort Dearborn fires.

firewater  see trade goods.

First Presbyterian Church and Society of Chicago, The    see Presbyterian congregation; the epithet “First” was not used until two years after the church’s founding.

Fischer, Heinrich Dietrich  (1815-1868); also, Henry Dietrich Fischer; German saddler and harnessmaker, born in Esdorf (Kingdom of Hannover); immigrated to the U.S. in 1834, and arrived in Chicago in 1834/35, where he found insufficient work in his trade and was employed in various construction jobs, including the building of the Lake House Hotel and later the Illinois & Michigan Canal; in 1836, his parents and four siblings joined him in Chicago, and the entire family moved to Duncklee`s Grove, now Bloomingdale, to farm. [13, 342] [657a]

fish  early European visitors testified in their reports to an abundance of fish in the Great Lakes and their tributary rivers. Note lake herring, lake trout, chub, pike (muskalonge), walleye, yellow perch, and [see] sturgeon, whitefish; all were harvested by the Indians with dipnets, gill nets, spears, and baited bone or copper hooks, respectively. Indians established the first commercial fisheries, trading their catch to explorers, settlers, and to the [see] American Fur Co., which dried or salted the fish and shipped the product east with the collected furs. [735aa]

Fish, Elisha  served as private in Capt. James Walker`s Cook County militia company under Major Bailey from May 24 until mid June 1832, then became a corporal in Walker`s second company, reorganized June 19 and active through August 12, until the Black Hawk threat abated; settled within York Township in 1834; was married to [see] Jesse Atwater’s sister Rachel (c.1789-Aug. 14, 1872); a remaining letter for him was listed in the Jan. 21, 1835, Chicago Democrat. [660] [217a]

Fisher, Elizabeth Thérèse  born 1810 at Prairie du Chien; daughter of Henry Monroe Fisher and Marie Anne Le Sellier; with her mother visited Chicago by sailing ship in 1817, and described her experience in later life as Elizabeth Thérèse Baird under the title Reminiscenses of Early Days on Mackinac Island; for her impression, see entry for Kinzie House. Elizabeth Thérèse was the granddaughter of [see] Pierre Le Sellier, a long-term acquaintance or friend of John Kinzie, and a fellow British agent during the War of 1812. [29] [635]

Fisher, John  enlisted at Fort Dearborn for three years as a private on Dec. 8, 1835. [708]

Fisher, Pitman  resident of Cook County; in the Aug. 13, 1834, Chicago Democrat J.B. Beaubien announced, as administrator, the public sale of his personal estate.

Fisk, Marie Antoinette  Kennicott, Dr. John A.

Fitch, Anna M.  see Barnes, Hamilton.

Fithian, William  listed prior to 1836 as co-owner-assignee, together with George W. Cassidy, of 240 acres of land in Section 20, Township 39, as per Andreas, History of Chicago, pp. 112-113.

Fitzpatrick, John  notice in Chicago Democrat on Sept. 17, 1834, reads: “An inquest was held on the body of a woman by the name of Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, residing over the North Branch of the Chicago river in this town, who was found dead in her bed on Monday morning last, with evident marks upon her person of having been murdered. The verdict of the Jury was, `that she came to her death by violence upon her body by John Fitzpatrick, who it is said was her husband.` Fitzpatrick has been apprehended, and is now in jail awaiting his trial, at the Circuit Court to be held in this town on the first Monday of October next. We understand that both were adicted [sic] to habits of intemperance.” Attorney James Collins` excellent defence caused the jury to acquit the defendant; 1839 City Directory: laborer, corner of Chicago Avenue and Rush Street.

flag  as initially decreed by Congress on June 14, 1777, the American flag had 13 stripes and 13 stars. As of May 1, 1795, a revised design stipulated 15 stripes and 15 stars in order to accommodate Vermont and Kentucky, which had since joined the Union of originally 13 states; this revised flag was the one that flew over the first Fort Dearborn and initially also over the second Fort Dearborn. On April 4, 1818, Congress ordered the flag to return to the original 13 stripes and set the number of stars at 20, stipulating that on admission of every new state one star would be added. [137]

Flag Creek  tributary to the Des Plaines River; Elijah Wentworth, Jr., built a tavern at Flag Creek in 1833, followed soon after by [see] Joseph and Robert Vial, who built a hostelry in the spring of 1834 and farmed.

Flag Creek Convention  Cook County`s first Democratic convention; a notice in the Chicago Democrat on June 24, 1835, announced a meeting at the Eagle Coffee House the following Monday to elect delegates for the convention that was later held at Joseph Vial`s hostelry on July 4; Peter Pruyne was nominated for state senator.

Flagg, Reuben  from Vermont; arrived in July 1830, to homestead at Walker`s Grove with his wife, Betsey (née Kendall), where a daughter, Samantha, was born; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; was paid $32 to dig a mill race for James Walker`s water powered gristmill and sawmill; became a private in the Bailey volunteer militia on May 24, 1832, within James Walker`s company, then continued as a corporal with the company that reformed on June 6. He afterward occasionally hauled lumber by oxen team to Chicago for Walker`s sawmill. [421a, 692b, 734]

Fleming, R.H.  signed the [see] Hamilton Auxiliary Petition in Chicago on Oct. 5, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took in early August 1833. [319]

fleur-de-lis  (/flr«de le«, or, -les«/) the coat of arms of the former French royal family. [In this book, the fleur-de-lis is used to tag senior French officials sent to Illinois country by the French king to perform administrative functions; eds.].

flogging    punishment of soldiers for disobedience and other offences was not uncommon at Fort Dearborn and other army installations until 1812, when it became prohibited; a maximum of 100 strokes was delivered across the bare back in the presence of their comrades.

Flood, Peter F.  (1812-1888) of Irish descent; came to Chicago in June 1835 as mate of a sailing vessel owned by Fitzhugh & Lyons. The 1839 City Directory lists him as living on the schooner Huron. For the next 30 years he sailed between Chicago and the eastern seaboard, first as an employee but later as captain on his own successively larger ships. In 1852 he married Mary A. Clark of NY state and they moved into a frame house at the corner of Monroe and Sangamon streets. His grave is in Rosehill Cemetery. [498]

floods  the early Chicago settlement was vulnerable to periodic flooding when the waters of the Chicago River overflowed its banks. This occured when the Des Plaines River swelled to such a degree that its waters backed up eastward into Mud Lake, greatly enlarging the lake such that it spilled across the continental divide into the West Fork of the South Branch of the Chicago River. The problem was not brought under control until 1909. Quoting Philip E. Vierling, “To permanently eradicate this flooding, the Sanitary District of Chicago built a high levee along the east bank of the Des Plaines River in Lyons Township, beginning at the south boundary of what is now the Chicago Portage National Historic Site and extending north to the Tolleston beachline of Glacial Lake Chicago, which latter point is located about 350 feet south of Joliet Road. That levee … was designated as being the ‘Riverside Embankment’.”
Andreas reported that one of the Chicago floods occurred in 1833. Hurlbut contributed that [see] George Davis made a drawing of Wolf Point with a view to the north in late October 1833, or in 1834 as purported elsewhere. The 1833/34 winter weather was severely cold, but flooding occurred mid-February 1834 when, after a 24-hour deluge, the Chicago River rose three feet and coursed through the sandbar into the lake. When stylized reproductions of the Davis drawing were eventually published in 1857 and in 1867, Wolf Point was ever after artistically reinterpreted by many hands and made into color paintings, with many of those given the date 1833 and showing extensive flooding of the prairie west of the North Branch, making the western river bank, with [see] Rev. Jesse Walker’s cabin on it, appear as an elongated island. [The image shown here is one of the finest examples of this kind, an oil painting currently {December 2005} found in the Gallery of Clifford Krainik in Warrenton, VA]. Also see entry on slough. For illustrative comments by Cleaver on flooding and wetness in Chicago, see below. [337a, 357, 417b, 473, 692e]
Charles Cleaver reports: … a few words respecting the early efforts of our city fathers to effectually drain the village. As I have said before, Chicago was very low and exceedingly wet. The first effort made was on Lake Street, where, after mature deliberation, our village solons passed an ordinance for the digging out of the street to the depth of three feet—a little the deeper in the center. This naturally drained the lots contiguous to it, and on being covered with long, heavy planks, or timber, running from the sidewalk to the center of the roadway, for a few months after it was finished made a very good street; but it was soon found that heavy teams going over it worked the timbers into the mud, and it was consequently squash, squash, until at last, in wet weather, the mud would splash up into the horses` faces, and the plan was condemned as a failure. It was tried two or three years, when the planks were removed, and it was filled up two or three feet above the original surface. This was found to work better, as it naturally would, and the same system of filling up has been continued from time to time, until some of the streets are five or six feet above the original surface of the prairie. The filling up answered a double purpose, as it not only made better roads, but it enabled the owners of the adjoining lots to have good cellars without going much below the level of the prairie, thus getting a drainage into the river. …
The North Side between the river and North State Street was very wet,—the water lay six to nine inches deep the year round,—and on the West Side for ten miles out the water lay in places two feet deep, and in wet weather the whole surface was covered with water, with the exception of the two ridges between the city and the Des Plaines River. I built, in the fall of `36, on the corner of Washington and Jefferson streets, and many a time had to wade ankle-deep in water to get there before I cut a ditch to the river to drain it.
On taking a trip to the Northwest in the spring of `35, the water was so deep a little north of Fullerton Avenue, on the Milwaukee road, that it came into the wagon-box several times before we reached Jefferson
. …. [12]

floods shown on maps  several early European visitors to Lake Michigan published maps showing bays of different shapes and sizes which they had observed along the Chicago area coastline. They did not realize that these bodies of water, some stretching several miles inland, were the result of transient seasonal flooding of the Chicago River, most of them occurring in the spring. See illustration with four map details. For larger portions of these maps, see Maps section.

Florida  schooner, built at Black River, OH, in 1834; called at Chicago with merchandise and passengers from Buffalo/Sacket`s Harbor, NY, twice in 1835 under Captain Wilson.

Flusky, —  together with his wife, kept a boarding house on Franklin Street in 1835; in residence together then were Gurdon S. Hubbard, Mr. and Mrs. John D. Caton, Mr. and Mrs. Augustus Garrett, James B. Campbell and family, Mr. and Mrs. William Stewart, and Rev. and Mrs. John T. Mitchell. In an 1888 letter to Mrs. Hubbard, Caton reminisced about that time, how the Fluskys wanted to sell the house and so the boarders resolved to jointly buy to continue living there, the wives taking turns at housekeeping.

Follansbee, Charles  (1810-1887); born in Paxton, MA, child of Ebenezer and Clarissa (née Taft) Follansbee; grandfather Thomas T. Follansbee, a Boston sailor; married Sally Merriam Coburn in Watertown, NY, on Feb. 5, 1835; in May of the same year, the young couple moved to Chicago, purchased a lot on Lake Street, and started a general store, with emphasis on dry goods; 1839 City Directory: grocery and provision store, 24 Dearborn St.; listed in the Cook County census for 1840; 1844 City Directory: dry goods and groceries, 88 Lake St. house State St. In 1848 he ran for mayor of Chicago as the democratic candidate, but was beaten by John P. Chapin, the Whig canditate. In 1852 Charles sold his store and went into real estate business with much success; became a director on the Chicago Board of Health in 1855. By 1865 he opened the banking house of C. Follansbee and Son. Of his six children three preceded him in death; the surviving three sons (Merril C., Frank H., and Charles E.) became active business men in Chicago. [498]

Follett, Jonathan S.  in Chicago in 1835, when he was hired by the early Sheboygan trader William Farnsworth to run for him a sawmill on the Sheboygan River that Farnsworth had recently purchased from William Payne and Oliver C. Crocket. Follett and his wife Eliza thus became the first permanent settlers at Sheboygan.

Fonda, John H.  born in Watervliet, Albany County, NY; early trader and mail carrier between Fort Howard and Fort Dearborn; visited Chicago in 1825 and again during the winter of 1827-28 with his Canadian companion [see] Boiseley. Residing in Prairie du Chien for 30 years, Fonda then dictated his experiences to the newspaper editor and “Early Reminiscences” appeared in the Courier between February and May, 1858; see excerpts concerning these times in the Chronology (1825 and 1827-28), and his description of the clothes worn can be found in the Encyclopedia section under the entry for mail carriers. [251] [12]

Fontaine, Felix  visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Apr. 21, 1810, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; received $200 for a claim at the Chicago Treaty of September 1833. [12] [404]

foolscap    large sheets of sturdy writing paper; greased with bear or raccoon fat to make them more translucent, then used for want of glass in the window openings of early pioneer cabins.

Foot, Benjamin J.  placed a notice in the Dec. 17, 1834, Chicago Democrat that read: “I hereby forbid any person harboring or trusting my wife, Lucy Ann, on my account, as I shall pay no charges for her after this date.”

Foot, John B.  from Connecticut, brother of Starr Foot; arrived in 1833; married Elizabeth Sherman on Nov. 12, 1834, Col. R.J. Hamilton officiating; 1839 City Directory: blacksmith, Randolph Street, near State; moved to Leyden Township in 1840. [13] [351]

Foot, Starr  also Foote; arrived in 1833 from Connecticut [had worked under William Jones on the Buffalo harbor and, following his visits to Chicago in 1831 and 1832, had been advised of the opportunities]; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; advertised “groceries” in the first issue of the Chicago Democrat, November 26; became the second proprietor, after Alanson Sweet, of the first Tremont House hotel on the NW corner of Lake and Dearborn streets, followed by the Couch brothers; in the Aug. 15, 1835, Chicago American he noted the selling of a “valuable new two horse wagon, spring seats, &c.; Also a set of double harness”; 1839 City Directory: teamster, Clark Street, corner of Monroe; later superintendent of the Cook County poor for several years. [13, 319, 351, 357]

Foot, —  Andreas makes reference to a Mr. Foot who in 1831 succeeded [see] Stephen and Mrs. Forbes as teacher at the schoolhouse on the lakeshore, near the end of Randolph Street. [12]

Forbes, Elvira Bates  born in Vermont in 1806, daughter of Noble and Aurilla (née Booth) Bates; teacher; wife of [see] Stephen R. Forbes; sister of Sophia, wife of [see] Bernardus Laughton, trader and innkeeper. [456b]

Forbes, Isaac Sawyer  older brother of [see] Stephen Van Rensselaer Forbes who also came to Fort Dearborn in the spring of 1829 with a surveying party and continued south to Louisiana; familiar with the Riverside locale where Stephen would homestead, he returned there with his wife and two children in 1836, bringing also his parents and other siblings.

Forbes, John, Jr.  from Preble, NY; brother of Stephen Van Renssellaer Forbes who also came to Chicago in 1830 with his wife, Mary Trowbridge, and their small son Daniel Webster; removed to Riverside in 1833 to homestead along the Des Plaines River, where the next year another son, Henry Clay, was born; moved farther W to the Mississippi River in 1838.

Forbes, Stephen Van Renssellaer  (July 26, 1797-Feb. 11, 1879) of Scottish ancestry; born in Wilmington, VT, on July 26, son of John and Ann Sawyer Forbes; came to Fort Dearborn in the spring of 1829 with a surveying party that included his brother Isaac Sawyer Forbes and continued S to Louisiana; leaving Newburg [south Cleveland], OH, in June 1830, he and his wife Elvira (née Bates) returned to Chicago, on horseback from Detroit, to both live and begin teaching school to some 25 students in a log structure belonging to J.B. Beaubien [near Randolph Street and Michigan Avenue], acquired for this purpose by Beaubien and Lt. David Hunter; the children were both from the garrison of the fort and the settlement; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; served as appraiser of the estate of François LaFramboise on December 17 that year; had been elected justice of the peace earlier on Nov. 25, 1830, and was later elected sheriff of Cook County in August 1832. In 1831, he squatted on a 160-acre homestead (SW quarter of Section 36, Township 39 R., 12 E.) on the Des Plaines River at Riverside adjoining the eastern border of David Laughton`s land and including the Belle Fountain springs, where a daughter, Aurilla Anne, was born on June 3, 1834 (for this property he paid $200 in 1835 and received title on Oct. 1, 1839); he built a large log house the following year; by 1836 he owned entirely, and sold, Section 36. The site of his house is now indicated by a monument [see Monuments]; here the election of Jean Baptiste Beaubien to the position of colonel of the Sixtieth Regiment of Illinois Militia took place on June 7, 1834. His sawmill later became known as Dr. Fox`s mill and survived Forbes until the end of the century, when it was destroyed by fire. In 1836, his parents John and Ann Forbes, with children and grandchildren, moved from Preble, NY, and settled on the Des Plaines River. Forbes left for California in 1849 but returned the following year; in 1853 he sold most of his Riverside property and returned to Newburg, OH, until 1878, and soon died at the Chicago home of his son-in-law Nathan S. Peck. In 1885, Elvira Bates Forbes lived in Cleveland, Ohio. [Fred C. Pierce, Chicago Tribune Aug. 28, 1890; 12, 51, 51a, 249, 262, 421a] [351]

Forbes, Thomas  on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833.

Force, J.    with L. Dorsey, assumed management of the Steam Boat Hotel [later called the American Hotel] on North Water Street on Nov. 9, 1835, following John Davis.

Ford, David M.    arrived from New York in 1834.

Ford, Ebenezer  was listed as a charter member of the first Presbyterian church in June 1833, in the Fort Dearborn garrison; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319] [237a]

Ford, Gov. Thomas  attorney; appointed judge of the sixth circuit (formed Jan. 17, 1835; inclusive of Cook and eight other counties); presided at two sessions in Chicago during 1836; was named municipal court judge by the city legislature in 1837; served as Illinois governor from 1842-1846; published a book on the history of Illinois; died of tuberculosis. [12] [252]

Ford, John  see Jarret, Jacques.

Ford, Martin M.  arrived from New York in 1834; 1839 City Directory: tanner, Clark Street, NE corner of Madison; died in 1854.

fords of Chicagoland  before bridges were built in the Chicago area beginning in the early 1830s [see entry on bridges and ferries], travelers had to cross the rivers at fords. These were used for centuries by the Indians, fur traders, explorers, military troops, and pioneers. The Chicago River was fordable only over a shallow sand bar at its mouth; the main branch of the Green Bay Trail crossed here. The Des Plaines River had four fords between where are now Riverside and Summit: the South Portage Road led to Summit Ford, located a few feet N of the Lawndale Avenue bridge; the Old [North] Portage Road led to Laughtons` Ford (formerly “Ford of the Des Plaines,” at 45th Street); a branch of the Green Bay Trail led to Stony Ford, now just S of U.S. Rte. 66 [formerly State Highway No. 4]; and the Brush Hill Trail between Chicago and Napierville crossed the Des Plaines River at the Riverside Ford, near the Barry Point Road bridge. The Calumet was fordable only at its two mouths (one S of Chicago, the other at Miller, IN), and near 135th Street and Ashland Avenue. Stony Creek was fordable at what is now Ann Street, where the original Vincennes Road crossed. The Sag was forded near its mouth on the Des Plaines, and further E near Paddock`s Creek.

Forest Home Cemetery  see entry under same name in Monuments section.

Forest Park, IL  western suburb 11 miles from the lakeshore, bordering on the E bank of the Des Plaines River; was originally part of the larger community of Noyesville, then incorporated as Harlem in 1884. The Forest Home Cemetery here was originally acreage owned by [see] Leon Bourassa on which were the remnants of an Indian village and many burial mounds, extant on an early glacier ridge along the Des Plaines River; the land was acquired by Ferdinand Haase in 1851 and in 1876 the cemetery was established.

Forêt, François Daupin, Sieur de la  see La Forêt, François Daupin de.

Forget Du Verger, Père Jacques François  Sulpitian missionary priest in charge of the Mission de Sainte Famille de Caoquias [Cahokia] up to the year 1763 when he, prior to closing the mission and selling the mission property, freed three slaves owned by the mission. An assumption by some earlier historians, that one of the slaves may have been [see] Jean Baptiste Point de Sable, has been shown to be false. [399]

Forks, the  name used by early settlers for the area surrounding the confluence of the branches of the Chicago River, where the growing village was first centered, although additional houses were strung along the main branch of the river toward Fort Dearborn by 1830. Not until 1892 did the original shape of the “forks,” with Wolf Point forming a more acute angle than today, give rise to an unofficial emblem for Chicago in the shape of the letter Y, designed in March of that year by A.J. Roewad in response to a contest; first promoted by private initiative, it was eventually adopted by the city council in 1917. The French equivalent for fork, La Fourche, was applied to another fork, formed by the confluence of the Des Plaines and Kankakee Rivers, where a major Indian village existed and was so named in the 1700s.

Forrister, Jane   was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Forsyth & Smith  a partnership between [see] Robert Forsyth and William Smith, existing from 1803 to 1806, or longer, and based in St. Joseph, MI. Smith was a British merchant in Sandwich, Canada, and had a son named John Kinzie Smith, residing on the Canadian shore of Lake Michigan. Visits to John Kinzie’s trading post by representatives of the partnership, possibly including Smith, are recorded in Kinzie’s account books for Oct. 13, 1803 [on the St. Joseph River] and in Chicago for Nov. 4, 1804 and Aug. 9, 1806. [319] [404]

Forsyth, James  (Oct. 30, 1769-June 24, 1835) born at Grosse Point, MI; son of William and Anne (née Tyne) Forsyth Sr.; married Elizabeth (PA, Jan. 3, 1769-Sept. 26, 1841), daughter of Isaac and Mary (née Field) Dolsen on Dec. 17, 1789; visited John Kinzie at his trading post at the St. Joseph River on Oct. 29, 1803, then in Chicago on May 23, 1804 and on Nov. 30, 1806, and again in February 1813, when Kinzie was at Detroit, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; died at Windsor, Ontario. [254a] [404]

Forsyth, Maj. Thomas  (Dec. 5, 1771-Oct. 29, 1833) born in Detroit, son of William and Anne (née Tyne) Forsyth Sr.; was the youngest of John Kinzie`s five half brothers [see Kinzie family tree]; as a young boy he learned the Ottawa Indian trade during winters at Saginaw Bay and by 1798 he worked a post with a trader named Richardson on an island in the Mississippi below Quincy; married an Ojibwa woman with whom he fathered [see] Robert Allen, born in 1798. Beginning in 1804, he opened trading posts at Chicago in partnership with brother Robert and half brother John Kinzie; married Keziah Malott (Oct. 16, 1784-Nov. 22, 1829), born in Pennsylvania, daughter of Pierre and Sarah (née Crossley) Malott, Sr., near Malden, Ontario, and settled at Peoria Lake, the latter being his headquarters from 1802 to 1812, and where he lived until 1818. Entries in Kinzie’s account books show that Thomas visited him on Oct. 9, 1803 at the St. Joseph River and on Nov. 7, 1804 in Chicago. With Kinzie, Thomas was co-owner of a Negro slave, Jeffrey Nash, who served Forsyth in Peoria, then ran away; the owners initiated a suit to recover him, but lost. At the outbreak of war in 1812, Forsyth was acting U.S. Indian subagent for the Illinois Territory, and among his letters to Gen. William Clark in Washington City, is included a hand-drawn map by M. Guiol of the southwestern part of the Great Lakes region, identifying rivers, settlements, and Indian villages [Dec. 20, 1812, preserved in the Draper Collection]; during the war, partly spent ransoming Chicago massacre captives and partly as a British prisoner, he obtained the rank of U.S. major; was replaced in 1816 by Capt. Richard Graham as Indian agent for the Illinois Territory; in 1818, he was appointed Indian agent in Missouri Territory; from 1819 to 1830, was U.S. Indian agent for the Sauk and Fox at Rock Island. After removal from office by President Jackson, Forsyth lived at St. Louis and, after Keziah`s death, married Ann Culver on Jan. 28, 1830; a second son, John, studying medicine in St. Louis, died at age 21 in 1832; in September 1833 he signed the Chicago Treaty document as a witness, and received $1500 for a claim at the same treaty; died soon after on October 29 at St. Louis, his death noted in the Chicago Democrat: “late Indian Agent of the U. States.” His manuscripts are at the Wisconsin Historical Society. [109, 214, 255, 256, 404, 635a, 681, 682, 714] [12]

Forsyth, Robert A.  (1763-c.1828) son of son of William and Isabel (née Martin) Forsyth, Sr.; one of John Kinzie`s five half brothers (see Kinzie family tree); both Robert and Thomas were initially in partnership with John Kinzie at Chicago in 1803; Kinzie’s account books show visits to his trading post by Robert for Oct. 16, 1803, then on the St. Joseph River, and later in Chicago on November 4 and 11, 1804; by October 1803 Robert had formed a trading partnership with [see] William Smith, a merchant of Sandwich, Canada. There are multiple entries in Kinzie’s account books for the period from 1803 to 1806 for the firm “Forsyth & Smith.” Robert was in the service of the American government during the War of 1812; his wife was Mary Scott and their children were [see] Robert Allen, Marcia (Mrs. B.B. Kercheval), Alice (Mrs. George Hunt), and Jane C.; in 1833, when he lived at St. Louis, MO, he received $500 in payment for a claim at the Chicago Treaty; the children received $3,000 each at the same treaty with the Indians, although none had Indian blood. [255, 319, 404] [12]

Forsyth, Robert Allen  (1798-Oct. 21, 1849) born in Detroit, son of Maj. Thomas Forsyth and his Ojibwa wife; early citizen of Chicago; served in the War of 1812; was a cadet in 1814 and later served as secretary to Governor Cass (in that capacity, accompanied him on the exploratory expedition that passed through Chicago in August 1820); received $1250 in payment for a claim at the 1828 Indian Treaty; was present at the Treaty of Chicago of 1833, serving on the claims committee and signing the treaty as a witness; received $3000 in payment to himself for a claim at the Chicago Treaty, $300 in trust for Mau-se-on-0-quet, $1000 in trust for Catherine McKenzie, and $200 in trust for heirs of Charles Guion; married Maria Howard [c.1799, Hinsdale, MA] on Nov. 6,1826 at Genesco, NY; the couple had five surviving children born at Detroit; he died in Detroit; Maria died there on Oct. 4, 1890. He is sometimes cited as Chicago`s very first schoolteacher: at the age of 13, during a winter visit in 1810, he taught the alphabet to six-year-old John H. Kinzie, tutoring with a speller brought from Detroit. [12, 319] [214]

Forsyth, William, Jr.  (1762-1843) born in Detroit, son of William and Isabel (née Martin) Forsyth, Sr.; was half brother to John Kinzie [see Kinzie family tree]; married Margaret Lytle, a sister of Kinzie’s wife Eleanor Lytle, on Mar. 24, 1790. William visited John in January 1813 at Detroit, as recorded in Kinzie’s account books; he may never have come to Chicago. [404]

Forsyth, William, Sr.  stepfather of [see] John Kinzie; innkeeper at Detroit; originally of Scottish descent, he immigrated to New York c.1750 from Blackwater, Ireland; served in the 60th Regiment of Foot, fought under General Wolfe at the capture of Quebec in 1759 and was severely wounded (his wounds may have been tended by Surgeon John McKenzie [father of John Kinzie], who served in the same regiment, possibly both in the same 2nd Battalion). Last stationed in Detroit, he retired there after serving 14 years in the British army; purchased the principal inn/tavern in 1772 (recorded date is June 15, 1772), located near the foot of the royal wharf; built a bowling alley by his tavern which was torn down by the commandant, for which he asked compensation. Based on his military service, he petitioned the governor for lands along the River Thames in 1791; first wife Isabel (née Martin) died in 1764; the sons he had with Isabel became half brothers to [see] John Kinzie when he married Kinzie`s widowed mother Emily in 1765; William, Sr. died in Detroit, c.1791. His sons were George (1761-1775), William, Jr. (1762-1843), Philip (1763-) and Robert (1763-c.1818), and [after he married Emily Tyne Halliburton McKenzie] James (1769-1835) and Thomas (1771-1833). William, Jr., married Margaret Lytle, the younger sister of Kinzie`s second wife Eleanor Lytle McKillip. [95a, 255, 649] [12]

Forsyth, —  see Caldwell, Billy.

Forsythe, William  arrived in 1831; firewarden in December 1835; by 1837 was active in municipal politics and held official positions; 1839 City Directory: merchant, West Water Street. [12] [351]

Fort Armstrong    established on the southern end of Rock Island in May 1819 as part of the defenses in the Northwest following the war of 1812; the Treaty of Fort Armstrong of 1832 was signed under General Scott with the Winnebago, Sauk and Fox at the end of the Black Hawk War; the fort was abandoned in May 1836.

Fort at Hickory Creek  early in 1683, La Salle built a fort on Hickory Creek, three miles above its mouth [New Lenox, IL], c.30 leagues from Starved Rock. [649]

Fort Belle Fontaine  established in 1805 opposite the mouth of the Illinois River above St. Louis; garrison and supplies for the fort were routed by way of Fort Dearborn, the initial shipment arriving on the Adams`s first voyage of the season in that year. In 1826 the fort was abandoned, but a detatchment under the command of Bvt. Major [see Capt.] John Whistler was left behind to guard military stores. [565] [256a]

Fort Brady  originally a French fortification E of Sault Ste. Marie on the south bank of St. Mary`s River, established late in the summer of 1751 to protect fur trade interests; rebuilt as an American military post in June 1822; many troops and a commandant were transferred to Chicago in May 1833 to strengthen Fort Dearborn in the aftermath of the Black Hawk War; Fort Brady was occupied until late spring 1866. [12]

Fort Caroline  built by the French in Florida in 1562 near Jacksonville and destroyed in 1565 by the Spaniard Pedro Menendez de Aviléz, founder of St. Augustine.

Fort Cavendish  see Fort de Chartres.

Fort Chartres  see Fort de Chartres.

Fort Chicago  name favored by some historians for the first Fort Dearborn, built in 1803, reserving the name Fort Dearborn for the second fort, built at the same location in 1816; yet a military return dated Dec. 31, 1803, [reprinted in the American State Papers, 12:175] conclusively proves that the first fort was called Fort Dearborn.

Fort Chicagou  also Fort de Checagou [Checagou, a frequent misspelling of the French Chicagou, probably derived from La Salle`s ambiguous handwriting]; a permanent French military fortification in the Chicago area, the existence of which has never been proved. However, small fortified French trading posts existed without doubt in various locations of Chicagoland during the 17th century, and may be referred to as forts by some. Although the year of construction remains uncertain, around 1685 the French built a fort or stockade in Chicago and kept it intermittently garrisoned during the tenure of La Barre, governor of New France; in a June 4, 1683, letter written by La Salle from the Chicago portage, he speaks of a “fort” built there during the preceding winter by two of his men, André Eno and Jean Filatreau, first built during the winter of 1682-83. [This could only have been a small structure, about 50`x 70`, possibly at the New Lenox site, perhaps surrounded by a stockade, but not a fort in the military sense. For other such establishments, see John Swenson`s essay “Chicago: Meaning of the Name and Location of Pre-1800 European Settlements,” eds.] Others credit Durantaye, the commandant at Michilimackinac, as the originator of a post in 1685 in Chicago, citing Franquelin`s 1688 map, in which Fort Checagou is similarly positioned; sometime between 1693 and 1696 [1701-1705 according to documents cited by Faye] Nicolas d`Ailleboust de Mantet was a commander at Fort Chicagou. Both La Salle and Tonti were at Fort Chicagou, referring to it in correspondence [see the following excerpt from Memoir of the Sieur de Tonty]; some scholars credit Tonti with constructing a fort or military post in the southern Chicago area [now Hegewish] in 1691-92. James Logan, British agent in Pennsylvania who surveyed French routes in the West in 1718, reported only ruins of a fort at Chicago; the fort was last officially mentioned in the text of the Treaty of Greenville, 1796. For additional evidence of a French fort at Chicago, see entry for Mantet, Nicolas d`Ailleboust, sieur de. Excerpt from Tonti`s Memoir:
I embarked, therefore, for the Illinois [coming from Michilimackinac in search of La Salle], on St. Andrews Day (30th of October, 1685); but being stopped by the ice, I was obliged to leave my canoe, and to proceed on by land. After going one hundred and twenty leagues, I arrived at the fort of Chicagou, where M. de la Durantaye commanded; and from thence I came to Fort St. Louis, where I arrived in the middle of January[1686]. [559]

Fort Clark  built by U.S. troops in 1813 on the west bank of the outlet of Peoria Lake, opposite the east bank site of the earlier French Fort St. Louis de Pimiteoui that Tonti had built in 1691; burned in 1818 and 1819, only rebuilt in 1832 during the Black Hawk War but never occupied. Prior to the establishment of regular government mail service, mail was occasionally brought from Fort Clark to Chicago, but more often from Fort Wayne. [649]

Fort Conti  see Fort Niagara.

Fort Crawford  established in June 1816 at Prairie du Chien, Michigan Territory, at the confluence of the Mississippi and Wisconsin rivers, in conjunction with the construction of Fort Howard at Green Bay and the rebuilding of Fort Dearborn, to achieve military control over the region W of Lake Michigan; unoccupied from 1826 to 1827, and in 1830 was moved to new barracks on higher ground S of the first site; played a major role during the 1832 Black Hawk War, when [see] Jefferson Davis was stationed there; twice more was evacuated and regarrisoned before closure in 1856.

Fort de Buade  see Fort Michilimackinac.

Fort de Chartres  wooden stockade built on the banks of the Mississippi River N of Kaskaskia in 1720 by Pierre Dugué, Sieur de Boisbriant, French commandant of Illinois country; planned for the protection of Kaskaskia and Cahokia; was the seat of civil and military law; Boisbriant commanded the fort until 1725, when he became acting governor of Louisiana, and de Liette replaced him; rebuilt in 1727 and 1732; reconstructed with stone in 1753; conceded to England in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris but maintained by the French until Oct. 10, 1765, when the British took possession, renaming it Fort Cavendish (though the original name is remembered); was damaged by a Mississippi flood in 1772 and thereafter abandoned. [12, 665]

Fort de Crevecoeur  built in January 1680 in the vicinity of the south end of Lake Peoria by La Salle and Tonti, but short-lived; was afterwards referred to as Fort de Crevecoeur by La Salle. The exact location is in dispute. When La Salle returned to Fort Frontenac for necessary supplies and Tonti left Crevecoeur to survey Le Rocher (Starved Rock) on the Illinois River in April, remaining discontented members mutinied, destroying the fort and the partially constructed vessel meant for exploration of the Mississippi. La Salle`s comments about the initial fort: “… They [the men] all agreed to it with good graces, and we repaired to the place that I had destined. On the 15th of January, towards evening a great thaw which opportunely occurred, rendered the river free from Pimitoui as far as there [the place destined]. It was a little tertre [flat elevation of earth] about 540 feet from the river bank, up to the foot of which the river spread itself every time that it rained much. Two wide and deep ravines inclosed two other sides of the tertre and half of the fourth, which I caused to be completely inclosed by a ditch that joined the two ravines. All along the other edge of the ravines I caused to be placed good chevaux de frise [felled trees, with branches extending outward], had the slopes cut down all around, and with the dirt so excavated I caused to be built, on the top, a parapet capable of covering a man. The whole covered [lined] from the foot of the tertre to the top of the parapet with long madriers [planks], the lower end of which was in groove between two long pieces of wood that extended all around the eminence, and the top of these madriers fastened by long longitudinal timbers themselves fastened by mortises and tenons with other pieces of timber that projected through the parapet. In front of that work I caused to be planted, all over, pointed posts 25 feet in height, one foot in diameter, buried three feet in the ground, doweled to the longitudinal pieces that fastened the madriers, with a fraise[inclined barrier of stakes] at the top two [+] feet long to prevent a surprise. I did not change the shape of this plateau which, though not regular, was however sufficiently well flanked against savages. The forge was built along the curtain facing the woods.” (Margry, 2:48-49)
A mural in the Oak Park Post Office is entitled “The Foundation of Fort Crevecoeur” and also a second mural, “La Salle`s Search for Tonti 1680”; see both in the Monuments section, under Fort Crevecoeur and La Salle. [12, 464j, 615] [448]

Fort Dearborn Addition to Chicago    see Fort Dearborn reservation.

Fort Dearborn commandants  •••1803 April – Captain John Whistler, First Infantry, arrives at the mouth of the Chicago River from Detroit with six soldiers to survey the site and predetermine construction of a fort on orders from General Henry Dearborn, Secretary of War.
•••1803 August 17 to 1810 – Captain Whistler returns in the company of his wife, three children and with 68 military personnel. He designs and builds Fort Dearborn, becoming the first commandant; when cold weather arrives late in 1803, the troops are modestly sheltered.
•••1810 to 1812 August 15 – Captain Nathan Heald is named commandant.
•••1810 November to 1811 June – Lieutenant Philip Ostrander serves as acting commandant during Captain Heald`s nine-month furlough.
•••1812 August 9 – Captain Heald receives orders from General Hull to evacuate the post and to remove its occupants to Detroit.
•••1812 August 15 – The Fort Dearborn Massacre occurs one and one half miles south of the fort as the garrison moves out. Four to five hundred Potawatomi attack, killing 52 soldiers and civilians. Fifteen Indians are slain in the action. Captain Heald survives.
•••1812 August 16 – Indians burn the fort.
•••1816 July 4 to 1817 May – Captain Hezekiah Bradley, Third Infantry, arrives from Detroit with a garrison of 112 men; he designs and builds the second Fort Dearborn and becomes its first commandant.
•••1817 May to 1820 June – Brevet Major Daniel Baker, Third Infantry, Commandant
•••1820 June to 1821 January – Captain Hezekiah Bradley, Third Infantry, Commandant
•••1821 January to 1821 October – Major Alexander Cummings, Third Infantry, Commandant
•••1821 October to 1823 July – Lieutenant Colonel John McNeil, Third Infantry, Commandant
•••1823 July to 1823 October – Captain John Greene, Third Infantry, Commandant
•••1823 October to 1828 October 3 – Fort Dearborn remains unoccupied and is left in the care of Indian agent Dr. Alexander Wolcott.
•••1828 October 3 to 1830 December 14 – Brevet Major John Fowle, Fifth Infantry, Commandant
•••1830 December 14 to 1831 May 20 – First Lieutenant David Hunter, Fifth Infantry, Commandant
•••1831 May 20 to 1832 June 17 – Fort Dearborn remains unoccupied and is left in the care of Indian agent Thomas J.V. Owen. A portion of the structure serves as a general hospital after July 11, 1831.
•••1831 – The U.S. Congress appropriates $5000 for the construction of a lighthouse which is built within the year near the NW corner of the stockade. The lighthouse collapses soon after completion and a new sturdier one is erected in 1832.
•••1832 June 17 to 1833 May 14 – Major William Whistler, Second Infantry, Commandant [son of Captain John Whistler]
•••1833 May 14 to 1833 June 19 – Captain and Brevet Major John Fowle, Fifth Infantry, Commandant
•••1833 June 19 to 1833 October 31 – Major George Bender, Fifth Infantry, Commandant
•••1833 October 31 to 1833 December 18 – Captain DeLafayette Wilcox, Fifth Infantry, Commandant
•••1833 December 18 to 1835 September 16 – Major John Greene, Fifth Infantry, Commandant
•••1835 September 16 to 1836 August 1 – Captain DeLafayette Wilcox, Fifth Infantry, Commandant
•••1836 May 28 – Jean Baptiste Beaubien, colonel in the Militia of Cook County, purchases land that contains the Fort Dearborn Reservation, including the fort, for $94.61 from the U.S. Land Office in Chicago and receives a certificate. The U.S. Government later contests the sale.
•••1836 July – Colonel Beaubien`s lawyer, Murray McConnell, brings legal action of ejection from the fort against the commandant, Captain DeLafayette Wilcox.
•••1836 August 1 – Captain and Brevet Major Joseph Plympton, Fifth Infantry, replaces Captain Wilcox as Commandant.
•••1836 December 29 – Troops are permanently withdrawn from Fort Dearborn. Only Ordinance-Sergeant Joseph Adams and Captain Plympton remain, responsible for Government property.
•••1837 May – Captain Plympton, last commandant, leaves the fort; Captain Louis T. Jamison remains until late autumn, detailedon recruiting-service.
•••1839 March – U.S. Supreme Court vacates Colonel Beaubien`s purchase of Fort Dearborn.
•••1839 June 20 – Fort Dearborn Reservation, divided into blocks and lots by order of the Secretary of War, is sold to multiple private parties for the highest bids; receipts total $106,042.00.
•••1840 December 18 – Colonel Beaubien surrenders his certificate of purchase for Fort Dearborn and the purchase price of $94.61 is returned to him.
•••1856 – Alexander Hesler photographs the abandoned fort that has become a historical landmark.
•••1857 – A.J. Cross, city employee, tears down the lighthouse and fort, excluding the officers` quarters.
•••1871 October 8 – The last portion of Fort Dearborn is destroyed in the great fire of Chicago.
Also see Fort Dearborn garrison.

Fort Dearborn evacuations    (1) for the fateful evacuation of the garrison of the first fort on Aug. 15, 1812, see Fort Dearborn massacre; (2) the second fort was first evacuated in the summer of 1823 under the premature premise that it was no longer needed, but the Winnebago War prompted reoccupation on Oct. 3, 1828; (3) the fort was again evacuated in the spring of 1831, when the garrison removed to Green Bay on the schooner Napoleon . Reoccupation took place on June 17, 1832, by two companies of regulars from Niagara under Maj. William Whistler, in preparation for the Black Hawk War. (4) final evacuation on Dec. 29,1836.

Fort Dearborn fires    see (1) Fort Dearborn I, for the destruction of the fort by the Indians in 1812; (2) Fort Dearborn II, for the fire caused by lightning in 1827.

Fort Dearborn garrison  troops of the first garrison arrived on foot from Detroit on Aug. 17, 1803, and were greeted by many friendly Indians; Captain Whistler and his family arrived by ship (the Tracy), which the astonished Indians described as a “big canoe on wings.” The first return as stated in the American State Papers, v. 1, pp175-176, lists the following: one captain and commandant, one second lieutenant, one ensign, four sergeants, one surgeon, 54 privates. For a listing of all subsequent commandants and their terms of office, see Fort Dearborn commandants.

Fort Dearborn I  established by the U.S. government to protect the strategic site from foreign interests; commissioned by President Jefferson and built by Capt. John Whistler and his soldiers in 1803 [arrival date, August 17], although not completed until the next year; made with rough logs locally hewn, not like the whitewashed ones of the second fort. Located at a latitude of 41 minutes, 51 seconds N and a longitude of 87 minutes, 15 seconds W, the fort stood on a sandy eight-foot-high hill, on the convex side of the Chicago River as it curved from an eastern to a southern flow direction, less than 100 yards from the lakeshore. Captain Whistler’s concern for security was foremost in directing the fort’s construction, revealed in his words: “The River is not regularly surveyed, but gives a strong Idea of Its Courses it is about six miles in length except in high water, at which time there is no portage to the Illinois River. – The woodland on the reserve lyes on the north and west sides of the Garrison, except a small strip of woods about a mile in length and two hundred yards in breadth, Lying on the bank of the river southwest of the Garrison. Along the Margin of Said Woods is good medow and supplyes the Garrison with hay. On the North and West sides of the garrison there has been a quantity of underwood and shruby Bushes such as prickly Ash, &c.;, they are now cut down and cleared off, all within one Fourth of a Mile of the Garrison. – On the south and southwest sides of the Garrison is a large parraria [prairie] on which stands the aforesaid strip of woods as laid down in the Draught [draft] and the distance from the Garrison three fourths of a Mile. On the East side is the Lake. There has been a picket fence on the Opisite side of the river northwest of the Garrison as laid Down. this fence might serve as a barrier against the Garrison as the pickets were five feet in length, sufficient in thicknesss to prevent a Musket Ball from doing execution to an Enemy lying beneath them. I thought it proper for the safety of the Garrison to have them taken up and replaced with a common rail fence. At this time the Garrison (except the Houses on the Opisite side of the river being somewhat in the way) is perfectly secure from any ambuscade or Barrier. – The Branch that emptyes into the Chegkag [Chicago] is considerably the longest and has the greatest current. The parraria on the south and southwest as already mentioned is of great extent.” [Feb. 20, 1808 – see Maps, 1808, Whistler, Capt. John] The fort had two-story barracks with pillared porches, two blockhouses – at the NW and SE corners – a double palisade, and a sally port, the soldiers` term for the tunnel dug from the smaller gate in the stockade near the NW blockhouse to the river bank; the fort flew the American flag, which at that time had 15 stripes and 15 stars, the latter being arranged in a circle. Maintaining the lonely fort in the vast wilderness and meeting the needs of its garrison was a difficult task for Captain Whistler; his unedited letter [see Chronology, 1807] to the Secretary of War Gen. Henry Dearborn reveals some of the problems that were confronted; the 1808 pay scale for military personnel at the fort follows. In June 1810 Captain Whistler was transferred to Fort Detroit, and Capt. Nathan Heald took over as commandant. The fort was evacuated and many of its inhabitants were massacred on Aug. 15, 1812; for details, see Fort Dearborn massacre. The fort and the nearby Indian agency building were burned by Indians the following day and only the powder magazine, built of stone, remained; a cannon, thrown into the river by the soldiers before the evacuation, was retrieved by later residents and regularly fired at ceremonial occasions, until in 1847 it misfired and severely mutilated [see] Richard L. Wilson; it was then scrapped. For the location of the fort in the city today, one may note markers in the pavement at the corner of Wacker Drive and Michigan Avenue [see Monuments]. For a worthy description of what William Johnson found when he visited the fort in 1809, see Johnson, William. The accompanying painting, “Fort Dearborn I in 1810” is by Brigitte Kozma, Chicago Medical Society. [11, 12, 103, 104, 105, 179, 184, 215, 257, 260, 275, 326, 366a, 464 559, 682, 708]

Pay scale for military personnel in 1808: Rank Pay/Month Forage Allowance Rations/Day
COLONEL $75 $12 $6 LT. COLONEL $60 $11 $5 MAJOR $50 $10 $4 SURGEON $45 $10 $3 SURGEON`S MATE $30 $6 $2 ADJUTANT $10 $6 – CAPTAIN $40 – $3 1ST LIEUTENANT $30 – $2 2ND LIEUTENANT $25 – $2 ENSIGN $20 – $2 MUSIC TEACHER $9 – $1 SERGEANT $10 – $1 CORPORAL $8 – $1 MUSICIAN $8 – $1 PRIVATE $7 – $1 [723]

Fort Dearborn I in 1804  this image shows the completed fort from across the Chicago River. [From History of Cook County, Illinois by A.T. Andreas]

Fort Dearborn I replica  the photograph, from the files of the Chicago History Museum, shows the interior of the fort as recreated for the A Century of Progress Exhibition in Chicago, 1933. [366a]

Fort Dearborn II  established in conjunction with Fort Howard at Green Bay and Fort Crawford at Prairie du Chien in 1816 to achieve military control over the region W of Lake Michigan. The first garrison, 112 in number, came from the Third U.S Infantry in Detroit and arrived under the command of Capt. Hezekiah Bradley on board the schooner General Wayne on July 4, 1816, and immediately began to build a new fort over the former one. For a description of the building site, see an excerpt from Milo Quaife`s Checagou below. Moses Morgan was among the carpenters and other skilled laborers brought along to facilitate the effort; Alexander Robinson and Antoine Ouilmette, the locals, furnished ponies; pine timber was obtained from the wooded shore [near Lincoln Park] and rafted S along the shore. Built on the same site as the first fort, the second fort was similarly aligned to the north-south axis, but had just one blockhouse and a single palisade, all made of native oak [For a picture of the blockhouse in 1857 see the entry on Lake House]. Early July 1827, while unoccupied by troops, the fort was struck by lightning and the barracks on the E side, the storehouse, and part of the guardhouse at the south gate were destroyed; the structure continued to be used intermittently by the military until 1836. In May 1835, the fort was sold to Jean B. Beaubien by the local government agent for $94; however, Beaubien never took possession of the fort and eventually the U.S. Supreme Court voided the contract and returned his money. In 1856, Stephen S. Wright bought the blockhouse and all that remained of the stockade, disassembling the portions the following year; in his factory, he reworked the logs as souvenir furniture for himself and his friends. The last remnant of the fort was destroyed in the 1871 Chicago fire, though according to Hurlbut, a building remained on South State Street, near the NE corner with 33rd Street in 1881, that contained reused fort timbers. For a listing of the fort`s successive commandants, which also reflects the times of its occupancy, see Fort Dearborn commandants. The accompanying painting “Fort Dearborn II in 1832” is by Donald Schlickan.
on June 30, 1816, the garrison, 112 in number, arrived at Chicago on board the schooner General Wayne. Save for the magazine, which had been built of brick, the fort and other public buildings were found to have been entirely destroyed, while the bones of those who had perished in the battle four years before still covered the scene of action. The houses on the north side of the river still stood, however, and certain French traders had occupied them more or less regularly during the years of the war. … the troops disembarked and established a temporary camp in a pasture near the fort site. Some garden seeds had been brought along, and one of the first tasks was to prepare a garden, probably on the site devoted to this purpose in the years before the war. The two Chicago half-breeds, Alexander Robinson and Antoine Ouilmette, with their squaws and ponies, were engaged to prepare the ground and with the aid given by the soldiers the task was soon accomplished. For some reason, however, the garden proved a failure. An enterprising Detroit trader, foreseeing a demand for vegetables at Chicago, had sent some Canadian half-breeds in advance of the garrison, and these men had planted a truck garden in May up the south branch, in the vicinity of the Lee farm[see Leigh farm]. Its produce was now brought down to the post and in the absence of other competition was sold to the garrison at a high price. [103-5, 215, 257, 260, 326, 559, 564, 708, 723] [12]

Fort Dearborn massacre  The Aug. 15, 1812 disaster was the direct result of an ill-conceived order by General Hull to Captain Heald to evacuate the fort and move all inhabitants to Fort Wayne, thereby exposing them to a predictable attack by hundreds of Indians who were known to want the Americans driven out and were lying in wait. General Hull wrote this order hastily and without any reliable intelligence, for which he was later court-martialed. Blame also falls on Captain Heald who, aware that he would not be able to successfully defend his people once they left the protection of the fort, should have refused the order. The fort was well armed and well provisioned, and could have held out in a siege, as Fort Meigs did in 1813.
The earliest and most concise of several eyewitness reports on this tragic event of Aug. 15, 1812, was written by the then commandant of Fort Dearborn I. It can be found in his entry under Heald, Capt. Nathan. A later report by John Kinzie is below, followed by a detailed accounting by Milo Quaife of the fate of each member of the military force. Exact losses suffered by the Indians were never ascertained.
Kinzie’s report, recorded near-verbatim by [see] Capt. David Bates Douglass in 1820:
…On the [ninth] Augt. 1812 an express a Potawatomie Indian [Winnemac] came there with orders to Capt. Hill [Heald] comdg., to evacuate the Fort if possible – the messenger expressed his doubts of the practicability of doing so unless the troups moved off immediately say the next morning & that by a rout as the Wabash Potawatamies were disaffected particulary those of Magoquous Villages and would undoubtedly stop them – … Capt. Hill however somewhat distrustful of the Indian & expecting Capt Wells with some Miamies did not adopt the advice – the Indian then pressed him through me & I also joined in it to go the following day – which he also declined & he was then told he might stay as long as he pleased & with this his adviser left him – by this time the Potawatomies began to come in. The idea of evacuation was known generally & talked of; they professed friendship & gave assurances that they would conduct the troops safely thro but it was always observed that they all came in hostile array. In the course of the Councils which were held about this time Capt. Hill showed the Indians the Arms, Ammunition goods &c.; which were to be given to them for their safe conduct. Things were in this state when Capt. Wells arrived with 27 Miamies about the time that Capt. Hill had determined upon evacuating – Capt. W & self advised against it as we had in the fort a sufficiency of Arms Ammunition &c.; to have sustained the attacks of the Indians even tho` assisted by the British. It was however determined [that the fort be abandoned] – I then advised & Capt W. agreed with me that the ammunition & liquor ought to be destroyed as the latter would only inflame them & the former would undoubtedly be used in acts of hostility against our people if not against ourselves – to this there was no other objection than Capt. H. having already shown it to them – but he acknowledged the propriety of the step & freely agreed to adopt any measure I might suggest for justifying him in sight of the Indians for taking it. Strategem was accordingly resorted to & the business of destruction was immediately commenced. It was intended to throw the powder in the river but that was prevented by an accident. As I passed out of the Fort at Dusk to wash at the River two Indians seized hold of me but perceiving who I was they desisted from using violence – their curiosity had been excited by the hammering and bustle in the fort & they desired to know what was going on. I told them we had been opening barrels of pork & flour & were preparing to march next day – this satisfied them for the present but I perceived they were on the alert & it would be unsafe to attempt throwing the powder in the River, so it was thrown in the well. On the morrow we marched by the rout of the beach. When we reached the Sand Hillocks beyond those pines (about two miles) along shore, [From this and similar evidence it is clear that Kinzie told his story by daylight and was pointing out distinctive landmarks.] Capt. Wells who was behind came round in front & spoke to me observing that we were surrounded. This I had also perceived having seen the Indian Rifles passing round our right as if forming a line to hem us in. He asked what was best to be done. I said we must make the best defence we were able & this was agreed to – the men were faced towards the land and advanced in line up the bank. As they rose the Indians fired their first volley several fell but the soldiers still preserved their order & pressed upon the Indians into the prairie – in the course of the battle several desperate encounters took place. Ensign Rowman [Ronan] fought until struck down the 3d time rising each time until he received the fatal blow of a tomahawk which felled him to rise no more. … A sergeant [Otho Hayes] pressed upon a strong Indian[Naunongee] with his bayonet & wounded him in the breast – he endeavoring to parry & to strike with his tomahawk, the Sergt did not kill him but recovered & passed his bayonet thro his body & in this situation he still cut down his antagonist with his Tomahawk. Capt. Wells and Dr. Van Voorhees [Voorhis] were killed as also 28 out of the 56 men & Capt. Hill badly wounded when the remainder cut their way into the prairie – mean time others [Indians] had passed round the beach & got among the baggage where the women & children were & here was perpetuated one of the most shocking scenes of Butchery perhaps ever witnessed – their shrieks of distress, their piteous appeals to father mother Brothers & Husbands for help & and their prayers for mercy were there unheard & disavailing – the Tomahawk & knife performed their work without distinctions of age or condition. This scene of Havoc lasted for near ten minutes. In the early part of the affray I had charge of Mrs. K who was in my boat – Mrs. Hill [Heald] & my daughter [Mrs. Helm] who were near me. Mrs. H. however in her terror soon left me & fled to her Uncle Capt. Wells by whose side she received several shot wounds. When the Indians got round to the Baggage some scuffling took place among some of them which I afterwards learned was about killing me. An order however was given out among the Indians that they should neither hurt me or my family. Capt Wells hearing this requested his neice to return to me but she still clung to him. … A Potawatamie [Black Partridge] now came forward & after taking my gun offered to take us to a place of safety but my daughter thinking his intentions hostile ran at first into the Lake but soon returned. I motioned to him to bring Mrs. Hill to us which he did & then conducted us up to that turn of the river above the Fort … The Potawatamies by this time sent a messenger [Pierre Le Claire] to Capt. Hill demanding his surrender – upon what terms asked Capt. Hill. The messenger did not know but being a man whom I had brought up & friendly to the Amerns. he advised the Captain not to surrender until they should propose some terms – the Captain accordingly refused to surrender unless they would give pledge for the lives of the prisoners – this they agreed to with the exception of those who were mortally wounded & the remaining 28 men some of them badly wounded were surrendered accordingly – one man [Thomas Burns] whose wounds appeared mortal was Tomahawked by a squaw. Three were killed by a volley fired among a group in consequence of one of them having drawn a knife as if to defend himself mistaking their intentions when the Indians fired their pieces after the fight in honor of the dead. Several others were dispatched under various pretenses during the afternoon & evening so that probably not more than ten or 12 ultimately escaped the Massacre. After all was over the Indians counciled among themselves about the disposal of the prisoners. I was allowed with my family & Mrs. H. to return to my house. The remaining soldiers were distributed among the different chiefs & there only remained Capt. H. to be disposed of – a subject which caused them some discussion. They were inclined to take his life & indeed were emulous among themselves of dispatching him as being the Chief on our side. They complained moreover in a council of his having deceived them by destroying the Arms &c.; which he [had] shown to be delivered out to them – & they had heard that he had poisoned the flour. I answered them in his behalf by showing an order for this destruction & explained to them the obligations of our officers to obey the order of a superior – which they conceived of. I denyed the adulteration of the flour & offered to eat it – indeed it wanted but little to convince them that the bearer of this was a great liar. They acknowledged having deceived us & asked Capt. H. if he thought the prest. of the U.S. would forgive them. It was difficult to say – they knew from past events the pacific disposition of the prest. but if they wished to ask forgiveness I would exchange hostages, take some of their principal men & go with them for that purpose – they asked Capt. H. his opinion of the probable continuance & result of our war to which he gave a suitable reply. In this state things remained with much anxiety for him on our part when a well disposed Indian advised me to get him away or he would be killed. I then got a faithful fellow [Chandonnai] to take Mrs & Capt Hill to St. Joseph in his canoe which he did though pursued 15 miles by some of them – & [Alexander] Robinson the present interpreter took them thence to Mackinaw. … Some days after 10 or 12 indians painted black & armed came across the river to my house & anticipating their demand I warned Mrs. K against the event & enjoined her to meet it with courage. They came & declared their intentions of taking satisfaction of me for Hills escape. 5 Potawatie, quieted finally with presents. I was allowed to remove to the little Colic. and went. The treatment of the dead was characteristic – Capt. W. & Dr. V.V. [Isaac Van Voorhis] Name of the chief who comanded Black B[ird]. Reason of his kindness to me – his son[uncertain meaning]. Capt. Wells rec`d information the night before we marched that we should be attacked but we had then given everything away and could not retract. The Chiefs after we determined to evacuate used to eat with us every day as we had a superabundance of provision to make away with. Nuscotnoning [Nescotnemeg] was the author of the massacre. The Black Bird commanded – the Miamies knowing of the attack stayed behind & took no part – they rode past in the beginning of the foray & one a half Potawatomie made a short speech – to this effect – Potawatomie I am much astonished at your conduct – You have been treacherous with these people. You promised to conduct them safely thro. You have deceived them and are about to murder them in cold blood – let me advise you to beware – you know not what evil the dead shall bring upon you – you may by and by hear your wives & children cry & you will not be able to assist them. Potawatomie beware – so saying he rode on.
Other eyewitness reports include those by Lieutenant Helm, Sgt. W. Griffith, Cpl. W.K. Jordan, and Pvt. James Corbin. An excellent report was given in a Sept. 7, 1812, letter by Indian Agent Thomas Forsyth (who arrived at Fort Dearborn the day after the massacre), written to Governor

Benjamin Howard of Louisiana [Missouri] Territory and preserved in the Illinois Territorial Papers.
Quaife’s report:
”[Our] study may properly conclude with a tabular recapitulation, embodying the conclusions reached as to the names and fate of the regular soldiers of the Fort Dearborn garrison on the morning of August 15, 1812.” [Quaife]

1. Nathan Heald · Captain – returned to civilization
2. Lina T. Helm · 2nd Lieutenant – returned to civilization
3. George Ronan · Ensign – killed in battle near the baggage wagons
4. Isaac Van Voorhis · Surgeon`s mate – killed in battle near the baggage wagons

1. Isaac Holt · Sergeant – killed in battle
2. Otho Hays · Sergeant – killed in battle in individual duel with Indian
3. John Crozier · Sergeant – returned to civilization
4. William Griffith · Sergeant – returned to civilization

1. Thomas Forth · Corporal – killed in battle
2. Joseph Bowen · Corporal – returned to civilization

1. George Burnett · Fifer – killed in battle
2. John Smith · Fifer – returned to civilization
3. Hugh McPherson · Drummer – killed in battle
4. John Hamilton · Drummer – killed in battle

1. John Allin · Private – killed in battle
2. George Adams · Private – killed in battle
3. Prestly Andrews · Private – killed in battle
4. James Corbin · Private – returned to civilization
5. Fielding Corbin · Private – returned to civilization
6. Asa Campbell · Private – killed in battle
7. Dyson Dyer · Private – returned to civilization
8. Stephen Draper · Private – killed in battle
9. Daniel Daugherty · Private – returned to civilization
10. Micajah Denison · Private – badly wounded in battle; tortured to death the ensuing night
11. Nathan Edson · Private – returned to civilization
12. John Fury · Private – badly wounded in battle; tortured to death the ensuing night
13. Paul Grummo · Private – returned to civilization
14. Richard Garner · Private – tortured to death the night after the massacre
15. William N. Hunt · Private – frozen to death in captivity
16. Nathan A. Hurtt · Private – killed in battle
17. Rhodias Jones · Private – killed in battle
18. David Kennison · Private – returned to civilization; died at Chicago, 1852
19. Samuel Kilpatrick · Private – killed in battle
20. John Kelso · Private – killed in battle
21. Jacob Landon · Private – killed in battle
22. James Latta · Private – tortured to death the night after the massacre
23. Michael Lynch · Private – badly wounded; killed by the Indians en route to the Illinois River
24. Hugh Logan · Private – tomahawked in captivity because unable to walk from fatigue
25. Frederick Locker · Private – killed in battle
26. August Mortt · Private – tomahawked in captivity
27. Peter Miller · Private – killed in battle
28, Duncan McCarty · Private – returned to civilization
29. William Moffett · Private – killed in battle
30. Elias Mills · Private – returned to civilization
31. John Needs · Private – died in captivity
32. Joseph Noles · Private – returned to civilization
33. Thomas Poindexter · Private – tortured to death the night after the massacre
34. William Prickett · Private – killed in battle
35. Frederick Peterson · Private – killed in battle
36. David Sherror · Private – killed in battle
37. John Suttenfield · Private – badly wounded; killed by the Indians while en route to Illinois River
38. John Smith · Private – returned to civilization
39. James Starr · Private – killed in battle
40. John Sunmons · Private – killed in battle
41. James Van Horn · Private – returned to civilization
The bronze statue shown here is often called “Black Partridge Saving Mrs. Helm,” an event that took place during the massacre; for additional information, see “Fort Dearborn massacre” in the Monuments section.
[36, 109, 280, 327, 407, 411, 465, 558, 559, 561, 564, 619] [12]

Fort Dearborn militia  a group of 15 male civilian residents who were organized into a company by Captain Heald during the crisis period between the Indian murders on Leigh`s farm on April 6, 1812, and the Fort Dearborn massacre. Thomas Burns, former member of the fort`s garrison, was made sergeant and given command. Three of the 15, the LaFramboise brothers (Alexis, Claude, and LaFortune) were in Milwaukee, where they usually lived and traded, at the time of the massacre. They were probably aware of the planned attack on Fort Dearborn. The other 12 were killed in the massacre on Aug. 15, 1812. According to Eckert, their names were Thomas Burns; Charles Lee, Sr.; Charles Lee, Jr.; James Cooper; William Russell; Samuel Clark; Louis Pettell; Michael Pettell; – Henry, a “seventy year old former revolutionary soldier” and two unidentified French settlers. Unfortunately, many of the names in Eckert`s writing are erroneous, especially those of the Leigh family: Charles Lee was actually [see] James Leigh. [287] [226]

Fort Dearborn physicians    of the first fort: William Smith, 1803 until 1808; John Cooper, 1808 until 1811; and Isaac VanVoorhis, 1811 to 1812 (killed at the massacre). Of the second fort: John Gale, 1816; J. Ponte Coulant McMahon, 1818; William S. Madison, 1820; Thomas P. Hall, 1821; Clement A. Finley, 1828; Elijah D. Harmon, 1830; Samuel Grandin Johnston Decamp, 1832; Abraham H. Edwards, 1832; Erastus Winslow, 1832; Phillip Maxwell, 1833; and George F. Turner, 1833.

Fort Dearborn reservation  in 1824, at a time when the fort was not garrisoned, Alexander Wolcott, Indian agent at Fort Dearborn, suggested to J.C. Calhoun, secretary of war, that the land on which the fort stood – bordered by the lakeshore, Madison Street, State Street, and the main river – be declared a military reservation; the secretary agreed and made the necessary arrangements. For details, see the two following letters – later published in the Chicago Tribune of Feb. 2, 1884 – one by Dr. Wolcott, the other by George Graham of the U.S. General Land Office. In April 1839, the major portion of the reservation was released by the secretary of war, J.R. Poinsett, and became the Fort Dearborn Addition to Chicago; a war office agent, Matthew Birchard, surveyed the addition, laying in lots and streets and filing the map with Cook County; all lots were sold except the portion where the lighthouse stood. [13]
Fort Dearborn, Sept. 2, 1824.
The Hon. J.C. Calhoun, Secretary of War

SIR : I have the honor to suggest to your consideration the propriety of making a reservation of this post and the fraction on which it is situated for use of this agency. It is very conveniente for that purpose, as the quarters afford sufficient accomodations for all the persons in the employ of the agency, and the storehouses are safe and commodious places for the provisions and other property that may be in charge of the agent. The buildings and other property, by being in possession of a public officer, will be preserved for public use, should it ever again be necessary to occupy them again with a military force. – As to the size of the fraction I am not certain, but I think it contains about sixty acres. A considerably greater tract than that is under fence, but that would be abundantly sufficient for the use of the agency, and contains all the buildings attached to the fort – such as a mill, barn, stable, &c.; – which it would be desirable to preserve. I have the honor to be Alexander Wolcott, Indian Agent.
General Land-Office, Oct. 21, 1824. – The Hon. J.C. Calhoun, Secretary of War –
Sir: In compliance with your request, I have directed that the Fractional Section 10, Township 39 North, Range 14 East, containing 57.50 acres, and within which Fort Dearborn is situated, should be reserved from sale for military purposes. I am, &c.;, George Graham
. [12]

Fort Dearborn-Detroit Road    also known as the Chicago Road; retracing almost entirely the old Sauk Trail.

Fort Defiance  built in 1793 by General Wayne at the junction of the Maumee and Auglaize rivers (Ohio) during his successful campaign against the midwestern Indian tribes, which ended in the victory at Fallen Timbers.

Fort des Miamis  see Fort Miami.

Fort Edward Augustus    see Fort Howard.

Fort Edwards  built in September 1816 on the east bank of the Mississippi River opposite the mouth of the Des Moines River as security against the Potawatomi; irregularly garrisoned, abandoned in July 1824.

Fort Frontenac  built at the mouth of the Great Cataraki River on Lake Ontario at [now] Kingston, Ontario, by Frontenac and La Salle in 1673 to safeguard settlement and provide a base for westward exploration. [12]

Fort Harrison    construction by U.S. troops began on Oct. 5, 1811, on the east bank of the Wabash River [two miles from the center of Terre Haute, IN]; was completed on Oct. 28, 1811.

Fort Holmes    fortification at the highest elevation of Michilimackinac Island, built by the British while they held the island from 1812 to 1814, but named by the Americans following reoccupation; Maj. Andrew H. Holmes of Virginia was slain in the battle of Mackinac Island, Aug. 4, 1814.

Fort Howard  established at Green Bay at the mouth of the Fox River, in the summer of 1816, in conjunction with Fort Crawford at Prairie du Chien and the rebuilding of Fort Dearborn, to achieve military control over the area W of Lake Michigan. When the members of the Lewis Cass expedition visited the fort in August 1820, they observed a four-sided picketed enclosure with four towers, housing a garrison of 600-700 men, and a settlement of French-Indian inhabitants, including about 60 households scattered for three or four miles along the river; the garrison was withdrawn in 1841, regarrisoned after the Mexican War, and abandoned in 1852. Green Bay had been the site of a French post in 1684, which was rebuilt in 1717, and again occupied from 1745 to 1761 (Fort St. FrancisLa Baye); a British garrison was maintained here from 1761 to 1815 (Fort Edward Augustus).

Fort Illinois  see Fort St. Joseph de Pimiteoui.

Fort Johnson    see Fort Ottawa.

Fort Mackinac  see Fort Michilimackinac.

Fort Malden  established by the British in 1796 (following transfer of Detroit to American rule) on the E bank of the Detroit River mouth on Lake Erie, at Amherstburg; John Kinzie of Chicago was imprisoned there for treason during part of the 1812 war. For several decades, the fort was an important British power center in the Northwest; between 1796 and 1814 Indian chiefs throughout the Northwest would annually assemble at Fort Malden, under Gen. Henry A. Proctor, to receive gifts and annuities, an attempt by the British to perpetuate their influence, though the United States had taken possession of the land. Juliette A. Kinzie contributes some understanding in Wau-Bun[1856]:
… The Independence achieved by the United States [1783] did not alter the policy of the natives, nor did our Government succeed in winning or purchasing their friendship. Great Britain, it is true, bid high to retain them. Every year the leading men of the Chippewas, Ottawas, Pottawattomies, Menomonees Winnebagoes, Sauks and Foxes, and even still more remote tribes, journeyed from their distant homes to Fort Malden in Upper Canada, to receive their annual amounts of presents from the Great Father across the water. ….

The following letter from Joseph Chew to Thomas Aston Coffin exemplifies the efforts made by the British to cultivate the friendship of the Indians in U.S. territory after 1783:
Montreal 16th May 1796. Dear Sir – A few days ago I received a Message from Thomas a famous War Chief of the Follesavoine Nation of Indians [Menominees] at La Ba on the Mississippi & requesting to have a Medal with his Majesty`s Arms sent to him, and being well informt of His Friendship for the English & the Influence he has with his nation, and not having time to make the requisition, I send the Medal by a Gentleman who left this place today for La Ba, and now enclose a requisition and a copy of the Message to be delivered with the Medal which I hope His Lordship may not disapprove of. Am Dr Sir Your most obedt. humble Servant Joseph Chew.
American authorities were anxious to neutralize such British solicitations with tokens of their own, often seeking to replace British medals that had already been gratefully accepted by the Indians. U.S. Indian Agent John Boyer reports on the effort to Governor Cass at Detroit:
Green Bay Agency [Oct. 1, 1816] Sir – I have seen most of the principal chiefs residing in this quarter. They all appear to be friendly disposed, and have generally expressed themselves well pleased with the establishments at this place. The Winnebagoes were opposed to the building of a Fort, when they first visited me, but after I held two or three talks with their Chiefs, they left me apparently well satisfied. I have had some trouble, from the want of Medals, Armbands, and small flags, believing these necessary items would be here in a short time, I demanded from the Chiefs the medals &c.; they had received from the British, promising to replace them with those of the United States, most of the Chiefs who have visited me since I made the demand, have delivered up their Medals &c.; they had received, not having any to give in return, I considered myself bound to pay them well for what they gave up, and promised to replace them as soon as possible. … The whole of the goods intended for this Agency has gone to Chicago, and I have only received a few articles marked for that Agency, without invoice or letter accompanying the packages. I have made this statement to the Secretary of War, and have requested him to forward on Medals &c.; in the Spring. Jno. Boyer, Ind. Agent. [109, 406]

Fort Meigs  was built in 1813, by order of General William Henry Harrison, on the S bank of the Maumee River opposite the present town of Maumee, primarily as a general depot for supplies and a base of operations against Detroit and Canada; it was in the form of an irregular ellipse, with blockhouses equipped with cannons. From April 28 to May 9, 1813, it was besieged, unsuccessfully, by General Proctor with a force of British, Canadians and Indians, aided by Tecumseh. [152]

Fort Miami  (1794) constructed in the spring of 1794 by the British on the Maumee River, a few miles above [Toledo]; the fort was meant to counter General Wayne`s campaign against the midwestern Indians but failed to do so; occupied by American troops in July 1796; abandoned in 1797.

Fort Miami  (1679) also Forte MiamisFort des Miamis; built in November 1679 by La Salle and his men at the mouth of the Rivière de Miamis [in Michigan, called St. Joseph`s River after c.1703]; in 1680, the fort was destroyed by mutinous expedition members. Fort Miami is not to be confused with a second and later fort on the St. Joseph`s River, called Fort St. Joseph, and located 60 miles upstream. Another source of confusion resulted from a map error which placed a nonexistent Fort Miamis at Chicago [see Henry Popple`s A Map of the British Empire in North America, 1733; eds.]. Father Hennepin helped in the construction of Fort Miamis and his later report leaves no doubt as to the exact location: “Just at the mouth of the river Miamis there was an eminence with a kind of platform naturally fortified. It was pretty high and steep, of a triangular form … we felled the trees that were on top of the hill, and … we began to build a redoubt of eighty feet long and forty feet broad.” The illustration shows the location of Forte Miamis in a detail of the 1690 map by Coronelli.

Fort Miami  (c.1712) see Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Fort Miami  (c.1750) see Fort Wayne, Indiana.

Fort Michilimackinac  there were three forts at different times, as detailed below; the third fort was called Fort Mackinac. As military outposts, they controlled the traffic on three lakes and as trade centers, the rich fur harvests of Lake Superior and the upper Mississippi valley. The traders usually lived within the walls of the forts: (1) built in 1672 by French soldiers under the command of Louis de Buade, count de Frontenac, and named Fort De Buade to protect a small settlement of fur traders called Michilimackinac, and the Mission de Saint-Ignace of Fathers Dablon and Marquette [St. Ignace, WI]; in 1694 Cadillac became commandant at Fort de Buade; in 1701 the fort was abandoned, as was the mission four years later; (2) built by French soldiers in 1715 on the southern shore of the strait of Mackinac at the western edge [Mackinaw City]; again, the associated settlement was called Michilimackinac; the fort remained under French rule until 1760, under the British until 1780, when moved to Mackinac Island; (3) under the last commandant of the second fort, Maj. Patrick Sinclair, a new fort was constructed on the high, strategic stone bluff on the SE end of Mackinac Island in 1780 for increased protection against attack by Col. George Rogers Clark; French and British traders and Indians accompanied Sinclair`s troops, and the old fort was abandoned; under the protection of the new fort, Mackinac Island evolved as the great fur trading center of the upper lakes` region, on which all Chicago traders depended. The island and the fort remained British until 1796, American until 1812 (July 19), British again until 1815, and American again until it was abandoned in September 1894; in 1959 the fort was reconstructed and is now a historical monument. [12, 398c, 530, 531]

Fort Niagara  first built as Fort Conti by La Salle with Tonti and Hennepin in 1679 at the mouth of the Niagara River on Lake Ontario; the ship Le Griffon was constructed here for western reconnaissance and fur transport; was destroyed by Indians c.1682, replaced in 1687 by the short-lived Fort Denonville under orders of Governor Jacques René de Brisay, marquis de Denonville, of New France, and destroyed again in 1688. The first fort at this location with the name Fort Niagara was built from 1725 to 1727, often called the House of Peace [now known as the French Castle, the oldest masonry structure W of the Hudson River and E of the Mississippi]; was occupied by the British in July 1759, marking the end of French dominance on the lakes; surrendered to the Americans in August 1796.

Fort Ottawa  erected in the spring of 1832 during the Black Hawk War on the south bank of the Illinois River, at its junction with the Fox River; later known as Fort Johnson.

Fort Ouiatanon  originally a small, prosperous French trading post on the W bank of the Wabash River [near LaFayette, IN] in 1717, an important settlement between Quebec and New Orleans and the center of French relations with the Wea Indians, a group related to the Miami; in 1763 taken over by the British; destroyed in 1791 by Gen. Charles Scott to protect NW territorial communities from British-allied Indians.

Fort Payne  also Paine; a trading post in Naperville, built of hewn logs by the Napier brothers in 1831; in 1832 was fortified with a stockade by a company of men from Joliet under Capt. Morgan L. Payne to protect settlers during the Black Hawk War; a little over a mile away, hauling shingles to strengthen the structure, a private in the company by the name William Brown was killed and scalped by a party of Indians; the fort never saw battle and was soon used as a barnyard. See memorial plaque in the Monuments section. [415, 714] [314a]

Fort Peoria  see Fort St. Louis de Pimiteoui.

Fort Petite  misnomer for [see] Petit Fort.

Fort Pimiteoui  see Fort St. Louis de Pimiteoui.

Fort Pontchartrain du Detroit  French post completed by Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac on July 24, 1701; later became Detroit. [398a]

Fort Recovery  built by General Wayne in 1793 on the Ohio side of the Indiana-Ohio border, Mercer County, near the headwaters of the Wabash River, and near the Indiana Territory site of General St. Clair`s 1791 defeat by the Indians.

Fort Shelby    see Fort Crawford.

Fort Snelling    on the Mississippi River [near St. Paul], seven miles below the Falls of St. Anthony; built in 1820 by the Fifth Regiment of the U.S. Infantry under Lt. Col. Henry Leavenworth.

Fort St. Clair  also Fort Sinclair; built as a fortified settlement in 1764 by the British Lt. Gov. [see] Patrick Sinclair within the pine woods at the mouth of the Pine River, a tributary to the St. Clair River, about 50 miles N of Detroit; on adjacent land St. Clair built a British government sawmill which eventually became St. Clair`s private estate, the Pinery, where the later Chicago settler Jean Baptiste Point de Sable was taken to manage the estate for Sinclair from 1780-1783, prior to settling at Chicago. The Pinery [usually given as Chinguagon in Ojibwa, but more exactly rendered as jingwakoki-wan, meaning `pine-land-s`] provided timbers and lumber for the fort at Detroit. The Pinery was closed in 1783, at the end of the Revolution. [456a]

Fort St. Francis  see Fort Howard.

Fort St. Joseph   located 60 miles upstream from the earlier short-lived Fort Miamis, the latter having been built by La Salle in November 1679 at the mouth of the St. Joseph`s River; Fort St. Joseph was followed by a mission established by Father Allouez in the 1680s, the exact date still disputed among historians. In 1691, Count Frontenac sent Sieur de Courtemanche to establish a fort, and he remained as commandant for several years. In 1696, the fort was abandoned by order of the king, but was reoccupied some time prior to 1720 and continuously occupied until 1763, when its occupants were killed during the Pontiac rebellion. Charlevoix described the approach to the fort in a letter dated 1721; it was located on the E side of the river, within the city limits of current Niles, Michigan. The fort guarded the much-used portage between the St. Joseph`s River and the headwaters of the Kankakee. The portage began on the west bank, opposite the fort and adjacent to a large Potawatomi village (that of [see] Topenebee); nearby was one of the three intersections between the river and the Detroit-Chicago Road. The fort was of great strategic value, and together with the community of traders that developed nearby, served also as a central depot for the fur trade. In January 1781, the remnants of the fort were captured by a band of 65 men and some 200 Indians under the leadership of Don Eugenio Pourre and briefly occupied in the name of the king of Spain. The fort was destroyed during the Revolutionary War. Also see entry for St. Joseph, the settlement that developed near the fort.
In 2002 Western Michigan University`s Department of Anthropology began summer excavations at the site of Fort St. Joseph which have since unearthed artifacts, including gun parts, imported ceramics, glass beads, a fragment of faience, and structural elements; in 2010 a foundation wall and two wooden posts were discovered which define one building`s outline. The site`s late summer open house draws hundreds of visitors; for more information, see: http://www.supportthefort.net. [531b]

Fort St. Louis de Pimitéoui  also Fort St. Louis IIFort Pimitoui, Fort Peoria, Fort Illinois; built on the east bank of the Illinois River near the narrows at the outlet of lower Lake Peoria during the winter of 1691-92 by Tonti and François Daupin de La Forêt, who had jointly acquired La Salle`s fur trade concession, and by Pierre-Charles de Liette, a younger first cousin of Tonti. Maps of the 18th century sometimes erroneously called it Fort Crevecoeur, which was the name of La Salle’s ephemeral 1680 post, the exact location of which has never been established. Due to an oversupply of beaver pelts in Europe, the post did not last long. [464c, 649]

Fort St. Louis des Illinois  see Fort St. Louis du Rocher.

Fort St. Louis du Rocher  also Fort St. Louis des Illinois, Rock Fort; built by La Salle and Tonti on the 125-foot-high summit of a cliff on the southern bank of the Illinois River [now Starved Rock, LaSalle County], during the winter of 1682-83 [for La Salle’s description of the fort, see below]; the fort served as a French command post to maintain vigilance over the Illinois route to he Mississippi River, a base of supplies for La Salle’s expeditions, and a trade center with the friendly Kaskaskia Indians, resulting in a native settlement that eventually numbered 20,000 inhabitants; see Kaskaskia. Governor La Barre posted Chevalier de Baugy in command from 1683-84, and later Tonti was in command of the fort, especially after La Salle’s death in 1687. The growing French populace depended on New France for supplies, thereby increasing usage of the Chicago portage. The fort was abandoned in 1691, as the Illinois agriculture had depleted the nutrients of the local soil, and the Illinois removed to the east bank of the Illinois River near the narrows at the outlet of lower Lake Peoria where Tonti and François Daupin de La Forêt built [see] Fort St. Louis de Pimitéoui.
La Salle`s comments about the rock and the fort: “… on the left in descending the [Illinois] river, on the height of a rock, precipitous on almost all sides, whose base the river laves in such a manner that one can draw up water from it to the summit of the rock, which is about six hundred feet in circumference. It is accessible only on one side, on which the ascent is still quite difficult. This side is barred by a palisade of stakes of white oak, from eight to ten inches in diameter and 22 feet high, flanked by three redoubts of squared beams, placed the one upon the other equidistantly, so that all sustain each other. The rest of the enclosure of the rock is surrounded by a like palisade, but only 15 feet high, because it is inaccessible. … There is also a parapet of thick trees lying lengthwise, the one upon the other, to the height of two men, the whole covered with earth, and at the top of the palisade a chevaux-de-frise [felled trees, with branches extending outward] the points of which are iron-tipped to prevent scaling. The neighboring rocks are all lower than this one, and the nearest is 200 feet distant, the others more, between which and the fort of Saint Louis extends on two sides a large dale which a brook traverses and innundates when it rains.” [464c, 596a]

Fort Vincennes  also Poste du OuabachePoste VincennesPost St. Vincent Au Post; see Vincennes, IN.

Fort Washington    built in 1790 at [Cincinnati]; served as U.S. military headquarters for the failed 1790 campaign against the Indians under General Harmar, and the likewise unsuccessful 1791 campaign under General St. Clair; not until General Wayne broke the Indians’ resistance at Fallen Timbers in 1794 was the future of Chicago secured.

Fort Wayne  built 1794 by Gen. Anthony Wayne at the junction of the St. Joseph`s and St. Mary`s Rivers (Miamitown), a 150-mile distance from Chicago, during the weeks following the Battle of Fallen Timbers; would be the frequent site for annuity payments to Indians. On Aug. 10, 1812, Captain Wells, Indian agent at Fort Wayne, traveled to Fort Dearborn to assist the garrison in its fateful evacuation; two weeks after massacre, on August 28, Fort Wayne came under Indian attack, but the siege was broken when General Harrison brought relief on September 16. For a historic sketch of the community that preceded Fort Wayne, see the next entry.

Fort Wayne, IN  another historic town that, like Chicago, derives its existence from the proximity of an important portage [the Maumee-Wabash portage] between the Great Lakes and Mississippi systems; Father Allouez mentioned the portage in 1680. A French fort was built there in c.1712, alternately referred to as Poste MiamiPoste des MiamisFort MiamisFort Saint Philippe, or Les Trois Rivières [from the junction of the rivers Maumee, St. Mary, and St. Joseph]; the community that grew around the fort was known to the French as Larabiche. The fort was partially destroyed by Indians in 1747, but rebuilt nearby before 1750 with the same name, Fort Miamis; during “Pontiac`s War” it fell to the Indians in 1763, and at the end of the French and Indian War the fort was seized by the British. In 1794 [see] Fort Wayne was built, giving the town its name; thereafter the Indians referred to the location as Kekionga, meaning “General Anthony Wayne`s Place” – phonetic [kiihkayongi], literally means ‘at-Wayne’. Prior to the establishment of regular government mail service, the mail to Chicago often arrived by way of Fort Wayne, where existed a U.S. post office at the time the first Fort Dearborn was built in 1803. [71, 464c] [288]

Fort Winnebago  prompted by the Winnebago War of 1827 as a necessary protection for the Fox-Wisconsin River portage valuable to American traders, and built in 1828-29 on the Fox River [now Portage, WI] under Major Twiggs; Lt. Jefferson Davis helped with the interior design and the procurement of logs, and traveled overland to Fort Dearborn in 1829, in search of deserters. John H. Kinzie was stationed there as Indian agent, and his wife Juliette later described life at the fort in her 1856 book Wau-Bun. [406]

Forth, Thomas  U.S. Army corporal; enlisted on July 6, 1807, for five years; enlistment was extended due to emergency; visited John Kinzie’s trading post on May 24, 1808, on Aug. 26, 1809, on June 12, 1812, and one more time shortly before the massacre, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; was killed during the initial battle of the Fort Dearborn massacre of Aug. 15, 1812. [404, 708] [226]

Fortiene, Nicolas  also Fortier; a trader who visited John Kinzie’s trading post on Nov. 11, 1807 and on May 17 and 27, 1808, as shown in Kinzie’s account books. [404]

forts  basic information on the individual forts and their relevance to the Chicago area are in alphabetical order. For a sense of the early forts of the Northwest frontier, the following short essay was contributed by Paul Petraitis:
Large and small, financed by purses both local and international, the region`s many forts played significant, though fleeting roles in the history of the Midwest and the Great Lakes. The word fort means different things to different people. Some envision a stone-walled bastion of European design, but what was more common in the Midwest during the 18th century was a fort made of logs and mud. The dictionary definitions of a fortified place and an army post also apply at different times and places. From Fort Prudhomme in the south to Fort La Pointe on the banks of Lake Superior, the French and British, and later the Americans, built a variety of structures all referred to as forts. Locally, the Fox and Potawatomi built forts as well.
Some forts barely exist in the historical record, leaving behind no administrative archives or archaeological remains. At times maps and travelers` accounts are our only clues as to their approximate location. Some local fort traditions have little or no basis in fact but nonetheless spark civic imaginations.
Others, like Fort de Chartres or Fort Dearborn, have left a detailed historical imprint. In between these large
 official government-built forts and the forts of the imagination lie a tantalizing spectrum of semipermanent structures, all loosely grouped under the same heading. Most Midwest forts were usually ungarrisoned and seem to have owed their existence more to the fur trade than to the fallout of international conflict.
The early Chicago area forts (1683-1696) were several, the first being built by La Salle, followed by the Jesuits and then Tonti. The last of the French forts was probably Petit Fort in the Indiana dunes, built about 1752

Foster, Caleb  served as private in Captain Boardman`s voluntary county militia and Captain Napier`s company during the Black Hawk War of 1832; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; a uncollected letter is listed in the Jan. 1, 1834, Chicago Democrat; resided in the Naper settlement. [319] [12]

Foster, John Herbert, M.D.  (1796-Chicago Tribune obituary: Feb. 20, 1874) a surgeon from Hillsborough, NH, in the Black Hawk War, arrived in 1835 to take over his brother`s [see Foster, Amos B.] extensive real estate holdings, becoming one of the largest land owners; on November 21 that year, submitted a petition for wharfing privileges, and remained to practice medicine; 1839 City Directory: Lake Street. On Sept. 21, 1840, he married Nancy Smith of Peterborough, NH; in later years, sold part of his late brother`s land for the construction of Northwestern University; served on both the Chicago and the Illinois state boards of education; his grave site [see Monuments section] is located at Rosehill Cemetery; street names: Foster Avenue, Foster Drive, and Foster Place, all at 5200 North.

Foster, Lt. Amos Bancroft  (c.1802-1832) from New Hampshire; Fifth Infantry; stationed at Fort Dearborn as brevet second lieutenant under Major Fowle from June 20, 1829, to May 20, 1831; voted on July 24, 1830 (see elections); was transferred to Fort Howard in May 1831 where, on Feb. 7, 1832, he was shot and killed by a private soldier named Doyle, whom he had punished for drunkenness; Doyle was convicted and executed. While stationed at Chicago in 1830-31, Amos purchased from the government six lots in block 3 [see Maps, 1834, John S. Wright] and additional lots in blocks 4, 5, 6, 8, 13, 15, 18, 23, 28, and 32. At his death, the real estate became the property of the Foster family, and subsequently the title went to [see] Dr. John H. Foster, the brother of Amos. [704]

Foucault, Abbé François  (1587-Apr. 22, 1640) vicomte de Vaux, son of Nicolas Foucault; member of the royal council and of parliament; valued for his integrity and ability by Louis XIII and Cardinal Richelieu; in Canada by 1636 as a councilor of state and was among eight associates known as the Company of Beaupré who acquired the Côte de Beaupré and the Isle de Orleans, land which [see] Monseigneur de Laval acquired and bequeathed to the Séminaire des Mission Étrangères in 1680. Abbé Foucault was among at least fifteen catholic clergymen mentioned in the contemporary records as having visited the locality of Chicago before 1702. His worth and his commitment to the Indians were expressed in the Jesuit Relation of 1640 with the announcement of his death by a fellow missionary in Akensas: “… tender feelings are renewed … at the tidings of the death of Monsieur Foucault, of happy memory, whose tenderness for our poor Savages, the value he placed upon this enterprise, the zeal and liberality with which he procured its execution, ….” [665 18:241, 261; 42:300]

foundry  – Chicago`s 1st – was built in the autumn of 1835 on Polk Street, W of the south branch; associated with this enterprise were [see] William Jones, Byram King, William H. Stow, David Bradley, and the firm Jones, King & Company.

Fowle, Capt. & Bvt. Maj. John, Jr.  native of Massachusetts; Fifth Infantry; commandant at Fort Dearborn from Oct. 3, 1828, to Dec. 14, 1830, and again from May 14, 1833, to June 19, 1833; in 1828 he ordered a ditch to be dug parallel to the N side of the fort and through the sand bar that diverted the river to the south; this first attempt to straighten the river and create a harbor was ill-conceived and the ditch rapidly filled with sand; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830; in March 1832, the U.S. Department of Engineers placed him officially in charge of the construction project for the Chicago harbor, but he was transferred before the work began; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833; was a charter member of the First Presbyterian Church; was killed in the explosion of the steamboat Gazelle at Cincinnati on April 25, 1838. [12, 319, 421a] [704]

Fowler, Albert    born in 1802 at Monterey, MA; arrived in 1832 from New York; in November 1833 moved to Milwaukee, where he became one of the first Anglo-Saxon settlers; moved to Rockford, IL, about 20 years later, where he served as mayor.

Fowler, Elmira  milliner and dressmaker, advertised in the Chicago Democrat, Nov. 5, 1834, offering New York fashions and instruction for young ladies; located on Dearborn Street, “opposite new bridge.”

Fowler, Hiram  listed in the July 30, 1834, Chicago Democrat as a candidate for county commissioner, then living at Naper`s Settlement.

fox  two different species still occur in the locale, abundant when European settlement began; both range throughout the state: the red fox, Vulpes vulpes, inhabits the open grassland and the shrubby edge of woods, and the grey fox, Urocyon cinereoargenteus, prefers the woods and climbs trees; also see waukesha, the Potawatomi word for fox. Fox hunts were held by the garrison of Fort Dearborn along the sand bar that blocked the Chicago River entrance in the 1820s; as part of testimony given in 1856, and regarding the sand bar, G.S. Hubbard recalled the following:
From the piazza of the Kinzie house we could look directly down the river about half way to the mouth, where the view was obstructed by a bank. The mouth was about where Madison street now is. The mouth was a shifty one; it gradually went farther south. At one time it went down as far as where the Illinois Central roadhouse now is, about a mile and a half from the fort.

[Independent testimony by Jacob Miller: “… river was about 200 feet below Madison street. I know I lived right there in 1834”; eds.]
It was then so small that we could hardly get our boats through. I should say that the mouth at Madison was the permanent mouth. We used to hunt foxes on the bar. The foxes were caught in the woods and fed and got in condition at the fort. On festival days they were taken to the upper end of the sand bar and loosed, when the dogs were put on them and they were chased in the sand. There was land enough to make the sport entertaining. The bar was about 200 feet wide, but ran off to a mere spit at the end. [341]

Fox Indians  also Mesquakie [`red-land` or `red-earth`]; an Algonquian tribe, originally living near the headwaters of the St. Croix River in Wisconsin; initially friendly trading partners (referred to as Renards) of the French, they allied with the Iroquois against the French, closing the Wisconsin-Fox River portage and, around 1700, the Chicago portage to nearly all traffic. This hampered French trade and settlement growth in the Illinois River valley and along the Mississippi for the next 75 years; Jesuit missions, including the Mission de l`Ange Gardien de Chicagou, were closed by royal order. Although with a concerted effort the French trapped and destroyed the greater part of the Fox nation in 1730 at Marameck Hill [about two miles S of the present village of Plano, IL], they never succeeded in permanently reestablishing control of the Chicago portage or of the fur trade in the Northwest, which was to be dominated by the English instead. In 1804, by the Treaty of St. Louis, the surviving Fox conveyed to the United States all their land in Illinois. [456b, 631] [699]

Fox River of Illinois  Illinois Indian names: PishtakaPistikoui [`forked-river`]; its headwaters are in southeastern Wisconsin and the water flows generally in a southern direction to its junction with the Illinois River at Ottawa, never actually forking. Those traveling from Fort Winnebago to Chicago crossed the river, as did John H. Kinzie and his wife in 1831. [464c]

Fox River of Wisconsin  about 175 miles long, flowing generally in a northeasterly direction through Lake Winnebago and several smaller lakes, reaching the southern end of Green Bay; within 1 1/2 miles of the Wisconsin River near its origin (Swan Lake), enabling the historically important portage across the continental divide; see Fox-Wisconsin portage; another portage existed between the upper Root (Racine) and the Fox rivers, used by the St. Cosme party in 1699.

Fox, Elizabeth  see Outhet, Daniel.

Fox-Wisconsin portage  also see portages; this major Great Lakes/Mississippi portage was used extensively by traders before and after the discovery of the Chicago, Calumet, and St. Joseph portage routes; it is 1 1/2 miles in length. Here Jolliet and Father Marquette crossed in June 1673 to reach the Mississippi River; the portage remained in use longer than its southern counterparts; a remaining 1835 structure in Portage, WI, has been adapted as a portage museum.

Fram, David  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

frame house  all structures built in Chicago prior to 1828 were log cabins; thereafter, frame houses were favored, built with many heavy squared timbers and diagonal supports, mortised, tenoned, and pinned together with oaken dowels; nails were rarely available. As the method was costly in terms of both time and material, some carpenters “… went into the woods for scantling, cutting down small trees and squaring one side of them with a broadax. One of the largest houses [Daniel Elston`s in the winter of 1833] … was built with that very kind, both for uprights and rafters.” A frame house – Chicago`s 1st – was owned by [see] Billy Caldwell, the second and third were built for Robert A. Kinzie and Newberry & Dole, respectively. Frame houses were soon replaced by those with the [see] balloon frame. [473]

Franche, Josette  see Bonin, Augustus.

Franchere, Louis  also Francheres; early member of the Catholic congregation; in April 1833, his name was on the petition by Chicago citizens to Bishop Rosati of St. Louis, asking that a priest be assigned to them; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August. [319].

Francis  sloop; called at Chicago on July 23, 1835, under Captain Duchane, coming from Detroit.

Francis, Abraham  also Francess; (Sept. 29, 1808-Nov. 28, 1862 IL) born in Ireland, son of William and Jane (née Love) Francis; came from Brown County, OH, to the Hickory Creek settlement [Will County] in 1831 with his wife Mary Ann (Mar. 17, 1815-Jan. 15, 1884; married Oct. 4, 1831), daughter of William and Mary (née Ingraham) Davidson; served as sergeant in Captain Seission`s company, with his brother Thomas as private, during the Black Hawk War; received $25 at the 1833 Chicago Treaty. [714, 734]

François —  surname unknown; French-Potawatomi part-time employee of John Kinzie and freelance interpreter; was present at the Fort Dearborn massacre and survived.

Franklin & Jenkins  an auction house in Broad Street, New York City; a [see Maps] “Map of Lots at Chicago for Sale by Franklin & Jenkins on Friday, 8th May, 1835, at 12 O`clock at the Merchants Exchange,” actually a plot of the Russell & Mather Addition which Gurdon Hubbard, then in New York, drew from memory and parcelled into lots, was printed by Miller and Co. [within the Chicago History Museum Library]; all available lots were sold that day for $80,000 and partners Russell, Mather, and Hubbard made a profit of $77,500 on those 40 acres. [164] [705]

Franklin, Benjamin  (1706-1790) scientist, author, publisher, diplomat, and a leading personality during the American Revolution; James Thompson, canal surveyor in 1830, named one of the earliest streets after him. Benjamin Franklin School, 225 W Evergreen Ave.; street name: Franklin Street (300 W).

Franquelin, Jean-Baptiste Louis  (1653-c.1725) French engineer, hydrographer, and cartographer who first came to Canada in 1671 as a trader; was employed by Governor Frontenac to draw maps of New France and was later appointed by King Louis XIV as “Royal Hydrographer”; returned to France in 1692. Among the large number of his maps of the Great Lakes region, those of 1684, 1686 and 1688 are of special interest to Chicago historians. The year of 1684 was the first time for the name Chicagou to appear on a printed map, but under the form of “Checagoumenan”; the 1686 map shows it in the French version as “Chicagou” [see attached map detail], and the 1688 map as “Fort Chicagou.” The maps of 1684 and 1688 may be viewed in the Maps section. [192, 269a, 681, 682]

Franzen, Hermann B.H.  German immigrant arrived in November 1835, with three adult sons (his wife, Adelheid, had died in transit); in 1837 the family moved to Duncklee`s Grove. [342]

Franzen, Johann Heinrich  eldest son of Hermann B.H. Franzen; the family had come in 1835, from Schale, near Osnabrück; later owned a linseed oil mill at [Bensonville], a remaining wall of which was publicly dedicated to him as an historical monument in 1934. [342]

Frappé [Frapp], Jean Baptiste  see Durocher [Derocher], Jean Baptiste.

Frauner, Mrs. M.  see Murphy, N.

Freeman, Captain  occasionally piloted the schooner [see] Westward Ho on its visits to Chicago.

Freeman, Ford  on the list of subscribers to the Chicago Democrat in November 1833.

Freeman, Hannah Clarke  see Bailey, Rev. Alvin.

Freeman, Mrs. Harriet  her death at age 28 is noted in the June 11, 1834, Chicago Democrat.

Freeman, Rev. Allen B.  (1807-1834) arrived with his wife Hannah (née Clarke) from Vermont midsummer 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August; sent at the request of Dr. J.T. Temple by the American Baptist Home Mission Society as “missionary for Northern Illinois,” and organized the First Baptist Church on October 19; early in December 1834, while returning from Long Grove, his horse became ill, and he stayed with the animal two days until its death, then walked the remaining 18 miles to town, became ill from exposure, and died of typhoid fever on December 15; funeral services were held in the First Presbyterian Church, Rev. J. Porter delivering the sermon; Hannah gave birth to a son, called Allen after his father, a short time after her husband`s death, but the infant soon died; Freeman was succeeded in office by Rev. Isaac T. Hinton; Hannah remarried Rev. Alvin Bailey on Nov. 17, 1836. [12, 319]

Freeman, Robert  born c.1808; arrived in 1833 from Pennsylvania and later moved to Naperville; married to Adaline, daughter of Capt. H. Boardman; 1839 City Directory: carpenter, Clark Street, corner of Monroe; still living at Naperville in 1885. [12] [351]

French and Indian War  1754-1763; this war represented the American phase of a worldwide nine-year struggle between France and England for supremacy in North America, won decisively by England (the war overlapped, but was not identical to the European Seven Years` War; both wars ended with different peace treaties); began over the specific issue of conflicting trading territories in the upper Ohio River valley; most Indians fought on the side of the French, but were reconciled with the British after the French defeat; the peace treaty signed in Paris on Feb. 10, 1763, ended French dominance in North America, but the land around the southern end of Lake Michigan, especially near Chicago and the St. Joseph River, remained a French stronghold until 1780; Spain, a secondary player in this war, relinquished Florida but received Louisiana, including New Orleans. Spain recovered Florida with the Treaty of Paris in 1783 and held it until 1818. [152] [526]

French fort at Chicago  a short-lived fort or post was established in 1684 by Oliver Morel de la Durantaye, the French commandant at Michilimackinac, when he came S to Illinois with 60 soldiers to assist Tonti, commandant at Fort St. Louis(Starved Rock), against Iroquois attacks; within less than a year, Durantaye returned to Michilimackinac and the post likely became a depot. French Fort at Chicago, 1685 · Edgar Spier Cameron, artist. [285]

French train  colloquial expression for a boxy wooden sleigh, six by three feet, and drawn by a two-horse tandem, used by early settlers in the Midwest.

French, Leander  a remaining letter listed in the Chicago Democrat on Jan. 21, 1835, may identify [see] Asahel Pierce`s partner in the smithy Pierce & French.

French, William  on September 28, the twelfth day of the 1833 Chicago Treaty, was appointed assistant commissary to [see] Richard J. Hamilton by Commisioners Owen and Weatherford; signed the treaty document as a witness. [319] [12]

French/Miami-Illinois dictionary  Chicago’s 1st – manuscript for a book was written mostly by the Jesuit Father [see] Pierre François Pinet at the Guardian Angel Mission (1696-1702); in subsequent years Fathers Marest and Mermet and a third unknown contemporary hand made some additions. The completed document contains 672 pages. It lay unrecognized in various archives of the Catholic Church for 300 years until identified in 1999 by the linguist Michael McCafferty at the Jesuit archive in St-Jérôme, Québec. [464i]

frere donné  one who has taken the vows of a coadjutor, and “was received into the [Jesuit] Society with permission to live, while one of its members, in the secular garb, for greater service to the Missions”; see Largillier, Jacques. [665, v. 66: 340]

freshet  a common word in the early settlement for a sudden overflowing of a stream because of melting snow or heavy rains upstream; spring freshets in particular facilitated river traffic, predominate at the time, by making portaging easier and shorter, for example by often completely eliminating the need to portage from the Chicago River to the Des Plaines. See the Chicago River entry for John Dean Caton`s sighting of a freshet in 1834.

Friend, Aaron  (c.1779-1834) born in Monongalia, VA; son of Capt. Charles and Nancy (née Gaugh) Friend, one of nine children; married Elizabeth in Gallia County, OH, in 1805; lived in Virginia, Maryland, Ohio, and Missouri before 1825, then working on a farm in Sangamon County, IL, where his youngest son George was born; other older children were Charles, John, Hannah, and Lucinda; is listed on the Peoria County Census of August 1830, by which time the family had settled on Hickory Creek; was a militia volunteer with sons Charles and John in the Black Hawk War at Chicago; all enrolled in Captain Seission`s company on July 23, 1832, as Elizabeth, young George, the two daughters and their husbands sought refuge at Fort Dearborn; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. Aaron died at Palos one year later; by 1857, Charles was dead and John was in California; Elizabeth died in 1871. [319, 714, 734]
Reader`s comment: ” Aaron Friend was my ggg grandfather. He was in the Blackhawk War and his wife and youngest son, George (my gg grandfather) stayed in Fort Dearborn during that time. George was born in Sangamon County in 1825 and lived most of his life in Chicago. He died there in 1902.” [421a] [386aa]

Friend, Charles  son of [see] Aaron and Elizabeth Friend; with his father and brother John, was a militia volunteer in the Black Hawk War at Chicago; all enrolled in Captain Seission`s company on July 23, 1832; had died by 1857. [386aa]

Friend, George  (1825-May 17, 1902) born on a farm in Sangamon County near Springfield; son of [see] Aaron and Elizabeth Friend; during the Black Hawk War in late spring and summer, 1832, lived with his mother and family in Fort Dearborn while his father and older brothers Charles and John served as militia volunteers; farmed in Cook County and was a machinist on Goose Island; married Emeline Rudd in April 1848; their children were Charles, Francis (Frank), Ernest, Oscar, Alice, and Flora Isabelle; following his death and burial at Concordia Cemetery, Emeline moved to Yakima, WA, with Flora`s family where she died in 1912. [386aa]

Friend, John  son of [see] Aaron and Elizabeth Friend; with his father and brother Charles, was a militia volunteer in the Black Hawk War at Chicago; all enrolled in Captain Seission`s company on July 23, 1832; was in California by 1857. [386aa]

Friends` Good-Will  a 60-ton sloop, built at River Rouge in 1810-11, by [see] Maj. Oliver Williams; mid summer of 1812 he was on board the vessel under Captain William Lee; the ship stopped at Mackinaw and was there chartered by the government to take military stores and supplies to Fort Dearborn`s garrison; Maj. Williams was furnished a box of ammunition, twelve stand of arms, a non-commissioned officer and six men as guard against hostile Indians; together with the sloop [see] Erie, she delivered goods at Chicago on July 5, 1812, also for the account of John Kinzie. The U.S. Factor Matthew Irwin boarded the ship then laden with a cargo of furs and skins to return east; he thus escaped the Fort Dearborn massacre of August 15, but became one of the prisoners when the sloop, on her way to Detroit, was captured by the British at the harbor of Mackinac. She was renamed Little Belt and mounted with three guns, but later recaptured at the battle of Lake Erie; was driven ashore the following winter at Buffalo and was burned. [206b, 226, 719a] [48]

Frink & Walker  stagecoach transportation company that late in 1834, as the Frink, Bingham & Co., bought out the stagecoach line between Chicago and Ottawa from Winter, Mills & Co., which in turn had bought out Dr. John T. Temple in February 1834; Temple had pioneered the line earlier. In 1834, the Chicago terminal was at the intersection of Dearborn and Lake streets, one of the town`s busiest places. The owners soon added a line to St. Charles, Elgin, and Galena, which left Chicago via Lake Street – earlier called Old Chicago Road or Elgin Road. The stage was heavy, of wood, and held 10 passengers, nine inside and one with the driver; the middle seats inside were least desirable, offering no backrest. In the September 1835 Chicago Democrat the company announced that “[t]he coaches from Chicago to St. Louis in future will run through in five days by day light without any detention on the road. From Chicago to Peoria in two days, and from Peoria to St. Louis in three days.” In 1839, when Charles Bingham left, the business was still run by [see] Martin O. Walker, though then concerned with mail delivery, at the same address – now Frink, Walker, & Co.; 1843 City Directory: stage proprietors, office 95 Lake, s.-w. cor Dearborn, stables and repair-shops, 45-55 Wabash ave. Ellen Bigelow, [see separate entry] a newly arrived immigrant from Massachusetts, took the stage coach from Chicago to Ottawa in late May 1835, a 25-hour ride, and in a letter described the experience as follows:
We left Chicago in the stage for Ottawa, a route of 80 miles across the prairies, and such travelling never did we behold before. The low prairie about Chicago was entirely flooded with water, and the creeks were swollen to rivers. Nothing in the shape of a bridge greeted our eyes. Streams, large and small, were all to be forded even at the risk of sticking fast in the middle of them. In the course of [our trip] we were completely mired six times. … In the middle of a deep slough, or swole, as they call them, you must fancy the coach burried in mud and water above the wheels. The gentlemen all out with coats off, pantaloons and shirt sleeves rolled up and standing in water about three feet deep, ready to carry the ladies across upon their backs, or in any other way most agreeable to the parties. That being done, they set their shoulders to the wheels of the carriage, the horses kicking and plunging to extricate themselves from the mire, and the driver lashing them right and left, screaming, yelling, and swearing in true stagedriver style. You can imagine what delightful business it must have been to pack ourselves back again, covered as we all were with mud, and nine crowded into a carriage designed only for six, and containing but two seats, as an instance of the inefficiency which characterizes the people of Illinois. [55a]

Frink, John  (Oct. 17, 1797-May 23, 1858) born in Ashford, CT; stage and steamboat line operator and entrepreneur; late in 1834, with Charles Bingham and Martin O. Walker, took over from Winters, Mills & Co. the Chicago-Ottawa stagecoach line that had been pioneered by Dr. Temple; also operated the steamboat line from Ottawa to St. Louis; did not move to Chicago until 1836; 1839 City Directory: Frink & [C.K.] Bingham, stage office, 123 Lake St.; his son John, Jr., was then a clerk with [also see] Frink & Walker in 1839, at the same address [Harvey Frink, another son, is listed in 1839 as a clerk at the post office]; John`s wife, Martha R. (née Marcy), died in 1839; their third child was Helen (Mrs. Warren T. Hecox); 1843 City Directory: (F., Walker & Co.), stage proprietor, res 117 Randolph; sons John and Harvey B. are listed as clerks. Eventually, with stage lines throughout the Midwest and U.S. mail delivery contracts, he transferred his capital to railroads and was an important supporter of the Chicago & Galena Union Railroad`s construction. Frink later married Harriet Farnsworth (1810-1884) of Woodstock, VT; their children were: George, Henry F., and Eva (Mrs. John W. Bennett), all living in Austin, IL, in 1895. For a description of likely travel on a Frink & Walker coach see entry for Widow Barry. [3] [12]

Frique, Peter  voted on July 24, Aug. 2, and Nov. 25, 1830 (see elections); was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319] [12]

Frog Creek  no longer exists; once the largest spring-fed tributary entering the main branch of the Chicago River from the south prior to 1835, shown on maps in A.W. Eckert`s “Gateway to Empire”; originated at a spring in the Loop where now the Richard J. Daley Center is located; described in 1856 from memory by Juliette A. Kinzie: … as low wet prairie, scarcely affording good walking in the driest of summer weather, while at other seasons it was absolutely impassable. … a muddy streamlet, or as it is called in the west, a slew, or slough, after winding around from the present site of the Tremont House, entered the river at the foot of what is now State Street. At least two similar small creeks emptied into the main stem from the north side. An 1831 traveler remarked: “I passed over the ground from the Fort to the Point [Wolf Point], on horseback, and was up to my stirrups in water the whole distance; I would not have given sixpence an acre for the whole of it.” The locals knew better, and generally canoed that distance on the river; in 1883 John Bates recalled: “At that time [1833] a slough emptied into the river, at what is now the foot of State Street, and was a sort of bayeau of dead water through which scows could be run up as far as Randolph Street, near the corner of Dearborn.” [13, 226, 406]

Frontenac, Louis de Buade, comte de  (1620-1698) governor of New France from 1672 to 1682 and again from 1689 to 1698; for approximately 30 years prior to his departure to America Frontenac had lived in the magnificent Chateau de l`Isle Savary [see photo] on the Indre River near the city of Palluau-sur-Indre; in America he became an architect of French expansion in North America under Louis XIV; led French forces against the Iroquois and the English colonies. As one of his first acts, in 1672 he occupied Mackinac where he established Fort de Buade; in 1673 founded Fort Frontenac, a fur trading post on Lake Ontario; arranged for Jolliet`s and Father Marquette`s and for La Salle`s explorations of the Mississippi [for the complete text of Jolliet’s subsequent report to the governor, see below]; street name: Frontenac Avenue (550 W). [193, 730, 735a]

“To the, Count de Frontenac, Counselor to the King in his Counsils, Governor and Lieutenant General of his Majesty, and in the countries of New France. My Lord:
“It is with the greatest pleasure that I have the happiness today to present you with this map which gives the position of the lakes which one has to cross to reach Canada or North America, which extends over 1,200 leagues from east to west. This great river, on the other side of the lakes, Huron and Illinois, which bears the name Buade river, having been discovered there last years 1673 and 1674, by your first command which you gave me, enters into your government of New France, passes between Florida and New Mexico and discharges into the sea. It traverses the most beautiful country imaginable—I have never seen anything prettier in France than the large prairies, which I admire, nothing more agreeable than the diversity of the woods and the forests where one may pick prunes, apples, grenades, lemons and berries and still smaller fruits which are not to be found in Europe.
“In the fields one sees quails, in the woods parrots, in the rivers fishes, unknown to us as to taste and size.
“Iron mines, and bloodstones which are only to be found with red copper, and they are not rare either, nor slate, salt petre, coal, marble and copper ore, pieces as large as a fist and almost pure; it was found close to the bloodstones which are superior to those in France and quite abundant.
“Every savage has his canoe of wood, 50 feet long and for his provisions they do not care for deer, they kill the buffalo, which travels in herds from 30 to 40. I have seen herds of more than 400 along the river and turkeys are so common, that no one pays any attention to them.
“Indian corn is gathered by them three times a year and all the savages have water melon to refresh themselves during the great heat which does not permit any ice or snow.
“By one of these large rivers which come from the west, and enter the Buade one can enter into the ruby sea. I have seen a village which was only five journeys distant of a nation which does business with those in California. Had I come two days sooner I would have had a chance to speak to them, who came from there and brought four hatchets with them for presents.
“You would have found a complete description of it in my journal, if my good fortune, which was always with me, did not fail me, in the last quarter of an hour, to reach the place where I started from. I would have escaped the dangers of the savages; I passed 42 rapids; I was upon the point to disembark with all the pleasure one enjoys of a successful but long and difficult travel, when my canoe capsized. I lost two packages and my strong box at the sight, and at the gate of the first French houses which I left nearly two years ago.
“I have nothing left but my life and the good will which you may use, as it shall please you.
“My Lord,
“Your most humble and most obedient servant and subject,

Frontenac  ship named after the governor of New France.

Frost, Mrs. Sarah  see Beggs, Rev. Stephen R.

Fruiend, Charles and Canon  resided in the Hickory Creek precinct; signed the [see] Herrington Petition in December, 1831; were listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August 1833. [319]

Fuller, Benjamin  (June 1, 1810-Sept. 1, 1868) born in Lisle, NY; came to Chicago by horse in 1834, likely accompanied by his brother-in-law [see] David Thurston, and determined to return with his wife Olive A. [née Atwater; NY 1814-1877] and son Edwin C. (1833-) to Brush Hill; returned early in 1835 by wagon with his parents, Jacob Winegar and Candace S. (née Sunderland) Fuller, many of his siblings, and Jesse Atwater to York Township where he and [see] Jacob bought Indian land acquired in the [see] 1816 Treaty and made available by the government in June 1835; they built cabins on farmland, Benjamin on additional land bought from the Grants; that autumn Benjamin was among the blacksmiths whom Colonel Russell secured to shoe the Indians` horses at their last encampment near Vial`s farm before continuing westward to a reservation across the Mississippi. By June 1852 Benjamin had platted his land along Ogden Avenue and recorded the area under the name of Fullersburg, now Hinsdale. His original house still exists, has been repaired and preserved by the local government, and moved into the Fullersburg Woods Forest Preserve. [Also see entries “Fuller, Benjamin · his house” and “Fuller, Benjamin · plaque” in the Monuments section. [Photograph by Alan Gornik, 2010] [259a, 280a, 415, 660] [217a]

Fuller, Candace S.  (1789-Jan. 25, 1847) wife of [see] Jacob Winegar Fuller; also see her gravestone in the Monuments section.

Fuller, Catherine  (May 31, 1832-Mar. 28, 1870; née Bohlander); became the first wife of [see] David Fuller.

Fuller, Catherine  born in Lisle, NY, on July 10, 1812; daughter of [see] Jacob Winegar and Candace Fuller; married [see] Thurston, David.

Fuller, David   (Mar. 28, 1825 -Nov. 22, 1896) born in Lisle, NY; came to Brush Hill by wagon in 1835 with his parents [see] Jacob Winegar and Candace S. (née Sunderland) Fuller; married Catherine (Bavaria, May 31, 1832-Mar. 28, 1870), daughter of Philip and Marie Margaret Barbara Bohlander, on Apr. 7, 1852; the couple had Angeline (July 8, 1854-Apr. 1, 1880, Mrs. George W. Coffin), Charles H. (1856- ), and Lydia (1864- ); married Charlotte Elizabeth Evernden (England, c.1853-Mar. 26, 1920) on June 1, 1871; the couple had a daughter Elsie born in 1873 (Mrs. Vete A. Stevens). [280a]

Fuller, Elam   listed as owner of 80 acres of Chicago land in Section 18, Township 39, prior to 1836, as seen in Andreas, pp. 112-113. [12]

Fuller, George  (Mar. 6, 1815-Jan. 19, 1884) born in Lisle, NY; son of [see] Jacob Winegar and Candace S. (née Sunderland) Fuller; came to Chicago by ship from Buffalo in 1836; married Cynthia Talmadge (1818-1850) on Dec. 31, 1841; married Polly Davis (NY 1821-Feb. 21, 1862) on July 13, 1853; married Lydia A. Eldridge (York Township, IL 1838-1889), daughter of Benedict and Rhoda (née Shevalier) Eldridge of Litchfield County, CT, c.1865; at death Polly, George, and Lydia were buried in the Thurston Cemetery, Du Page County. [415]

Fuller, Harriet  (Aug. 2, 1820-Apr. 22, 1903) born in Barker, NY; daughter of [see] Jacob Winegar and Candace S. (née Sunderland) Fuller; with sister Mary came by ship from Buffalo in 1835; on Dec. 14, 1840 she married John S. Coe (November 1815-1906), a blacksmith from Rockland County, NY; the couple had a son, Samuel Augustus (1844-Dec. 27, 1929). [415]

Fuller, Jacob Winegar  (Nov. 17, 1786-June 5, 1867) born in Amenia, NY; married Candace S. (née Sunderland, daughter of Reuben and Mary [née Lewis]; NY 1789-Jan. 25, 1847) on Mar. 8, 1808; came to Brush Hill early in 1835 by wagon with many of his childen, among them [see] David Fuller, led by son [see] Benjamin and son-in-law [see] David Thurston who came with their families, among them David`s wife Catherine; acquired a quarter section of land NW of Brush Hill along Ginger Creek which he farmed with his sons George, Reuben, David, and Morell; after Candace`s death Jacob married Theoda Kelsey (NY c.1794-Apr.2, 1865) in 1848; in 1854 he is listed with his son Benjamin as general merchants of a dry goods store at Brush Hill; at death he was buried in the Torode Cemetery. [217a] [415]

Fuller, Mary  (May 22, 1817-Mar. 4, 1879) born in Lisle, NY; daughter of [see] Jacob Winegar and Candace S. (née Sunderland) Fuller; with sister Harriet came to Chicago by ship from Buffalo in 1835 and became the first Brush Hill schoolteacher; in 1837 she married Barto Val Velzer, previously an Erie Canal boat driver, then a farmer; the couple had two surviving children: Walter W. (1840-1897) and William H. (1859-1898). [660] [415]

Fuller, Mary Louise [Loie]  (Jan. 15, 1862-Jan. 1, 1928; died in Paris, France) daughter of [see] Reuben and Delila Fuller.

Fuller, Morell  (Nov. 7, 1829-Mar. 29, 1912) born in Barker, NY; came to Brush Hill by wagon in 1835 with his parents [see] Jacob Winegar and Candace S. (née Sunderland) Fuller; farmed with his father, living with and eventually acquiring and enlarging the family home (originally at 108 E. Ogden Ave.); later served three years as a chief musician with his nephew Walter Van Velzer in the 105th Regiment of Illinois Infantry; married Ellen (England, 1840-Feb. 13, 1921), daughter of John Mackinder, on Sept. 7, 1865; the couple had a son, William, born in 1869. [660] [415]

Fuller, Reuben  (Sept. 8, 1827-June 5, 1890) born in Lisle, NY; came to Brush Hill by wagon in 1835 with his parents [see] Jacob Winegar and Candace S. (née Sunderland) Fuller; married Delila R. Eaton on Aug. 24, 1850; the couple had a daughter, Mary Louise [Loie] Fuller (Jan. 15, 1862-Jan. 1, 1928; died in Paris, France); Loie was born in a back room of [see] Castle Inn and later became known as a world-class dancer and designer. [415]

Fullerton, Alexander Nathaniel  (1804-Sept. 23, 1880) born in Chester, VT, as son of Nathaniel Fullerton, who was a prominent bank president in Vermont; married Julia Ann Hubbell (1808-1844, daughter of Judge Silas Hubbell, Champlain, VT) in November 1830 at Troy, NY; there were three children, only one of which (Charles William Fullerton) survived the father. Alexander arrived with his wife in Chicago in the summer of 1833; was listed among “500 Chicagoans” on the census which Commissioner Thomas J.V. Owen took prior to the incorporation of Chicago as a town in early August, and was one of the 28 voters who decided on August 10th to incorporate the settlement as a town; became a lawyer and business man and successful real estate investor; on Apr. 22, 1834, advertised in the Chicago Democrat with [see] John Botsford as Fullerton & Botsford at the corner of Dearborn and Lake streets; in 1835, started law practice with Grant Goodrich, but the firm Fullerton & Goodrich was dissolved the following year; 1839 City Directory: lumber merchant, North Water Street; 1844 City Directory: attorney at law, h[ouse] Dearborn st; was among the most successful of the real estate lawyers during the land boom but afterwards favored commercial interests; owned a lumber mill in Michigan; was involved in Whig and later Republican politics. In 1858, 14 years after Julia Ann’s death, Alexander married Mrs. Jane E. Hill, formerly Miss Richardson; they had three children. At age 76 Fullerton returned to Chester, VT, to die. Charles continued to manage his father`s large estate and increase its holdings, living with his stepmother in the family home at 628 Dearborn Avenue until her death in 1897, then with his stepsister Martha Hill, and died there on Dec. 4, 1900; streets named: Fullerton Avenue, Fullerton Drive, and Fullerton Parkway (all at 2400 N). [12, 319, 728] [498]

Fullerton, Alexander Nathaniel  his signature, as shown in History of Cook County, Illinois, by A.T. Andreas.

Fulton County, Illinois  named after [see] Robert Fulton; was formed on Jan. 28, 1823, and included Chicago until Jan. 13, 1825, the day Putnam County was created out of territory formerly attached to Fulton County; for county business, such as ferry or tavern license applications and court appearances, early settlers had to travel to Lewistown, the county seat [see the following paragraph from an early chronicle]; the appointment of [see] John Kinzie as justice of the peace was renewed in 1823, the year the county authorities levied a property tax, – Chicago`s 1st, – which resulted in the collection of a total of $11.42 from residents, now within the first precinct of the newly organized Peoria County; for details, see jurisdiction. [12, 335a, 389b, 544]

When a couple wanted to get married they would generally postpone the matter until they found another couple of the same mind, or found some one who wanted a tavern license, and then they would send a man down to Lewistown to do both jobs and thus save expense, as it took a man at least two weeks, horseback, to make the trip, and he would have to camp out in the woods most of the nights because there were but few settlers along the route. [590]

Fulton Market    existent in the summer of 1835, see Ormsby, M.P.

Fulton, Robert  (1765-1815) American inventor and canal engineer; developed the first commercially successful steamboat, the Clermont; its maiden run on the Hudson River took place on Aug. 17, 1807, covering the 150-mile distance in 32 hours. Robert Fulton School, 5300 S Hermitage Ave.; street names: Fulton Boulevard, Fulton Drive, Fulton Market, and Fulton Street (all at 300 N); Fulton County, Illinois, is also named after him.

Funk, Absalom  born in Virginia, came from Funks` Grove [McLean County] late in 1834 to manage the butchering of the family`s many hog and cattle herds that were driven between October to January to the Chicago market [until 1841]; advertised in the Chicago Democrat on Nov. 22, 1834, offering $20 reward for information about a stolen horse; 1839 City Directory: Funk & Doyle, butchers [James H. Doyle and also John Funk], Fulton and Illinois markets, 95 Lake St. and North Water Street, corner of North State.

fur trade  the period of the North American fur trade extended from approximately 1600 to 1850, and was originally a process by which two radically different races communicated, exchanging material and cultural goods for mutual benefit. During the earliest settlement phase immigrants would primarily seek food for their own sustenance from the Indians, but soon beaver pelts became the major trade items for most of the period. They were sent to Europe to be made into felt for hats. The Chicago Portage was used on a regular basis by traders, but fur trading was a seasonal activity, the Illinois River traders being at their posts only during the cold season, the time of the Indians’ winter hunt; during other parts of the year these traders were located elsewhere, often at Mackinac Island, while the posts stood empty. An early example of trade records furs shipped from Michilimackinac between June 23 and Sept. 24, 1767: 1,142 bear; 514 muskrat; 1,267 cat [cougar]; 25,008 raccoon; 853 elk; 84 buffalo; 5,798 otter; 9,556 marten; 1,457 fisher; 507 mink; 1,070 fox; 139 wolf; 310 gray fox; 1,707 red fox; 50,928 beaver; 27,037 dressed leather; and 251 castoreum [from gland of beaver]; value of trade goods shipped to upper country in 1767: 39,585 livres. The interlude ended when the natural resources were depleted and progressive settlement by Europeans and Americans overran the Indians and the métis traders; in Chicago and Illinois, the end of the fur trade came when the Indians were relocated westward beyond the Mississippi. The [see] Indian removal effort began in 1835 and took approximately three years. On July 14, 1837, the American Fur Co. informed their agents that there would be no more opportunities for trade in the vicinity of Lake Michigan and terminated their activities there. The official inventory prepared prior to public sale of the business estate of the Chicago trader William H. Wallace, who died after a short illness in March 1827, near the end of the fur trade period, lists furs acquired in Illinois: 4,014 muskrat, 692 raccoon, 431 deerskin, 252 mink, 46 marten, 115 fisher, 18 wolves, 13 wildcats, 15 otter, eight bears, five fox, and one lynx. Other animals hunted for their skins were coyote and elk. It is significant that no beaver were listed; they had been virtually extirpated by 1827. Major firms involved in the trade were the Compagnie du Canada (French), Hudson Bay Company, the North West Company, the XY Company (all British), and the American Fur Co. For the type of merchandise offered to the Indians in return for pelts, see trade goods. The fur trade moved north and east after leaving Illinois. See also coureurs de bois. [274, 541, 649, 687, 692c, 692i, 692j, and Archives of Canada, Dartmouth Papers MG 23, A1 v. 5: 5630] [398a]

Furkee, George  mentioned by East as having lived in Chicago in 1828. [208]

Furman, Lt. John Gano  (c.1801-1830) from Charleston, SC; officer stationed at Fort Dearborn from Oct. 3, 1828, to Aug. 29, 1830, the day of his death; in a letter written on Aug. 24, Ellen Kinzie Wolcott described “dangerously ill” Lieutenant Furman as “a very highly gifted and interesting young gentleman”; an enthusiastic hunter, he wrote several letters in 1830 to the editor of a Maryland periodical; these were published, making him – Chicago`s 1st – author, the work later reprinted in Hurlbut`s Chicago Antiquities of 1881; they vividly describe how local settlers and officers from the fort would meet regularly and together ride out to hunt wolf and deer – one written on March 30 follows; for Lieutenant Furman`s comments on the abundance of waterfowl in Chicago, see birds.
Mr. Editor: One fine morning in December last, while the dew drops were yet lingering on the faded foliage, we marshalled our forces, and sallied forth to the chase, in pretty respectable numbers for this wild, western region. We were in all nine huntsmen. A leash of greyhounds, owned by Capt. S. [Capt. Martin Scott], of the U.S.A., his excellent fox-hounds, and those of Dr. F. [Dr. Clement A. Finley] and Mr. C. [Archibald Clybourne?] formed a very efficient pack of five couples. – The day was lovely `the scy so cloudless, clear, and purely beautiful, that God alone was to be seen in heaven,` – the broad blue face of the lake, unruffled by a breath of air, shone in the morning sun like one vast mirrow of polished silver. And the woods were so silent, that the cheering cry of the huntsmen and the wild melody of the hounds were echoed from a thousand points. Everything thus being propitious, we crossed the Chicago, and persued our route through the thick woods on its north side. We had not proceeded quite a half mile, when the whole pack, did simultaneous burst, and went off eagerly on the track. – `A wolf,` said one; `no – a deer` – clapped rewels into his horse`s sides and dashed off for the prairie to head the animal. The hounds at first ran off toward the river[north branch], in a westerly direction, and went nearly out of hearing, but soon turned and took up a northeast course, the whole pack in full concert. Having ridden about two miles from the starting point, and hearing the quick savage bark of the ground-hound slut (Cora) close by, I stopped. Mr. B. [one of the Beaubien brothers] was about thirty yards in advance of me, and glancing my eye around, I cought glimps of Capt. S., some little distance behind, urging his horse to the utmost. These observations were the work of an instant only, however, for scarcely had I alighted when a spike buck dashed through the thicket in full sight, and within shooting distance, – Cora within five or six rods of him. Mr. B and myself both levelled. The first shot was his, by the courteous rules prevalent among hunters on like occasions. He fired, but the buck did not fall; and I instantly followed his example. The shots struck on opposite sides, and were both mortal; but so rapid was the speed of the animal after we had fired, that a gentleman coming up the instant exclaimed, `By heavens, he is not touched!` He darted for the thicket, but the black greyhound (Nero) got site of him before he reached it, and the most beautiful chase I ever recollect to have witnessed took place. The trial of speed was nobly contested for about thee or four hundred yards, the dear having about thirty yards start. The distance between them lessened by insensible degrees until the greyhound seized his prey, and sunk his fangs into his ham. After a severe struggle, the buck broke loose before Capt. S. and myself, who had dismounted, could get up to Nero`s assistance. An other chase, not less beautiful than the first, took place; but Nero again seized the buck and held him till we got up. We knocked him on the head with a tomahawk, and drew the knife across his throat. As soon as the pack came up we started, and the hounds gave tongue again. Most of us went off to the prairie, to station ourselves along the points of the wood. The hounds went off to the west, and after running about a mile divided – some of them drove a deer toward the point almost at which they had taken up the trail. Mr. C. shot at it, but as no blood was found we presume it was not injured. The rest of the pack (with the exeption of Dr. F.`s beautiful black tan pup Ringwood – and well he deserves the name – who drove three deer across the prairie to the lake,) followed a track leading along the Guilleroi [north branch], and did not return until late at night. On my return from the head of the prairie, I heard the report of a gun, and on inquiry, found that Mr. S had killed a fine doe. – Our sport for the day was now over; we called in squirmishers and took our way home rejoicing. At the garrison, our spoil was divided. We then retired to spend the evening with that flow of generous feelings which a fine day`s sport never fails to inspire. J.G.F. [357]

Fury, John  U.S. Army private at Fort Dearborn; enlisted on Mar. 19, 1808, however he visited John Kinzie’s trading post as early as June 28 and Aug. 12, 1805, then on Apr. 10, 1812, and once more between June 1 and the time of the Fort Dearborn massacre on Aug. 15, 1812, as shown in Kinzie’s account books; was badly wounded in battle at the massacre and tortured to death the ensuing night. [226, 708] [404]